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Border Alert and Smart Tracking System using

GPS and GSM


A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

RAMIKSHA.R.R

SAMUEL.P

SAI PRASAD.M

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

` In

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600025

APRIL 2019

i
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report , titled ―​BORDER ALERT AND SMART TRACKING
SYSTEM USING GPS AND GSM ​is the bonafide work of ​RAMIKSHA R R
(212715106125), SAMUEL P (212715106137), SAI PRASAD M (212715106135) ​who
carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr.S.MUTHUKUMAR M.E.,Ph.D., Prof.G.PADMAVATHI M.S.,

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR

Department of Electronics and Department of Electronics

Communication Engineering, Communication Engineering ,

Sri Venkateswara College of Sri Venkateswara College of

Engineering, Sriperumbudur, Engineering, Sriperumbudur,

Chennai-602117 Chennai-602117

Submitted to EC6811- Project Work for the Viva voce Examination held on

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely thank the management of ​Sri Venkateswara College of


Engineering ​for giving the opportunity to pursue my Undergraduate program.

I express my sincere thanks to ​Dr.S.Ganesh Vaidyanathan,Ph.D.,


Principal, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering , for providing me an
opportunity to work on the project.

I express my sincere thanks to ​Dr.S.Muthukumar, Ph.D., ​Head of Department of


Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of
Engineering,for his constructive criticism during the reviews of this project.

I express my heartfelt thanks to my project Supervisor ​Mrs.G.Padmavathi,M.S.,


Professor , Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri
Venkateswara College of Engineering, for her immense and timely help given during this
project work.

I express my sincere gratitude to my project coordinators


Mrs.K.S.Subhashini, M.E., Mr. S. P,Sivagnana Subramanian,M.E.,
Mrs.S.Radhika,M.E., ​Assistant professors, Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, for their help
in guiding our project.

I would like to thank our entire department faculty members and friends for their
valuable suggestions and support given during this project.
ABSTRACT

In the recent times there is an increase in tension across the India-Sri Lanka border

which has caused several problem for both countries and fishermen. The Indian fishermen

are being arrested by the Sri Lankan navy for crossing the border which is unintentional at

some cases. Here the project deals with the system which is used for tracking the location

using GPS and to trigger an alarm when the boat goes near the border. The boat is

embedded with an ATMEGA processor which is interfaced with an engine or motor of

the boat. When the boat approaches the border (1) an alarm in the boat is triggered and

motion of the boat is changed away from the border (2) an alert is sent to the control room

for monitoring and tracking the movement of the boat, the client application gives the

latitude and longitude coordinates and the id of the boat from which alert the is received.

For this we use two communication modules , one is GSM module and other is Wireless

module in case of unavailability of GSM. The main objective of the paper is to provide an

alert for the fishermen well in advance and ensure maximum safety. The paper focuses on

providing coast guards with the information of any border violation and also to prevent

such violation from occurring.


TITLE PAGE NO.
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Existing System
1.1.1 Drawbacks
1.2 Proposed System
1.3 Circuit Diagram
2 LITERATURE SURVEY 07
3 SYSTEM MODEL
3.1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 09
3.1.1 GPS History
3.1.2 GPS Overview
3.1.2.1 Precise Positioning System
3.1.2.2 Standard Positioning System
3.1.3 GPS Constellation
3.1.4 GPS NEO - 6M
3.1.4.1 Specification
3.2 GSM
3.2.1 Definition
3.2.2 Mobile Telephone Systems
3.2.3 GSM
3.2.4 The GSM Network
3.2.4.1 The Switching System
3.2.4.2 Base Station System
3.2.4.3 Operation and Support System
3.2.5 Additional Functional Elements
3.2.6 GSM Network Areas
3.2.7 GSM Specifications
3.2.8 GSM - 900A
3.2.8.1 Specification
3.3 WI-FI
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Wi-Fi Network Topology
3.3.3 Network Components
3.3.4 Designing the WLAN Layout
3.3.5 IEEE 802.11 Standards
3.3.6 IEEE 802.11b
3.3.7 NodeMCU ESP8266
3.4 ATMEGA328P
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Pin Description
3.4.3 Overview
3.4.4 Pin Configuration
3.4.4 Block Diagram
3.5 L298 DRIVER
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Features
3.5.3 Pin Configuration
3.5.4 Circuit Diagram
3.5.5 Specification
CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

