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GIS Based Gas Utility Data Model for Turkey

Esin Bitik1 and Dursun Zafer Şeker1*

1
Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul

Abstract

Although, gas utility sector faces major changes due to increased competition between distributers, efforts in improving services,
and applying new technological solutions In Turkey. There is no natural gas system in the country which is fully Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) based. In this study, current systems were analyzed and a new approach was proposed. Most of the
developed and used systems store only spatial data in Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment while few systems were
designed as storing only spatial data in GIS environment and keeping non-spatial data in a different platform. CAD environment
cannot provide an integrated spatial and non-spatial data in a same database framework and this problem is tried to be solved
using other software such as Systems Analysis and Program Development (SAP), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA). Main scope of this study is to develop a GIS based model for use of gas utilities which enables the integration of
information from many sources.

Key words: Natural gas, GIS, CAD, data model.

1. Introduction implemented.

By the year of 2012, 70 of the 81 provinces in Turkey are Comprehensive enterprise GIS architecture is the main lack
using natural gas. With the rapid spread of using natural gas, for utilities. The connection of servers, networks, and PCs is
the need for spatial data in gas companies has been increasing certainly part of the architecture. The database management
continuously to improve natural gas management. The system is a critical component. The application programs,
construction of utilities in Turkey is mostly realized in an user interfaces, and inter application interfaces play critical
unregulated manner. Due to the fact that most of the utility role. These are all important and all of the above utilities had
constructions are carried out under the ground, they are not these things. Yet the data was incomplete or redundant, the
seriously considered as the superstructures .Utility systems applications didn't work together, and the workflows were
itself is a crucial element of city management. They provide disconnected. One department would end up maintaining
vital services to the needs of the city and the citizens. Due to similar data as another. Lots of opportunities were lost.
unplanned development of the city, the obligation and Precious labor resources were wasted. The utility processes
necessity of utility systems are hardly considered. Both were not unified. The architecture for the utility must have at
construction and management of infrastructures have vital least the following interrelated components;
importance [1]. For the management phase, modern tools
such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) should be • Workflow and process models: This is the identification
of the master process and sub processes that drive business

2013 AARS, All rights reserved.
* Corresponding author: esin.duran@gmail.com
GIS Based Gas Utility Data Model for Turkey

for major stakeholders in the utility: the customer, the entry the user must enter this key number manually. Due to
shareholder, the community, and the employee. the data was maintained separately in a different set of CAD
files that didn't coordinate with the main systems like
• Data models: Utility data models describe the data, data SCADA, SAP. It would take a major overhaul to link to
relationships, and behaviors that are needed for the these systems.
workflows in a logical and disciplined way.
This article is deal with the data models components of
• Data: This is the actual data that details the utility land utility processes. The purpose of the data model is to capture
base, customer locations, and infrastructure. in one document three essential components (attributes,
relationship. behaviors) of data used in the workflows and
• Output products: These products are tools that people use process models. On this study only attributes are defined.
to make decisions, do work, and communicate. Natural gas has been chosen among the utility data group
and the new developed data model is referred as “GAS2013”
• Integration framework: This allows corporate systems to
during the article.
be visualized along with location, often in the form of a
map. 2. Materials and Methods
• Physical architecture: This includes all the hardware, In the study, all natural gas data used in Turkey is analyzed
operating systems, processes, tools, DBMSs, and networks in detail. After these analyses, natural gas network elements
that make the whole thing work [2]. classified under four groups are explained below;
GIS is still not commonly used in utility sectors in Turkey. • Pressure Reducers: Reducing 20 or 25 bar high-pressure
Usage of GIS is increased in parallel to the requirements and to 4 bar and 4 bar to 0.5 bar.
production of the digital data in utility institutions. Graphic
data is stored file-based CAD system and the attribute data is • Gas Pipes: High-pressure gas zone to allow it to pressure
stored at database. A tabular key field for linking to a database reducers which are grouped the main transmission (steel)
between tabular data and graphic data and for every new and distribution lines (polyethylene).

Table 1. Gas pipe layers stored in CAD format.


