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ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Unit 1: Chemistry and Its Branches


1. Abbreviation

1.1 General rules


- Write the first letter of all words in capital
IUPAC : international union of pure and applied chemistry
M.C : master of ceremony ( người dẫn chương trình, người chủ lễ, hoạt náo viên )
W.C : Water_closet ( nhà vệ sinh )
ATM : automatic teller machine ( máy thanh toán tiền tự động )
 VAT : value added tax (thuế giá trị gia tăng)
HDD : Hard Disk Drive : Ổ đĩa cứng
  FDD : Floppy disk drive : Ổ đĩa mềm
 LCD : Liquid Crystal Display : Màn hình tinh thể lỏng.
ASEAN : Association of South East Asian Nations : Hiệp hội các nước Đông Nam Á
UNESCO : UN Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization : Tổ chức LHQ về giáo dục,
khoa học và văn hóa
FAO : Food and Agriculture Organization of the Un : Tổ chức LHQ về lương thực và nông nghiệp
WHO : World Health Organization : Tổ chức y tế thế giới
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MOET : ministry of education and training


1.2 Abbreviation of physical property of chemicals
b.p. - boiling point m.p. - melting point
conc. – concentrate soln. - solution
dil. - dilute vol. - volume
f.p. - freezing point
c. ; cu. - cubic in. – inch h - hour
cc. - cubic centimeter lb. - pound = 0,453 kg
cps. - cycles per second l. – litre
min - minute
g; gr – gramme sec. - second
gal. - gallon sq. - square

1.3 Abbreviation of chemical elements

- Take the first one or two letters of element's name (the first is in capital, the second one is not)
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hydrogen - H carbon - C iodine - I


oxygen - O chlorine -Cl fluorine - F
helium - He argon - Ar berium - Be
lithium - Li barium - Ba vanadium - V
calcium - Ca scandium - Sc aluminium - Al
selenium - Se uranium - U rhodium - Rh
titanium - Ti bismuth Bi sulfur - S
boron - B francium - Fr silicon - Si
nitrogen - N neon - Ne nickel - Ni

exceptions
chromium - Cr cadmium - Cd
potassium - K magnesium - Mg

note
sodium natrium - Na iron ferrum - Fe
gold aurum - Au lead plumbum - Pb
silver argentum - Ag mercury hydragyrum Hg
copper cuprum - Cu
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1.4 Abbreviation of chemicals


DABCO 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
DBU 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene
DCC Dicyclohexyl Carbodiimide
DDQ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone
DDT 1,1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
DMAP 4-Dimethylaminopyridine
DME 1,2-Dimethoxyethane (glyme, solvent)
DMF Dimethylformamide (solvent)
DMSO Dimethyl Sulfoxide (solvent)
KDA Potassium Diisopropylamide
LAH Lithium Aluminum Hydride (LiAlH4)
LDA Lithium Diisopropylamide
LHMDS Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiN(SiMe3)2)

1.5 Abbreviation of group of atoms


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- Commonly used in organic chemistry -CH3 -CH2CH3


-C6H5 -C6H5CH2
methyl - Me ethyl - Et propyl - Pr
CH3CO -CH2CH2CH3
benzyl - Bn phenyl - Ph cyclohexyl - Cy
acetyl - Ac pivaloyl - Pv -C6H11

PMB para-methoxybenzyl
TBS tert-butyldimethylsilyl
TBDPS tert-butyldiphenylsilyl
TIPS Triisopropylsilyl
TMS Trimethylsilyl
Boc tert-Butyloxylcarbonyl
Cbz Benzyloxylcarbonyl
Fmoc Florenylmethyloxycarbonyl
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* Chemistry
 The study of the matter, its
composition, properties, and the
changes it undergoes.
 Applied chemistry is the using
chemistry to attain certain goals, in
fields like medicine, agriculture, and
manufacturing
 Pure chemistry gathers knowledge for
knowledge’s sake
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 5 main branches of chemistry


 Analytical Chemistry -studies composition of substances.
 Organic Chemistry -compounds containing carbon
 Inorganic Chemistry -substances without carbon
 Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things
 Physical Chemistry studies behavior of substances
 rates and mechanisms of reactions
 energy transfers
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 Explain the natural world


 Why?
 Prepare for a career
 Directly- in a lab
 Indirectly- problem solving and thinking skills
 Be an informed citizen
 Vote
 Don’t get scammed
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* Applied Chemistry
 Material Design
 Plastics
 Paints
 Nanotechnology
 Scale
 Macroscopic- Big enough to see
 Microscopic- Too small to see unaided
 Nanotechnology- manipulating individual atoms and
molecules
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 Energy
 Ability to do work
 Different types can be converted to each other
 Conservation
 More efficient conversion
 Insulation
 Production –new sources
 Storage- batteries, fuel cells
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 Agriculture
 Production- fertilizers, soil tests
 Protection – pesticide, herbicide
 Medicine
 Drugs
 Materials- hips, artificial skin
 Biotechnology- using organisms as a means of
production
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 Environment- Pollution
 Eliminate sources
 Treatment once polluted
 Astronomy
 Remote analysis of stars from their light
 Analysis of extraterrestrial samples
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Unit 2: Hydrogen, water and solution
2.1 Reading chemical and mathematical signs and Formulas
2.1.1 Mathematical signs and formulas
+ plus
– minus x+1 x plus one
± plus or minus x -1 x minus one
x multiplied by x±1 x plus or minus one
/ over; divided by xy x y; x times y; x multiplied by y
÷ divided (x — y)(x + y) x minus y, x plus y
= equals x/y x over y; x divided by y;
≈ approximately, similar x÷y x divided by y
≡ equivalent to; identical x=5 x equals 5; x is equal to 5
≠ not equal to x≈y x is approximately equal to y
> greater than x is equivalent to y; x is
x≡y
< less than identical with y
≥ greater than or equal to x≠y x is not equal to y
≤ less than or equal to
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≫ much greater than


≪ much less than
x≥y x is greater than or equal to y
⊥ perpendicular to
x≤y x is less than or equal to y
∣∣ parallel to
x² x squared
² squared
x³ x cubed
³ cubed
x4 x to the fourth; x to the power four
4
to the fourth; to the power four xn
x to the n; x to the nth; x to the power n
n
to the n; to the nth; to the power nx-n x to the minus n; x to the power of minus n
√ root; square root √ root x; square root x; the square root of x
∛ cube root ∛ the cube root of x
∜ fourth root ∜ the fourth root of x
! factorial
the nth root of x
% percent
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Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero


lim
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Δx→0
Lt
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Δx→0
m/sec metres per second
x∈A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A⋂ B A intersection B
A⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
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½ a half
¼ a quarter
¾ three quarters 0.1 nought point one
⅓ a third 0.01 nought point oh one
⅔ two thirds 0.0001 nought point oh oh oh one
⅕ a fifth 1.1 one point one
⅖ two fifths 1.2 one point two
⅗ three fifths 1.23 one point two three
⅘ four fifths 1.0123 one point oh one two three
⅙ a sixth 10.01 ten point oh one
⅚ five sixths 21.57 twenty-one point five seven
⅛ an eighth 2.6666666666…. two point six recurring
⅜ three eighths 2.612361236123… two point six one two three recurring
⅝ five eighths 2.5 million two point five million
⅞ seven eighths
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2.1.2 Chemical formulas

CO2 Carbon dioxide


Number of Atoms Prefix Number of Atoms Prefix CO Carbon monoxide
1 mono 6 hexa NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
2 di 7 hepta N2O Dinitrogen oxide
3 tri 8 octa NO Nitrogen oxide
4 tetra 9 nona
N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide
5 penta 10 deca
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SO3 Sulphur trioxide
H2SO4 Suphuric acid
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HNO3 Nitric acid
PCl5 Phosphorus pentachloride
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Hydrogen

Mass Charge Charge


Particle
(g) (Coulombs) (units)

Electron (e-) 9.1 x 10-28 -1.6 x 10-19 -1

Proton (p) 1.67 x 10-24 +1.6 x 10-19 +1

Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10-24 0 0

mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e-


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Every different atom has a characteristic number of protons in


the nucleus.

atomic number = number of protons

Atoms with the same atomic number have the same chemical
properties and belong to the same element.
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Each proton and neutron has a mass of approximately 1


dalton (1 dvC).

The sum of protons and neutrons is the atom’s atomic mass.

Isotopes – atoms of the same element that have different


atomic mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons.
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Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and


electrons.

Ions are charged atoms.


-cations – have more protons than electrons and are
positively charged
-anions – have more electrons than protons and are
negatively charged
WATER

H H

1 molecule of water is
made up of 2 hydrogen atoms
bonded with 1 oxygen atom
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 In each water molecule, the oxygen atom attracts more


than its "fair share" of electrons
 The oxygen end “acts” negative
 The hydrogen end “acts” positive
 Causes the water to be POLAR
 However, Water is neutral (equal number
of e- and p+) --- Zero Net Charge
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 Formed between a highly


Electronegative atom of a polar
molecule and a Hydrogen
 One hydrogen bond is weak , but
many hydrogen bonds are strong

Negative Oxygen end of one water molecule


is attracted to the Positive Hydrogen end of
another water molecule to form a
HYDROGEN BOND
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* Universal solvent
• This is a nickname given to water.
• Water dissolves LOTS of things.
• Remember:
SOLVENT = the thing doing the dissolving
SOLUTE = the thing that dissolves away

• Other polar molecules can be dissolved by water.


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• Specific Heat = the amount of energy needed to increase the


temperature of something 1 degree C.
• Water has a really HIGH specific heat
• That means it takes a lot of energy for water to increase its
temperature.
• This is because of the strong attraction between water
molecules.
It’s POLAR!
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 At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0


°C.
 The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher
elevations (lower atmospheric pressure).
 Water's heat of vaporization is 540 cal/g.
 In order for water to evaporate, each gram must GAIN 540
calories (temperature doesn’t change --- 100oC).
 As water evaporates, it removes a lot of heat with it
(cooling effect).
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Unit 3: Chemical Nomenclature, hydrocarbon


3.2. Some pronunciation rules
3.2.1 Special consonants
ch
/k/ - chemistry (trong các âm tiết có nguồn gốc la tinh)
ch /t∫/ - change (before o, u, a and vowels)
/∫/ - machine (before i, e, y)
c
c /k/ - coal, car, cup, clean (before o, u, a and consonants )
/s/ - certain, city, cycle (before e, i, y)
g
g /g/ - gas, go, gun, green (before o, u, a and consonants)
/dʒ general, gin, biology (before e, i, y)
exception: get, give, girl
th /ð/ - ether (trong các âm tiết có nguồn gốc La tinh)
ph /f/ - sulphur
qu /kw/ - liquid
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3.2.2 Prefixes and suffixes

bi- /bai- / binary /bainəri/


di- /dai- / diatomic /daiə'tɔmic/
tri- /trai- / trivalent /trai'veilənt/
re- /ri:- / re-distil /'ri:dis'til/
de- /di:- / de-oxide /di:'ɔksaiz/
hypo- /haipəʊ-/ hypophosphate /,haipəʊ'fɔsfeit/
hydro- /haidrəʊ-/ hydrocarbon /haidrəʊ'ka:bən/

-ation /-eiʃn / neutralization /,nju:trəlai'zeiʃn/


-tion /-ʃn / dilution /dai'lju:ʃn/
-ture /-t∫ / culture /kʌlt∫ə/
-age /-idʒ / percentage /pə'sentidz/
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-ese /-i:z / manganese /,mænəgni:z/


-ide /-aid / chloride /klɔ:raid/
-ite /-ait / chlorite /klɔ:rait/
-ate /-it; eit / chlorate /klɔ:rit,-eit/
-ine /-i:n / chlorine /klɔ:ri:n/
-ene /-i:n / benzene /benzi:n/
-ime /-aim / oxime /oksaim/
-ile /-ail / nitrile /naitrail/
-ol /-əʊl / catechol /kætkəʊl/
-ic /-ik/ lactic /læktik/
-ous /-əs / ferrous /ferəs/
-able /-eibl/ fermentable /f:mentbl/
-ible /-ibl / combustible /km'bʌstibl/
-ize /-aiz / neutralize /nju:trlaiz/
-fy /-fai / classify /klæsifai/
-ity /-iti / density /densiti/
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Chemical nomenclature

• System of rules for naming pure substances


• Elements – element name used even if the substance is di- or
polyatomic
O2 = oxygen S8 = sulfur
• Compounds - naming differs depending on whether a
substance is held together primarily by ionic or covalent
bonds.
Naming binary ionic compounds
The name of the cation (positively charged ion) is
written first, followed by that of the anion.
The name of the cation is the same as the name
of the metal.
Many metal names end in -ium.
The name of the anion (negatively charged ion)
takes the root of the nonmetal name and adds
the suffix -ide.
Calcium and oxygen form calcium oxide.
Aluminum and sulfur form aluminum sulfide.
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• Some atoms form bonds that hold atoms together in a structure


that has an overall charge (rather than as a neutral compound.
These ions are called polyatomic ions.
• CO32- carbonate SO42- sulfate
• Compounds with polyatomic ions are named with the cation
and anion name.
• Na2SO4 – sodium sulfate
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• Non-metals form bonds by sharing electrons rather


• than transferring them.
• The resulting bond is referred to as a covalent bond.
• The element farthest to the left or lower on the periodic table
is generally written first. Subscripts are replaced by numerical
prefixes in the name.
• CO2 carbon dioxide
• N2O dinitrogen oxide
• P2S5 diphosphorus pentasulfide
• SiCl silicon tetrachloride
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Hydrocarbon
 Organic molecules contain carbon combined with other elements.
 Organic molecules are grouped into families
• Members of a family share common structural, physical, and chemical
characteristics.
• There are four families that contain molecules made of only carbon and
hydrogen.
 Hydrocarbons
• Alkanes
• Alkenes Alkynes
• Aromatics
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 Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only carbon-carbon single bonds.


