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Computational Methods in Engineering

Paris and Compiègne, France

Editors:

A. Ibrahimbegović, P.M. Pimenta

CILAMCE 2018 Proceedings of XXXIX

Ibero-Latin American Congress on

Computational Methods in Engineering

Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Paulo de Mattos Pimenta

c Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Paulo de Mattos Pimenta

17 rue Ferdinand Sarrazin, 60280 Margny les Compiegne, France

ISBN : 978-2-9565961-0-3

ISBN 978-2-95-659610-3

0.00 EUR

9 782956 596103

CILAMCE 2018 : XXXIX Ibero-Latin American Congress on

Computational Methods in Engineering

November 11-14, 2018, Paris/Compiègne, France

EDITORIAL

Adnan Ibrahimbegovic , Paulo M. Pimenta

1 2

1

University of Technology Compiegne – Sorbonne Universités, 60200 Compiegne, France, adnan.ibrahimbegovic@utc.fr

2

Escola Polytechnica, University of Sao Paulo, 380-05508-010 Sao Paulo, Brazil, ppimenta@usp.br

Abstract: CILAMCE 2018 is the thirty ninth in the series of International Congresses focusing upon

Computational Methods in Engineering, held each year in Brazil. Previous meeting have all been

organized under umbrella of Brazilian association abmec, ‘Associação Brasileira de Métodos

Computacionais em Engenharia’, as the sponsor of CILAMCE Congress series. For this particular

Congress, we have additional two sponsors from France: CSMA, Association of Computational

Mechanics, and SMAI, Association of Applied and Industrial Mathematics. The institutions organizing

CILAMCE 2018 are University of Technology Compiegne, a member Sorbonne Universities, and Escola

Politecnica of University of Sao Paulo. The CILAMCE 2018 is held from 11 to 13 November 2018 in

Compiegne, with the final day of November 14 in Paris. The Congress seeks to provide a platform for

learning from some of the worlds' leading specialists in numerical methods, coming from engineering

disciplines and applied mathematics.

The main idea of this CILAMCE Congress is to examine recent advances in numerical methods

in currently most active research domains, with applications to interface and/or interaction of

several engineering disciplines. The multi-physics models and methods of this kind are often

bridging the phenomena taking place at multiple scales in space and time, which ought to be

placed in interaction or accounted for simultaneously in order to provide the most reliable results

explanations. This class of problems calls for the development and combination of different

modeling tools and computational methods in order to advance the field towards currently

relevant industrial applications. A number of different schools have developed in various

domains, both in engineering sciences and mathematics, with sometimes very little or no

interaction between them. It is an explicit goal of this CILAMCE Congress to bring all the

different communities together, from Brazil and from France, in the truly open scientific spirit,

and thus provide a sound basis for a fruitful exchange and crossfertilization of ideas among them.

i

2 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Abimael F. D. Loula (LNCC), Brazil

Adair Roberto Aguiar (EESC/USP), Brazil

Adnan Ibrahimbegovic, France

Alberto Cardona, Argentina

Alfredo Gay Neto, Brazil

Álvaro Luiz Gayoso de Azeredo Coutinho (UFRJ), Brazil

André Teófilo Beck (USP/São Carlos), Brazil

Anthony Gravouil, France

Bernardo Horowitz (UFPE), Brazil

Bert Sluys, Netherlands

Carlos Magluta (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil

Carlos Manuel Tiago Tavares Fernandes (IST/Portugal), Portugal

Cheng Liang Yee (USP), Brazil

Christianne de Lyra Nogueira (UFOP), Brazil

Delphine Brancherie, France

Eduardo de Miranda Batista (UFRJ), Brazil

Eduardo Fancello (UFSC), Brazil

Eduardo M. B. Campello (USP), Brazil

Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil

Emílio Carlos Nelli Silva (USP), Brazil

Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas (UFMG), Brazil

Eugenio Oñate, Brazil

Evandro Parente Jr (UFC), Brazil

Felício Bruzzi Barros (UFMG), Brazil

Fernando Alves Rochinha (UFRJ), Brazil

Florian De Vuyst, France

Francisco Chinesta, France

Francisco Evangelista Jr (UnB),Brazil

Gilberto Gomes (UnB),Brazil

Glaucio H. Paulino (Georgia Tech), Brazil

Gray Farias Moita (CEFET/MG), Brazil

Hachmi Ben Dhia, France

Hélio José C. Barbosa (LNCC), Brazil

Henrique Campelo Gomes (USP), Brazil

Hermann Matthies, Germany

Jean-Philippe Ponthot, Belgium

João Costa Pantoja (UnB), Brazil

Jörg Schröder, Germany

Jorge Ambrósio, Portugal

José Guilherme Santos Da Silva (UERJ), Brazil

José Luís Drummond Alves (UFRJ), Brazil

Julien Yvonnet, France

Julio R. Meneghini, Brazil

Kam Liu Wing, U.S.A.

Leonardo da Silveira P. Inojosa (UnB), Brazil

Lineu José Pedroso (UnB), Brazil

ii

Luis Bitencourt, Brazil

Marcílio Alves, Brazil

Marcio Augusto Roma Buzar (UnB),Brazil

Márcio Muniz de Faria (UnB), Brazil

Marco Lúcio Bittencourt (UNICAMP), Brazil

Nelson F.F. Ebecken (UFRJ), Brazil

Ney Augusto Dumont (PUC/RJ), Brazil

Ney Roitman (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil

Nicolas Moës, France

Pablo Javier Blanco (LNCC), Brazil

Patrícia de Oliveira Faria (UFSC), Brazil

Paulo B. Gonçalves (PUC-Rio), Brazil

Paulo M. Pimenta (USP), Brazil

Paulo R. M. Lyra (UFPE), Brazil

Peter Wriggers, Germany

Phillippe Devloo (UNICAMP), Brazil

Raul R. Silva (PUC-Rio), Brazil

Reyolando M.L.R.F. Brasil (UFABC), Brazil

Ricardo Azoubel da Mota Silveira (UFOP), Brazil

Roberto Dalledone Machado (PUC-PR), Brazil

Roger Ohayon, France

Ruy Marcelo Pauletti, Brazil

Sergio Idelsohn, Argentina

Sérgio Proença (USP/São Carlos), Brazil

Suzana Moreira Ávila (UnB), Brazil

Sylvia Regina Mesquita de Almeida (UFG), Brazil

Tadeusz Burczynski, Poland

Tod Laursen, U.A.E.

Yvon Maday, France

Zenon José Guzman Nuñez del Prado (UFG), Brazil

Sorbonne Universities-UTC : Prof. Adnan Ibrahimbegovic, Dr. Delphine Brancherie, Ms. Brigitte

Duch, Prof. Florian De Vuyst

University of Sao Paulo-EP : Prof. Paulo M. Pimenta, Prof. Eduardo M.B. Campello

Sorbonne Universities-UTC doctoral students : Mr. Ivan Rukavina, Mr. Pablo Moreno Navarro,

Ms. Tea Rukavina, Ms. Rosa Adela Mejia, Ms. Abir Boujelben, Mr. X.N. Do, Ms. S. Grbcic, Ms.

E. Hadzalic, Mr. I. Imamovic, Mr. E. Karavelic, Ms. S. Dobrilla

The Congress topics to be addressed concern not only ‘classical’ domains of Solid, Structural and

Fluid Mechanics, but also a number of currently ‘hot’ domains, such as: Heterogeneous

materials, Complex structures and systems, Material and structure failures, Adaptive modeling,

Mechanics of porous media, Fluid-structure interaction, Multi-phase flows, Model reduction,

Stochastic Processes, Uncertainty Propagation, Industrial Applications ...

The final day of the congress, scheduled at IUF location in Paris, will regroup invited plenary

lecturers giving overview of both current research in their fields and still open questions and

explorations to come. The keynote and standard lectures of each of first two congress days of this

congress at UT Compiegne, will address a number of issues concerning computational methods

iii

in wide variety of topics.