A surveillance is a critical problem for border control or the security of commercial


facilities. The sea border between the countries are not easily identifiable which is the
main reason behind the border issue with the fishermen. Increasing tensions across the
Indian and Sri Lankan borders causing problem between the relationship of the countries.
Fishermen from our country are abducted by the Sri Lankan navy for crossing the border
which is unintentional most of the times .To overcome this problem we propose a solution
using GPS and GSM.
Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a wide range of navigation and timing
services. With the combined interlocked usage of the GSM technology, it can be used for
the border security, tracking of boats and ships in ocean which in turn is connected to the
alarm device. The GPS receives the topographic location of the boat in the sea and then
triggers an alarm if the border of the country is crossed by the boat. Other than the alarm
with interfacing of the micro controller with the engine of the boat the boat automatically
goes to the reverse motion to prevent the fishermen from crossing the border. Topographic
location of a country’s border can be obtained with the information of the latitude and
longitude of the place and position of the boat. The borders of each country are defined in
two levels. The first level extends till a certain distance in the sea and it is called as the
National border of the country. Succeeding the national borders and just a few kilometers
towards is the International borders. The additional advantage from the existing border
alert systems that are already imparted is that, the interlock of the GSM where minute by
minute position of the boat can be received through the use of GPS The GPS report is also
sent to the control room from which the location of the boat can be tracked,

in case it is lost in the seas. The paper uses a GPS device, GSM, microcontrollers and an
alarm system to alert the fishermen whenever the border is crossed by unauthorized means.
The number of fisherman abducted by the Sri Lankan navy scenario is shown in the
following graphical representation :

Figure 1.1

The above interpretation provides enough inference that this is a critical issue and
also steps taken in past are either inefficient or not suitable for this particular case.

A border violation could be with or without the will of a person so we propose


system that prevents or at least helps to prevent violation by any of the two cases. Our
model is also designed to send information to nearby patrol boats so the fishermen could
get help in minimal amount of time.
1.1 Existing System

​On the basis of census 2014,there are 3288 marine fishing villages. The total marine fisherfolk
population was about 4 million comprising in 864,550 families in tamilnadu. Those which 38% marine
fisher folk were engaged in active fishing with 85% of them having full engagement and 63.6% of the
fisher folk were engaged in fishing activities.The problem lies in the fact that India and Sri lanka share a
400 km maritime border.

The existing system is a low cost maritime border crossing alert system mainly focused on the
small scale fisherman who lives just near to the poverty line. This system includes data collection unit,
processing unit, controlling unit and a transmission unit . The data collection unit consists of location
detection components like GPS, transmitter and other components attached in the boat that accomplishes
the vessel localization by collecting the geographical positions. The processing unit holds the set of
latitude and longitude values of the sea in the form of databases that can be used for comparing the
present boat position with legal border limits. The controlling unit resides in the sea shore (remote
station) from where the decision has been made if the vessel crossed the maritime border. All the
communication among these three units is handled by transmission unit.
Figure 1.2

1.2 Proposed System :


In the proposed system the following actions happen when a border violation is detected :
● An alarm in the boat is triggered and the motion of the boat is reversed.
● Using a GSM module the boat’s coordinates and it’s id are sent to a control room.
● When GSM is unavailable using a wireless network such as Wifi the info is sent to nearby
coast guard patrol boats so that they can react to it immediately.
● The message sent to the control room or nearby patrol boats contain a link that redirects to
satellite map with corresponding boat’s location. But this link can only be accessed
through a particular IP address.

1.3 Circuit Diagram :

Figure 1.3
CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE SURVEY

● D.Jim Isaac et al [1] the paper titled as “Advanced border alert system using GPS and with

intelligent Engine control unit “In our system using GPS and GSM, where GPS is used to

find the location of the boat. If the boat nearer to the boundary primarily it warning the

fishermen with the alarm and emits the location of the boat to the nearest coast office via

GSM communication. When it further nears the maritime boundary an interferer is sent to

the Engine Control Unit which controls the speed of the engine with the help of the

electronic fuel injector. and its low cost maritime. By this method, we can alert the

fishermen and also monitor them thereby avoiding banned activities such as smuggling,

intruders, etc.

● S. Kiruthika et al [2] the paper titled as” A Wireless mode of protected defence

mechanism to mariners using GSM technology “In our system using only GPS to receive

the information from the satellite and stored border locations to detect whether the boat has

crossed the border or not. If so the mariner is alerted and the message is transmitted to

nearby coast office through RF signals at VHF (30-300MHz) range which covers wide

area.