 Every carbon atom participates in 4 single bonds, either to another
 carbon or to a hydrogen.
 Every hydrogen atom is bonded to a carbon by a single bond.
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Alkanes

 Alkanes in which the carbons are connected in a straight


chain are called normal alkanes.
H H H H H H
H C C C C C C H
n-hexane
H H H H H H

 Alkanes that are branched are called branched chain


alkanes. H
H C H

H H H H 2-methyl-pentane
H C C C C C H
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H H H H H
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Alkenes

 Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain at least 1 carbon-


carbon double bond.
 Examples:

H H
C C H H
H H C C
H CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
ethene
(ethylene) 1-hexene
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Alkynes
 Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain at least 1 carbon-carbon triple
bond.
Examples:
H C C H H C C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
ethyne 1-hexyne
(acetylene)

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Aromatic Compounds
 Aromatics are unsaturated ring molecules
 They are often drawn to look like alkenes, but they behave much
differently than alkenes.
 They have an alternating pattern of double and single bonds within a
ring.
 Benzene is an example

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Alkenes, Alkynes & Aromatic Compounds

 Naming of Alkenes and Alkynes work the same as for alkanes, with these
added rules:
 The parent chain must include both carbons in all double and triple
bonds.
• Pick the longest chain that also contains all double and triple bonds
 The -ene ending is used of alkenes

 The -yne ending is used for alkynes.

 The number of the first carbon in the double or triple bond is included
in the name to locate the double or triple bond.
42 • Number the parent chain from the end that is closes to the first double or
triple bond.
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Aromatic Compounds
 Naming of Aromatics is based on benzene:
 When the molecule is build on benzene, the parent name is
“benzene”.
 There are also many common names used to describe
aromatic compounds.
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Unit 4: Equipments of Chemical Laboratory, Safety in the Laboratory
4.1 * Word study: prefix
The prefixes a, un, im (m,p), il (l), in, ir (r), dis, and non can be
added to the beginning of some words. They mean not
Example: political- apolitical
Important- unimportant, able- unable, healthy- unhealthy
Mobile- immobile, moral- immoral, possible- impossible
Legal- illegal, legible- illegible
Regular- irregular, relevant- irrelevant, responsible- irresponsible
Connect- disconnect, like- dislike, agree- disagree
Stick- nonstick, sense- nonsense
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* Word study: prefix


- The prefix ‘re’ can be added to the beginning of some words. This means ‘do
something again’
read, write, arrange, marry, send, appoint, appear, build
+ They will remarry in June
+ He was reappointed as president

- The prefix ‘over’ can be added to the beginning of some words. This means
‘too much’ or ‘too many’
overload, overnight, overpay, overpower, overrate, overreact, overcrowded,
oversleep, overstay, overtime
- The prefix ‘under’ can be added to the beginning of some words. This means
under something (position) or ‘not enough or not complete’
- underwear, under-skirt, undercurrent, underline, underground, underwater
underestimate, underpay, underact, underdone, undervalue, underweight
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* Word study: Suffixes


- The suffixes –al, -able, and ful can be added to the end some words. These
Suffixes mean that something “is full of something” or ‘has something’
This picture is beautiful (full of beauty)
Cua Lo is a coastal town (has a coast)
This water is drinkable
Season, nation, enjoy, help, wonder, care, heath, comfort, education, meaning, success, pain
- Some nouns or adjectives + en = verbs
Length lengthen bright brighten
Strength strengthen sharp sharpen
Dark darken
Weak weaken Short shorten
Wide widen
Broad broaden
Deep deepen
- Some nouns + less = adjective (not)
Care, taste, meaning, end, home, hope, mind, odor, color
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- Some nouns + y = adjectives


Wind, sun, salt, snow, rain, health, greed, cloud, storm, smoke, fog, risk,
luck
- Some nouns + like = adjectives
Child, star, shell, snake, wood, smoke
- Some nouns + ly = adjectives
Man, girl, day, week, month, year
- Some adjectives + ness = nouns
Sweet, bitter, sour, salty, rich, lazy, kind, happy, dark, bright, sad, awful
- Some verbs + ing = nouns
study, learn, teach, feel, work, walk, drive, drink, write, read, listen,
speak, produce, control, measure, label, process, clean
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Equipment of chemistry lab
• Beakers are used for holding • Used to prepare precise standard
various chemicals. solutions.
• Not for measuring precisely. • They are only good for 1 specific
• Sizes vary. volume.
• Comes in many sizes
• Graduated cylinder Volumetric Flask
• Used to precisely measure the
volume of liquids or run Florence Flask
experiments.
• Used to boil
• Read from the meniscus at eye
liquids.
level.
• • Also used to collect
Plastic ring always on top if
applicable. gases, if applicable.
• Sizes vary. • Sizes vary.
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• Used to store, • Used to hold chemicals/tube


transport, or view while experimenting.
reagents such as
• Not for measuring precisely.
acids or bases.
• Waft!
Reagent Bottle • Aim away from faces.
• Sizes vary.
Test Tubes and Rack • Label tubes.
• Used to close flasks and
test tubes.
Distillation Flask
• The holes allow the
insertion of glass tubing, • Used to separate
probes, or thermometers as liquids based on
needed by the experiment. boiling point.
Buret and Buret Clamp
 Used for precisely
measuring dispensed liquids Buret

 Holds buret to ring stand .

Single buret clamp


Double buret clamp
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• Hot plate
• Used to heat
substances.

• Used to absorb and


spread the heat of
flame.
Crucible and Cover
• Keeps glassware from
cracking and breaking. • Used for heating substances.
• Part of ring stand set-
up.
• Can withstand high direct heat .
Wire Mesh or Gauze
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Mortar and Pestle


• Used to grind
Watch Glass
substances into
powder or slurry. • Used to show
chemical
reactions.
Stirring Rods
Centrifuge
• Used to stir • Used to separate
substances. suspensions
• Clean in between (solids from
uses . liquids) .
Dropper and Bottle

 Used to measure out small


amounts of liquids for
experiments.
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• Funnel
• Used to safely
transfer substances
from one container
to another.

• Wash bottle
• Usually contains
deionized water.
• Handy for rinsing • Goggles and apron
glassware and for
• Used to protect your eyes and
dispensing small
clothing from damage.
amounts of H2O for
• These are a must in lab!!
chemical reactions.
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• Digital balance
• Used to accurately
measure mass.
• Only up to 200g in
our labs.

• Berol pipet
• Disposable pipets used to transfer
• Capillary tubes small amounts of chemicals.
• Used to collect • Graduated pipets can precisely
liquid through the measure small amounts of
chemicals.
process of
capillary action.
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Pipet, Pump, and Bulb

 Used to precisely measure the


volume of liquids in small
amounts.
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Lab safety

General Safety Guidelines

 Be Responsible at All Times. No horseplay, practical jokes, pranks,


etc.

• Follow all instructions carefully.

• Do not play with lab equipment until instructed to do so.

• Food, drink, and gum are not allowed in the science classroom.

Lab Safety: Everyone Is Responsible!


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 Keep the science room clean and organized .

• Notify the teacher immediately of any accidents or unsafe conditions


in the science classroom!
• Wash your hands with soap and water after experiments.
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Safety Symbols

Eye Protection • Wear safety goggles when working with chemicals


flames, or heating devices.
• If a chemical gets in your eye, flush in water for 15
minutes and notify the teacher.
Sharp Objects • When using knifes or other sharp objects always
walk with the points facing down.
• Cut away from fingers and body.

Electrical Safety • Do not place a cord where someone can trip over
it.
• Never use electricity around water.
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Chemical Safety
• Read all labels twice before removing a chemical from
the container.
• Never touch, taste, or smell a chemical unless
instructed by the teacher.
• Transfer chemicals carefully!
Hand Safety • If a chemical spills on your skin, notify the teacher
and rinse with water for 15 minutes.
• Carry glassware carefully.
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Unit 5: Sewage Treatment, water treatment

5.1 Grammar
Passive is used to emphasized what is done not who does something
* Present Simple
S + to be (present tense) + Verb (past participle)
People eat rice everyday active
Rice is eaten every day (by people) passive
Water covers most of the Earth’s surface
Most of the Earth’s surface is covered by water
* Past Simple
S + to be (past tense) + Verb (past participle)
Her mother gave her a car
She was given a car (by her mother)
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The car accident killed four people last night


Four people were killed by the car accident last night
* Present perfect
S + have/has been + verb (P2)
People have destroyed more than haft of the forest in the world
More than haft of the forest in the world has been destroyed
Scientists have discovered many new plants recently
many new plants recently have been discovered ( by scientists)
* Future tense
S + will be + verb (P2)
The local government will build a school next year
A school will be built next year (by the local government)
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Sewage treatment
What are Wastes?
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, junk, litter, and ort) is
unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted
substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste; such
as urea and sweat.

Basel Convention Definition of Wastes


“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are
required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law”

Disposal means
“any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-
use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel convention)”
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Kinds of Wastes

Solid wastes: wastes in solid forms, domestic, commercial and industrial


wastes

Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles,


cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash
Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form

Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste


water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other
sources
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Classification of Wastes according to their Properties

Bio-degradable
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)
Non-biodegradable
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,cans, styrofoam
containers and others)
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Classification of Wastes according to


their Effects on Human Health and the Environment

 Hazardous wastes
 Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally,
or economically and have any of the following properties-
ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity & toxicity.
 Non-hazardous
 Substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or
economically and do not have any of those properties mentioned
above. These substances usually create disposal problems.
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Classification of wastes according to their origin and type

Municipal Solid wastes: Solid wastes that include household garbage, rubbish, construction & demolition
debris, sanitation residues, packaging materials, trade refuges etc. are managed by any municipality.
Bio-medical wastes: Solid or liquid wastes including containers, intermediate or end products generated
during diagnosis, treatment & research activities of medical sciences.
Industrial wastes: Liquid and solid wastes that are generated by manufacturing & processing units of various
industries like chemical, petroleum, coal, metal gas, sanitary & paper etc.
Agricultural wastes: Wastes generated from farming activities. These substances are mostly biodegradable.
Fishery wastes: Wastes generated due to fishery activities. These are extensively found in coastal & estuarine
areas.
Radioactive wastes: Waste containing radioactive materials. Usually these are byproducts of nuclear
processes. Sometimes industries that are not directly involved in nuclear activities, may also produce some
radioactive wastes, e.g. radio-isotopes, chemical sludge etc.
E-wastes: Electronic wastes generated from any modern establishments. They may be described as discarded
electrical or electronic devices. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, may contain contaminants
such as Pb, Cd, Be or brominated flame retardants.
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IMPACTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY

• Affects our health


• Affects our socio-economic conditions
• Affects our coastal and marine environment
• Affects our climate
• GHGs are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities,
causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to
rise.
• Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change
precipitation and other local climate conditions.
• Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.
• This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems.
• Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our
national parks might be permanently altered.
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Waste Management
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE

Reduce Waste
- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by
making training manuals and personnel information available electronically.

- Improve product design to use less materials.

- Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength.

- Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program.

- Switch to reusable transport containers.

- Purchase products in bulk.


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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE

Reuse

- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.

- Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper.

- Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses.

- Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments.

- Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones.
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Benefits of Recycling

 USA recycled 83 million tons of MSW.


 This provides an annual benefit of 182 million metric tons of carbon
dioxide equivalent emissions reduced,
 comparable to removing the emissions from 33 million passenger cars.
 But the ultimate benefits from recycling are cleaner land, air, and water,
overall better health, and a more sustainable economy .
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Recycling in USA
Auto batteries: 99.2% Aluminum Beer and Soft Drink Cans: 48.2%
Office Type Papers: 70.9% Tires: 35.4%
Yard Trimmings: 64.7% HDPE Natural (White Translucent) Bottles: 29.3%
Steel Cans: 62.8% Glass Containers: 28.0%
PET Bottles and Jars: 27.2%
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE

Donate/Exchange

- old books

- old clothes

- old computers

- excess building materials

- old equipment to local organizations


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Residents may be organized into small groups to carry out
the following:
1. construction of backyard compost pit

2. construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each
household

3. construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street
sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers

4. maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets

5. greening of their respective areas

6. encouraging others to join


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Water treatment

Justification for wastewater treatment:


 Pollution from sewage is a primary environmental health hazard
(wastewater effluent).
 The purpose of municipal wastewater treatment is to limit
pollution of the receiving watercourse.
 The receiving watercourse may also be a source of drinking water.
 Goals:
 Reduction of organic load of the wastewater effluent to limit
eutrophication (BOD, COD limits),
 Reduction of microbiological contamination that may
transmit infectious disease.
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Wastewater Treatment Scheme
Disinfectant

WW effluent
WW
influent
Preliminary Primary Secondary Tertiary

sludge Sludge Treatment


and Disposal
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Wastewater treatment processes:

 Preliminary treatment is a physical process that removes large


contaminants.
 Primary treatment involves physical sedimentation of particulates.
 Secondary treatment involves physical and biological treatment to
reduce organic load of wastewater.
 Tertiary or advanced treatments.
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Tertiary or Advanced Treatment

 Nitrification-denitrification process to remove N and P


 Filtration
 Carbon Adsorption
 Constructed (Man-made] Wetland
 More than 25% of all households in the U.S. are served by on-site
treatment systems.
 About 3 billion gallons of wastewater is discharged each day to on-site
wastewater treatment systems.
 Potential disease transmission risks through wastewater should be
limited.
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Drinking water treatment:


 Clarification - primarily a physical process, but may be aided by
addition of chemicals.
 Filtration - also primarily physical, but chemicals may aid the
process.
 Disinfection - typically a chemical process that reduces pathogenic
microorganisms.
 Clarification of drinking water
 Clarification removes particulates that contribute to turbidity and
contamination of water.
 Clarification is aided by chemicals which cause particulates to
aggregate, precipitate, and form sediment (sludge).
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Filtration:

 Separate nonsettleable solids from water.


 Combined with coagulation/clarification, filtration can remove 84%-
96% turbidity, coliform bacteria 97-99.95%, and >99% Giardia .
 Type of filtration
 Rapid filtration - uses gravity (faster flow).
 Slow filtration - uses gravity [slower flow].
 Pressure sand filters-use water pressure.
• Diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration
 Microstraining - uses fine steel fabric (sometimes used prior to other
filtrations).
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Physical disinfection (boiling):

 Boiling kills vegetative bacterial cells, but spores, viruses, and some
protozoa may survive long periods of boiling.
 Boiling may also volatilize VOC’s.
 Boiling is an effective method for small batches of water during water
emergencies.
 Boiling is prohibitively expensive for large quantities of water.
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Chemical disinfection:
 Chemicals added to water for disinfection include chlorine, bromine,
and iodine.
 Bromine is not recommended for drinking water disinfection, but
may be used for pool water.
 Iodine is sometimes used for drinking water disinfection, but causes
a bad aftertaste.
- Chlorination is a cheap, effective, relatively harmless (and
therefore most popular) disinfection method.
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 Chlorine is added as a gas or hypochlorite solution.


 Hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions form in solution, which are
strong chemical oxidants, and kill microbes.
 Combined chlorine is the proportion that combines with organic
matter.
 Free chlorine is the amount that remains to kill microbes in the
distribution system (0.5 ppm, 10 min.)
 Total chlorine is the combined concen-tration of combined and free
chlorine.
Ozonation:

 Ozone (O3) is an effective, relatively harmless disinfection method, but is


expensive (and therefore less popular than chlorine).
 Ozone is a strong oxidant, that produces hydroxyl free radicals that react
with organic and inorganic molecules in water to kill microbes.
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Unit 6: Chemical Engineering, Gas Manufacture, Sulfuric Acid

6. 1* Grammar :
Some verbs are followed by -ing but not a to-infinitive: admit, avoid, consider,
delay, deny, detest, dread, envisage, feel, like, finish, imagine, miss, recall, resent,
risk, suggest, mind
- They avoided cleaning the house
- I like watching TV
- Some verbs are followed by a to-infinitive but not -ing: agree, aim, ask,
decline, demand, fail, hesitate, hope, hurry, manage, offer, plan, prepare,
refuse, want, wish.
+ He asked me to borrow my car
+ I want to go to Ha Long this summer
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The verbs begin, cease, start, and continue can be followed by either a to-infinitive
or an –ing form with little difference in meaning:
• Even though it was raining, they continued to play / playing.
However, with these verbs we normally avoid using two -ing forms together, as a
repeated pattern can sound awkward:
• I'm starting to learn Swahili. (rather than I'm starting learning Swahili.)
The verbs advise and encourage are followed by -ing when there is no object and
to-infinitive when there is one. Compare:
• I'd advise taking more exercise. and • I'd advise you to take more exercise.

- Other verbs can be followed by either a to-infinitive or an -ing form, but


there can be a difference in meaning. These include come, go on, mean,
regret, remember, stop, try.
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to mean that remembering comes before the action described


+ Remember to take your hat when you go out. (first remember, and then take it)
to mean the action comes before remembering
+ I remember going to the bank, but nothing after that. (I remember that I went there)
to mean that something is done after something else is finished
+ After the interval, Pavarotti went on to sing an aria from Tosca.

to say that someone moves in the way that is described


+ Although she asked him to stop, he went on tapping his pen on the table.
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Gas Manufacture
FOSSIL FUELS
85% of the world’s commercial energy

COAL

NATURAL GAS OIL


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Natural Gas:

-colorless, shapeless, & odorless in pure form


-combustible & when burned released energy
-clean burning & emits lower levels of potentially
harmful byproducts
-combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases
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Basic Compositions of Natural Gas:


Methane CH4 ~70-90%
Ethane C2H6 ~0-20%
Propane C3H8 ~0-20%
Butane C4H10 ~0-20%
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Formation & Extraction:


-Found in reservoirs underneath the earth
- natural gas is commonly associated with oil deposits
-Formed from the remains of plants, animals & microorganisms
-Production (extraction) companies search for evidence reservoirs with use of
sophisticated technology- wells are then drilled
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Fossil Fuel Emission Levels


(Pounds per Billion Btu of Energy Input)
Pollutant Natural Gas Oil Coal
Carbon Dioxide 117,000 164,00 208,000
Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208
Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457
Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591
Particulates 7 84 2,744
Mercury 0.000 0.007 0.016
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Manufacturing Sulfuric Acid

The contact process

 Sulfuric Acid is manufactured in stages from sulfur dioxide.


 These involve oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide.
 Followed by conversion to the acid.
 The process can be summarised:
SO2(from various sources) → SO3 → H2SO4
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The contact process
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The contact process – raw materials

 The sulfur dioxide used to produce sulfuric acid is obtained from two
principal sources
 Combustion of sulfur recovered from natural gas and crude oil
 Sulfur dioxide formed during the smelting of sulfide ores of copper,
zinc or lead.
 A third process can be used from mining of the underground deposits
of elemental sulfur but this is not used in Australia due to the first two
being in high abundance.
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Step 1: Burning Sulfur

 If sulfur is used as a raw material, the first step is to spray molten sulfur
under pressure into a furnace up to 1000°C.
 Here is burns in air to produce sulfur dioxide gas. The sulfur dioxide gas is
then cooled for the next step
 The high surface area of the sulfur spray allows combustion to be rapid.
S(l) + O2(g) → SO2(g); ∆H = -297 kJ mol-1
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Step 2: Catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide

 Sulfur dioxide gas is oxidised to sulfur trioxide gas by oxygen, using


Vanadium oxide as a catalyst
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g); ∆H = -197 kJ mol-1
 This step is performed in a reaction vessel called a converter.
 Sulfur dioxide is mixed with air and passed through trays containing
loosely packed porous pellets of catalysts.
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Step 2: Catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide

 The converter contains several catalyst beds and the gas mixture passes
over each in succession.
 Because the reaction is exothermic it is necessary to cool the gas mixture
as it passes from one tray to another to maintain the desired reaction
temperature.
 The temperature in the converter is maintained between 400°C and 500°C
and the pressure is close to 1 atm.
 Nearly complete conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide is
achieved.
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Stage 3: Absorption of sulfur trioxide

 Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid:


SO3(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(aq); ∆H = -130 kJ mol-1
 However direct reaction with water is not used, because so much heat
evolves when sulfur trioxide is added to water that a fine mist of acid is
produced which is difficult to collect.
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Stage 3: Absorption of sulfur trioxide

 Instead, sulfur trioxide gas is passed into concentrated sulfuric acid in an


absorption tower. This reaction occurs in two steps
1. The sulfur trioxide gas dissolves almost totally in the acid to form a
liquid known as oleum
SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) → H2S2O7(l)
2. Oleum obtained from the absorption tower is then carefully mixed with
water to produce sulfuric acid:
H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(l)
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Unit 7: Acetone, Acetic acid, m- Bromonitrobenzene

7.1 * Grammar: relative clause


Who, whom, which, that
A relative clause gives more information about someone or something referred to
in a main clause. Some relative clauses (defining relative clauses) are used to
specify which person or thing we mean, or which type of person or thing we mean:
- The couple who live next to us have sixteen grandchildren.
- Andrew stopped the police car that was driving past.
No comma between noun and defining relative clause
When we use a defining relative clause, the relative pronoun can be the subject or
the object of the clause. In the following sentences the relative pronoun is the
subject. Notice that the verb follows the relative pronoun:
- Rockall is an uninhabited island which/that lies north west of mainland
Scotland.
- We have a friend who/that plays the piano.
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In the following sentences the relative pronoun is the object. Notice that there is
a noun (or pronoun) between the relative pronoun and the verb in the relative
clause. In this case, we can use a zero relative pronoun:
- He showed me the rocks (which/that) he had brought back from Australia.
- That's the man (who/that) I met at Allison's party.
Which and that are used for things. Who and that are used for people. We use
that as subject after something and anything; words such as all, little, much,
and none used as nouns; and superlatives

- These walls are all that remain of the city, (not ...all which remain...)
- She's one of the kindest people (that) I know, (not ...who I know.)
- Is there anything (that) I can do to help? (rather than ...anything which I can
do...)

We can also use whom instead of who as object, although whom is very formal:
- She's an actress whom most people think is at the peak of her career.
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Some relative clauses are used to add extra information about a noun, but this
information is not necessary to explain which person or thing we mean:
- Valerie Polkoff, who has died aged 90, escaped from Russia with her family in
1917.
- We received an offer of £80, 000 for the house, which we accepted.
These are sometimes called non-defining relative clauses. We don't use them often
in everyday speech, but they occur frequently in written English. Notice that we put
a comma between the noun and a non-defining relative clause, and another comma
at the end of this clause if it is not the end of a sentence.
People- subject = who , object = who or whom (formal). Things- which (avoid that)

- One of the people arrested was Mary Arundel, who is a member of the local
council.
- Professor Johnson, who(m) I have long admired, is to visit the university next
week.
- These drugs, which are used to treat stomach ulcers, have been withdrawn from
sale.
- That Masters course, which I took in 1990, is no longer taught at the college.
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Whose, where, when, why


We use a relative clause beginning with whose + noun, particularly in written
English, when we talk about something belonging to or associated with a person or
sometimes things. Compare:
- Stevenson is an architect. Her designs have won international praise, and
- Stevenson is an architect whose designs have won international praise.
- Dr Rowan has had to do all his own typing. His secretary resigned two weeks ago.
and
- Dr Rowan, whose secretary resigned two weeks ago, has had to all his own typing

- The film was made in Botswana, whose wildlife parks are larger than those in Kenya.
- We need to learn from companies whose trading is more healthy than our own.
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where, when, whereby, why


We often use the words where, when as relative pronouns. But in formal English in
particular, a phrase with preposition + which can often be used instead:
- This was the place (where) we first met. (or ...the place at/in which we...)
- He wasn't looking forward to the time (when) he would have to give evidence to the
court. (or ...the time at which he would...)
- Do you know the date when we have to submit the first essay? (or ...the date on/by
which we have to submit the first essay?)

