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DIgSILENT PowerFactory

Technical Reference Documentation

Complex Load
ElmLod,TypLodind
DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9
72810 - Gomaringen
Germany

T: +49 7072 9168 0


F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de
info@digsilent.de
Version: 2016
Edition: 1

Copyright © 2016, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.
No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means
electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 1


Contents

Contents

1 General Description 3

1.1 Load-Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.1.1 Balanced Load-Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.2 Voltage dependency (static part) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.3 Voltage dependency (dynamic part) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.1.4 Load Scaling factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 Short-Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.3 Harmonic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.4 RMS Simulation (Transient Stability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 EMT Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model 11

2.1 Three-Phase Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1.1 RMS-Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1.2 EMT-Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2 Single-, Two-Phase Load and DC-Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

A Parameter Definitions 13

A.1 General Load Type (TypLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

A.2 General Load Element (ElmLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

List of Figures 15

List of Tables 16

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 2


1 General Description

1 General Description

In power systems, electrical load consists of various different types of electrical devices, from
incandescent lamps and heaters to large arc furnaces and motors. It is often very difficult to
identify the exact composition of static and dynamic loads in the network.

In most cases the general load model (see Technical Reference Manual for the General Load)
is sufficient to model the static and dynamic load characteristic for load-flow and dynamic sim-
ulations. Although for modelling industrial loads with a large portion of induction motors the
general load model might not be adequate. Therefore a second load model is available, which
is representing a composition of a static load and an induction generator.

The complex load model diagram is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1: PowerFactory Complex Load Model.

1.1 Load-Flow Analysis

In the Load Flow page of the edit dialog of the load element (ElmLod), the user can specify the
input parameters for the load using the Input Mode drop down menu as shown in Figure 1.2
below. Based on the available data, the user can select the relevant combination of parame-
ters from S (apparent power), P (real power), Q (reactive power), cos(phi) (power factor) and I
(current).

For load-flow analysis, it suffices to only specify the load’s electrical consumption.

Other data characterizing a load, such as the voltage dependency factors (see also 1.1.2) are
defined in the Load Type. If no load type is specified, a balanced, three-phase load is as-
sumed having default parameters for voltage dependency kpu=1.6 and kqu=1.8 (see also sec-
tion 1.1.2).

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 3


1 General Description

Figure 1.2: Specifying the input parameters for the load model.

1.1.1 Balanced Load-Flow

Depending on the selected input mode, the user needs to specify two input parameters. Figure
1.3 shows the load model used for balanced load-flow analysis, where only P0 and Q0 are
specified.

Figure 1.3: Load model used for balanced load-flows.

1.1.2 Voltage dependency (static part)

Voltage dependency of loads can be modelled using a potential approach, as shown in (1) and
(2). In these equations, the subscript 0 indicates the initial operating condition as defined in the
input dialog box of the Load Element.

  e aP  e bP  e cP 
P = P0 aP · vv0 + bP · vv0 + (1 − aP − bP ) · vv0
(1)

 e aQ  e bQ  e cQ !
v v v
Q = Q0 aQ · + bQ · + (1 − aQ − bQ) · (2)
v0 v0 v0

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 4


1 General Description

or

 kpu−2
V
G = G0 (3)
V0

 kqu−2
V
B = B0 (4)
V0

By specifying the respective kpu and kqu values (kpu/kqu >= 0) the inherent load behaviour
can be modelled. Table 1.1 indicates the values for kpu and kqu to achieve constant power,
current and impedance behaviour.

Table 1.1: Selection of kpu/kqu values for different load model behaviour

Ratio Value Constant


kpu/kqu 0 power
kpu/kqu 1 current
kpu/kqu 2 impedance

Figure 1.4: Specification of the voltage dependency factors

Note: These factors are only considered if the ”Consider Voltage Dependency of Loads” is
checked in the Load-flow Calculation window, as shown in Figure 1.5.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 5


1 General Description

Figure 1.5: Load-flow Calculation window indicating the use of voltage dependency terms for
load-flow calculations

1.1.3 Voltage dependency (dynamic part)

The impedance and thus the power demand is split between the static and the dynamic part as
shown in (3) and (4).

P0
G0 = (1 − Tm0 /100) (5)
u20

where Tm0 is the percentage dynamic load.

Q0 − Tm0 /100 · P0 · s0 /scr


B0 = − (6)
u20

where s0 is the operating slip and scr the critical slip in %.