The following organized Mini-Symposia (containing 6 or more papers) are scheduled at the

congress:

Computational Methods for Image Processing and Analysis

Advanced Analysis in Steel and Steel-Concrete Composite Structures

Topology Optimization of Multifunctional Materials, Fluids and Structures

Modeling, Simulation and Control of Aerospace and Naval Structures Dynamics

Modelling, Design and Additive Manufacturing of Vibro-Acoustic Metamaterials

Boundary Element and Mesh-Reduced Methods

Numerical Modelling in Support to the Assessment and Strengthening of Existing Structures

Engineering Simulations using Finite Difference Methods

Structural Reliability Methods and Design Optimization Under Uncertainties

Analysis and Design of Offshore Systems

Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation

Advances in the Lattice-Boltzmann Method in Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fracture Mechanics (CFM)

Data Science Approaches and Applications

Experimental Investigation of Wave Propagation in Light Weight Structures Undergoing

Flexural Vibration

Health Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Structures

Numerical Methods Applied to Structural Design of Civil Construction

Advances on the Design and Optimization of Membranes, Gridshells and Bending-active

Structures

Computational Plasticity: Monotonic and Cyclic Applications

Analysis of Stability and Deformation of Evaporites Cavity

On the Numerical Simulation of Discrete Fracture Networks

Ageing and material pathologies towards civil engineering structural response

Advances in Solid and Structural Mechanics

Advances Thermal Sciences and Heat Propagation Problems

Modern Industrial Applications

Computational Modelling of Damage in Materials, Solids and Structures

Fluid-Structure Interaction

Reduced Order Modeling in Computational Mechanics

Sunday November 11, 2018, Compiègne, Welcome Event:

10 a.m. Armistice Day 100th anniversary: [Compiègne where the peace agreement between

France and Germany was signed to end The World War I, on November 11, 1918]

9:30 a.m. – 5 p.m. Parallel Sessions MS : Université de Technologie Compiègne

Nov. 12, 6 p.m. Reception City Hall / Nov. 13, 5 p.m. Gen. Assembly abmec

1:30 p.m. Plenary Session: IUF-Institut Universitaire de France, 1 rue Descartes, Paris

6 p.m. Guided Tour (Panthéon, Notre Dame, Musée Louvre …)

8 p.m. Banquet : Bateaux Mouches, [cruise on river Seine], Paris

iv

6 CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS VENUES

UNIVERSITE DE TECHNOLOGIE COMPIEGNE, CENTRE DE RECHERCHE, France

location:

(WATCH FOR SIGN: CILAMCE 2018)

ADDRESS: 66, AVENUE DE LANDSHUT, 60201 COMPIEGNE, France

v

FIG. 2 – PARIS / WEDNESDAY, 14 NOVEMBER 2018 (PLENARY LECTURES)

IUF- MINISTERE DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPRERIEUR, DE LA RECHERCHE ET DE L’INNOVATION

[ IUF - MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION ]

location:

(WATCH FOR SIGN: CILAMCE 2018)

ADDRESS: 25, RUE DE LA MONTAGNE SAINTE GENEVIEVE, 75005 PARIS, FRANCE

vi

Contents

1 PLENARY LECTURES 1

1.1 ASPECTS OF MULTI-SCALE COUPLING OF INELASTIC PROCESSES IN SOLID MECHAN-

ICS

Hermann Matthies and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 NUMERICAL MODELING OF FRACTURE IN HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS

Julien Yvonnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SLENDER BEAMS AND THIN SHELLS

Paulo de Mattos Pimenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.4 OLD AND NEW CONTRIBUTIONS ON REDUCED BASIS METHODS

Yvon Maday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2 SECTIONAL LECTURES 15

2.1 ENGINEERING STRUCTURES INTEGRITY AND DURABILITY VALIDATION

Adnan Ibrahimbegovic, Abir Boujelben, Xuan Nam Do, Simona Dobrilla, Emina Hadzalic, Sara

Grbčić, Ismar Imamovic, Emir Karavelić, Rosa Adela Mejia Nava, Pablo Moreno-Navarro, Mijo

Nikolic, Ivan Rukavina, Tea Rukavina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.2 DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELING OF GRANULAR AND PARTICULATE MATERIALS

Eduardo M. B. Campello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.3 A MIXED DATA-DRIVEN/TIME INTEGRATOR KERNEL-BASED APPROACH FOR MANI-

FOLD LEARNING OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

Florian De Vuyst, Faker Ben Belgacem, Piotr Breitkopf, Georges Oppenheim and Pierre Villon . 25

3 OTHER LECTURES 29

3.1 EFFICIENT COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR FLUID – STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN

APPLICATION TO LARGE OVERALL MOTION OF GIANT WIND TURBINE FLEXIBLE

BLADES WITH LONG TERM RESPONSE

Abir Boujelben and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.2 STRAIN LOCALIZATIONS IN PERIDYNAMIC BARS WITH NON-CONVEX POTENTIAL

Adair Aguiar, Gianni Royer-Carfagni and Alan Seitenfuss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.3 EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE AND DAMAGE OVER STRUCTURAL NATURAL FRE-

QUENCIES

Daniel Soares and Alexandre Cury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.4 MODELING WHEEL-RAIL CONTACT INTERACTION AND VEHICLE DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW

OF ONGOING DEVELOPMENTS AND NEW ACHIEVEMENTS

Alfredo Gay Neto and Thiago Pereira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.5 A NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT OF STIFFNESS ASSOCIATED WITH A SINGLE MOOR-

ING LINE: THE EFFECT OF SEA CURRENT AND APPLICATION FOR A FLOATING OFF-

SHORE WIND TURBINE

Giovanni Aiosa Do Amaral, Estevan Covari Isaak, Alfredo Gay Neto and Guilherme Rosa Franzini 42

3.6 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF FINITE DIFFERENCE 3D HETEROGENEOUS ACOUS-

TIC WAVE EQUATION SIMULATIONS

Carlos Barbosa, Schirley Jorge, Raphael Vilela, Luciano Leite, Jose Camata and Alvaro Coutinho 46

3.7 INFLUENCE OF PRECONDITIONING ON FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COLUMN

COLLAPSE USING A WELL-POSED µ(I)-RHEOLOGY

Linda Gesenhues, José J. Camata, Adriano M.A. Côrtes, Fernando A. Rochinha and Alvaro L.G.A.

Coutinho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

3.8 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WIND ACTION ON SUPERSTRUCTURE OF A BRIDGE

AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE RATE FOR DIFFERENT DECK GEOMETRIES

Anaximandro Souza, Leonardo Lisboa and Rodrigo Melo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

vii

3.9 ANALYSIS AND STRUCTURAL CORRECTION OF A BELT CONVEYOR TR-315K- 03 FROM

VALE COMPANY IN BRAZIL USING COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS TECHNIQUES

Anaximandro Souza, Carlos Magno and Luís Jorge de Mesquita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

3.10 PROBABILISTIC PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE OF A TRUSS: A BENCHMARK EXAMPLE

OF SYSTEM RBDO AND RISK-BASED OPTIMIZATION

André Teófilo Beck, Rodolfo Tessari and Henrique Kroetz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

3.11 UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION & RISK ANALYSIS IN ENGINEERING, WITH APPLI-

CATIONS TO OIL & GAS EXPLORATION

André Teófilo Beck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.12 DRYING OF CERAMIC BLOCKS IN AN INDUSTRIAL TUNNEL DRYER: MODELING AND

SIMULATION

Anderson Melchiades Vasconcelos Da Silva, Mariana Julie Do Nascimento Santos and Antonio

Gilson Barbosa de Lima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

3.13 NON-ISOTHERMAL ABSORPTION OF WATER IN VEGETABLE FIBER REINFORCED POLY-

MER COMPOSITES: AN APPLICATION TO THE LANGMUIR-TYPE MASS TRANSPORT

MODEL AND THE FINITE-VOLUME METHOD

Rafaela Quinto Costa Melo, José Vieira Silva and Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima . . . . . . . 65

3.14 AN EFFICIENT DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD WITH CROSS-POINT TREATMENT

FOR HELMHOLTZ PROBLEMS

Axel Modave, Xavier Antoine and Christophe Geuzaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3.15 STOCK PRICE CHANGE PREDICTION USING NEWS TEXT MINING

Marcelo Beckmann, Nelson Ebecken and Beatriz De Lima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

3.16 VIGA BIENGASTADA DE CONCRETO SOBRE BASE ELÁSTICA SUBMETIDA A CAR-

REGAMENTO UNIFORMEMENTE DISTRIBUÍDO: ANÁLISE NUMÉRICA VIA FTOOL E

SAP2000

Breenda Lorrana Vieira Lima and Michell Macedo Alves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

3.17 TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A GROUP OF RISERS IN

LAZY-WAVE CONFIGURATION

Bruno Monteiro, Bruno Jacovazzo, Carl Albrecht and Breno Jacob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

3.18 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NEIGHBOURING PARTICLE SEARCH METHODS IN COM-

PUTATIONAL FLUID MECHANICS: DIRECT SEARCH AND LINKED LIST TECHNIQUES

EVALUATION

Carlos Alberto Dutra Fraga Filho, Lucas Lustosa Schuina and Brenda Silva Porto . . . . . . . . 83

3.19 CONNECTION BETWEEN BERNOULLI-EULER RODS AND KIRCHHOFF-LOVE SHELLS

Cátia Silva, Sascha Maassen, Nils Viebahn, Paulo de Mattos Pimenta and Jörg Schröder . . . . . 87

3.20 NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE BRAZE WELDED ASSEMBLY OF A COPPER COATED

WITH A NICKEL-BASED ALLOY AND STEEL

Chawki Tahri, Christophe Bertoni, Eric Feulvarch, Helmut Klocker and Jean-Michel Bergheau . . 91

3.21 ON THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORKS

Philippe R. B. Devloo and Chensong Zhang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

3.22 SOME RESULTS ABOUT EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS SOLUTION FOR STOCHASTIC

BENDING BEAM

Claudio Roberto Ávila Da Silva Júnior and Pedro Danizete Damázio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3.23 BUBNOV GALERKIN METHOD APPLIED EULER BERNOULLI BEAM STOCHASTIC BEND-

ING

Claudio Roberto Ávila Da Silva Júnior and Pedro Danizete Damázio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

3.24 A FULLY-CONSERVATIVE FINITE VOLUME FORMULATION FOR COUPLED POROE-

LASTIC PROBLEMS

Herminio T. Honorio, Felipe Giacomelli, Lucas G. T. Da Silva and Clovis R. Maliska . . . . . . . 111

3.25 A LAGRANGIAN TRANSPORT MODEL TO SIMULATE THE TRAJECTORY OF OCEANIC

FLOATS

Daiane Faller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

3.26 FINITE ELEMENT STRATEGIES FOR MODELING THE SIZE EFFECT IN NANO-REINFORCED

MATERIALS

Dang Phong Bach, Delphine Brancherie and Ludovic Cauvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

3.27 CONCRETE QUANTITY MINIMIZATION FOR A SHALLOW FOUNDATION INTEGRAT-

ING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION AND A SOIL STRUCTURE-INTERACTION ANAL-

YSIS.

