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S1: Improving energy efficiency of location sensing on smartphones.

This paper presents an adaptive location-sensing framework that significantly improves the energy
efficiency of smartphones running on location-based applications. The underlying design principles of the
proposed framework involve substitution, suppression, piggybacking, and adaptation of applications’
location-sensing requests to conserve energy design principles on Android-based smart phones as a
middleware. Results show that the design principles reduce the usage of the power-intensive GPS (Global
Positioning System) by up to 98% and improve battery life by up to 75%.Considerin the problem of
energy efficient location sensing on smartphones. They first identify four critical factors that affect energy
efficiency of location-sensing with GPS through extensive experiments. These factors are static use of
location sensing mechanisms, absence of use of power-efficient sensors to optimize location-sensing, lack
of sensing cooperation among multiple LBAs, and unawareness of battery level.

S2: Energy-Accuracy Trade-off for Continuous Mobile Device Location.

Mobile applications often need location data, to update locally relevant information and adapt the device
context. While most smartphones do include a GPS receiver, its frequent use is restricted due to high
battery drain. They design and prototype an adaptive location service for mobile devices, a-Loc, that helps
reduce this battery drain. Design is based on the observation that the required location accuracy varies
with location, and hence lower energy and lower accuracy localization methods, such as those based on
WiFi and cell-tower triangulation, can sometimes be used. This method automatically determines the
dynamic accuracy requirement for mobile search-based applications. As the user moves, both the
accuracy requirements and the location sensor errors change. ALoc continually tunes the energy
expenditure to meet the changing accuracy requirements using the available sensors. A Bayesian
estimation framework is used to model user location and sensor errors. Experiments are performed with
Android G1 and AT&T Tiltphones,on paths that include outdoor and indoor locations, using war-driving
data from Google and Microsoft. The experiments show that a-Loc not only provides significant energy
savings, but also improves the accuracy achieved, because it uses multiple sensors. Energy measure is
done by external monitoring.

S3: Energy-Efficient Rate-Adaptive GPS-based Positioning for Smartphones

In this paper, RAPS is proposed, rate-adaptive positioning system for smartphone applications. It is based
on the observation that GPS is generally less accurate in urban areas, so it suffices to turn on GPS only as
often as necessary to achieve this accuracy. RAPS use a collection of techniques to cleverly determine
when to turn on GPS. It uses the location-time history of the user to estimate user velocity and adaptively
turn on GPS only if the estimated uncertainty in position exceeds the accuracy threshold. It also
efficiently estimates user movement using a duty-cycled accelerometer, and utilizes Bluetooth
communication to reduce position uncertainty among neighbouring devices. Finally, it employs cell
tower-RSS blacklisting to detect GPS unavailability (e.g., indoors) and avoid turning on GPS in these
cases. They evaluated RAPS through real-world experiments using a prototype implementation on a
modern smartphone and show that it can increase phone lifetimes by more than a factor of 3.8 over an
approach where GPS is always on. Delayed PS activation is the energy saving strategy used with phone
battery level as energy measurement. Impact on accuracy is less accurate in urban areas so RAPS uses a
collection of techniques to cleverly determine when to turn on.

S4: Energy-efficient automatic location-triggered applications on smartphones.

This paper proposes a unified framework that supports energy-efficient location detection for automatic
location-triggered applications. Framework triggers desired events only when the user is approaching the
predefined locations of interest. Besides the efforts made to reduce the number of GPS updates by
cooperating with other types of on-device sensors, the framework also aims to coordinate multiple
location-triggered applications to further reduce energy consumption on location updates. Framework is
implemented as a middleware in the Android operating system and conducted extensive real experiments.
The experimental results demonstrate that proposed framework can reduce the number of GPS requests
and low the energy consumption of the smart phones significantly. The experimental results showed that
algorithm proposed could significantly reduce the number of GPS and reduce energy consumption on
smart phones. In addition, the localization module in this framework can be easily extended to utilize Wi-
Fi and cellular tower to assist indoor localization .Impact of accuracy. Almost 38 % of energy is saved
using this method.

S5: An Adaptive Location Detection scheme for energy-efficiency of smartphones.

As Location-Based Services (LBSs) of smartphones increases, the power consumption of a smartphone

due to Global Positioning System (GPS) is becoming increasingly serious. This paper presents a new
location estimation scheme for smartphones called Adaptive Location Detection (ALD). ALD adaptively
detects the location of a smartphone considering the movement pattern of a user, category of applications
executed in the smartphone, and the battery level. Simulation with various real applications and scenarios
show that ALD reduces 37% of energy consumption compared to GPS. Nevertheless, it satisfies the
accuracy requirement of each situation.