● Naveen Kumar.M et al [3] the paper titled as” border alert and smart tracking system with

alarm uses DGPS and GSM and this system uses DGPS to track the location of the boat

and to activate an alarm which consists of a Piezo-buzzer, when the border is move toward
or crossed. Also, in addition, the DGPS information is sent to control office, and also the

information is sent to the family at regular time intervals that are in expectation about their

family member's safety.

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM MODEL :

3.1 Global Positioning System :


The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation
system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global
navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on
or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles
such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS signals.

3.1.1 GPS History :


In the early 1960s, several U.S. government organizations, including the Department of Defense
(DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of
Transportation (DOT), were interested in developing satellite systems for three-dimensional position
determination. The optimum system was viewed as having the following attributes: global coverage,
continuous weather operation, ability to serve high-dynamic platforms, and high accuracy. When Transit
became operational in 1964, it was widely accepted for use on low-dynamic platforms. However, due to
its inherent limitations, the Navy sought to enhance Transit or develop another satellite navigation system
with the desired capabilities mentioned earlier. Several variants of the original Transit system were
proposed by its developers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Concurrently,
the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was conducting experiments with highly stable space-based clocks
to achieve precise time transfer. This program was denoted as Timation.
At the same time as the Transit enhancements were being considered and the Timation efforts
were underway, the Air Force conceptualized a satellite positioning system denoted as System 621B. It
was envisioned that System 621B satellites would be in elliptical orbits at inclination angles of 0°, 30°,
and 60°. Numerous variations of the number of satellites (15–20) and their orbital configurations were
examined. The use of pseudorandom noise (PRN) modulation for ranging with digital signals was
proposed. System 621B was to provide three-dimensional coverage and continuous worldwide service.
The concept and operational techniques were verified at the Yuma Proving Grounds using an inverted
range in which pseudosatellites or pseudolites (i.e., ground-based satellites) transmitted satellite signals
for aircraft positioning.
In 1969, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) established the Defense Navigation Satellite
System (DNSS) program to consolidate the independent development efforts of each military service to
form a single joint-use system and also established the Navigation Satellite Executive Steering Group,
which was charged with determining the viability of the DNSS and planning its development. From this
effort, the system concept for NAVSTAR GPS was formed. The NAVSTAR GPS program was
developed by the GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) in El Segundo, California. At the time of this writing,
the GPS JPO continued to oversee the development and production of new satellites, ground control
equipment, and the majority of U.S. military user receivers. Also, the system is now most commonly
referred to as simply GPS.

3.1.2 GPS Overview :


Presently, GPS is fully operational and meets the criteria established in the 1960s for an optimum
positioning system. The system provides accurate, continuous, worldwide, three-dimensional position and
velocity information to users with the appropriate receiving equipment. GPS also disseminates a form of
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The satellite constellation nominally consists of 24 satellites
arranged in 6 orbital planes with 4 satellites per plane. A worldwide ground control/monitoring network
monitors the health and status of the satellites. This network also uploads navigation and other data to the
satellites. GPS can provide service to an unlimited number of users since the user receivers operate
passively (i.e., receive only). The system utilizes the concept of one-way time of arrival (TOA) ranging.
Satellite transmissions are referenced to highly accurate atomic frequency standards onboard the satellites,
which are in synchronism with a GPS time base. The satellites broadcast ranging codes and navigation
data on two frequencies using a technique called code division multiple access (CDMA); that is, there are
only two frequencies in use by the system, called L1 (1,575.42 MHz) and L2 (1,227.6 MHz). Each
satellite transmits on these frequencies, but with different ranging codes than those employed by other
satellites. These codes were selected because they have low cross-correlation properties with respect to
one another. Each satellite generates a short code referred to as the coarse/acquisition or C/A code and a
long code denoted as the precision or P(Y) code. The navigation data provides the means for the receiver
to determine the location of the satellite at the time of signal transmission, whereas the ranging code
enables the user’s receiver to determine the transit (i.e., propagation) time of the signal and thereby
determine the satellite-to-user range. This technique requires that the user receiver also contain a clock.
Utilizing this technique to measure the receiver’s three-dimensional location requires that TOA ranging
measurements be made to four satellites. If the receiver clock were synchronized with the satellite clocks,
only three range measurements would be required. However, a crystal clock is usually employed in
navigation receivers to minimize the cost, complexity, and size of the receiver. Thus, four measurements
are required to determine user latitude, longitude, height, and receiver clock offset from internal system
time. GPS is a dual-use system. That is, it provides separate services for civil and military users. These are
called the Standard Positioning Service (SPS) and the Precise Positioning Service (PPS). The SPS is
designated for the civil community, whereas the PPS is intended for U.S. authorized military and select
government agency users. Access to the GPS PPS is controlled through cryptography. Initial operating
capability (IOC) for GPS was attained in December 1993, when a combination of 24 prototype and
production satellites was available and position determination/timing services complied with the
associated specified predictable accuracies. GPS reached full operational capability (FOC) in early 1995,
when the entire 24 production satellite constellation was in place and extensive testing of the ground
control segment and its interactions with the constellation was completed. Descriptions of the SPS and
PPS services are presented in the following sections.