David Sebastian Cotes Prieto, Cesar Andrés Mendez Poveda, William Giovanny Alfonso León and

Oscar Javier Begambre Carrillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

viii

3.28 ANALYTICAL-NUMERICAL STUDY OF VIBRATIONS IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL UNCOU-

PLED AND COUPLED WITH FLUID

Davidson De Oliveira França Júnior and Lineu José Pedroso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

3.29 STUDY OF FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION THROUGH ADDITIONAL MASS IN CYLIN-

DRICAL TANKS UNDER FREE VIBRATIONS

Davidson De Oliveira França Júnior and Lineu José Pedroso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

3.30 THE STRONG DISCONTINUITY APPROACH FOR DUCTILE FAILURE WITH DAMAGE

Jeremie Bude and Delphine Brancherie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

3.31 ULTRASONIC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY USING FULL-WAVEFORM INVERSION FOR

QUANTITATIVE IMAGING OF BONES IN THE VISCOELASTIC CASE

Dimitri Komatitsch, Simon Bernard, Vadim Monteiller, Philippe Lasaygues and Régine Guillermin 136

3.32 COMPARATIVO DE DIMENSIONAMNETO DOS SISTEMAS ESTRUTURAIS SLIM FLOR E

STEEL DECK

Djemerson Mateus de Andrade, Geraldo Donizetti de Paula and Rovadávia Aline de Jesus Ribas 139

3.33 NUMERICAL STUDY OF BALLAST-FLYING PROCESS CAUSED BY ACCRETING SNOW/ICE

ON HIGH-SPEED TRAINS BY USING THE DISCONTINUOUS DEFORMATION ANALYSIS

(DDA)

Dong Ding, Abdellatif Ouahsine and Peng Du . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

3.34 ON THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF RODS AND BEAMS WITH NONLINEAR BOUNDARY

STIFFNESS

Douglas Roca Santo, Jean-Mathieu Mencik, Bin Tang, Paulo José Paupitz Gonçalves and Michael

John Brennan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

3.35 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SPIN ON THE SPATIO-THERMAL FIRE HAZARD DISTRIBUTION

OF INCANDESCENT FRAGMENTS

Eduardo M. B. Campello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

3.36 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF A CONCRETE FRAME

Eduardo Naccache and Valério Almeida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

3.37 PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR KINETIC MODELING OF 18F-FDG IN POSITRON EMIS-

SION TOMOGRAPHY(PET) IMAGE

Eliete Biasotto Hauser, Evandro Manica, Gianina Teribele Venturin, Samuel Greggio, Eduardo R.

Zimmer, Wyllians Vendramini Borelli and Jaderson Costa Da Costa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

3.38 A FIBER OPTIMIZATION METHOD BASED ON NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

FOR HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS

André Luis Ferreira Da Silva, Ruben Andres Salas and Emílio Carlos Nelli Silva . . . . . . . . . 162

3.39 NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF STRONG ADDED MASS EFFECT FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE

CALCULATIONS APPLIED TO MOVING HYDROFOILS

Emmanuel Lefrançois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

3.40 NOVEL METHOD FOR ACOUSTIC FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN APPLICATION

TO OVERALL SAFETY OF STRUCTURES IN QUASI-STATIC SETTING

Emina Hadzalic, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Samir Dolarevic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

3.41 MULTI-SURFACE PLASTICITY MODEL WITH SOFTENING FOR SOLIDS WITH MARKED

DIFFERENCE OF FAILURE

Emir Karavelić and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

3.42 COLLAPSE OF PARABOLICALLY TAPERED CHS STEEL COLUMNS: FINITE ELEMENT

MODEL VALIDATION

Tiago Zampaolo, Ernesto Massaroppi Jr., Miguel Abambres and Tiago Ribeiro . . . . . . . . . . 179

3.43 REPEATED RICHARDSON EXTRAPOLATION WITH VERIFICATION OF THE ORDER OF

ACCURACY OF NUMERICAL SCHEMES AND THE FORMS OF APPLYING BOUNDARY

CONDITIONS OF THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD ON THE LAPLACE EQUATION

Fabiana De Fatima Giacomini and Ana Paula Da Silveira Vargas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

3.44 NUMÉRICAL SIMULATION OF THE DESCENT OF CASING PIPES OF OFFSHORE OIL

WELLS

Tiago Sten Freitas, Fabrício Nogueira Corrêa and Breno Pinheiro Jacob . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

3.45 PARAMETRIC STUDY TO OPTIMIZE THE HYDRODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF A SUB-

MERGED PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER

Raí Quintas, Fabricio Corrêa and Carl Albrecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

3.46 3D DUCTILE CRACK SIMULATION BASED ON H-ADAPTIVE METHODOLOGY

Fangtao Yang, Alain Rassineux, Carl Labergere and Khemais Saanouni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

ix

3.47 FLOW OVER A CYLINDER FIXED BY SPRING AND DAMPER SOLVED BY FOURIER

PSEUDOSPECTRAL AND IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHODS

Felipe Pamplona Mariano, Andreia Aoyagui Nascimento and Aristeu Da Silveira Neto . . . . . . 194

3.48 A NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW AROUND CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR CYLIN-

DERS

Elder Gualberto Alves, Felipe Pamplona Mariano and Andreia Aoyagui Nascimento . . . . . . . 198

3.49 ASSESSMENT OF NON-CONVENTIONAL CONSTRAINTS IMPOSED TO A HYPERELAS-

TIC MODEL

Felipe Tempel Stumpf and Rogério José Marczak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

3.50 SOFTWARE EROSION ON A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SOFTWARE – A CASE STUDY

Flavio Torres Da Fonseca, Roque Luiz Da Silva Pitangueira and Samuel Silva Penna . . . . . . . 201

3.51 ENTROPIC CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LBGK MODEL FOR ADVECTION-DIFFUSION

Florian De Vuyst and Thomas Douillet-Grellier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

3.52 COMPACT THIRD ORDER EXPANSION OF LATTICE BOLTZMANN SCHEMES

François Dubois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

3.53 ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF POWER GENERATED BY COMBINED CYCLE HEAVY-DUTY

GAS TURBINE

Paulo Guilherme Inca, Gabriel Maidl, Eduardo Massashi Yamao, Renato De Arruda Penteado

Neto, Leandro Coelho and Cintia De Carvalho Toledo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

3.54 THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR

OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Gabriela Bandeira De Melo Lins De Albuquerque, Valdir Pignatta E Silva and João Paulo Cor-

reia Rodrigues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

3.55 MULTISCALE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE CRACKS IN AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE

Thiago Arnaud Abreu De Oliveira, Gilberto Gomes, Francisco Evangelista Junior and Alvaro

Martins Delgado Neto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

3.56 IDENTIFICATION OF PRINCIPAL RESEARCH TOPICS STUDIED IN ENGINEERING IN

BRAZIL

Jether Gomes, Thiago Dias and Gray Moita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

3.57 THE FUZZY LOGIC TECHNIQUE FOR EMULATION OF THE DECISION-MAKING PRO-

CESS DURING HUMAN MOVEMENT SIMULATION

Henrique Braga, Gray Moita and Paulo E. M. De Almeida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

3.58 FE2 MULTI-SCALE METHOD APPLIED TO SIMULATE COMPOSITE MATERIALS STRUC-

TURES IN SUPERCOMPUTERS

Guido Giuntoli, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez and Sergio Oller . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

3.59 A LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER FORMULATION FOR CONSIDERING MEMBER DEFORMA-

TION CONSTRAINTS INTO MATRIX STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Guilherme Barros, Luiz Fernando Martha and Evandro Parente Junior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

3.60 OBJECT ORIENTED FRAMEWORK FOR MULTIPHYSICS ANALYSIS

Guilherme Garcia Botelho, Humberto Alves Da Silveira Monteiro, Rodrigo Guerra Peixoto and