We can also use why as a relative pronoun after the word reason. In informal English
we can use that instead of why:
- I didn't get a pay rise, but this wasn't the reason why I left, (or ...the reason (that) I
left.)
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Acetic acid
Current important uses of acetic acid

Acetic Acid is used as an ingredient in


plastic, vinegar, lacquers and is a
preservative itself.

Acetic acid is made by the process of


fermenting various substances: starchy
solutions, sugar solutions or wine with
Acetobacter bacteria.
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as acids:
a) with active metals
RCO2H + Na  RCO2-Na+ + H2(g)
b) with bases
RCO2H + NaOH  RCO2-Na+ + H2O
c) quantitative
HA + H2O  H3O+ + A- ionization in water
Ka = [H3O+] [A-] / [HA]
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d)  esters
“direct” esterification: H+
RCOOH + R´OH  RCO2R´ + H2O
-reversible and often does not favor the ester
-use an excess of the alcohol or acid to shift equilibrium
-or remove the products to shift equilibrium to completion

“indirect” esterification:
RCOOH + PCl3  RCOCl + R´OH  RCO2R´
-convert the acid into the acid chloride first; not reversible
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Carboxylic acids, syntheses:


1. oxidation of primary alcohols
RCH2OH + K2Cr2O7  RCOOH
2. oxidation of arenes
ArR + KMnO4, heat  ArCOOH
3. carboxylation of Grignard reagents
RMgX + CO2  RCO2MgX + H+  RCOOH
4. hydrolysis of nitriles
RCN + H2O, H+, heat  RCOOH
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Unit 8: Classification of Fuels, Petroleum
8.1 * Grammar: Participle clause
Ing, participle (ed), or being participle
We can give information about someone or something using an -ing, past
participle (-ed) or being + past participle (-ed) clause after a noun. These
clauses are often similar to defining
relative clauses (see Unit 70) beginning which, who, or that:
- We stood on the bridge connecting the two halves of the building, (or ...which
connects/connected the two halves...)
- The weapon used in the murder has now been found, (or The weapon that was
used...)
- The prisoners being released are all women, (or ...who are being released...)
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-ing clauses
We often use an -ing clause instead of a defining relative clause with an active
verb:
- The man driving the bus is my brother, (or The man who is driving the
bus...)
- The land stretching away to the left all belongs to Mrs Thompson, (or The
land which stretches away to the left...)
• Police took away Dr Li and items belonging to him. (or ...items which
belong/belonged to him.)
Sometimes, however, we can't use an -ing clause. For example:
• when there is a noun between the relative pronoun and the verb in the defining relative
clause:
• The man who Tim is meeting for lunch is from Taiwan, (not ...the man Tim meeting...)
• when the event or action talked about in the defining relative clause comes before the event
or action talked about in the rest of the sentence, except when the second event or action is
the result of the first. Compare:
• The snow which fell overnight has turned to ice. (not The snow falling overnight...) and
• The snow which fell overnight has caused traffic chaos, (or The snow falling overnight has
caused traffic chaos.)
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Past participle (-ed) and being + past participle (-ed) clauses


We often use a past participle or being + past participle clause instead of a
defining relative clause with a passive verb:
- The book published last week is his first written for children, (or The book that
was published last week...)
- The boys being chosen for the team are under 9. (or The boys who are being
chosen...)

Sometimes, however, we can't use a past participle or being + past participle


clause. For example:
- when there is a noun between the relative pronoun and the verb in the defining
relative clause:
- The speed at which decisions are made in the company is worrying, (not The
speed at which
decisions made...)
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The children who are being moved to another school all have learning difficulties.
The man who died in the accident came from Bulgaria

The trees that were blown down in last night's storm have been moved off the road.
The woman who visited us last week has sent us a present.
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Non Renewable Fuels


 Coal
 Petroleum
 Natural Gas
 Nuclear Fission

• World coal consumption is projected to increase from 5.3 billion tons


in 1997 to 7.6 billion tons in 2020.
• US annual coal consumption is approximately 1 billion tons

116
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Coal’s Future

Lifetime (of a resource) = Reserves


Annual Use

Reserves to Production Ratio (R/P Ratio)


World 1173 G Tons / 4.33 G Tons/y
= 271 Years
USA 277 G Tons/0.99 G Tons/y
= 280 Years

Note: Reserves are likely to increase as well as decrease, usage is also


expected to change 117
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Composition of Coals
 The natural constituents of coal can be divided into two groups:
 (i) the organic fraction, which can be further subdivided into
microscopically identifiable macerals; and
 (ii) the inorganic fraction, which is commonly identified as ash
subsequent to combustion, but which may be isolated in the form of
mineral matter by low-temperature ashing (LTA).
 The organic fraction can be further subdivided on the basis of its rank
or maturity.
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Crude Oils ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

 Paraffin based crudes (a waxy residue)


 Asphalt based crudes (an asphalt type
residue)
 Mixed type-based crudes ( a combination
residue)
 Components of Crude Oils.
 Paraffins (CnH(2n+2))
 Olefins
 Aromatics
 Ultimate Analysis
 C : 84 -- 87% ; H : 11 -- 16% ; O : 0.3 --
1.8% ; N : 0.1 -- 1.5% ; S : 0.1 -- 3%
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Exploration and Production : Drilling the well

• Once an oil or gas prospect has


been identified, a hole is drilled to assess
the potential

• The cost of drilling is very great.


On an offshore rig, it may cost
$10,000 for each metre drilled.

• A company incurs vast losses


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oil_platform.jpg
for every “dry hole” drilled
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Exploration and Production : Enhanced Recovery

• Although oil and gas are less


dense than water and naturally
rise up a well to the surface,
in reality only 40-50% of the
total will do so.

• To enhance recovery, a hole


is drilled adjacent to the well
and steam is pumped down. The
hot water helps to push the oil out
© California Department of Conservation of the rock and up into the well.
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Exploration and Production : Transport


• Once extracted oil and
Trans-Alaskan Pipeline gas must be sent to a
refinery for processing

• Pipelines transport
most of the world’s oil
from well to refinery

• Massive Oil Tankers


also play an important
role in distribution
United States Geological Survey
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Exploration and Production: At the Refinery

Oil refinery Distillation


Plant Car fuel
Jet fuel

Road tar

• Before it can be used crude oil must be refined.


• Hydrocarbons can be separated using distillation, which
produces different fractions (or types) of oil and gas
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Main Producers - OPEC

• Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a


group of 13 countries that produce 36% of the world’s oil, or
32 million barrels of oil per day.
• The biggest producer is Saudi Arabia, but Iran, United Arab
Emirates, Kuwait and Venezuela are also major suppliers
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Other Producers

• Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development


(OECD) produces 24% of all oil, or 21 million barrels per day.
• The USA is the biggest single producer in OECD but Mexico,
Canada and the UK are also major supplier
• Outside OECD, the states of the former Soviet Union are also
major producers supplying a further 15% of global output
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Supply and Demand

USA uses 24% of global supply


but China shows the biggest year-
to-year increase in usage

Oil consumption per person


(darker reds indicate higher usage)
• In 2007, global consumption grew by 1.2 million barrels per day.
• OPEC and OECD nations can only raise production by a further
2.5 million barrels per day so a squeeze is on the cards
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Unit 9: Food Manufacture and Nutrition, food safety
* Grammar: Paralell structure
Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more
ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or
clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of
coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."
Not Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
Not Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in
a detailed manner.
Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and
thoroughly.
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Not Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last
minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner,
and his motivation was low.
Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last
minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner,
and lacked motivation.
Not Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too
much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.
Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too
much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.
— or —
Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do
some warm-up exercises before the game.
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Not Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that
there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions
would be asked by prospective buyers. (passive)
Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that
there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective
buyers would ask him questions.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and he Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and a
teaches. teacher.
Peter is rich, handsome, and many people like Peter is rich, handsome, and popular.
him.
The cat approached the mouse slowly The cat approached the mouse slowly
and silent. and silently.
She likes to fish, swim and surfing. She likes to fish, to swim and to surf.
She likes fishing, swimming and surfing.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Food Production and processing

New technologies in food production and processing are driven by:


• knowledge and new techniques gained from research investigations;
• attempts to increase efficiency, reduce environmental effect of production;
• competition between food companies;
• consumer demand.

Innovation in food production, processing and new product development can


offer benefits for consumers and the environment.
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Environmental sustainability

Fewer resources, population growth and climate change are all putting pressure on
the world’s food supply.

Challenges include:

• sustainable, affordable food supply and demand;


• stability in food supplies;
• achieving global access to food and ending hunger;
• reducing the impact of food production on the world’s environmental
systems.
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It has been shown that we need to aim to produce more food with less
environmental impact. This is sometimes known as sustainable intensification.

New technologies and innovation may help with these challenges and help to
achieve the aim.
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Dietary needs
Through medical and nutritional research there is more knowledge available on
nutrition and dietary needs.

This includes information about preventative nutrition and nutrition through


life. This creates a demand for new products in the marketplace. New
technologies can help with this.
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Farming and agriculture


The availability of new techniques from biotechnology
and genetic research provides opportunity to control cell
metabolism and breeding.

This makes it possible for developers to meet more


specific requirements e.g. to increase a specific nutrient
in a food.
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FOOD SAFETY
What is Foodborne Illness?
Commonly known as food poisoning, foodborne illness is caused by eating
food that is contaminated by bacteria or other harmful substances.
How does food become hazardous?
Food becomes hazardous by contamination. Contamination is the unintended
presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food. Food can become
contaminated from:
Chemical hazards
Physical hazards
Biological hazards
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

What is “cross contamination?”

Cross-contamination is the transportation of harmful substances to food by:

What conditions encourage bacteria to grow?

Warm Neutral-slightly acidic pH

Moist Protein-rich
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

How can I handle food safely?


Bacteria like Staphylococci are found on the hair, skin, mouth, nose and in
the throat of healthy people.
According to one estimate, nearly 50 percent of healthy food handlers
carry disease agents that can be transmitted by food.
The most important tool you have to prevent foodborne illness
is good personal hygiene

Good personal hygiene includes:


•Proper bathing •Hand washing
•Clean hat/hair restraint •Trim nails, avoid nail polish
•Clean clothes •Proper glove use
•Remove jewelry •Maintain good health
•Avoid unsanitary habits/actions •Report wounds and illnesses
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Purchasing/Receiving
 Buy only from reputable suppliers
 Schedule deliveries for off-peak hours
 Inspect deliveries carefully
 sample temperatures of received food items
 Purchase meat, poultry and dairy products last.
 Keep packages of raw meat and poultry separate
 Make sure products are refrigerated as soon as possible
 Check that all food packages are intact
 Select produce that is fresh
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Storing

 Label food
 Stored product needs depleted regularly
 Check expiration dates
 Keep out of the temperature danger zone
 Store food in designated storage areas
 Keep all storage areas clean and dry
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Food Contact Surfaces


Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize Work Surfaces
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Preventing Time and Temperature Abuse


Avoid time-temperature abuse
 Keep food out of the temperature danger zone. Above
135 F
 Keep Hot Foods Hot and Cold Foods Cold
 Make sure your work area has a thermometer
135 F
that is appropriate for taking food temperatures. Temp.
Danger
 Regularly record temperatures of hot and cold Zone
41 F
foods and record each time the temperature is Below
taken. 41 F
 Take corrective actions if time-temperature
standards are not met.
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Preventing Cross Contamination
Separate Equipment
 Use separate equipment for different types of food
 Cooked Foods vs. Raw Foods
 Meats vs. vegetables
Prepare food at different times
 Prepare raw meat, seafood, and poultry at different
times than ready-to-eat food (when using the same
prep table)
Clean and Sanitize
 Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment,
and utensils after each task
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Unit 10: Tea, Coffee and Cocoa, Meat and Fish Products
10.1 Grammar
Real conditionals (type 1)
In real conditionals we use tenses as in other kinds of sentences: we use
present tenses to talk
about the present or unchanging relationships, and past tenses to talk about
the past:
• If you leave now, you'll be home in two hours. • If water is frozen, it
expands.
• If I made the wrong decision then I apologise.
However, when we talk about the future, we use a present tense, not will (see
Unit 100):
• I'll give you a lift if it rains, (not ...if it will rain...)
Present or future unreal conditionals (type 2)
In unreal conditionals, to talk about present or future situations, we use a
past tense (either
simple or continuous) in the if-clause and would + bare infinitive in the
main clause:
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

• If my grandfather was/were still alive, he would be a hundred today.


