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# NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CALICUT

## Using ψ − ω formulation to compute flow for a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity on

uniform 129 × 129 grid at Re = 100. Governing equation and boundary conditions are:

∂ 2ω ∂ 2ω
 
∂ω ∂ω ∂ω 1
+u +v = + 2 (1)
∂t ∂x ∂y Re ∂x2 ∂y

∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ
+ 2 = −ω (2)
∂x2 ∂y
∂ψ
u= (3)
∂y
∂ψ
v=− (4)
∂x

## Boundary conditions for Stream function ψ

Take velocity component normal to a wall; e.g., (Left) normal is u, consider its relation
∂ψ
in terms of ψ. Now, u = 0 means = 0 implies ψ is constant on this wall; similarly, ψ
∂y
is constant on Right wall. Now, consider Top wall, normal is v; therefore, v = 0 implies
∂ψ
= 0 and ψ is constant on this wall; similarly, ψ is constant on Bottom wall. So,
∂x
we find that ψ is constant on all the four walls, and these constant must merge at the
intersection of the walls. This justification suggests that ψ is the same constant on all
the four walls. Without loss of generality, we can consider ψ = 0 on all the four walls.

## Boundary conditions for Vorticity ω

∂ψ
Again take velocity component normal to a wall; e.g., (for Left wall) u = 0 means =0
∂y
∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ
implies = 0. Therefore, eq (2) reduces to = −ω. Applying difference formula,
∂y 2 ∂x2
ψ2,j − 2ψ1,j + ψ0,j
we get = −ω1,j , but ψ1,j = 0 from the previous justification. So,
(∆x)2
ψ2,j + ψ0,j
= −ω1,j , we do not know ψ0,j . Now, considering the tangential component
(∆x)2
∂ψ ψ2,j − ψ0,j
of velocity v = 0 implies = 0; applying the difference formula we get =0
∂x 2∆x
2ψ2,j
giving ψ2,j = ψ0,j ; using this relation finally we get ω1,j = − . Similarly, we can
(∆x)2
2ψN −1,j 2ψi,2
prove ωN,j = − on right wall; ω i,1 = − on bottom wall. For top wall,
(∆x)2 (∆y)2
∂ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ
we have v = 0 means = 0 and = 0 results in = −ω. Applying difference
∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2
ψi,M +1 − 2ψi,M + ψi,M −1 ψi,M +1 + ψi,M −1
formula, we get 2
= −ωi,M , but ψi,M = 0. So, =
(∆y) (∆y)2
−ωi,M , we do not know ψi,M +1 . Now, considering the tangential component of velocity
∂ψ ψi,M +1 − ψi,M −1
u = U implies = U ; applying the difference formula we get = U
∂y 2∆y
2ψi,M −1 + 2U ∆y
giving ψi,M +1 = 2U ∆y + ψi,M −1 ; finally ωi,M = − .
(∆y)2
Algorithm

## 4. Calculate un+1 and v n+1 using ψ n+1 from step3

5. Check (ω n+1 − ω n ) < 10−10 and time march (go to step2) outer loop

Consider a convergence level of  = 10−4 for all the equations, and ∆t = 10−3 . Use SOR
with relaxation parameter (w = 1.6). Please note computations must be carried out in a
normalized environment, where equations along with domain and boundary conditions
(b.c.) must be normalized. The above b.c. are in dimensional form, to convert into
normalized, we use following scales: Length of side of the cavity (L), Velocity of the top
lid (U ), Time (L/U ), Stream function (U L), Vorticity (U/L); for example on top wall,

2ψ + 2U ∆y
ω=−
(∆y)2

U
plugging these scales (note U ∗ = = 1), we get
U

U L 2ψ ∗ + 2U ∗ ∆y ∗
 
U ∗
ω =− 2
L L (∆y ∗ )2