Roque Luiz Da Silva Pitangueira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

3.61 OVERALL ADAPTIVE MODELING FOR THE STATIC AND DYNAMIC FINITE ELEMENT

ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

Guoqiang Wei, Pascal Lardeur and Frédéric Druesne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

3.62 REPRESENTATION OF A PRODUCTION WELL USING A SERIES OF POINT SINKS IN 2D

BEM SIMULATIONS

Gustavo Gontijo, Éder Albuquerque and Eugênio Fortaleza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

3.63 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FOUNDATIONS CONSIDERING SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERAC-

TION IN A LAYERED MEDIUM

Helena Fideles, Marco Santos, Sergio Santos and Webe Mansur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

3.64 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINE

Henrique Ataide Nery De Castro Filho, Suzana Moreira Avila and José Luis Vital de Brito . . . . 248

3.65 POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF PLANE FRAME STRUCTURES WITH VARIABLE RIGID-

ITY ELEMENTS

Iara Ribeiro, Francisco Célio de Araújo, Kátia Silva and Tatiane Maga Mendes . . . . . . . . . . 251

3.66 UM ESTUDO EM VIBRAÇÕES LIVRES ACOPLADAS BARRAGEM-RESERVATÓRIO PELO

MÉTODO DAS DIFERENÇAS FINITAS E ELEMENTOS FINITOS

Iarly Vanderlei Da Silveira, Mauricio Mendes Vitalli and Lineu José Pedroso . . . . . . . . . . . 255

x

3.67 TOPOLOGICAL OPTIMIZATION APPLIED IN FLEXIBLE ROBOTIC ARMS – BY SESO

Adriano Ribeiro Marinho, Hélio Luiz Simonetti, Valério S. Almeida, Isabel Jesus and Ramiro

Barbosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

3.68 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING AND NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON STRUCTURAL CONNEC-

TION BEHAVIOR UNDER CYCLIC LOAD

Ismar Imamovic, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Esad Mesic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

3.69 MULTISCALE COMPUTATION PROCEDURE FOR LOCALIZED FAILURE: ED-FEM VER-

SUS FE2 MICRO-MACRO REPRESENTATIONS

Ivan Rukavina and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

3.70 ON THE ANALYSIS OF AN INNOVATIVE ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT OF THE XIII CEN-

TURY CONSIDERING MODERN NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES: THE SPIRE OF THE SEN-

LIS CATHEDRAL

Eduard Antaluca, Raphael Rolin, Jean-Louis Batoz and Fabien Lamarque . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

3.71 A NODAL INTEGRATION METHOD TO SIMULATE WELDING AND ROLLING PROCESSES

IN THE REFERENCE FRAME RELATED TO THE SOLICITATIONS

Yabo Jia, Jean-Christophe Roux, Eric Feulvarch, Jean-Baptiste Leblond and Jean-Michel Bergheau276

3.72 MODELLING OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS WITH MOVING BOUNDARIES EMPLOY-

ING THE ARLEQUIN FRAMEWORK

Jeferson Fernandes and Rodolfo Sanches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

3.73 A POSITIONAL FEM FORMULATION FOR CONTACT ANALYSIS OF 2D ELASTOPLAS-

TIC SOLIDS

Péricles Rafael Pavão Carvalho, Humberto Breves Coda, Rodolfo André Kuche Sanches and Je-

ferson Fernandes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

3.74 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SINGLE-PHASE TWO-COMPONENT FLOW IN NATURALLY

FRACTURED OIL RESERVOIRS

Joao Gabriel Souza Debossam, Juan Diego Dos Santos Heringer, Grazione de Souza and Helio

Pedro Amaral Souto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

3.75 EFFICIENT LBM ON GPUS FOR DENSE MOVING OBJECTS USING IMMERSED BOUND-

ARY CONDITION

Joel Beny and Jonas Latt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

3.76 SIMULAÇÃO TRANSIENTE DE ESCOAMENTOS LAMINARES UTILIZANDO O MÉTODO

SPH

Almério Pamplona, Flávia Cardoso, Fabiano Dos Santos and Joel Vasco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

3.77 CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF A HIGH-RISE TELECOM-

MUNICATIONS TOWER

Jorge Leite, Diogo Ribeiro, Nuno Pinto and Rui Calçada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

3.78 SIMULATING CRACK FRICTION INDUCED HYSTERESIS IN CERAMIC MATRIX COM-

POSITES (CMC)

Jorge Nunez Ramirez, Antoine Hurman and Fréderic Laurin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

3.79 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF TOPO-

GRAPHIC FACTOR IN SEISMIC AMPLIFICATION IN OIL FIELDS

José Alves, Alvaro Coutinho, Renato Elias, Carlos Silva, Leandro Gazoni, Marcus Casagrande

and Ricardo Borges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

3.80 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF MASONRY IN-

FILLS

José Guilherme Santos Da Silva, Leonardo Souza Bastos and Carolina Sanchez Guerrero . . . . 306

3.81 HUMAN COMFORT ASSESSMENT OF BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO NONDETERMINIS-

TIC WIND LOADINGS

José Guilherme Santos Da Silva, Alan Barile and Leonardo Souza Bastos . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

3.82 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NON-ISOTHERMAL FLOW IN OIL RESERVOIRS USING

A TWO-EQUATION MODEL

Juan Diego Dos Santos Heringer, João Gabriel de Souza Debossam, Grazione de Souza and

Helio Pedro Amaral Souto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

3.83 APPLICATION OF SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND FINITE ELEMENT METHOD IN

THE PREDICTIONS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE

CONCRETE

Aldemon Bonifacio, Julia Mendes, Michele Farage, Flavio Barbosa, Ciro Barbosa and Anne-Lise

Beaucour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

xi

3.84 INFLUENCE OF LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE’S SHAPES ON THE NUMERICAL EVALU-

ATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE

Aldemon Bonifacio, Julia Mendes, Michele Farage, Flavio Barbosa, Ciro Barbosa and Anne-Lise

Beaucour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

3.85 DAMAGE DETECTION IN BEAMS USING AN ADDITIONAL MOBILE MASS: A NUMER-

ICAL VALIDATION

Juliana Santos, Marcus Morais, Erwin Palechor, Marcela Machado, Ramon Silva and Luciano

Bezerra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

3.86 INTEROPERABILITY BETWEEN STRUCTURAL DESIGN SOFTWARE WITH BIM PLAT-

FORM

Kaio Ricardo Da Silva, Evangelos Dimitrios Christakou and Lenildo Santos Da Silva . . . . . . . 324

3.87 A NEW APPROACH TO CREATE PROFITABLE CUSTOMER PROFILES USING MACHINE

LEARNING AND RFMP MODEL

Leandro Da Silva Carvalho and Nelson Francisco Favilla Ebecken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

3.88 3D SEISMIC MODELING WITH OCTREE MESHES

André Valente, Leandro Di Bartolo and Webe Mansur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

3.89 DEEP NEURAL NETWORK FOR VECTOR FIELD TOPOLOGY RECOGNITION WITH AP-

PLICATIONS TO FLUID FLOW SUMMARIZATION

Eliaquim Ramos, Leandro Tavares Da Silva, Gilson Giraldi and Jaime Cardoso . . . . . . . . . 342

3.90 ESTUDO EM OTIMIZAÇÃO DE TERÇAS PARA COBERTURAS DE GALPÕES LEVES

Kamila Nascimento, Marco Bessa and Leonardo Inojosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

3.91 ANÁLISE ESTRUTURAL DA BIBLIOTECA DA FACULDADE DE MEDICINA DO DISTRITO

FEDERAL

Marco Bessa, Leonardo Inojosa, José Humberto De Paula, Ronaldo Almeida and Marcio Buzar . 350

3.92 MODULAR MODELLING APPROACH FOR FDM PRINTED STRUCTURES AND PIEZO

DISKS FOR METAMATERIAL DESIGN

Gabriel Konda Rodrigues, Maíra Martins Da Silva and Leopoldo Pisanelli Rodrigues de Oliveira 354

3.93 MEMBRANE-TYPE ACOUSTIC METAMATERIALS: A MODULAR PERSPECTIVE

Lucas Yudi Moriya Sampaio and Leopoldo Pisanelli Rodrigues de Oliveira . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

3.94 EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE OF TRUSSED SLABS WITH STEEL FORMWORK IN

COLD FORMED U PROFILE

Lucas Favarato, Adenilcia Calenzani, Juliana Pires, Elisabeth Junges and Johann Ferrareto . . . 379

3.95 TOWARDS MICRO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASTIC ANISOTROPY IN

HEXAGONAL MATERIALS USING SHAPE MANIFOLD LEARNING

Balaji Raghavan, Ludovic Cauvin, Salima Bouvier, Piotr Breitkopf and Fodil Meraghni . . . . . . 382

3.96 ESTUDO NUMÉRICO DO COMPORTAMENTO DINÂMICO DE UMA TORRE EÓLICA VIA

CFD

Adriana Silva, Lineu Pedroso and Luiz Oliveira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

3.97 APPLICATION OF A MULTIOBJETIVE OPTIMIZATION PARETO APPROACH TO DESIGN

THE SDRE CONTROLLER FOR A RIGID-FLEXIBLE SATELLITE

Luiz Souza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

3.98 RISK ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO INDUCED

SEISMICITY USING LUMPED DAMAGE MECHANICS MODELING

Andréia H. A. Silva, Gonzalo L. Pita, Julio Flórez-Lopez, Gustavo H. Siqueira, Thiago D. Santos,

Karolinne O. Coelho, Ricardo A. Picón and Luiz C. M. Vieira Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

3.99 IDENTIFYING ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF GEOMECHANICAL RESERVOIR MODELS US-

ING METAHEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Marcello Congro, Rafael Abreu and Deane Roehl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

3.100COMPARATIVE STUDY IN RESULTS AND COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF THE

MAIN METHODS OF SOLUTION OF SPARSE AND SYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS THAT

RESULT FROM FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Calebe Souza and Maria Clara Rameiro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

3.101NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF ALUMINUM PLANE PLATES WITH TWO COPLANAR HOLE-

EDGE CRACKS UTILIZING DUAL BOUNDARY ELEMENTS METHOD.