Basic Local Area Differential GPS


3.1.2.1 Precise Positioning System (PPS) :
The PPS is specified to provide a predictable accuracy of at least 22m (2 drms, 95%) in the
horizontal plane and 27.7m (95%) in the vertical plane. The distance root mean square (drms) is a
common measure used in navigation. Twice the drms value, or 2 drms, is the radius of a circle that
contains at least 95% of all possible fixes that can be obtained with a system (in this case, the PPS) at any
one place. As stated earlier, the PPS is primarily intended for military and select government agency
users. Civilian use is permitted, but only with special U.S. DOD approval. Access to the aforementioned
PPS position accuracies is controlled through two cryptographic features denoted as anti-spoofing (AS)
and selective availability (SA). AS is a mechanism intended to defeat deception jamming through
encryption of the military signals. Deception jamming is a technique in which an adversary would
replicate one or more of the satellite ranging codes, navigation data signal(s), and carrier frequency
Doppler effects with the intent of deceiving a victim receiver. SA had intentionally degraded SPS user
accuracy by dithering the satellite’s clock, thereby corrupting TOA measurement accuracy. Furthermore,
SA could have introduced errors into the broadcast navigation data parameters. SA was discontinued on
May 1, 2000, and per current U.S. government policy is to remain off. When it was activated, PPS users
removed SA effects through cryptography.

3.1.2.2 Standard Positioning System (SPS) :


The SPS is available to all users worldwide free of direct charges. There are no restrictions on SPS
usage. This service is specified to provide accuracies of better than 13m (95%) in the horizontal plane and
22m (95%) in the vertical plane (global average; signal-in-space errors only). UTC (USNO) time
dissemination accuracy is specified to be better than 40 ns (95%). SPS measured performance is typically
much better than specification . At the time of this writing, the SPS was the predominant satellite
navigation service in use by millions throughout the world.

3.1.3 GPS Constellation :


The orbital plane locations with respect to the Earth are defined by the longitude of the ascending
node, while the location of the satellite within the orbital plane is defined by the mean anomaly. The
longitude of the ascending node is the point of intersection of each orbital plane with the equatorial plane.
The Greenwich meridian is the reference point where the longitude of the ascending node has the value of
zero. Mean anomaly is the angular position of each satellite within the orbit, with the Earth’s equator
being the reference or point with a zero value of mean anomaly. It can be observed that the relative
phasing between most satellites in adjoining orbits is approximately 40°.

GPS Constellation

The GPS receiver interprets GPS signal received from visible satellites to provide current position
and time. The line of sight varies with position and time. Several different notations are used to refer to
the satellites in their orbits. One nomenclature assigns a letter to each orbital plane (i.e., A, B, C, D, E,
and F) with each satellite within a plane assigned a number from 1 to 4.

3.1.4 GPS NEO - 6M :


The NEO - 6M receivers combine a high level of integration capability with flexible connectivity
options in a small package. This makes them perfectly suited for mass-market end products with strict
size and cost requirements. ​It uses the latest technology from Ublox to give the best possible positioning
information and includes a larger built-in 25 x 25mm active GPS antenna with a UART TTL socket.

A battery is also included so that you can obtain a GPS lock faster. This is an updated GPS module
that can be used with ardupilot mega v2. This GPS module gives the best possible position information,
allowing for better performance with your Ardupilot or other Multirotor control platforms. NEO 6M is
widely used in research and applications.