Table 1.Gas pipe layers stored in CAD format
Layer Name Geometry Color Style Weight
PEPipe40 Line 3 0 3
PEPipe63 Line 5 0 2
PEPipe110 Line 2 0 2
PEPipe1125 Line 4 0 2
SteelPipe2 Line 3 3 3
SteelPipe4 Line 23 3 3
SteelPipe6 Line 17 3 3
SteelPipe8 Line 39 3 3
SteelPipe10 Line 21 3 3
SteelPipe12 Line 132 3 3
ServicePipePE20 Line 84 0 0
ServicePipePE32 Line 66 0 0
DisplacedPEPipe40 Line 3 0 3
DisplacedPEPipe63 Line 5 0 2
DisplacedPEPipe110 Line 2 0 2
DisplacedPEPipe1125 Line 23 3 2
DisplacedSteelPipe2 Line 3 3 3
DisplacedSteelPipe4 Line 23 3 3
DisplacedSteelPipe6 Line 17 3 3
DisplacedSteelPipe8 Line 39 3 3
DisplacedSteelPipe10 Line 21 3 3
DisplacedSteelPipe12 Line 132 3 3
DisplacedServicePipePE20 Line 84 0 0
DisplacedServicePipePE32 Line 66 0 0

Table 2. An example of 22
tabular data for gas pipe
Attributes Data
Database Connector ID 2862
DisplacedSteelPipe12 Line 132 3 3
DisplacedServicePipePE20 Line 84 0 0
Asian Journal of Geoinformatics,
DisplacedServicePipePE32 Line Vol.13,No.4
66(2013) 0 0

Table 2. An example of tabular data for gas pipe.


Table 2. An example of tabular data for gas pipe
Attributes Data
Database Connector ID 2862
Pipe Serial Number 195
Station Code B33
Connection Type Reduction
Diameter (mm) 110
Date (DD.MM.YYYY) 13.12.2005
Length (m) 8.16
Sub constructor A company

After the analyze process for gas pipe, feature class are designed combining layers which are
stored at CAD system with the tabular data stored individual format. All attributes and details for gas
pipe designed in geodatabase format that can be integrate other systems (SAP, SCADA etc.) stored in
database format.
For the other 4 groups (pressure reducers, valves, connectors, service box) which belong to
natural gas data set must be designed similar to the gas pipe feature class. Gas pipe is to act as a guide
for the other elements. After the design process, it was seen that the feature class number of gas pipe
decreased to 1 from 24. Figure 1 shows the significant changes in layers number and major decreases
were realized.

Figure 1. Main changes in layers.

• Valves: Valves to be installed in the distribution network difficult to query and analyses. In Table 1, gas pipe layers
and peep-hole in the casing off mounted distribution stored in CAD format are given. As can be seen from the
network valves. table, data for gas pipe was defined in the form of 24 different
layers instead of 1 gas pipe layer. Table 2 shows the tabular
• Connectors: Gas equipment used during distribution. This data related gas pipe layer is stored in the individual format.
equipment is Tee, Saddle, Saddle Tee, Reducer etc.
Analyses of the current natural gas pipe data provided from
• Service box: Allowing subscribers to use gas by reducing the provinces using natural gas in Turkey, and the gas pipe
the consumption of 21 or 300 mbar pressures [3]. feature class and attributes which do not prevent production
targets are defined and geographic database is designed free
Gas pipe layer is selected to be an example for the other from database software. GAS2013 model is designed to be
layers can be design according to this way. As an aim of the independent of the database thus user can select any database
study, design a GIS based data model considering the software.
workflow and process for the current system in our country
then design a model based on GAS2013 which convert data After the analyze process for gas pipe, feature class are
from CAD system data to GAS2013. The natural gas data in designed combining layers which are stored at CAD system
Turkey is mostly available in digital form which is generally with the tabular data stored individual format. All attributes
stored in CAD format apart from the other utilities. This and details for gas pipe designed in geodatabase format that
means that there is no geographical database designed for the can be integrate other systems (SAP, SCADA etc.) stored in
available digital data in the country. The most commonly database format.
used structure in our country is the spatial data stored in
Bentley products which are file-based CAD systems and For the other 4 groups (pressure reducers, valves, connectors,
tabular data is stored in the database. Using CAD systems service box) which belong to natural gas data set must be
leads to the storage of data in multiple layers which makes it designed similar to the gas pipe feature class. Gas pipe is to

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Figure 1. Main changes in layers

