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Human Resource Planning

Presentation on

DEVELOPING SELF
RENEWAL-OD &
RESEARCH

Submitted to
SMZ Khurshid Sir

By SWATI

MBA 3rd SEMESTER


Human Resource Planning

Contents

 Definitions
 OD
 Nature of OD
 OD as a process
 OD Interventions
 Research
 Issues & Problems
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Definitions
 OD: The top-management-supported,
long term effort to improve an
organisation’s problem-solving &
renewal processes, particularly through
a more effective & collaborative
diagnosis & management of
organisational culture-with special
emphasis on formal work team,
temporary team, & inter-group culture-
with the assistance of a consultant-
facilitator & the use of the theory &
technology of applied behavioral
science, including action research.

 Self Renewal: The process of


initiating, creating, & confronting needed
changes so as to make it possible for
organizations to become or to remain
viable, to adapt to new conditions, to
solve problems, to learn from
experiences.
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 Research: Research is an organized


and systematic way of finding answers
to questions.
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Organizational
Development
Definition: The top-management-
supported, long term effort to improve an
organisation’s problem-solving & renewal
processes, particularly through a more
effective & collaborative diagnosis &
management of organisational culture-
with special emphasis on formal work
team, temporary team, & inter-group
culture-with the assistance of a
consultant-facilitator & the use of the
theory & technology of applied behavioral
science, including action research.

Nature of OD:
 OD is an ongoing interactive process
 OD is a form of applied behavioral
science
 OD is a normative-reeducative strategy
of changing
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 OD views organizations from a systems


approach
 OD is a data-based approach to planned
change
 OD emphasizes goal setting & planning
 OD activities focus on intact work teams
 OD uses a participation/empowerment
model

OD as a process:
Implementation of an OD program
requires attention to three operations that
we call the basic components or elements
of an OD program in operation: the
diagnostic component, representing a
continuous collection of system data,
focuses on the total system, its
subsystems, and system processes; the
action ( or intervention ) component
consists of all the activities of consultants
and system members designed to improve
the organization’s functioning; and
process-maintenance component
encompasses the activities oriented
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towards the maintenance and


management of the OD process itself. The
first two elements relate to the OD process
itself vis-à-vis the organization; the third
element relates to the OD process vis-à-vis
itself.

Interventions of OD:
1. Discrepancy intervention: It calls
attention to a contradiction in action or
attitudes that then leads to exploration.
2. Theory intervention: In which
behavioral science knowledge and
theory are used to explain present
behavior and assumptions underlying
the behavior.
3. Procedural intervention: It
represents a critiquing of how something
is being done to determine whether the
best methods are being used.
4. Relationship intervention: It
focuses attention on interpersonal
relationships( particularly those where
there are strong negative feelings) and
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surfaces the issues for exploration and


possible resolution.
5. Experimentation intervention: In
it two different action plans are tested
for their consequences before a final
decision on one is made.
6. Dilemma intervention: In it an
imposed or emergent dilemma is used to
force close examination of the possible
choices involved and the assumptions
underlying them.
7. Perspective intervention: it draws
attention away from immediate actions
and demands and allows a look at
historical background, context, and
future objectives in order to assess
whether or not the actions are “still on
target.”
8. Organizational structure
intervention: It calls for examination
and evaluation of structural causes for
organizational ineffectiveness.
9. Cultural intervention: It examines
tradition, precedents, and practices-the
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fabric of the organization’s culture-in a


direct, focused approach.
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Research
Definition: Research is an organized
and systematic way of finding answers to
questions.

Issues & Problems:


1. Imprecision of definitions and
conceptualizations: There are
endless variations of OD. There is no
unitary treatment known as OD. It is a
global term that refers to many different
outcomes. The major means of
overcoming the problem of imprecision
in definitions is to be more specific.
2. Problems with internal and
external validity: Internal validity
means the basic minimum without which
any experiment is uninterpretable. It is
difficult to pinpoint what is causing the
changes that occur. The key to
overcoming lies in the research design.
External validity asks the question of
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generalizability. To what populations,


settings, treatment variables, and
measurement variables can this effect
be generalized?
3. Lack of supporting theory: OD
research is not theory-guided research.
In fact there is essentially no
comprehensive theory to explain the
process of planned change in
organizations.
4. Problems with measuring
attitude change: Attitude change is
not measurable and neither any
scientific method is available for it.
5. Problems with ‘normal science’:
An increasing number of researchers and
theorists are rejecting “normal science”
with its requirements of replication,
control groups, random assignment to
treatment conditions, specifying single
cause-and-effect linkages and so forth.