S6: PlaceWalker: An energy-efficient place logging method that considers kinematics of normal
human walking.

This paper defines a different methodology; Fine-grained place logging with Wi-Fi beacon signatures
provides a useful tool for delivering various semantic location-aware services such as reminders and
advertisements. Existing solutions however heavily rely on energy hungry periodic Wi-Fi scanning for
place detection in resource limited mobile devices. In this paper, they present PlaceWalker, a scheme that
uses a low-power duty-cycled accelerometer in the background to continuously monitor user’s significant
physical activity changes (e.g., walking to resting) as it provides a useful clue to the change of place.
Unlike existing schemes, PlaceWalker triggers Wi-Fi scanning only when such an activity shift is detected
and then determines a change of place by comparing Wi-Fi signatures. Experimental results verify that
detecting significant activity intensity changes can precisely capture arrival/departure times, and
PlaceWalker substantially lowers the energy consumption by as much as 60.9%, when compared with the
state-of-the-art method. It also analyze the experimental results with a simple analytic model and validate
its efficiency under varying parameter settings.Supressing unnecessary wifi scanning using some dynamic
parameters is the main strategy of this method.

S8: Energy-efficient position tracking in proactive location-based services for smartphone


In comparison to conventional LBSs(Location Based services), their proactive variant needs continuous
position tracking to monitor spatial objects to detect the relationships between a user and surrounding
objects and proactively perform actions. But tracking so far also results in severe battery drain in mobile
devices due to deficient positioning APIs and the absence of energy-efficient positioning methods with
adequate accuracy. By exploiting the combined information from several positioning technologies with
different characteristics in terms of energy consumption, accuracy, precision and availability, this paper
proposes a hierarchical positioning algorithm, which provides a general algorithmic optimization in order
to extend existing positioning APIs to energy-efficiently track a user's position without diminishing
accuracy. The algorithm dynamically deactivates different positioning technologies and only activates the
positioning method with the least energy consumption that at the same time provides sufficient accuracy
to correctly determine topological relationships which is the main strategy of energy saving. In that way,
the algorithm can reliably and accurately determine, if the user leaves or enters predefined geographic
areas to trigger events for proactive LBSs while preserving valuable energy resources. First results on
Android handsets show a reduction in energy consumption of up to 90 percent in comparison to
conventional GPS tracking.

S9: SensTrack: Energy-Efficient Location Tracking With Smartphone Sensors.

The main goal in this paper is to improve the energy-efficiency of traditional location tracking service as
well as to expand its coverage areas. In this paper, they introduced SensTrack, a location tracking service
that leverages the sensor hints on the smartphone to reduce the usage of GPS. SensTrack selectively
executes a GPS sampling using the information from the acceleration and orientation sensors and
switches to the alternate location sensing method based on Wi-Fi when users move indoors. A machine
learning technique, Gaussian process regression, is then employed to reconstruct the trajectory from the
recorded location samples. They implemented a prototype on an Android smartphone that can sample the
related sensors during the user's movement and collect the sensor data for further processing on PCs.
Evaluation on traces from real users demonstrates that SensTrack can significantly reduce the usage of
GPS and still achieve a high tracking accuracy. Accuracy of 3.182 meters compared to gps output. Impact
on energy is very efficient that is around 90% reduced gps usage.
S10: The Latency, Accuracy, and Battery (LAB) Abstraction: Programmer Productivity and
Energy Efficiency for Continuous Mobile Context Sensing.

This paper identifies the latency, accuracy, battery (LAB) abstraction to resolve this tension. These type of
applications for retaining energy with more accuracy embody a twist on the classic tension between
programmer productivity and performance due to their combination of requirements. So this paper
implements and evaluate LAB in a system called Senergy. Developers specify their LAB requirements
independent of inference algorithms and sensors. Senergy delivers energy efficient context while meeting
the requirements and adapts as hardware changes. They demonstrate LAB's expressiveness by using it to
implement 22 context sensing algorithms for four types of context (location, driving, walking, and
stationary) and six diverse applications. Energy efficiency on applications compared to prior approaches
is good enough. This work is extended to meet application needs and attain portability across evolving,
sensor-rich, heterogeneous, and power constrained hardware.