24 gas pipe layers and tabular data are converted to the attributes. For example steel and
GIS Based Gas Utility Data Model for Turkey
polythene layers are stored at material attributes. Table 3, shows the new attributes for gas pipe feature
class.
Table 3. New attributes of gas pipe.
Table 3.New attributes of gas pipe.
Feature Feature Class Attribute Name Data Type
Dataset
SerialNumber String
Type Long integer
Material Long integer
Diameter Long integer
OperationPressure Long integer
StartStation String
EndStation String
YearOfLying Date
Status Long integer
TestDate Date
TestPressure Long integer
Date of Gas Date
CoveringType Long integer
Owner Long integer
GAS2013 GAS_PIPE WallThickness Long integer
Classes Long integer
GroundElevation Double
UndergroundElevation Double
MaintenanceIntervals Long integer
MaintenanceDate Date
Maintenance Detail Long integer
MaintenanceResponsible Long integer
Manufacturer Long integer
ManufactureDate Date
SurveyingCompany Long integer
Surveyor Long integer
Contractor Long integer
Note String
XStart Double
XEnd Double
YStart Double
YEnd Double
StartUpPerson String
DisplacedPerson String

act as a guide for the other elements. After the design process, 3. Results and Conclusion
it was seen that the feature class number of gas pipe decreased
to 1 from 24. Figure 1 shows the significant changes in layers The feature classes that are stored under different layers can
number and major decreases were realized. be grouped easily using the GAS2013 model. Gas pipe
feature class used to be defined in the form of 24 different
24 gas pipe layers and tabular data are converted to the layers previously. In Turkey utility companies store only
attributes. For example steel and polythene layers are stored tabular data in their data base, but they cannot store the
at material attributes. Table 3, shows the new attributes for geographical data due to software restrictions. Structure of
gas pipe feature class. the software used in our country stores graphical data away
from geodatabase logic. It is impossible to analyze, query
After the addition of spatial data related to each feature class, and integrate with the other systems (SCADA, SAP etc.)
it is possible to make spatial queries, analysis and reporting related with graphical data. Only tabular data is stored in
using the data model and the related database. According to data base, the relationship of graphical and tabular data is
the GAS2013 data model, a workflow is formed to transfer provided with a “key number”, and this key number must be
the old data layers to the new structure are given in Figure 2. filled manually for each field which is a time consuming task
In this figure, data processing started by converting the data and may cause unpredicted errors. This situation causes
into GIS format from CAD raw format. The process then another problem when updating natural gas data is required.
continued in GIS format by defining coordinate system, If updating process is not realized simultaneously for both
geometric corrections, and topological controls, cleaning graphic and tabular data, it becomes almost impossible to
duplicated objects and creating a relation with tabular data. make analysis and queries. Adding a new attribute to
Calculate the attributes values and finish all updates. After graphical data is very difficult due to the defining gas pipe in
all updates are completed, the gas pipe layers (24) finalized 24 layers so user must add attribute to all 24 layers. This
to 1 layer according to the GAS2013 model. model designed in this study is based on the principle that
use of the database for the storage of spatial data is integrates

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ormat. The process then continued in GIS format by defining coordinate system, geometric
, and topological controls, cleaning duplicated objects and creating a relation with tabular
ulate the attributes values and finish all updates.Asian
After all updates
Journal are completed,
of Geoinformatics, the(2013)
Vol.13,No.4 gas
(24) finalized to 1 layer according to the GAS2013 model.
which was evaluated as insufficient. Adding two feature
GAS PIPE classes currently not used should be considered by the gas
(CAD FORMAT)
providers seriously and their data contents should be
redesigned. This model is designed only for gas pipe feature
class from natural gas and it is a pioneer study for other gas
groups and should be urgently designed for other gas data
sets (pressure reducers, valves, connectors, service box.) as
Conversion to
GIS Data Format well. This study is considered to have a leading role in
designing the appropriate database from technical
infrastructure of natural gas data sets and in determining data
standards for natural gas data.

Define
Coordinate
System
References
Repair Geometry [1] Dangermond, J., 2010, Geographic Knowledge: Our
Geometric
New Infrastructure, Winter 2010/2011 ARCNEWS.
Topological Controls
Correction
Clear Duplicate [2] Meehan, B., 2007, Empowering Electric and Gas Utility
Objects with GIS. (Sf. 1-36). California’s.

[3] Duran, Z., 1996, Natural gas information system design,


Create Relation With Tabular Date MSc Theses, ITU, Information of Sciences, Geodesy and
Photogrammetry Engineering Department.

Transfer to
Gas2013
Model

Define Attributes

Calculate
Attributes

Updates

GAS PIPE
(GAS2013)

Figure 2. Gas pipe’s data conversion from CAD system to


Figure 2. Gas pipe’s data conversion
GAS2013.from CAD system to GAS2013

other software’s (SAP, SCADA etc.) which are required for


detail analysis.

After applying the model in gas companies, the management


of those companies will improve. It was found that there is a
strong need to develop quantity of the attributes and contents

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