Mechanical load is based on rated mechanical torque mm according to (7), where n is the
rotational speed in per unit and mm is obtained from the load flow solution.

 tm1
n
mm = mm0 (7)
n0

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 6


1 General Description

Acceleration time constant Tj , is defining the mechanical behaviour of the induction generator:

me − mm
Tj = (8)

where me is the electromagnetic torque based on he mechanical torque.

The impedance of the induction motor part is defined as follows:

u20 s0 scr
xd = · (9)
Tm0 /100 · P0 s20 + s2cr

where s0 is the operating slip and scr the critical slip in %.

scr
rd = xd (10)
100

ν
id =   (11)
rd
s0 /100 + jxd

i = ν · (G + jQ) + id (12)

1.1.4 Load Scaling factors

Loads can be scaled individually by setting the ”Scaling Factor” s of the Load Element (see also
Figure 1.6).

Together with the scaling factor, the actual load is calculated as follows:

P = scale · P0 (13)

Q = scale · Q0 (14)

If voltage dependency of loads is considered then (13) and (14) become;

 kpu
V
P = scale · P0 (15)
V0

 kqu
V
Q = scale · Q0 (16)
V0

Alternatively to explicit scaling factors, loads in radial feeders can be scaled based on the total
inflow into the feeder, as illustrated in Figure 1.7.

For considering a load in the feeder-load-scaling process, the option ”Adjusted by Load Scaling”
(see Figure 1.6) has to be enabled. In this case, the individual ”Scaling Factor” of the load is not
considered but overwritten by the feeder-scaling factor.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 7


1 General Description

The feeder-load-scaling function can be enabled or disabled globally using the corresponding
load-flow option (see also Figure 1.5).

Figure 1.6: Scaling factor specification

Figure 1.7: Diagram indicating load scaling (adjustment) in order to maintain the feeder settings
specified in the Feeder Definition

1.2 Short-Circuit Analysis

Short circuit calculations according to IEC 60909, VDE102/103 or ANSI C37 generally neglect
loads. Only motor contributions are considered here.

The COMPLETE short circuit method utilises constant impedance (Z), where Z is calculated
from a preceding load-flow analysis.

1.3 Harmonic Analysis

In the type data of the complex load model, the harmonic load model can only be specified as
constant impedance or with frequency dependent impedance characteristics for the dynamic

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 8


1 General Description

and the static part individually. Figure 1.8 shows the input parameters of the harmonic load
model type.

Figure 1.8: Complex load model type for harmonic analysis

1.4 RMS Simulation (Transient Stability)

AS in the load flow the complex load is modelled in the RMS simulations as a combination
between a static and a dynamic/induction motor part.

The voltage and frequency dependency of the static portion is modelled as constant impedance
using a potential approach according to Eq. (17) and (18).

 kpu  
V ∆f
P = P0 1 + kpf · (17)
V0 f0

 kqu  
V ∆f
Q = Q0 1 + kqf · (18)
V0 f0

or

 kpu−2  
V ∆f
G = G0 1 + kpf · (19)
V0 f0

 kqu−2  
V ∆f
B = B0 1 + kqf · (20)
V0 f0

The dynamic part is described by the following equations

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 9


1 General Description

x did  r 
ν= + + jx id (21)
sωn dt s

te − tm
ṅ = (22)
Tj

ν 2 s s20 + s2cr
te = Tm0 /100 · (23)
ν02 s0 s2 + s2cr

The fraction dynamic load is defined by the parameter Tm0 in %.

i = ν · (G + jQ) + id (24)

1.5 EMT Simulation

In EMT type simulations, all the loads are modelled as passive loads using the equivalent circuits
shown in the harmonics-section.

Note: The use of negative active power leads in EMT simulations to unstable behaviour, since
negative P is interpreted as negative resistance.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 10


2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model

2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model

2.1 Three-Phase Load

2.1.1 RMS-Simulation

Figure 2.1: Input/Output Definition of General Load Model (RMS-Simulation)

Table 2.1: Input Variables (RMS-Simulation)

Name Description Unit


Pext Active Power Input MW
Qext Reactive Power Input Mvar

Table 2.2: State Variables (RMS-Simulation)

Name Description Unit


xu Delayed Voltage (Time constant T1) p.u.
xf Delayed Frequency (Time constant T1) p.u
cosphiu cosine of voltage angle
sinphiu sine of voltage angle

Table 2.3: Additional Parameters and Signals (RMS-Simulation)

Name Description Unit


fe Electrical Frequency p.u.
scale Scaling Factor

2.1.2 EMT-Simulation

Table 2.4: State Variables (EMT-Simulation)

Name Description Unit


curLA Inductive Current, Phase A p.u.
curLB Inductive Current, Phase B p.u
curLC Inductive Current, Phase C p.u.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 11


2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model

2.2 Single-, Two-Phase Load and DC-Load

Constant impedance load models. No input or output variables.