• If you were driving from London to Glasgow, which way would you go?
• I'd (=would) offer to give you a lift if I had my car here.

Past unreal conditionals (type 3)


When we talk about something that might have happened in the past, but
didn't, then we use if
+ past perfect and would have + past participle in the main clause:
) • If I had known how difficult the job was, I wouldn't have taken it.
* • If she hadn't been ill, she would have gone to the concert.
In unreal conditionals, we can also use could/might/should (have) instead of
would (have):
• If I lived out of town, I could take up gardening.
• They might have found a better hotel if they had driven a few more
kilometres.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

If Jack had been honest, he would return the money.


The video pauses if you press this button.
If she would have really wanted to see me, she would have come earlier.
If he doesn't break the window then who is responsible?
If Claire will continue to work hard, she should pass the exams easily.
Steve would have been attacked if I hadn't come along.
I'd be able to visit Jim first thing in the morning if I stay in Manchester
overnight.
Speak to Jane if you want to book a room.
If you know what it was going to be like, why did you come?
You'd be surprised if I told you how much this cost.
If I had suddenly announced that the holiday was cancelled, the children
had objected.
We might soon be making a profit if all will go according to plan.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Tea

• Tea is drunk by a larger number of people than coffee, but does not
have as high dollar value.
• Most tea is consumed locally and comparatively small quantities enter
international trade.
• The exact origin of tea, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), is obscure, but
the plant appears to have arisen in China.
• The first book on tea was written in 780 B.C. Tea came to Japan in
593 B.C.
• The Mongols got tea from the Chinese and traded it across Asia. The
Russians got tea in this way.
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• Europeans first got into tea when the Portuguese brought it back from
China.
• In the 1700's tea had become an important item of trade. Both the
British and Dutch bought tea in the Orient and sold it in Europe.
• People drank tea predominately in the English colonies in America
until the Boston Tea Party; then coffee became a more popular
beverage.
• Tea is of course still very popular in England.
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• The British started planting tea in India about 1818. Sri Lanka has
been the second most important tea producer, but tea production there
only started after the coffee rust wiped out coffee in 1880.
• Because of the hand labor, tea is not grown extensively in the U.S. or
most other countries in the Western Hemisphere (some is grown in
Argentina).
• The plants are evergreen; they require lots of rainfall and a constant
cool temperature.
• Only the two or three youngest leaves are used for good quality tea.
• For green tea the leaves are dried fairly quickly to stop most enzyme
activity.
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• For black teas, the leaves are allowed to wither, and rolled or twisted
(broken) and then allowed to ferment for several hours. This modifies
the tannins and polyphenols in the leaves.
• The tea is then fired or heated to stop further enzyme action.
• Oolong teas are semifermented.

Tea leaves moving into processing


area and a tea “breaking” machine
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Coffee
 Coffee has up to 3% caffeine by weight.
 Coffee probably originated in Ethiopia. The leaves, which also contain
caffeine, were originally chewed. At some point, however, people
started using the fruits.
 The plant was taken to the Arabian peninsula about the 6th century.
The Arabs were the first to "brew coffee".
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

 Coffee drinking didn't spread to Europe until the 1600's.


 This beverage became an important aspect of social and political
development in England about 1650.
 There were 3000 coffee houses in 1675; these institutions served as
forums for political and religious debate. The king tried to have them
closed, but was not very successful.
 The Arabs monopolized the coffee trade. They killed the seeds before
marketing them.
 Eventually, however, the Dutch acquired live seeds from Mocha, the
traditional source of Arabic coffee. They started plantations in Sri
Lanka and the East Indies and broke the Arab monopoly.
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 Coffee was taken to the West Indies about 1723. From a tree taken
from Paris to Martinique in 1723, coffee spread through the
western hemisphere.
 Brazil leads the world in coffee production.
 Coffea arabica accounts for about 90% of world's trade in coffee.
 Importantly, the coffee from Coffea arabica has the best flavor.
 C. arabica is a self-compatible polyploid.
 Coffea canephora accounts for another 9%. C. liberica accounts
for about 1%. Both are more productive and more disease resistant.
 Coffea canephora and C. liberica are self-incompatible diploids.
 C. canephora is used often to make instant coffee. This species is
preferred in some parts of Africa.
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ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

 The fruit of coffee is a type of


berry (inferior ovary).
 The seeds are removed from the
fruits and are the part used to
prepare the beverage. Coffee
fruits are often called "beans".
 Coffee is usually cultivated in
tropical and subtropical latitudes.
It prefers rich soils and high
rainfall, with a seasonally dry
period.
 A plant produces fruit after 3
years and until the plant is about
40 years old.
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 The plants are often shaded in plantations, but open orchards are used
as well. Many of the shade trees are legumes and fix nitrogen.
 The best coffee usually comes from areas with cool nights.
 Coffee is seldom harvested mechanically. The best coffee comes from
berries picked just when ripe.
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 The seeds are separated from the outer portion of the fruit by either a
wet or dry process. In the dry process, the fruits are dried and the outer
portion abraded away.
 In the wet process, the fruits are depulped by a machine and the seeds
washed.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

 The wet seeds are allowed to ferment for 12-24 hours. After
fermentation, the seeds are dried for about a week.
 The remaining endocarp and the seed coats are removed mechanically.
 Roasting is also essential to development of flavor of the final product.
The temperature and time of roasting are important.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

 In recent years instant and freeze dried coffee have become extremely
popular and account for a large part of the market.
 Much instant coffee is made by flash drying.
 "Aroma components" are added to give the product enhanced flavor
and odor.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Meat, Fish, and Poultry

 Types
 Red meat
Beef
Pork
 Poultry
Chicken
Turkey
 Fish
Shellfish
Finfish
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Meat
 The edible portion of mammals
Includes muscle, fat, bone, connective tissue, and water
• Elastin
 Very tough, elastic, and yellowish connective tissue
 Found in ligaments and blood vessel walls
 Cannot be softened by heat
 To tenderize—cut, pound, or grind it
 Major meat-producing animals are cattle, swine, and sheep
Cattle provide beef and veal
Swine provide pork
Sheep provide lamb and mutton
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Meat
 Nutritional Value
 Need 5 ½ oz of protein each day
 High in protein
Contain proteins essential for tissue building and repair
 Good sources of iron, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, riboflavin, and
niacin
 Fat content depends type and quality of the meat
Fat means flavor
Marbling
• Small white flecks of fat
Red meat is higher in saturated fat
Fish and chicken low in fat
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Meat

 Beef
 Comes from cattle over 12
months of age
 Distinct flavor and firm
texture
 Usually bright, cherry red
in color with creamy white
fat
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Meat
 Pork
 The meat of swine
Meat is grayish pink to light
rose in color
 Comes from animals that are 7-12
months of age
Typically tender meat due to
age
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Poultry

 Any bird raised for food


 Most common types
Chicken
Turkey
Duck
Goose
 Older birds have more fat
than young birds
Young birds have more
tender meat.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Poultry
 Nutritional Value
 Good source of protein
 Provides niacin, Vitamins B6, B12,
calcium, phosphorus, iron, and other
trace minerals
 Lower in fat and calories than red meat
Remove skin for lower fat poultry
 Dark vs. White meat
Dark meat
• Contains more fat
• More flavorful
Dark due to the fact the animal
uses it more
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Fish and Shellfish
 Fish and Finfish
 Have fins and a center spine
with bones
 Shellfish or Crustaceans
 Have a shell but no spine or
bones
 Found in…
 Freshwater
Water is not salty
• Lakes, rivers,
streams, and ponds
 Saltwater
Comes from oceans and
seas
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Fish and Shellfish

 Types of …
 Fish
Low-fat fish
• Have less than 5 g of fat per 3 ½ oz
• Flesh is white with delicate texture and mild flavor
 Bass, carp, catfish, cod, haddock, pike, perch, whiting
Fatty fish
• Have more than 5 g of fat per 3 ½ oz
• Flesh is firm with a deeper color and stronger flavor than
low-fat fish
• Higher in calories
 Herring, mackerel, salmon, tuna, rainbow trout
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Fish

Herring
Halibut

Carp

Salmon

Pike Tuna
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Fish and Shellfish


 Types of…
 Shellfish
Crustaceans
• Have long bodies and jointed
limbs
• Covered with a shell
 Crabs, crayfish, lobsters,
and shrimp
Mollusks
• Have soft bodies covered by
rigid shell
 Clams, mussels, oysters,
scallops, and squid
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Shellfish

Oyster

Shrimp
Lobster Scallops

Crab Squid
Crayfish
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
The Importance of Biotechnology,
Product Recovery in Biotechnology
Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns are
those which can have the
word a/an before them or be used in the plural. Uncountable nouns are
not used with a/an or in
the plural. This sentence includes countable nouns in bold:
• We've got three children, two cats, and a dog.
This sentence includes uncountable nouns in bold:
• It was good to get out into the countryside and breathe in some fresh
air.
Uncountable nouns: Rice, rain, heat, hair, water, beer, earth, fire,
sand, happiness, sadness, hope, sugar, salt, cheese, butter, meet, beef.
Honey, milk, juice, love, fear, money, bread, information
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Here are some nouns: accommodation, advice, applause, assistance,


baggage, camping, cash, chaos, chess, clothing, conduct, courage,
cutlery, dancing, dirt, employment, equipment, evidence, fun,
furniture, harm, health, homework, housing, information, leisure,
litter, luck, luggage, machinery, money, mud, music, news, nonsense,
parking, pay, permission, photography, poetry, pollution, produce,
progress, publicity, research, rubbish, safety, scenery, shopping,
sightseeing, sunshine, transport, underwear, violence, weather, work.
After many, several, few, number of: countable nouns (plural)
After much, little, amount of, deal of : uncountable nouns
A lot of, lots of, plenty of, any, some,
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

If a sentence has a singular subject it is followed by a singular verb, and


if it has a plural subject
it is followed by a plural verb; that is, the verb agrees with the subject.
Compare:
• She lives in China. and • More people live in Asia than in any other
continent.
When the subject of the sentence is complex the following verb must
agree with the main noun
in the subject. In the examples below the subject is underlined and the
main noun is circled.
Notice how the verb, in italics, agrees with the main noun:
• Many leading members the opposition party have tried to justify the
decision.
• The only excuse that he gave for his actions was that he was tired.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Some nouns are usually plural and take a plural verb. These include
belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, goods, outskirts,
particulars (= information), premises (= building), riches, savings,
stairs, surroundings, thanks:
• The company's earnings have increased for the last five years.
The nouns police and people also always have a plural verb.
Some nouns always end in -s and look as if they are plural, but when we
use them as the subject of a sentence they have a singular verb • The news
from the Middle East seems very encouraging.
Other words like this include means (= 'method' or 'money'); some
academic disciplines, e.g. economics, linguistics, mathematics,
phonetics, politics, statistics, physics; some sports, e.g. gymnastics,
athletics; and some diseases, e.g. diabetes, measles, rabies. However,
compare:
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Politics is popular at this university.


• Statistics was always my worst subject.
• Economics has only recently been recognised as a scientific study.