Matheus Lisboa and Carla Anflor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

3.102EFFECT OF THE MUDDY AREA ON THE SURFACE WAVE ATTENUATION AND THE

SHIP’S SQUAT

Mohamed Ali, Sami Kaidi and Emmanuel Lefrançois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

xii

3.103FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELING OF A PEDIATRIC VENTRICULAR AS-

SIST DEVICE

Mohammad Malekan, Simão Bach and Idagene A. Cestari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

3.104IMPLEMENTATION OF EXTENDED FINITE ELEMENT FOR WEAK DISCONTINUITIES

USING PYTHON

Nasser Alkmim and Francisco Evangelista Junior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

3.105COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE MODELS IN HYDRAULIC JUMPS

David Oliveira Fonseca, Raquel Jahara Lobosco, Graziela Maria Faquim Jannuzzi and Necesio

Gomes Costa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

3.106SYNCHRONIZATION IN ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS

Gilberto Pereira and Nelson Ebecken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

3.107SHAPED CHARGE OPTIMIZATION THROUGH EVOLUTIONARY METHODS

Alexandre de Assis Motta and Nelson Francisco Favilla Ebecken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

3.108STOCHASTIC APPROXIMATION TO HETEROGENEOUS DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

Nikolaos Limnios and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

3.109NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A HISTORICAL MILITARY BUILDING PLACED IN MEX-

ICO CITY, SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE AND SOIL SUBSIDENCE EFFECTS

Norberto Domínguez, Arturo Suarez and Juan-Edmundo Mayorga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

3.110ELECTROMAGNETIC MODELING USING NEDELEC ELEMENTS OF HIGH-ORDER AND

HPC

Octavio Castillo Reyes, Josep de La Puente and José María Cela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

3.111ELECTROSTATIC AND MAGNETOSTATIC DUAL FORMULATIONS AND FINITE ELE-

MENT IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL FORMS

Pablo Moreno-Navarro, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Alejandro Ospina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

3.112IMPLEMENTATION OF NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS FOR BOND-SLIP EFFECT APPLIED IN

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS CONSIDERING THE VARIABLE BOND MODEL

João Xavier, Robson Pereira, Lineu Pedroso and Paulo Martins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

3.113AVALIAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS SIMPLIFICADOS E REFINADOS UTILIZADOS PARA A DE-

TERMINAÇÃO DAS FLECHAS IMEDIATAS EM ELEMENTOS FLETIDOS DE CONCRETO

(COERÊNCIA COM DADOS EXPERIMENTAIS)

Robson Pereira, João Paulo Xavier, Paulo Martins and Lineu Pedroso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

3.114BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN REGULARIZED LATTICE-BOLTZMANN

Luiz Hegele, Keijo Mattila, Jonas Hegele and Paulo Philippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450

3.115APPLICATION OF HIGH ORDER FLUX RECONSTRUCTION/CORRECTION PRO-CEDURE

VIA RECONSTRUCTION (FR/CPR) METHOD COUPLED TO A NON-ORTHODOX MUL-

TIPOINT FLUX APPROXIMATION METHOD (MPFA-D) IN THE SIMULATION OF TWO-

PHASE FLOWS IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

Gustavo Ramirez, Fernando Contreras, Darlan Carvalho and Paulo Lyra . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

3.116AN INTERACTIVE-GRAPHICS TOOL FOR MODELING AND ANALYZING STRUCTURES

IN MATLAB

Pedro Lopes, Rafael Rangel and Luiz Fernando Martha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454

3.117GEOMETRICALLY EXACT TIMOSHENKO ROD THEORY WITH INCREMENTAL RODRIGUES

PARAMETERS

Pedro Virgolino, Cátia Costa E. Silva and Paulo de Mattos Pimenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

3.118SIMULATION OF SHIP MOTIONS IN STATIC AND DYNAMIC STATES

Peng Du and Abdellatif Ouahsine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

3.119NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORKS IN PETROLEUM RESER-

VOIR SIMULATION

Chensong Zhang and Philippe R. B. Devloo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

3.120A RANDOM SET BASED IDENTIFICATION STRATEGY

Pierre Feissel, Liqi Sui and Thierry Denoeux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

3.121MODEL ORDER REDUCTION IN STRUCTURAL RAPID DYNAMICS WITH APPLICATION

TO CRASHWORTINESS DESIGN

Pierre Phalippou, Salim Bouabdallah, Piotr Breitkopf and Pierre Villon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

3.122EDUCATIONAL TOOL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES WITH GEOMETRIC NON-

LINEARITY

Rafael Rangel and Luiz Fernando Martha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

3.123INFLUENCE OF MATERIAL HETEROGENEITY ON THE STABILITY OF EXPLICIT HIGH-

ORDER SPECTRAL ELEMENT METHODS

Régis Cottereau and Ruben Sevilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

xiii

3.124EVALUATION OF LOW-COST MEMS ACCELEROMETERS PERFORMANCE FOR STRUC-

TURAL HEALTH MONITORING MODAL ANALYSIS

Renan Rocha Ribeiro and Rodrigo Lameiras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

3.125A NONLINEAR DYNAMIC MODEL OF A NON-IDEAL MOTOR SUPPORT STRUCTURE

Reyolando Brasil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

3.126UNSUPERVISED REAL-TIME SHM TECHNIQUE FOR NOVELTY DETECTION BASED ON

SINGLE-VALUED FEATURES

Rharã Cardoso, Alexandre Cury and Flávio Barbosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

3.127INFLUENCE OF PARTIAL SHEAR CONNECTION OF STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE

BEAM IN THE MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS ANALYSIS

Ígor J.M. Lemes, Luís E.S. Dias, Ricardo A.M. Silveira, Amilton R. Silva and Andréa R.D. Silva . 488

3.128ADVANCED INELASTIC ANALYSIS OF STEEL ARCHES WITH TUBULAR CROSS SEC-

TIONS

Ricardo Silveira, Lidiane de Deus, Jéssica Silva and Ígor Lemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

3.129UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION IN EULER-BERNOULLI AND TIMOSHENKO BENDING

STATICS PROBLEMS

Roberto Squarcio and Claudio Roberto Ávila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

3.130VIBRATION CONTROL BY IMPLICIT DISSIPATIVE SCHEME IN NONLINEAR DYNAM-

ICS 2D BEAM STRUCTURES

Rosa Adela Mejia Nava, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Rogelio Lozano-Leal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

3.131NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF WELDED CONNECTIONS

BETWEEN SQUARE HOLLOW CORE SECTION COLUMN AND I-BEAM

Rosicley Rosa and Juliano Neto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

3.132AN OUTLINE OF SATS – A SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TAUT STRUCTURES

Ruy Marcelo Pauletti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504

3.133NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF 3D MICROPOLAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

Sara Grbčić, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Gordan Jelenic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

3.134A GEOMETRICALLY EXACT EULER-BERNOULLI BEAM FORMULATION FOR NONLIN-

EAR 3D MATERIAL LAWS

Sascha Maassen, Paulo de Mattos Pimenta and Jörg Schröder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

3.135PORE-SCALE SIMULATION OF THE WETTABILITY INFLUENCE ON THE DISPLACE-

MENT OF IMMISCIBLE FLUIDS USING A LATTICE-BOLTZMANN METHOD

Ricardo Bazarin, Christian Naaktgeboren and Silvio Junqueira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516

3.136PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF FAILURE OF FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

Simona Dobrilla, Noémi Friedman, Tea Rukavina, Hermann Matthies and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic 526

3.137ANISOTROPIC HIGH-ORDER ADAPTIVE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS FOR 3D ACOUS-

TIC WAVE PROPAGATION

Faisal Amlani, Stéphanie Chaillat and Adrien Loseille . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