The Ublox NEO-6M GPS engine on this board is a quite good one, with the high precision binary
output. It has also high sensitivity for indoor applications. UBLOX NEO-6M GPS Module has a battery
for power backup and EEPROM for storing configuration settings. The antenna is connected to the
module through a ufl cable which allows for flexibility in mounting the GPS such that the antenna will
always see the sky for best performance. This makes it powerful to use with cars and other mobile
applications. The Ublox GPS module has serial TTL output, it has four pins: TX, RX, VCC, and GND.

GPS NEO - 6M

3.1.4.1 SPECIFICATION :
3.2 Global System for Mobile Communication
3.2.1 Definition :
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital
cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a
common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European
mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe
will join the GSM partnership.

3.2.2 Mobile Telephone Systems :


Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Today, it
represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world.
Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide, and nearly 50 percent of those
subscribers are located in the United States. It is forecasted that cellular systems using a digital
technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. By the year 2005, forecasters
predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide. It has even been estimated
that some countries may have more mobile phones than fixed phones by the year 2000.

The concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where frequencies can be
reused within a geographic area. The idea of cell-based mobile radio service was formulated in the United
States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. However, the Nordic countries were the first to introduce cellular
services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981.
In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital, like today's
newer systems. One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity
needs in a cost-efficient manner. As a result, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital
systems over analog systems include ease of signaling, lower levels of interference, integration of
transmission and switching, and increased ability to meet capacity demands.

3.2.3 GSM :
Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed
without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to
compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended
to address these problems.
From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system.
After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a
narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA)
solution was chosen.

3.2.4 The GSM Network :


GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications define the
functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. The reason for this is to
limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from
different suppliers.
GSM Network

The GSM network is divided into three major systems:


● Switching System (SS)
● Base Station System (BSS)
● Operation and Support System (OSS)

3.2.4.1 The Switching System :


The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and
subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units:

Home Location Register (HLR) - The HLR is a database used for storage and management of
subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about
subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status. When an
individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that
operator.

Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) - The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the
system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as
toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others.

Visitor Location Register (VLR) - The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about
subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always
integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that
MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call,
the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time.

Authentication Center (AUC) - A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption
parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects
network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world.

Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity
of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC
and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node.

3.2.4.2 The Base Station System (BSS)

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs)
and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

BSC - The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. It is a
high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of
radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.
BTS - The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment
(transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by
a BSC.

3.2.4.3 The Operation and Support System(OSS)


The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the
switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system
(OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the
system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and
local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function
of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and
maintenance organizations.

3.2.5 Additional Functional Elements

Message Center (MXE) ​- The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax, and data messaging.
Specifically, the MXE handles short message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e- mail, and
notification.

Mobile Service Node (MSN) - The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN)
services.

Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC) - A gateway is a node used to interconnect two
networks. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.

GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU)​—The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an
interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between
speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the
MSC/VLR.

3.2.6 GSM Network Areas


The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. These areas include cells, location areas (LAs),
MSC/VLR service areas, and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas.
Network Areas

The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. The GSM network identifies
each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell. The location area is a group of
cells. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. Each LA is served by one or more base station
controllers, yet only by a single MSC. Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number.

3.2.7 GSM Specifications :


Before looking at the GSM specifications, it is important to understand the following basic terms:

Bandwidth​ - the range of a channel's limits; the broader the bandwidth, the faster data can be sent

Bits Per Second (bps)​ - a single on-off pulse of data; eight bits are equivalent to one byte

Frequency - the number of cycles per unit of time; frequency is measured in hertz (Hz). Specifications
for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks.
Listed below is a description of the specifications and characteristics for GSM.

Frequency band - The frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to 1,990 MHz (mobile station to base
station).
Duplex distance - The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and
downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart.

Channel separation​ - The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz.

Modulation - Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier
frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).

Transmission rate​ - GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.

Access method - GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. TDMA is a technique
in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.