Some nouns with a singular form can be treated either as singular (with a
singular verb) or plural (with a plural verb):
• The council has (or have) postponed a decision on the new road.
Other words like this include association, audience, class, club, college,
committee, community, company, crowd, department, electorate,
enemy, family, firm, generation, government, group, jury, orchestra,
population, press, public, school, staff, team, university, and the names of
specific organisations such as the Bank of England, the BBC, IBM, Sony.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

We use a singular verb if we see the institution or organisation as a whole


unit, and a plural verb if we see it as a collection of individuals. Often you
can use either with very little difference in meaning, although in formal
writing (such as academic writing) it is more common to use a singular
verb.
In some contexts a plural form of the verb is needed. We would say:
• The committee usually raise their hands to vote 'Yes', (not ...raises its
hands...)
as this is something that the individuals do, not the committee as a whole.
In others, a singular form is preferred. We would say:
• The school is to close next year, (not The school are...)
as we are talking about something which happens to the school as a
building or institution, not to the individuals that comprise it.
BioENGLISH
technFOR CHEMISTRY
ology can

a n t c r o ps –
sis t
an y Pest re roduction
m p
olv e increase
e lps s g in e e r ing –
H lem en
b Tissue issu e s
p ro create n e w t
t ec h n o logy
ic r o b ial bio
Foo
M
pr o d u ce new
d used to ting
Hou , Health p r e v en
s
area ing and , disease
s
s inv o vaccine
olve ther
d
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Life Conditions
Qual
it
well- y of life p
b ro
Shelt eing of pe motes th
e o e
cloth r in the fo ple.
in r
contr g and ho m of
ib u
of lif utes a go sing
e o d qu
ality

o d a nd Opportunity to
n eed fo provides other people p
interact with
e
Peopl live, this romotes
to human well-b
water ts eing
n
nutrie
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Healthcare
p o r ta n t p art of
An im the
ty o f lif e is
quali
c es s t o g o od
a c
(Which
healthcare.
ood
promotes g can be
t h ) . H e a lt h
heal
hen
impaired w Quality
kes. of
disease stri practice life includes he
s th althcare
well as t at prevent dise
reat and ase as
heal dis
ease.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Life Expectancy
b etw e e n b irth and
The time ta n cy has The use of
fe e x p e c
death. Li t y ears,
bio
has contrib technology
r th e p a s
risen ove p o p u lation. expectanc
uted to life
to t he
which adds seeking ne
y. Scientis
ts are
w product
further enh s to
an ce
biotechnol
o g y to e x t
expectanc end life
y.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Animal Biotchnology
ens,
Poultry includes chick
se
Animal ducks, and turkeys. The
h as eggs,
biotech n o l o g y species produce meat,
e e n u s e d to and feathers.
b e s to ck
e li v
improv
try.
and poul
Livestock
includes be
ef
cattle, dair
y
cattle, hog
s a nd
sheep
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Vaccines
Vaccines protect people
from specific diseases.
Different diseases need Biotechnology
different vaccinations. provides new
These vaccines contain methods for making
a “dead” or less–active vaccines and leads
copy of the virus. to the development
of new vaccines
against different
diseases.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Pharmaceuticals
c e u t ic a l s were Biotechnolo
Pharma l a n ts o r gy
f r o m p techniques a
isolated p le of re
n e x a m utilized to
fungi. A – e n gi n eered
o g y
biotechnol l s i s h uman
manufacture
vitamin
t ic a
pharmaceu a l l y h u mans
C and vitam
in B-2.
i g i n
insulin. Or a t w as from
n t h
used insuli
pigs.
Designer drugs, gene therapy
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Tissue
Engineering
n o t a l w a ys the
People die
tr a n s p la nts are e fewer
because organs, Organ e cause t h e r e a r
best a n s w e r b
e o p l e w h o n eed
such as liver,
s a v a i la b le to p a lways
heart, or organ bodies d o n o t
a n d o u r
pancreas fail to them g ans.
t n e w o r
work properly. accep
These lives can
be saved by
organ
transplants.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Materials play an
important role in
human life. Some Materials
examples of
materials are:
A polyes
plastic, synthetic ter
of polym polymer is the k
fabrics, silicon er in d
Some ex used to make pla
chips and am sti
waste ba ples are: diapers cs.
computers. gs, elect
rical tap
, yard
decals. e , a nd
lo g y c a n help
Biotechno rials including
a te
produce m m o r e c ost – Polymer – product of a chemical union
in a
polyesters of tow molecules to the same
fe c t iv e m anner. compound or produce another
ef
compound.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Unit 12: Plant and Animal Cell Cultures, Antibiotics


12.1 Grammar
If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the
speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech.
Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into
reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on
whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.
Statements
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
pronouns
present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses (backshift)
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

When we report statements, we often use a that-clause in the reported clause


• He said (that) he was enjoying his work.
• My husband mentioned (that) he'd seen you the other day.
• The members of the Security Council warned that further action may be
taken.
After the more common reporting verbs such as agree, mention, notice,
promise, say, think, we often leave out that, particularly in informal speech.
However, it is less likely to be left out after less common reporting verbs
such as complain, confide, deny, grumble, speculate, warn; and also in
formal writing; and after the verbs answer, argue, reply. We are also more
likely to include it if the that-clause doesn't immediately follow the verb.
Compare:
• She agreed (that) it would be safer to buy a car than a motorbike, and
• She agreed with her parents and brothers that it would be safer to buy a
car than a
motorbike, (rather than ...and brothers it would be safer...)
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Simple Present Simple Past


He said: "I am happy" He said that he was happy
Present Progressive Past Progressive
He said: "I'm looking for my keys" He said that he was looking for his keys

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple


He said: "I visited New York last year" He said that he had visited New York the
previous year.

Present Perfect Past Perfect


He said: " I've lived here for a long time " He said that he had lived there for a long
time
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Past Perfect Past Perfect


He said: "They had finished the work He said that they had finished the work
when I arrived" when he had arrived"
Past Progressive Past Perfect Progressive
He said: "I was playing football when the He said that he had been playing football
accident occurred" when the accident had occurred

Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive


He said:"I have been playing football for He said that he had been playing football
two hours." for two hours
Past Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive
He said: "I had been reading a He said that he had been reading a
newspaper when the light went off" newspaper when the light had gone off
Future Simple (will+verb) Conditional (would+verb)
He said: "I will open the door." He said that he would open the door.
Conditional (would+verb) Conditional (would+verb)
He said: "I would buy Mercedes if He said that he would buy Mercedes if
I were rich" he had been rich"
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1- Pronouns
In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what.
Example:
She says, “My dad likes roast chicken.” – She says that her dad likes roast chicken.
3- Place, demonstratives and time expressions
Place, demonstratives and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement
(i.e. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech.
In the following table, you will find the different changes of place; demonstratives and
time expressions.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Direct Speech Reported Speech


Time Expressions
today that day
now then
yesterday the day before
… days ago … days before
last week the week before
next year the following year
tomorrow the next day / the following day
Place
here there
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Why is cell culture used for?

Areas where cell culture technology is currently playing a


major role.
 Model systems for
Studying basic cell biology, interactions between disease
causing agents and cells, effects of drugs on cells, process and
triggering of aging & nutritional studies
 Toxicity testing
Study the effects of new drugs
 Cancer research
Study the function of various chemicals, virus & radiation to
convert normal cultured cells to cancerous cells
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 Virology
Cultivation of virus for vaccine production, also used to
study there infectious cycle.
 Genetic Engineering
Production of commercial proteins, large scale
production of viruses for use in vaccine production e.g. polio,
rabies, chicken pox, hepatitis B & measles
 Gene therapy
Cells having a functional gene can be replaced to cells
which are having non-functional gene
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Tissue culture
 In vitro cultivation of organs, tissues & cells at defined temperature
using an incubator & supplemented with a medium containing cell
nutrients & growth factors is collectively known as tissue culture

 Different types of cell grown in culture includes connective tissue


elements such as fibroblasts, skeletal tissue, cardiac, epithelial tissue
(liver, breast, skin, kidney) and many different types of tumor cells.
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Primary culture
 Cells when surgically or enzymatically removed from an organism and
placed in suitable culture environment will attach and grow are called as
primary culture
 Primary cells have a finite life span
 Primary culture contains a very heterogeneous population of cells
 Sub culturing of primary cells leads to the generation of cell lines
 Cell lines have limited life span, they passage several times before they
become senescent
 Cells such as macrophages and neurons do not divide in vitro so can be
used as primary cultures
 Lineage of cells originating from the primary culture is called a cell
strain
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Continous cell lines
 Most cell lines grow for a limited number of generations after which
they ceases
 Cell lines which either occur spontaneously or induced virally or
chemically transformed into continous cell lines
 Characteristics of continous cell lines
-smaller, more rounded, less adherent with a higher nucleus /cytoplasm
ratio
-Fast growth and have aneuploid chromosome number
-reduced serum and anchorage dependence and grow more in
suspension conditions
-ability to grow up to higher cell density
-different in phenotypes from donar tissue
-stop expressing tissue specific genes
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Types of cells

On the basis of morphology (shape & appearance) or on their functional


characteristics. They are divided into three.
 Epithelial like-attached to a substrate and appears flattened and polygonal
in shape
 Lymphoblast like- cells do not attach remain in suspension with a spherical
shape
 Fibroblast like- cells attached to an substrate appears elongated and bipolar
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Culture media

 Choice of media depends on the type of cell being cultured


 Commonly used Medium are GMEM, EMEM,DMEM etc.
 Media is supplemented with antibiotics viz. penicillin, streptomycin
etc.
 Prepared media is filtered and incubated at 4 C
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SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES


 Antibiotics can be naturally produced, semi-synthetic, or synthetic
substances
 Designed to have as much selective toxicity on the bacteria as possible
 This is more likely to be achieved compared to antimicrobials acting
against eukaryotic cells (fungi, protozoa)
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EXAMPLES OF SELECTIVE ACTION

 Penicillin on bacterial cell wall (organisms without cell wall won’t be


inhibited eg Mycoplasma pneumoniae)
 Sulphonamides prevent bacteria synthesising folic acid whereas humans
can use preformed folate
 Generally drugs acting on cell membranes or protein synthesis are more
toxic to humans
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ß-Lactams
ß-Lactams
Penicillin
Narrow Spectrum
Cephalosporin
• Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G)
•Cefalexin
• Phenoxymethylpenicillin (Pen
•Cefuroxime Carbapenem
•Cefotaxime V)
• Meropenem • Flucloxacillin
•Ceftriaxone
• Imipenem Broad Spectrum
• Amoxicillin/Co-amoxiclav
• Doripenem • Ampicillin
• Ertapenem • Piperacillin with Tazobactam
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Spectrum of Activity

 Very wide
 Gram positive and negative bacteria
 Anaerobes
 Spectrum of activity depends on the agent and/or its group
Adverse effects
Penicillin hypersensitivity – 0.4% to 10 %
 Mild: rash
 Severe: anaphylaxis & death
 There is cross-reactivity among all Penicillins
 Penicillins and cephalosporins ~5-15%
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Aminoglycosides
Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to 30S ribosomal unit
• Naturally occurring:
•Streptomycin
•Neomycin
•Kanamycin
•Tobramycin
•Gentamicin
• Semisynthetic derivatives:
•Amikacin (from Kanamycin)
•Netilmicin (from Sisomicin)
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Spectrum of Activity
 Gram-Negative Aerobes
 Enterobacteriaceae;
E. coli, Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp.
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 Gram-Positive Aerobes (Usually in combination with ß-lactams)


S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci
Viridans streptococci
Enterococcus sp. (gentamicin)
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Adverse Effects
 Nephrotoxicity
 Direct proximal tubular damage - reversible if caught early
 Risk factors: High troughs, prolonged duration of therapy, underlying renal
dysfunction, concomitant nephrotoxins
 Ototoxicity
 8th cranial nerve damage – irreversible vestibular and auditory toxicity
Vestibular: dizziness, vertigo, ataxia
Auditory: tinnitus, decreased hearing
 Risk factors: as for nephrotoxicity
 Neuromuscular paralysis
 Can occur after rapid IV infusion especially with;
Myasthenia gravis
Concurrent use of succinylcholine during anaesthesia
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Important Points

 Aminoglycosides should be given as a large single dose for a


successful therapeutic outcome
 Multiple small doses will lead to treatment failure and
likely to lead to renal toxicity

 Aminoglycosides are toxic drugs and require monitoring


 Avoid use in renal failure but safe in liver failure
 Avoid concomitant use with other renal toxic drugs
 Check renal clearance, frequency according to renal
function
Macrolides ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Lactone Ring
14

14

Erythromycin Telithromycin

15 14

Clarithromycin
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Spectrum of Activity
 Gram-Positive Aerobes:
 Activity: Clarithromycin>Erythromycin>Azithromycin
MSSA
S. pneumoniae
Beta haemolytic streptococci and viridans streptococci
 Gram-Negative Aerobes:
 Activity: Azithromycin>Clarithromycin>Erythromycin
 H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Neisseria sp.
 NO activity against Enterobacteriaceae
 Anaerobes: upper airway anaerobes
 Atypical Bacteria
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Tetracyclines

• Hydronaphthacene nucleus containing four fused rings


• Tetracycline
•Short acting
• Doxycycline
•Long acting
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Spectrum of Activity

 All have similar activities


 Gram positives aerobic cocci and rods
 Staphylococci
 Streptococci
 Gram negative aerobic bacteria
 Atypical organisms
 Mycoplasmas
 Chlamydiae
 Rickettsiae
 Protozoa
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Adverse Effects

 Oesophageal ulceration
 Photosensitivity reaction
 Incorporate into foetal and children bone and teeth

Avoid in pregnancy and children


ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Unit 13: Single-Cell Protein: Production, Modification
and Utilization, Immobilization of Enzyme and Cells

Some participles (like 'bored' or 'boring') can be used as


adjectives. These are used in a slightly different way from normal
adjectives. We usually use the past participle (ending in -ed) to
talk about how someone feels:
I was really bored during the flight (NOT: I was really boring
during the flight).
She's interested in history (NOT: She's really interesting in
history).
John's frightened of spiders (NOT: John's frightening of spiders).
We usually use the present participle (ending in -ing) to talk about
the person, thing, or situation which has caused the feeling:
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It was such a long, boring flight (so I was bored).