3.138FORECAST DEMAND ON THE QUEBEC POWER GRID: CHALLENGES AHEAD

Stéphane Dellacherie, Olivier Milon, Cédric Poutré and Arnaud Zinflou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

3.139MODELING COMPLETE FIBER PULL-OUT IN FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Tea Rukavina, Adnan Ibrahimbegovic and Ivica Kozar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534

3.140DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBOTIC PROSTHESIS CONTROLLED BY MYOELECTRIC SEN-

SORS

Kesley Silva, Matheus Delgado, Adriano Drumond and Thiago Dias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538

3.141A MODEL TO SOLVE ROTATION PROBLEMS BETWEEN SHELLS

Thiago Fernandes, Paulo de Mattos Pimenta and Cátia Silva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542

3.142EVALUATION OF CRACKED FUSELAGE SUBJECT TO CONTACT MECHANICS

Thiago Arnaud Abreu De Oliveira, Gilberto Gomes, Francisco Evangelista Junior and Alvaro

Martins Delgado Neto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

3.143MODELLING OF ACTUATED 3D MECHANISMS BY A DYNAMIC GEOMETRIC NONLIN-

EAR FEM FORMULATION WITH APPLICATIONS IN AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

Tiago Siqueira and Humberto Coda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550

3.144COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE IN A MULTISTOREY STEEL

BUILDING

Mariana Souza and Tulio Melo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554

3.145STRUT AND TIE ANALYSIS USING TOPOLOGICAL OPTIMIZATION WITH 3D TRUSS

FINITE ELEMENTS

Valério S. Almeida, Hélio L Simonetti and Edson B. Ferreira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556

xiv

3.146IMMERSED BOUNDARY – LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD FOR 2D PARTICLE SEDI-

MENTATION IN POWER-LAW FLUIDS

Vanessa Glück Nardi and Admilson T. Franco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560

3.147ANALYSIS OF INTERACTING FLUID-SOLID COUPLED MODELS CONSIDERING AN EF-

FICIENT ADAPTIVE TIME DOMAIN FORMULATION

Victor Bicalho Civinelli de Almeida and Delfim Soares Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564

3.148A SIMPLE ALTERNATIVE FOR HIGHER ORDER FINITE-ELEMENT SOLUTION OF BOUND-

ARY VALUE PROBLEMS POSED IN CURVED DOMAINS

Vitoriano Ruas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

3.149LOCAL MESHLESS METHOD WITH REDUCED INTEGRATION FOR HIGH IRREGULAR-

ITY OF THE NODAL ARRANGEMENT

Wilber Vélez, Thiago Araujo, Tiago Oliveira and Artur Portela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585

3.150CRACK PROPAGATION IN DYNAMICS BY EMBEDDED STRONG DISCONTINUITY AP-

PROACH AND ENERGY BALANCE IN SIMULATIONS

Xuan Nam Do and Adnan Ibrahimbegovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588

3.151MOVING IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR FSI PROBLEMS

Shang Gui Cai, Abdellatif Ouahsine and Yannick Hoarau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592

3.152A PRAGMATIC STRATEGY FOR THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE FLUID FLOW

DURING WELDING PROCESSES

Yassine Saadlaoui, Eric Feulvarch, Alexandre Delache, Jean-Baptiste Leblond and Jean-Michel

Bergheau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594

3.153PARALLEL LBM-DEM SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW EROSION USING GPU

Zeyd Benseghier, Pablo Cuéllar, Li-Hua Luu, Stéphane Bonelli and Pierre Philippe . . . . . . . . 600

xv

1. PLENARY LECTURES

1

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

12-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

I NELASTIC P ROCESSES IN S OLID M ECHANICS∗

Hermann G. Matthies1 , Adnan Ibrahimbegović2

1 Institute of Scientific Computing, Technische Universität Braunschweig

38092 Braunschweig, Germany; e-mail: wire@tu-bs.de

2 Université de Technologie de Compiègne/Sorbonne Universités

60200 Compiègne, France; e-mail: adnan.ibrahimbegovic@utc.fr

scales is a considerable challenge. Such materials can be represented at different scales, depend-

ing upon the objectives and the physical mechanisms that are important to account for. But

often one needs computations on scales which are far larger than the significant heterogeneities.

With limited computational resources for typical engineering applications, most frequently

the analysis has to be performed at the structure scale or macro-scale, where the description

of the heterogeneity can not be resolved and is uncertain having only a statistical description.

If only elastic deformations are considered, at this scale cement-based materials—in contrast

to most situations involving geological materials—can be considered as homogeneous, and their

properties can be obtained by homogenisation. Those models are well known for their robustness

and lead to relatively moderate computational cost. Similar things can be said about mildly

non-linear and irreversible behaviour, like incipient plasticity and damage mechanics. Here

one would like to have a phenomenological model of some simpler type, which for this range

of deformations captures the main features of the micro-structure, e.g. has similar amount of

stored and dissipated energies.

Such models are based on a set of ‘material parameters’ which need to be identified, by

minimising some kind of error measure between predicted and observed response, mainly from

experiments providing unique load paths and boundary conditions. In simple idealised situations

this homogenisation can be performed analytically.

However, such homogenisation approaches only, if at all, capture the average behaviour of the

material. They do not take into account the inherent uncertainties attached to heterogeneous

materials and structures. Here we will introduce a method to take account of the uncertainties

in in the heterogeneous materials, the meso-scale, and will also be able to reflect the effect of this

uncertainty on the macro-scale. Normally, homogenisation assumes that the small heterogeneous

scales are infinitesimally small compared to the macro-scale, and that only the mean response

has to be considered, and all response variability due to the variation on small- or meso-scales

has been averaged away. There assumptions are not always valid. One is when the scales are not

well separated, and geological materials and concrete are two examples where there is variability

typically over all scales of interest. The other situation occurs when variations on the meso-scale

may be the cause for large scale effects, like cracks and local material failures, which have severe

consequences on the macro-scale. The well-known size effect is such a feature [1], and we want

numerical methods which are able to capture this. Furthermore we want to be able to allow

Partly supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and

∗

3 1

models of different kind to be used on different scales, and be able to bind them together. This

will continue work which was reported on previously at different stages of development [5, 9].

Additionally, we want to have efficient computational procedures, and hence the ability to switch

the computation on different scales as need arises, one could think of this as a form of ‘zoom’

capability [3] for regions where interesting localised phenomena take place.

The variability at all scales which we are thinking of has a geometrical aspect, considering

the arrangement (positions, shapes) of the different phases or materials. The other variability

is in the actual properties of the different phases or materials which make up the heterogeneous

body. Examples of such models, which are actually discrete at the meso-scale, can be found in

[6, 2, 12, 4].

At the macro-scale,we are interested in a continuum model, which exhibits the salient fea-

tures of the meso-scale heterogeneous material. As the macro-scale can not represent the true

variability on the meso-scale, which is typically only known statistically anyway, and hence un-

certain, it is proposed to model this additional uncertainty, which comes from the upscaling and

possible model errors, also by a stochastic model. So we choose a stochastic macro-scale con-

tinuum model, where the unresolved variability of the meso-scale is modelled by the stochastic

content. As the salient features of the heterogeneous material we consider here its volume aver-

aged free energy, and the volume averaged dissipation. We shall restrict ourselves here to purely

isothermal processes for the sake of simplicity.

We consider two different stages resp. resolutions of the computation, which can be used

in conjunction in different parts of the computational domain. A true two-scale computation

in the areas where the macro-scale continuum model alluded to above is not possible do give

a response which is accurate enough. Here the interaction between macro- and meso-scale is

considered so strong that the meso-scale resolution is considered necessary. This may happen

in regions where severe irreversible material processes occur, such that the deformation path of

the macro-scale, which is imposed onto the meso-scale, interacts with the meso-scale response

in some profound way. To capture also the size effect, the so-called MIEL-technique is employed

[7, 9], which has a mesh in a frame of macro elements, see also [3, 4]. As the meso-scale is

heterogeneous and uncertain, this meso-scale model is by default a probabilistic model.

To lower the computational cost, the multi-scale approach just mentioned may be in certain

areas of the computation replaced by the macro-scale continuum model alluded to above. This

is a model which is only defined on the macro scale, and has to be pre-computed. In this

procedure, which may be termed an offline procedure, the results obtained at the fine scale are

used to identify and define the probabilistic variation of the phenomenological model parameters

used at the macro-scale. Both the macro- and meso-scale models are probabilistic models, and

hence probabilistic methods may be used to transfer information between the scales. By using

the fast computations possible with functional representations of stochastic properties, this can

be done with Bayesian methods [13, 11, 10, 8].

The macro-scale model is made such that it is capable of representing the salient features of

the meso-scale behaviour, such as elastic deformation combined with e.g. ductile, quasi-brittle,

or brittle behaviour [6, 2, 12, 4]. The variables which bind the models at the different scales

together are as input the overall deformation, and as output, which has to be matched, one can

take, as already mentioned, the volume averaged free energy density and the entropy production

density. Our latest work [15, 14, 16] demonstrates that it is possible to use these variables for

parameter identification. Finally, what is needed is a procedure to determine when to switch

between these different representations of the heterogeneous meso-scale. This will be based

on an error estimator, which is capable of estimating the error between the continuum model

and the multi-scale representation of the heterogeneous material, such that the computationally

expensive multi-scale model is only used where necessary in material ‘zoom’ fashion [3, 9].