Speech coder - GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate.
The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter,
leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

3.2.8 GSM - 900A:

This is an ultra compact and reliable wireless module. The SIM900A is a complete Dual-band
GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT module which can be embedded in the customer applications allowing you
to benefit from small dimensions and cost-effective solutions.Featuring an industry-standard interface, the
SIM900A delivers GSM/GPRS 900/1800MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax in a small
form factor and with low power consumption. With a tiny configuration of 24mm x 24mm x 3 mm,
SIM900A can fit almost all the space requirements in your applications, especially for slim and compact
demand of design.
GSM 900A

3.2.8.1 Specification ​:

3.3 WiFi

3.3.1 Introduction :
WLAN (or WiFi) was created specifically to operate as a wireless Ethernet. It is an open-standard
technology that enables wireless connectivity between equipments and local area networks. Public access
WLAN services are designed to deliver LAN services over short distances, typically 50 to 150 meters. In
these cases, WLANs are connected to a local database, and give the end user access through a kiosk or
portable device.
Internet access through public WLANs is a new and very hot trend, providing many benefits and
conveniences over other types of mobile Internet access.
First, performance is 50 to 200 times faster than dial-up Internet connections or cellular data access.
Second, users do not have to worry about cords, wires or sharing an access point, such as a phone jack.
A global directory that would provide users with a search engine to locate the closest access point.
Even without the directory, WLAN devices make it very easy to connect. Most WLAN enabled devices
have a software utility that indicates a user’s proximity to a WLAN access point.
Service providers place an antenna, or access point, at a designated hot spot. The antenna transmits
a wireless signal to the adapter card in a user’s computer or device. Users connect to the WLAN through a
page in their Internet browser.
Coverage extends over a 50 to 150 meter radius of the access point. Connection speeds range from
1.6 Mbps, which is comparable to fixed DSL transmission speed, to 11 Mbps.
New standards promise to increase speeds to 54 Mbps. WLANs run in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz and
5 GHz radio spectrums. The 2.4 GHz frequency is already crowded—it has been allocated for several
purposes besides WLAN service. The 5 GHz spectrum is a much larger bandwidth, providing higher
speeds, greater reliability, and better throughput.

3.3.2 WiFi Network Topology :


A basic topology of an 802.11 networks in its simplest form consists of two or more wireless
nodes, or stations (STAs), which have recognized each other and have established communications. There
are two different cases.

Independent Basic service set (IBSS)


Within an IBSS, STAs with each other on a peer-to-peer level. This type of networks is often
formed on a temporary basis, and is commonly referred to as an ad hoc networks.
Ad hoc networks allow for flexible and cost-effective arrangements in a variety of work
environments, including hard-to-wire locations and temporary setups such as group of laptops in a
conference room.

The Extended Service Set (ESS)


It consists of a series of BSSs (each containing an AP) connected together by means of a
Distribution System (DS). Although the DS could be any type of network (including a wireless network),
it is almost invariably an Ethernet LAN. Within an ESS, STAs can roam from one BSS to another and
communicate with any mobile or fixed client in a manner which is completely transparent in the protocol
stack above the MAC sublayer.
The ESS enables coverage to extend well beyond the range of a WLAN radio. By using an ESS,
seamless campus-wide coverage is possible. This service is commonly referred to as infrastructure mode.

3.3.3 Network Components :


An 802.11 LAN is based on a cellular architecture where the system is subdivided into cells,
where each cell (called Basic Service Set or BSS) is controlled by a Base Station (called Access Point or
AP). The three main links in the WLAN chain that form the basis of the network are explained below:

Access Point:
An AP operates within a specific frequency spectrum and uses an 802.11 standard specified
modulation technique. It also informs the wireless clients of its availability and authenticates and
associates wireless clients to the wireless network.
An AP also coordinates the wireless clients' use of wired resources.
The access points generally have two main tasks:
● They acts as a base station to the users.
● They acts as a bridge between wireless and wired networks.

It’s a Physical/Data Link Layer device, it supports 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbps connectivity depending on
standard implemented. The coverage area of AP can be up to 375 ft.(114 m.). The number of users an AP
supports varies but is generally 60-200 users.
A single access point should also be placed as close as possible to the center of the planned
coverage area. If it’s necessary to install the access point in an obstructed, for security purposes, an
optional range extender antenna can usually be mounted to extend the range of the coverage area.

Network Interface Card (NIC) :

A PC or workstation uses a wireless NIC to connect to the wireless network.


The NIC scans the available frequency spectrum for connectivity and associates it to an access point or
another wireless client.

The NIC is coupled to the PC/workstation operating system using a software driver. Wireless NICs do
same function as standard NICs :
● change data from parallel to serial.
● framing & make packets ready for sending.
● determine the time to send or receive it.
● transmitting & receiving.