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 12


A Parameter Definitions

A Parameter Definitions

A.1 General Load Type (TypLod)

Table A.1: Input parameter of load type (TypLod)

Parameter Description Unit


loc name Name
systp System Type
nlnph Phases
cnm Connection
kpu Static Voltage Dependence on P
kqu Static Voltage Dependence on Q
i csrc Load Model
lodst Percentage: Static (const Z) %
loddy Percentage: Dynamic %
i nln Percentage: Nonlinear Model
i pure Load Model
pgrd Capacitive/Inductive Reactive Power: QL/QC %
qcq Capacitive/Inductive Reactive Power: QC/Q %
t1 Dynamic Load Time Constant s
kpf Dynamic Active Load: Frequ. Dependence on P
kqf Dynamic Reactive Load: Frequ. Dependence on Q
kpu Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on P
kqu Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on Q
tpf Dynamic Active Load: Transient Frequency Dependence s
tqf Dynamic Reactive Load: Transient Frequency Dependence s
tpu Dynamic Active Load: Transient Voltage Dependence s
tqu Dynamic Reactive Load: Transient Voltage Dependence s
udmax Voltage Limits: Upper Voltage Limit p.u.
udmin Voltage Limits: Lower Voltage Limit p.u.
Prp Static Portion %
xt Transformer Short Circuit Reactance %

A.2 General Load Element (ElmLod)

Table A.2: Input parameter of load element (ElmLod)

Parameter Description Unit


loc name Name
outserv Out of Service
mode inp Input Mode
i sym Balanced/Unbalanced
plini Operating Point: Total Active Power Load MW
qlini Operating Point: Total Reactive Power Load Mvar
slini Operating Point: Total Apparent Power MVA
ilini Operating Point: Current kA
coslini Operating Point: Power Factor
pf recap Operating Point: Power Factor
u0 Operating Point: Voltage p.u.
scale0 Operating Point: Scaling Factor
i scale Operating Point: Adjusted by Load Scaling
plinir Phase a: Active Power MW

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 13


A Parameter Definitions

qlinir Phase a: Reactive Power Mvar


slinir Phase a: Apparent Power Load MVA
ilinir Phase a: Current kA
coslinir Phase a: Power Factor
pf recapr Phase a: Power Factor
plinis Phase b: Active Power MW
qlinis Phase b: Reactive Power Mvar
slinis Phase b: Apparent Power MVA
ilinis Phase b: Current kA
coslinis Phase b: Power Factor
pf recaps Phase b: Power Factor
plinit Phase c: Active Power MW
qlinit Phase c: Reactive Power Mvar
slinit Phase c: Apparent Power MVA
ilinit Phase c: Current kA
coslinit Phase c: Power Factor
pf recapt Phase c: Power Factor
i rem Remote Control
p cub Controlled Branch (Cubicle)
NrCust Number of connected customers
i prty Priority
shed Load shedding/transfer: Shedding steps
trans Transferable %
pTrans Alternative Supply (Load)
pSCDF Interruption costs: Time dependent rate
OptCost Interruption costs
OptMeth Characteristic
pStoch Stochastic model StoLod
pCurve Area Model (StoChalod)

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 14


List of Figures

List of Figures

1.1 PowerFactory Complex Load Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 Specifying the input parameters for the load model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3 Load model used for balanced load-flows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.4 Specification of the voltage dependency factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.5 Load-flow Calculation window indicating the use of voltage dependency terms for
load-flow calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.6 Scaling factor specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.7 Diagram indicating load scaling (adjustment) in order to maintain the feeder set-
tings specified in the Feeder Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.8 Complex load model type for harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.1 Input/Output Definition of General Load Model (RMS-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . 11

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 15


List of Tables

List of Tables

1.1 Selection of kpu/kqu values for different load model behaviour . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1 Input Variables (RMS-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2 State Variables (RMS-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3 Additional Parameters and Signals (RMS-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 State Variables (EMT-Simulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

A.1 Input parameter of load type (TypLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

A.2 Input parameter of load element (ElmLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Complex Load (ElmLod,TypLodind) 16