References

[1] J.-B. Colliat, M. Hautefeuille, A. Ibrahimbegović, and H. G. Matthies, Stochastic approach to quasi-

brittle failure and size effect, Comptes Rend. Académie Science: Mech. (CRAS) 335 (2007), 430–435.

4 2

[2] X. N. Do, A. Ibrahimbegović, and D. Brancherie, Dynamics framework for 2D anisotropic continuum-

discrete damage model for progressive localized failure of massive structures, Computers and Struc-

tures 183 (2017), 14–26, doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2017.01.011.

[3] M. Hautefeuille, J.-B. Colliat, A. Ibrahimbegović, and H. G. Matthies, Multiscale zoom capabil-

ities for damage assessment in structures, Damage Assessment and Reconstruction after Natural

Desasters and Previous Military Activities (A. Ibrahimbegović and M. Zlatar, eds.), NATO-ARW

series, Springer, 2008.

[4] M. Hautefeuille, J.-B. Colliat, A. Ibrahimbegović, H. G. Matthies, and P. Villon, A multi-scale

approach to model localized failure with softening, Computers and Structures 94–95 (2012), 83–95,

doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.11.007.

[5] A. Ibrahimbegovic and H. G. Matthies, Probabilistic multiscale analysis of inelastic localized failure

in solid mechanics, Computer Assisted Methods in Engineering and Science 19 (2012), 277–304,

Available from: http://cames.ippt.gov.pl/pdf/CAMES_19_3_5.pdf.

[6] E. Karavelić, M. Nikolić, A. Ibrahimbegović, and A. Kurtović, Concrete meso-scale model with full

set of 3D failure modes with random distribution of aggregate and cement phase. Part I: Formulation

and numerical implementation, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering in Press

(2017), doi:10.1016/j.cma.2017.09.013.

[7] D. Markovič, R. Niekamp, A. Ibrahimbegović, H. G. Matthies, and R. L. Taylor, Multi-scale modeling

of heterogeneous structures with inelastic constitutive behavior: Part I — physical and mathematical

aspects, Engineering Computations 22 (2005), 664–683, doi:10.1108/02644400510603050.

[8] H. G. Matthies, Uncertainty quantification and Bayesian inversion, Encyclopaedia of Computational

Mechanics (E. Stein, R. de Borst, and T. J. R. Hughes, eds.), vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester,

2nd ed., 2017, Part 1. Fundamentals. Encyclopaedia of Computational Mechanics, doi:10.1002/

9781119176817.ecm2071.

[9] H. G. Matthies and A. Ibrahimbegović, Stochastic multiscale coupling of inelastic processes in

solid mechanic, Multiscale Modelling and Uncertainty Quantification of Materials and Struc-

tures (M. Papadrakakis and G. Stefanou, eds.), 135–157, vol. 3, Springer, Berlin, 2014, doi:

10.1007/978-3-319-06331-7_9.

[10] H. G. Matthies, E. Zander, B. V. Rosić, and A. Litvinenko, Parameter estimation via conditional

expectation: a Bayesian inversion., Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences 3

(2016), 24, doi:10.1186/s40323-016-0075-7. MR 2202913 (2006h:74023)

[11] H. G. Matthies, E. Zander, B. V. Rosić, A. Litvinenko, and O. Pajonk, Inverse problems in a

Bayesian setting, Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids — Multiscale Analysis, Probab-

ility Aspects and Model Reduction (A. Ibrahimbegović, ed.), Computational Methods in Applied

Sciences, vol. 41, Springer, Berlin, 2016, pp. 245–286, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27996-1_10.

[12] M. Nikolić and A. Ibrahimbegović, Rock mechanics model capable of representing initial heterogeneit-

ies and full set of 3D failure mechanisms, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering

290 (2015), 209–227, doi:10.1016/j.cma.2015.02.024.

[13] B. V. Rosić, A. Kučerová, J. Sýkora, O. Pajonk, A. Litvinenko, and H. G. Matthies, Parameter

identification in a probabilistic setting, Engineering Structures 50 (2013), 179–196, doi:10.1016/j.

engstruct.2012.12.029.

[14] B. V. Rosić, M. S. Sarfaraz, H. G. Matthies, and A. Ibrahimbegović, Stochastic upscaling of random

microstructures, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 17 (2017), 869–870, doi:

10.1002/pamm.201710401.

[15] M. S. Sarfaraz, B. V. Rosić, and H. G. Matthies, Stochastic upscaling of heterogeneous materi-

als, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 16 (2016), 679–680, doi:10.1002/pamm.

201610328.

[16] M. S. Sarfaraz, B. V. Rosić, H. G. Matthies, and A. Ibrahimbegović, Stochastic upscaling via linear

Bayesian updating, Multiscale Modeling of Heterogeneous Structures (J. Sorić, P. Wriggers, and

O. Allix, eds.), Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, vol. 86, Springer, 2018,

pp. 163–181, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-65463-8_9.

5 3

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Julien Yvonnet1

1

Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS,

5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France, julien.yvonnet@univ-paris-est.fr

In recent years, the fast development of 3D imaging techniques such as micro tomography

combined with in-situ testing have offered new possibilities to investigate the microstructural damage

evolution due to microcracking of highly complex materials such as concrete [1] or regular lattices

obtained by additive manufacturing (3D printing). These new experimental and manufacturing

techniques open tough challenges for the modeling of damage in heterogeneous quasi brittle materials:

simulate the initiation and propagation of complex 3D micro crack networks in realistic geometries

arising from micro tomography, identify the microstructural damage models, construct damage models

at the scale of homogeneous materials, or even optimizing the local topology of constituents to

maximize the resistance of the material to fracture.

In a first part [2-6], we present recent results of microcracking numerical models in realistic

concrete microstructures obtained by combining micro tomography, 3D imagery, in-situ testing, and

the numerical phase field method to fracture [7,8]. We show that this method combines several

advantages in this context: (a) the possibility to simulate the initiation and propagation of complex

micro crack networks in realistic geometries of microstructures; (b) no mesh dependence, allowing

using directly regular meshes obtained from segmented images; (c) a very small number of parameters

to be identified; (d) a high robustness and efficiency of algorithms. We present the first, to our best

knowledge, direct comparisons between 3D complex evolving crack networks obtained from

experiments and simulations at both micro and macro scales in plaster and concrete samples [3]. An

identification of microstructural damage parameters based on inverse approaches combining in-situ

testing, 3D imaging, 3D image correlation and the numerical phase field method for fracture is

presented.

In a second part [9,10], we describe an approach to design complex 2-phase lattice materials

which can be obtained by recent 3D printing techniques to maximize their fracture resistance to

microcracking [7,8]. The method uses topology optimization combined with full simulations of micro

cracks initiation and propagations in heterogeneous periodic lattice structures. At each iteration of the

procedure, the topology of local geometries is optimized for maximizing the total fracture energy of

the material, by taking into account both bulk and interfacial damage between phases. Finally, a

method to construct simplified models of damage description at the scale of the homogeneous

materials in these regular lattice materials is proposed.

References

[1] C. Chateau, T.T. Nguyen, M. Bornert, J.Yvonnet, DVC-based image subtraction to detect cracking

in lightweight concrete, Strain, 2018, accepted.

[2] T.T. Nguyen, J. Yvonnet, M. Bornert, C. Chateau, F. Bilteryst, E. Steib, Large-scale simulations of

quasi-brittle microcracking in realistic highly heterogeneous microstructures obtained from micro CT

imaging, Extreme Mechanics Letters, 17:50-55, 2017

6

[3] T.T. Nguyen, J. Yvonnet, Q.-Z. Zhu, M. Bornert, C. Chateau, Initiation and propagation of

complex 3D networks of cracks in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials: direct comparison between in

situ testing- microCT experiments and phase field simulations, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics

of Solids, 95:320-350, 2016.

[4] T.T. Nguyen, J. Yvonnet, M. Bornert, C. Chateau, K. Sab, R. Romani, R. Le Roy, On the choice of

numerical parameters in the phase field method for simulating crack initiation with experimental

validation, International Journal of Fracture, 197(2), 213-226, 2016.

[5] T.T. Nguyen, J. Yvonnet, Q.-Z. Zhu, M. Bornert, C. Chateau, A phase-field method for

computational modeling of interfacial damage interacting with crack propagation in realistic

microstructures obtained by microtomography, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Engineering, 312:567-595, 2016.

[6] T.T. Nguyen, J. Yvonnet, Q.-Z. Zhu, M. Bornert, C. Chateau, A phase field method to simulate

crack nucleation and propagation in strongly heterogeneous materials from direct imaging of their

microstructure, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 139:18-39, 2015

[7] G.A. Francfort, J.J. Marigo, Revisiting brittle fracture as an energy minimization problem, J.