Bridge:
Wireless bridges are used to connect multiple LANs (both wired and wireless) at the Media
Access Control (MAC) layer level. It’s used in building-to- building wireless connections, wireless
bridges can cover longer distances than AP’s. The coverage range can be up to 25 miles(40 Km).

3.3.4 Designing the WLAN Layout:


WLANs can be implemented in a number of ways, depending upon the complexity desired.
Generally, WLANs are thought of in three ways:

Peer-To-Peer​ - A peer-to-peer network is a WLAN in its most basic form. Two PCs equipped with
wireless adapter cards are all that is needed to form a peer-to-peer network, enabling the PCs to share
resources with one another. While this type of network requires no administration or pre-configuration, it
does not allow either PC to access a central server, inhibiting client/server computing.

Designing a peer-to-peer network involves three main considerations:


● The stations must be arranged so that they are all within the proper distance limits.
● All stations must send and receive on the same transmission frequency. (Most wireless NICs have
a factory-set default frequency)
● The hidden node problem must be avoided so that each station can communicate with all other
stations.
Client & Access Point​—In a Client & Access Point network, users not only benefit from extended range
capabilities, they are also able to benefit from server resources, as the AP is connected to the wired
backbone. The number of users supported by this type of network varies by technology and by the nature
and number of the transmissions involved. Generally, they can support between 15 and 50 users.
Multiple Access Points​—Although coverage ranges in size from product to product and by differing
environments, WLAN systems are inherently scalable.
As APs have limited range, large facilities such as warehouses and college campuses often find it
necessary to install multiple access points, creating large access zones. APs, like cell sites in cellular
telephony applications, support roaming and AP to AP handoff. Large facilities requiring multiple access
points deploy them in much the same way as their cellular counterparts, creating overlapping cells for
constant connectivity to the network. As network usage increases, additional APs can be easily deployed.

3.3.5 IEEE 802.11 Standards :

Today there are a lot of standards used for wireless networking, the attention of this section is to
give a brief overview of the 802.11 standards defined by IEEE, but with focusing on the most popular
standard which is IEEE 802.11b.
The IEEE 802.11 specifications are wireless standards that specify an "over-the-air" interface
between a wireless client and a base station or access point, as well as among wireless client.

IEEE 802.11 standard primarily addresses two separate layers of the ISO networking model:

Physical Network Layer (PHY)​ - lowest ISO layer that defines the physical transmission characteristics
of the signal - in this case, radio signal such as the frequency, power levels, and type of modulation.
The Media Access Control layer (MAC)​, is mostly made up of software- based protocols that enable
devices to talk to each other.

3.3.6 IEEE 802.11b (also called WiFi) :


Slightly older standard that supports speeds of 5.5Mbps and 11 Mbps in addition to the 1Mbps and
2Mbps data rates. It's deployed in 2.4 GHZ radio band. IEEE 802.11b uses CCK(Complementary Code
Keying) to provide the high data rates.

IEEE 802.11 finalized this standard (IEEE Std. 802.11b-1999) in late 1999. Several vendors offer
products conforming to this standard.
3.3.7 NodeMCU ESP8266 :

The ESP8266 NodeMCU board has ESP8266 which is a highly integrated chip designed for the
needs of a new connected world. It offers a complete and self-contained Wi-Fi networking solution,
allowing it to either host the application or to offload all Wi-Fi networking functions from another
application processor.

ESP8266 has powerful onboard processing and storage capabilities that allow it to be integrated
with the ​sensors and other application specific devices through its GPIOs with minimal development
up-front and minimal loading during runtime. Its high degree of on-chip integration allows for minimal
external circuitry, and the entire solution, including the front-end module, is designed to occupy minimal
PCB area.

The board is based on the highly popular ESP8266 WiFi Module chip with the ESP-12 SMD
footprint. This WiFi development board already embeds in its board all the necessary components for the
ESP8266 (ESP-12E) to program and upload code. It has a built-in USB to serial chip upload codes, 3.3V
regulator, and logic level converter circuit so you can immediately upload codes and connect your
circuits.
SPECIFICATION NODEMCU ESP8266

ATMEGA328P :

3.4.1 Introduction:
Microchip Technology ATmega328 8-bit AVR® Microcontrollers (MCUs) are high-performance
RISC-based devices that combine 32KB ISP Flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1KB
EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 general-purpose I/O lines, 32 general-purpose working registers, serial
programmable USART, and more.ATmega328 MCUs execute powerful instructions in a single clock
cycle, allowing the device to achieve throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz while balancing power
consumption and processing speed. These Microchip MCUs are designed for use in industrial automation
and home and building automation.