I read a really interesting book about history (so I was
interested).
Many people find spiders frightening (so they're frightened
when they see spiders).
Be careful! 'I'm boring' is very different from 'I'm bored'! 'I'm
boring' means I cause other people to be bored. This is not
good! Here are some examples of when one person causes a
feeling in another person:
I was talking to such a boring guy at the party. He talked
about himself for an hour!
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She's a really interesting woman. She's lived all over the world and
speaks five languages.
My maths teacher at school was really frightening! He was always
shouting at the students.
These participle adjectives make their comparative by using 'more'
(not -er) and their superlative by using 'most' (not -est):
I was more frightened of dogs than spiders when I was a child.
That book is more boring than this one.
I think Dr Smith's lesson was more interesting than Dr Brown's.
For 24 hours on the flight to Australia, I was the most bored I've
ever been.
I think this is the most interesting talk we've heard today.
Common verbs: alarm, amuse, bore, confuse, depress, embarrass
Excite, exhaust, fascinate, frighten, frustrate, interest, relax, satisfy,
shock, surprise, terrify, thrill, tire
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single cell protein is a protein extracted from cultured algae, yeasts, or


bacteria and used as a substitute for protein-rich foods, especially in animal
feeds or as dietary supplements.
Many types of animal feeds contain single cell proteins.

60-80% dry cell weight; contains nucleic acids, fats, CHO, vitamins and
minerals
Rich in essential amino acids (Lys-Met)
Microbes can be used to ferment some of the vast amounts of waste
materials, such as straws; wood and wood processing wastes; food,
cannery and food processing wastes; and residues from alcohol production
or from human and animal excreta.
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• Single-cell proteins develop when microbes ferment waste materials


(including wood, straw, cannery, and food-processing wastes, residues
from alcohol production, hydrocarbons, or human and animal excreta).

• The problem with extracting single-cell proteins from the wastes is the
dilution and cost.
• Found in very low concentrations, usually less than 5% .

• Engineers have developed ways to increase the concentrations


including centrifugation, flotation, precipitation, coagulation, and
filtration, or the use of semi-permeable membranes.
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Advantages of using Microorganisms

1. MO grow at very fast rate under optimal conditions


2. Quality and quantity is better than higher plants and animals
3. Wide range of raw materials can be used
4. Culture and fermentation conditions are simple
5. MO can be genetically manipulated
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Limitations of using SCP


1. Nucleic acid content is very high (40% algae; 10-15% bacteria and
5-10% yeast)
2. Presence of carcinogenic and toxic substances
3. Contamination of pathogenic MO
4. Indigestion and allergic reactions
5. Production of foodgrade SCP is expensive
Some SCPs… ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Microbes employed include
Yeasts
Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
Pichia pastoris, Algae
Candida utilis=Torulopsis and Chlorella and
Geotrichum candidum (=Oidium lactis)), Spirulina
other fungi
Aspergillus oryzae,
Fusarium venenatum,
Sclerotium rolfsii,
Polyporus and
Trichoderma),
Bacteria
Rhodopseudomonas capsulata
Typical yields of 43 to 56%, with protein contents of 44%
to 60%.
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SCP can be produced from high energy sources:


Alkanes, methane, ethanol, methanol, gas oil
Generally bacteria and yeasts are employed
Pekilo: a fungal protein rich product
Paecilomyces variotii is used for production of Pekilo

This protein was produced by fermentation of wastes such as molassess,


whey, sulfite liquor and agricultural wastes

Quorn: mycoprotein for humans


Produced by Fusarium graminearum; It is dried and artificially flavoured
and marketed in pieces that resemble beef, pork and chicken. Rich in
essential nutrients and good content of dietary fibre.
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Single cell protein has the potential to be developed into a very large
source of supplemental protein that could be used in livestock feeding.

Methods available for concentrating include, filtration, precipitation,


coagulation, centrifugation, and the use of semi-permeable membranes. These
de-watering methods require equipment that is quite expensive and would not
be suitable for most small-scale operations. Removal of the amount of water
necessary to stabilize the material for storage, in most instances, is not currently
economical.

Single cell protein must be dried to about 10 % moisture, or condensed and


acidified to prevent spoilage from occurring, or fed shortly after being
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A wide range of substrates can be used to grow microbial proteins
whey, orange peel residue, sweet orange residue, sugarcane bagasse,
paper mill waste, rice husks, wheat straw residue, cassava waste,
sugar beet pulp, coconut waste, yam waste, banana pulp, mango
waste, grape waste, sweet potato
Single cell protein was a suitable supplemental protein source for
lactating dairy goats.

Milk production and milk production efficiency was increased when


single cell protein replaced groundnut meal in lactating goat diets
SCP from sewage
wood
wastes
High energy sources like methanol, alkanes, methane, ethanol
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Immobilized Enzyme Systems

Enzyme Immobilization:
To restrict enzyme mobility in a fixed space.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Immobilized Enzyme Systems

Enzyme Immobilization:

- Easy separation from reaction mixture, providing the ability to control


reaction times and minimize the enzymes lost in the product.

- Re-use of enzymes for many reaction cycles, lowering the total production
cost of enzyme mediated reactions.

- Ability of enzymes to provide pure products.

- Possible provision of a better environment for enzyme activity

- Diffusional limitation
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Immobilized Enzyme Systems

• Methods of Enzyme Immobilization


- Entrapment
- Surface Immobilization
- Cross-linking

Entrapment Immobilization is based on the localization of an enzyme within


the lattice of a polymer matrix or membrane.
- retain enzyme
- allow the penetration of substrate.

It can be classified into matrix and micro capsule types


ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Immobilized Enzyme Systems

Entrapment
- Matrix Entrapment - Membrane Entrapment
(microencapsulation)
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Immobilized Enzyme Systems


Matrix Materials:

Organics: polysaccharides, proteins, carbon, vinyl and allyl polymers, and


polyamides. e.g. Ca-alginate, agar,
K-carrageenin, collagen

Immobilization procedures:
Enzyme + polymer solution → polymerization
→ extrusion/shape the particles

Inorganics: activated carbon, porous ceramic.

Shapes: particle, membrane, fiber


ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Immobilized Enzyme Systems


Entrapment

challenges:
- enzyme leakage into solution

- diffusional limitation

- reduced enzyme activity and stability

- lack of control micro-environmental conditions.

It could be improved by modifying matrix or membrane.


ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Immobilized Enzyme Systems
Surface immobilization

According to the binding mode of the enzyme, this method can be further sub-
classified into:
- Physical Adsorption: Van der Waals
Carriers: silica, carbon nanotube, cellulose, etc.
Easily desorbed, simple and cheap,
enzyme activity unaffected.
- Ionic Binding: ionic bonds
Similar to physical adsorption.
Carriers: polysaccharides and synthetic polymers
having ion-exchange centers.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY
Immobilized Enzyme Systems
Surface immobilization

- Covalent Binding: covalent bonds

Carriers: polymers contain amino, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, hydroxyl


Or phenolic groups.

+ Loss of enzyme activity


+ Strong binding of enzymes
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Immobilized Enzyme Systems


Cross-linking is to cross link enzyme molecules with each other using agents
such as glutaraldehyde.

Features: similar to covalent binding.

Several methods are combined.


ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

Unit 14: General principles of drug


action
14.1 What is drug
A very broad definition of a drug would include “all chemicals other than
food that affect living processes.” If the affect helps the body, the drug is a
medicine. However, if a drug causes a harmful effect on the body, the drug
is a poison. The same chemical can be a medicine and a poison depending
on conditions of use and the person using it.
Another definition would be “medicinal agents used for diagnosis,
prevention, treatment of symptoms, and cure of diseases.” Contraceptives
would be outside of this definition unless pregnancy was considered a
disease. All drugs have the potential for producing more than one response.
Some adverse drug responses which are unavoidable are appearing at
therapeutic doses are termed as side effects. In contrast, adverse drug
effects appearing at extreme drug doses are described as toxic effects.
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14.2 Drug classification
1. By origin—sources of drugs
Drugs may be obtained from 1. Plants 2. Animals 3. Minerals
or 4. Microorganisms. The
drugs may also be semisynthetic or synthetic compounds. The
sources of drugs are summarized
as follows:
A. Synthetic. Most of the drugs in use today are synthetic in
origin. Such drugs are
chemically pure and it is easy to maintain supply line.
Ex. : Aspirin, Paracetamol.
B. Natural. There are number of natural sources. They are:
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

(a) Plants. A number of plant based drugs such as


vincristine, taxol, digoxin, quinine, reserpine, ergotamine,
ephedrine, colchicine etc. are still a part of standard therapy.
Most of these don’t have any synthetic substitutes. Several
other plant products are used in formulations that are sold
across the counter in several countries.
(b) Animal. Some modern drugs continue to be derived
from animal sources because the synthesis of such chemicals
is very cumbersome and expensive. Ex. : Gonadotrophins,
heparin, insulin, thyroid extracts and enzymes.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

(c) Microorganisms. Following the accidental discovery of


penicillin from a mould in 1928 and its successful use in
chemotherapy in 1940, a large number of antibiotics have been
discovered from a variety of soil fungi and some bacteria. These
drugs form the most important group of chemotherapeutic agents
used against infective diseases.
Ex. : Penicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline.
(d) Minerals. Minerals or mineral-containing medicated springs
have been in use since time immemorial. Several such hot water
springs with medicinal value are popular in India. Ex. : Rajgrin
(Bihar), Sahashradhara (Dehradun). Minerals of medicinal value
are iron, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, sodium, potassium etc.
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

C. Semi-synthetic. In some cases, especially with complex


molecules, the synthesis of a drug may be very difficult or
expensive and uneconomical. At the same time, the ones
derived from natural sources may be impure. In these cases
semisynthetic processes are used.
Ex. : 6-Aminopenicillanic acid is obtained from the fungus
Penicillium chrysogenum.
D. Biosynthetic. Several drugs are complex polypeptides. It
is difficult to obtain these drugs in pure form from natural
sources and are very expensive to synthesize in the
laboratory.
Ex: Biosynthetic human insulin, interferon, erythropoietin,
hepatitis vaccine.
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Amongst all these, synthetic drugs are used most widely because
of their inexpensiveness, ease of quality control, mass production
and therapeutic efficacy. The synthetic drugs are prepared by
chemical processes.
Ex: Chloroquine, acetylsalicylic acid, chlorpromazine, ephedrine
etc.
2. By Action
According to similarity of drug effects: Ex: marijuana and
atropine both increase heart rate and cause dryness of the mouth.
Thus, marijuana would be classified as atropine-like drug.
3. By therapeutic use
These drugs mainly affect the normal dynamic processes of the
body. They are;
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(i) Anti-arrhythmics
(ii) Antianginals
(iii) Vasodialators
(iv) Anti-hypertensives
(v) Cardiotonics
(vi) Hypocholesteric agents
(vii) Antiallergic agents
(viii) Drugs acting on GIT
(ix) Drugs influence renal function
(x) Drugs acting on central nervous system
(xi) Drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
4. By site of drug action
Ex: Alcohol is a depressant drug because of its depresant CNS action. This
system is limited when a drug has an effect at several body sites (e.g., the
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

5. By Chemical Structure
Drugs are classified according to the chemical moiety or
functional group. They may be further subclassified as:
(i) Hydrocarbons
(ii) Halogenated compounds
(iii) Alcohols
(iv) Carboxylic acids
(v) Phenols
(vi) Nitro compounds
(vii) Amides
(viii) Amines
(ix) Sulphonamides, sulphones, stilbenes, thioureas, ureides etc
ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTRY

14.3 Site of drug action

l. Enzyme inhibition. Drugs act within the cell by modifying


normal biochemical reactions. Enzyme inhibition may be
reversible or non-reversible; competitive or non-competitive.
Antimetabolites may be used which mimic natural metabolites.
2. Drug-Receptor interaction. Drugs act on the cell membrane
by physical and/or chemical interactions. This is usually through
specific drug receptor sites known to be located on the membrane.
A receptor is the specific chemical constituents of the cell with
which a drug interacts to produce its pharmacological effects.
Some receptor sites have been identified with specific parts of
proteins and nucleic acids. In most cases, the chemical nature of
the receptor site remains obscure.
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3. Non-specific interactions. Drugs act exclusively by


physical means outside of cells. These sites include
external surfaces of skin and gastrointestinal tract. Drugs
also act outside of cell membranes by chemical
interactions. Neutralization of stomach acid by antacids is
a
good example
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14.4 Mechanism of drug action


A drug act by virtue of its various properties like physical,
chemical, physiological etc. The fundamental mechanisms of
drug action can be distinguished into following categories.
1. Physical Properties
A physical property of the drug is responsible for its action.
(i) Taste. Bitter taste drugs increase the flow the hydrochloric
acid reflexly in the stomach. Ex: Quassia, Chirata
(ii) Mass. By increasing the bulk of drug in intestine produce
laxative effect. Ex: Isapgol
(iii) Adsorption. Certain drugs like kaolin adsorb water on to
its surface and there by reduce gastric motility
(iv) Radioactivity. The radioactive substances are commonly
used to treat cancer.
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2. Chemical Properties
The drugs react extracellularly according to simple
chemical reactions like neutralization,
chelation, oxidation etc. Ex:
(i) Aluminium hydroxide neutralizes acid in stomach
(ii) Toxic heavy metals can be eliminated by chelating
agents like EDTA, BAL,
penicillamine etc.
(iii) Oxidising agents are germicidal.
3. Through Enzymes
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Enzymes are very important targets of drug action because


almost all biological reactions are carried out under the
influence of enzymes. Drugs may either increase or
decrease enzymatic reactions. Ex:
(i) Adrenaline stimulates adenyl cyclase
(ii) Pyridoxine acts as a cofactor and increases
decarboxylase activity
(iii) Allopurinol competes with hypoxanthine for xanthine
oxidase
(iv) Physostigmine and neostigmine compete with
acetylcholine for cholinesterase.
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Definition of Terms
 Receptors – are chemicals which binds to the drug to exert a pharmacologic
effect.
Formula:
D + R = D-R ------ Drug Response
Note: Binding of a drug to the receptor is usually reversible

A Receptor is analogous to
a switch in that it has two
configurations: “ON” and “OFF”
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Definition of Terms
 Receptor

Four Primary Receptor Families


1. Cell-membrane embedded proteins
2. Ligand-gated Ion Channel
3. G –protein coupled Receptor Systems
4. Transcription Factors
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Definition of Terms
 Agonist – are molecules that activates receptors.
- a drug that has both affinity and high
intrinsic activity.

Many drugs produce their effects


by acting as an agonist.
For example:
DOBUTAMINE - it mimics the action of
norephenephrine at the receptors on the heart. Thereby
causing the heart to contract and increase the heart beat.
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Definition of Terms
 Affinity – allows the agonist to bind to receptors.

 Intrinsic Activity – allows the bound agonist to


activate or turn on its receptor
function.
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Definition of Terms
Antagonist – molecules that acts against and
blocks drug action

Receptor receiver
Agonist action
Antagonist against
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Types of Antagonism
 Chemical Antagonism
 Interaction of drug (agonist) with another chemical (antagonist) outside
of receptor to form an inactive complex.
 Competitive Antagonism
 Drug (agonist) is displaced from drug-receptor binding by another
chemical (antagonist).
 It is reversible and depends on actual drug and antagonist
concentration in the biophase.
 Law of mass action
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Types of Antagonism
 Partial Antagonism
 Antagonist has high affinity but low
intrinsic activity

 Non-equilibrium Antagonism
 Antagonist forms irreversible receptor
binding

 Noncompetitive Antagonism
 Agonist and antagonist bind to different
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Types of Pharmacologic Action of the Drugs


 Structural Non-specific Drugs
- drugs which do not depend its pharmacologic action to
the chemical structure of the drug.
- only its structure affects its physicochemical property.
- slight modification of its structure does not produce a
change in its pharmacologic action.
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Types of Pharmacologic Action of the Drugs


 Structural Specific Drugs
- drugs in which the pharmacologic action directly depend on its
chemical structure
- it attaches itself to a receptor in the biophase

Three Prerequisites of the binding of


drug to the receptor
1. chemical reactivity
2. presence of functional group
3. electronic distribution
4. mirror-like image of the receptor
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Unit 15: Article, report writing


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Authors Listing

 ONLY include those who have made an intellectual contribution to the


research

 OR those who will publicly defend the data and conclusions, and who have
approved the final version

 Order of the names of the authors can vary from discipline to discipline
 In some fields, the corresponding author’s name appears first
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Title

 Describes the paper’s content clearly and precisely including keywords


 Is the advertisement for the article
 Do not use abbreviations and jargon
 Search engines/indexing databases depend on the accuracy of the title -
since they use the keywords to identify relevant articles
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Abstract

 Briefly summarize (often 150 words) - the problem, the method, the
results, and the conclusions so that
 The reader can decide whether or not to read the whole article
 Together, the title and the abstract should stand on their own
 Many authors write the abstract last so that it accurately reflects the content
of the paper
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Introduction
 Clearly state the:
 Problem being investigated
 Background that explains the problem
 Reasons for conducting the research
 Summarize relevant research to provide context
 State how your work differs from published work
 Identify the questions you are answering
 Explain what other findings, if any, you are challenging or extending
 Briefly describe the experiment, hypothesis(es), research question(s); general
experimental design or method
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Methods

 Provide the reader enough details so they can understand and replicate
your research
 Explain how you studied the problem, identify the procedures you
followed, and order these chronologically where possible
 Explain new methodology in detail; otherwise name the method and cite
the previously published work
 Include the frequency of observations, what types of data were recorded,
etc.
 Be precise in describing measurements and include errors of measurement
or research design limits
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Results

 Objectively present your findings, and explain what was found


 Show that your new results are contributing to the body of scientific
knowledge
 Follow a logical sequence based on the tables and figures presenting the
findings to answer the question or hypothesis
 Figures should have a brief description (a legend), providing the reader
sufficient information to know how the data were produced
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Discussion/Conclusion

 Describe what your results mean in context of what was already known
about the subject
 Indicate how the results relate to expectations and to the literature
previously cited
 Explain how the research has moved the body of scientific knowledge
forward
 Do not extend your conclusions beyond what is directly supported by your
results - avoid undue speculation
 Outline the next steps for further study
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References

 Whenever you draw upon previously published work, you must


acknowledge the source
 Any information not from your experiment and not ‘common knowledge’
should be recognized by a citation
 How references are presented varies considerably - refer to notes for authors
for the specific journal
 Avoid references that are difficult to find
 Avoid listing related references that were not important to the study
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Overview of Peer Review Process
Paper Submitted
Notification to Author
Confirmation of Receipt
Revise Accept
Initial Decision by Editor
Revision Received
Rejection Decide to Review
Revision Checked
Assign Reviewers

Reviewers Accept Invite


Reviews Completed Paper sent to Publisher

Revise Accept Reject


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After Submission

 Most journal editors will make an initial decision on a paper - to review or


to reject
 Most editors appoint two referees
 Refereeing speed varies tremendously between journals
 Authors should receive a decision of Accept, Accept with Revision (Minor
or Major), or Reject
 If a paper is rejected, most editors will write to you explaining their
decision
 After rejection, authors have the option of submitting the paper to another
journal - editor’s suggestions should be addressed
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 Know your audience and write for that specific audience.

 Scientific and technical writing is never a 'general purpose‘, but written for
a specific audience, i.e. the community who read a particular journal or
study a particular subject.

 You must adopt the style and level of writing that is appropriate for your
audience. Study them as they are manifested in a selection of highly
regarded papers and in the "Instructions for Authors" for key journals .
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 Do Not Turn in a First Draft!

 Ever! Most people's first drafts are terrible. "Good writing is rewriting,"
and you should make a serious effort at editing, rewriting, and fine-tuning
before you give the manuscript to anyone else to read. If you need to put a
piece of writing away for a few days before you can approach it
dispassionately enough to rework it, do so.
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 Avoid abusing word forms.


 Use words in the form that conveys your meaning as clearly and simply as
possible.

 For example, consider the sentence, "The low rate of encounters was a
reflection of population density reductions." versus: "The low rate of
encounters reflects a reduced population density."
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 Do not use more words where fewer will do.


 Do not use long words where short ones will do.

 For example:
 "utilization" vs. "use"
 "in order to" vs. "to"

 Do not use special words to make your writing seem more technical,
scientific, or academic when the message is more clearly presented
otherwise.
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 Think about the structure of paragraphs.

 Though most students can write reasonable sentences, a surprising number


have difficulty organizing sentences into effective paragraphs. A paragraph
should begin with a topic sentence that sets the stage clearly for what will
follow. Make topic sentences short and direct. Build the paragraph from
the ideas introduced in your topic sentence and make the flow of individual
sentences follow a logical sequence.
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 Pay attention to tenses.

 Problems of inappropriate or inconsistent tenses are common in student


writing. What you, or others, did in the past should be stated in the past
tense (e.g. data were collected...."). Events or objects that continue to
happen or exist can be described in the present tense (e.g., "in this paper, I
examine....... The data reject the hypothesis that......). Whatever tense you
choose, be consistent.

 Be careful in using "might," "may," and "would" (as in "this might indicate
that..."). They are frequently used as ways of weaseling out of making a
clear statement.
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 Captions should not merely name a table or figure,


they should explain how to read it.

 A caption (figure or table heading) should contain sufficient


information so that a reader can understand a table or figure, in
most cases, without reference to the text. Very simple tables and
figures may require only a title for clarity, and exceptionally complex
ones may require reference to the text for explanation.

 Do not leave caption writing to the end of the project; write captions
when you organize your Results section and it will help you write the
text.
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 Three aspects of style seem to cause problems:

 Division of the text into sentences and paragraphs. Sentences should have only
one idea or concept. In general, sentences in scientific prose should be short,
but full stops should not be added so liberally that the writing does not flow.
The use of paragraphs helps the reader to appreciate the sense of the writing.

 Superfluous phrases and words should be avoided. Do not write phrases such as
"It is also important to bear in mind the following considerations". Most woolly
phrases can be omitted or replaced by a single word.

 Try to use familiar, precise words rather than far-fetched vague words.
"Cheaper" may replace "More economically viable", and ongoing situation"
doesn’t mean very much.
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 Tense and mood

 Write in past tense unless you are describing present or future situations. Use
the active voice rather than the passive voice.

 For example, instead of writing "The food was eaten by the pig", write "The
pig ate the food". The active voice is easier to read and reduces the sentence
length

 It can be acceptable to write in more than one tense in the literature review e.g.
"Brown (1995) showed that the brain is more fully developed at birth than
other organs". In this case the present tense can be used for the second half of
the sentence because its gives knowledge that is universally accepted.
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 Sentence construction

 The purpose of any paper is to convey information and ideas. This cannot be
done with long involved sentences. Keep sentences short, not more than 30
words in length. A sentence should contain one idea or two related ideas. A
paragraph should contain a series of related ideas.
 Choice of words

 Words have precise meanings and to use them correctly adds clarity and
precision to prose. Look at the following pairs of words that are often used in
scientific texts. Learn how to use them correctly: Fewer, less; infer, imply; as,
because; disinterested, uninterested ; alibi, excuse ; data, datum; later, latter;
causal, casual; loose, lose; mute, moot; discrete, discreet. See, for example: Less
active blood cells vs. Fewer active blood cells
 Use of pronouns
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 When you write ‘it’, ‘this’, ‘which’ or ‘they’ are you sure that the meaning is plain? A
pronoun usually deputizes for the nearest previous noun of the same number (singular
or plural) - The cows ate the food; they were white. The cows ate the food; it was
white

 Correct spelling, including the use of plurals

 Some words have alternative spelling e.g. tyre, tire, grey, gray; draft, draught, often
the difference is between the American and British spelling. In other cases an apparent
misspelling is a misuse of a word e.g. practice, practise.

 The plural of many words in English is achieved by adding an s (or es) to the single.
However some words have the same form in both the singular and plural. Other words
are already plural such as people and equipment, so don't use peoples (unless you are
referring to different groups of people or different ethnic groups) and equipments.
Adopted words sometimes take on the plural of the original language, for example
datum becomes data and fungus become fungi.