3.4.2 Pin Descriptions

VCC​ - Digital supply voltage.

GND​ - Ground.

Port B (PB7:0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As
inputs, port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.
The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port C (PC5:0)

Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The PC5..0
output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs,
Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The port
C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

​PC6/RESET

If the RSTDISBL fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an input pin. If the RSTDISBL fuse is
unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse
length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate
a reset.

Port D (PD7:0)

Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The port D
output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs,
port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The port
D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

AVCC

AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D converter, PC3:0, and ADC7:6. It should be externally
connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter. Note that PC6..4 use digital supply voltage, VCC.

AREF - ​AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D converter.

ADC7:6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF Package Only)


In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. These
pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
Automotive Quality Grade : The ATmega328P have been developed and manufactured according to
the most stringent requirements of the international standard ISO-TS-16949. This data sheet contains limit
values extracted from the results of extensive characterization (temperature and voltage). The quality and
reliability of the ATmega328P have been verified during regular product qualification as per AEC-Q100
grade 1. As indicated in the ordering information paragraph, the products are available in only one
temperature.

3.4.3 Overview
The Atmel® ATmega328P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced
RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega328P achieves
throughputs approaching 1MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption
versus processing speed.

3.4.4 PIN CONFIGURATION :


3.4.4 Block Diagram :
ATMEGA 328P
3.5 L298 DRIVER

3.5.1 Introduction :
The L298 Driver is a high voltage, high current dual full bridge driver designed to accept standard
TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such relays, solenoids, DC and stepping motors. Two enable
inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input signals. The emitters of the
lower transistors of each bridge are connected together the corresponding external terminal can be used
for the connection of an external sensing resistor.

3.5.2 Features :
● Operating supply voltage up to 46 V .
● Total DC current up to 4 A .
● Low saturation voltage .
● Over temperature protection.
● Logical "0" input voltage upto 1.5V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY)
● Two motor direction indicator LEDs
● An onboard user-accessible 5V low-dropout regulator
● Schottky EMF-protection diodes
● Screw-terminals for power and motor connections.
● High quality PCB FR4 Grade with FPT Certified

3.5.3 Pin Configuration :


3.5.4 Circuit Diagram :

L298 Driver

3.5.5 Specification :
L298 Specifications

CHAPTER-6

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

The Border alert and smart tracking system using GPA and GSM has proven to
be a low cost project. The project also aims at providing peace at the borders
and reduces the tension between the two countries. The proposed system’s
architecture is reliable and robust. The greatest advantage of the GPS system
is the ability of the device to work in any weather conditions and in any
means. The system devised will also include a waterproof casing such that the
circuit is not prone to any damage. The system will provide high accuracy and
high precision values of the Latitude and Longitude. This model proves to
challenge the already existing model which just uses a GPS device to track the
border and make the boat move backwards. This is not as useful as, in the
middle of the seas, even though there are no waves, the ocean currents can
mislead the boat and lead to scrutiny. The system proposed will not only alert
the fishermen but also Automatically makes the boat in the reverse condition
and prevent them from crossing the borders. carries the information to the
control station through the GSM system. In case the boat is lost due to rough
conditions of the sea (or) intentional crossing of the border is done, then the
information is immediately sent to the border security or the coastal guard
and the necessary action is taken.
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Surveillance System: An Integrated Approach”, International Journal of
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[2]K.Aruli1,S.Mohamed Nizar, “GPS Implementation of Tracking and warning


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[3] D. Arunvijay, E. Yuvaraj, “Design of Border Alert System for Fishermen


Using GPS”, Karpagam College of Engineering, International Journal of
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[4]Ms.R.Raja Nandhini, Ms.S.Malarvizhi, Mr.A.Praveen, Mr.C.Mohanraj,


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[8] K. Aruli and J. Asha, “A Review on GPS Tracking and Border Alert System for
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[9]Ashwini.S,Chandan.V,Deeksha,Farheen Fathima.S.A,Yashodhara.C.L,
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[10]Naveen kumar.M,Ranjith .R Paper presented on “Border alert and smart


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