Mech. Phys. Solids 46(8), 1319–1342, 1998.

[8] C. Miehe, M. Hofacker, F. Welschinger, A phase field model for rate-independent crack

propagation: Robust algorithmic implementation based on operator splits, Comput. Methods Appl.

Mech. Engrg. 199, 2776–2778, 2010.

[9] D.Da, J. Yvonnet, L. Xia, G. Li, Topology optimization of particle-matrix composites for optimal,

fracture resistance taking into account interfacial damage, International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering, 2018, accepted (doi: 10.1002/nme.5818)

[10] L. Xia, D. Da, J. Yvonnet, Topology optimization for maximizing the fracture resistance of quasi-

brittle composites, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 332:234-254,2018.

Acknowledgements

This work has benefited from a French government grant managed by ANR within the frame of the

national program Investments for the Future ANR-11-LABX-022–01.

The financial support from IUF (Institut Universitaire de France) is gratefully acknowledged.

7

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Paulo de Mattos Pimenta1

1

Polytechnic School at University of São Paulo, Brazil, ppimenta@usp.br

ABSTRACT

This work reviews the theoretical and numerical results introduced by the author in the last fifteen years

[1-8]. As novelty a geometrically exact Bernoulli-Euler rod and a Kirchhoff-Love shell numerical

models are developed. The parameterization of the rotation field is done by the rotation tensor with the

Rodrigues formula that makes the updating of the rotational variables very simple. For the rods a Cubic

Hermitian interpolation for the displacements together with a quadratic Lagrange interpolation for the

torsion angle of the rod were employed within the usual Finite Element Method, leading to adequate C1

continuity. For the shell a consistent plane stress condition is incorporated at the constitutive level of the

model. A triangular finite element, with a quadratic interpolation for the displacements are applied for

the shell model. The connection between the two models is done by a Lagrange multiplier. This model

can be used in any case of rod and shell working together like with reinforced shells.

1. INTRODUCTION

The objective of this work is to present the theoretical and numerical results developed by the author in

[1-8]. As novelty we develop geometrically exact Bernoulli-Euler rod and a Kirchhoff-Love shell

numerical models. The parameterization of the rotation field is done by the rotation tensor with the

Rodrigues formula that makes the updating of the rotational variables very simple. For the rods a Cubic

Hermitian interpolation for the displacements together with a quadratic Lagrange interpolation for the

torsion angle of the rod were employed within the usual Finite Element Method, leading to adequate C1

continuity. For the shell a consistent plane stress condition is incorporated at the constitutive level of the

model. A triangular finite element, with a quadratic interpolation for the displacements are applied for

the shell model.

Let denote the vector of Rodrigues parameters. The Rodrigues parameterization furnishes

4

ˆ

Q 1 2 , where Skew and 2 . (2.1)

2 2

4

Vector can be obtained from Q ei eir with the aid of

4

axial SkewQ (2.2)

1 trQ

8

The curvature is

4

Ξ I 1 . (2.4)

4 2

2.1. INCREMENTAL DESCRIPTION

Let i and i 1 denote a quantity at instants ti and ti , respectively. And let be an incremental

quantity. Thus, one gets for the rotation tensor the following relations

Qi 1 QQi , where

ˆ i 1 , Q Q

ˆ ˆ i . (2.5)

Qi 1 Q and Qi Q

4

i 1 1 . (2.6)

4 i i

2

i

In the incremental description we have

4 .

Ξ I 1 (2.7)

4 2 2

2 1

e3m e3i e3i 1 e3m e3m , (2.8)

where is the incremental torsion angle.

2

e ij 1 e ij (2.9)

1 e ij 1 e ij

Let e1r , e2r , er3 be an orthogonal system placed at the reference configuration of the rod. The vectors

r

er , 1, 2 , are placed on the cross section of the rod. Thus, e3 is orthogonal to this plane. The position

of the rod material points in the reference configuration is and r the director

r

configuration. In the current configuration, the position of the material points is given by

1

x z r , r Qr r , with e3 z z , and z e3r u and z u . (3.2)

9

4. GEOMETRICALLY EXACT KIRCHHOFF-LOVE SHELL KINEMATICS

The middle surface of the shell is plane in the reference. Let e1r , e2r , e3r be an orthogonal system with

the vectors er placed on the shell reference mid-plane and e3r normal to this plane. The position of the

rod material points in the reference configuration is and r r is the director just like in the rod.

r r , er , r r 3e3r . (4.1)

x z r , r Qr r , z u , (4.2)

Note that

z, = er u, and z, u, with , and (4.3)

1

e1 z,1 z,1 ,

1

e3 z,1 z,2 (z,1 z,2 ), (4.4)

e2 e3 e1 .

5. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Some numerical examples are presented during the presentation. A sample is displayed below.

10

Figure 3: inversion of creased shell

REFERENCES

[1] Silva, C.C., Maassen, S., Pimenta, P.M. & Schröder, J. “Geometrically exact analysis of Bernoulli-

Euler rods” submitted to Computer Methods In Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2018

[2] Gay Neto, A., Pimenta, P.M. & Wriggers, P., Contact between spheres and general surfaces,

Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Egng. (2018) 686:716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2017.09.016

[3] Viebahn, N., Pimenta, P.M. & Schröder, A simple triangular finite element for nonlinear thin

shells: statics, dynamics and anisotropy, Comput Mech (2017) 59: 281.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00466-016-1343-6

[4] Gay Neto, A., Pimenta, P.M. & Wriggers, P., A master-surface to master-surface formulation for

beam to beam contact. Part II: Frictional interaction, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Egng. (2017)

146:174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2017.01.038

[5] Gay Neto, A., Pimenta, P.M. & Wriggers, P., A master-surface to master-surface formulation for

beam to beam contact. Part I: Frictionless interaction, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Egng. (2016)

146:174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2017.01.038

[6] Ota, N.S.N., Wilson, L., Gay Neto, A., Pellegrino, S. & Pimenta, P.M., Nonlinear dynamic

analysis of creased shells, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (2016), 64:74.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.finel.2016.07.008

[7] Gay Neto, A., Malta, E.R. & Pimenta, P.M., Catenary riser sliding and rolling on seabed during

induced lateral movement, Marine Structures (2015), 223:243.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2015.02.001

[8] Generalization of the C1 TUBA plate finite elements to the geometrically exact Kirchhoff–Love

shell model, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Egng. (2015), 210:244.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2015.05.018

11

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

12-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

Yvon Maday 1

1 Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Diderot SPC, CNRS,

Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, LJLL, F-75005 Paris

Institut Universitaire de France

and Division of Applied Math, Brown University

Reduced basis methods (RBM) are a class of model order reduction (MOR) methods that allow to sim-

plify the approximation of the solution to a given problem by using very few information. The con-

struction can either be i) from explicit knowledge of informations on the solution, i.e. by point-wise

mesures of the solution or by acquisition of some moments on the solution, or ii) from knowledge of an

equation that the solution satisfies : a mathematical model that is provided by experts on the discipline

of the solution existence. A fundamental frame is that there must be some parameters around that allow

to characterize the set of all solutions when the parameter varies. This set constitute a manifold, the

structure of which (Kolmogorov width), is used to simplify the characterization of the solution, within

the manifold, with a small amount of information.

The idea, in the basic form of the reduced basis method, is then to identify few basis functions belong-

ing to the manifold and express a good approximation of the solution of interest as a linear combination

of these few basis functions. The approximation improving when the number of basis functions that are

used increases. This approach, in the context of parameter dependent partial differential equation (PDE)

— i.e. implicit definition of the solution — has led to Galerkin reduced basis methods that allow real

time simulations for optimization or inverse problems for instance. The PDE can be stationary or time

dependent, linear or non linear, leading to unique solutions or facing bifurcation phenomenon.

The addition of reliable a posteriori analysis and estimators allow in addition to certify the results in

the offline (restitution) stage.

In the explicit context, the approach is better known as the empirical interpolation method (EIM) that

allow to reconstruct a solution from point-wise measurements, this methods actually is at the basis of the

extension of the reduced basis method to nonlinear PDE’s.

The above statements, though still a hot subject in the numerical analysis community, is rather well

established now, at least in the pure context where either i) we consider that the explicit measurement

acquired on the solution are noise free, ii) the mathematical model written as a PDE is bias-free, iii) the

manifold of solution has indeed a simple structure that leads to a small Kolmogorov width.

But first, in real applications : i) there are always noises on the acquisition of data, ii) the model,

even very good, always has a bias with respect to the true phenomenon and iii) for convection dominated

problems, the linear nature of the manifold of all solutions is missing.

Second, in real word also, the basis functions are not known analytically, nor even exactly. They

are generally obtained from an underlying finite element code (in the implicit formulation), and thus

the Galerkin reduced element method generally requires to have access to the code to transform it and

implement an efficient reduced basis method. But this is not always possible leading to the invention of

“non invasive” reduced basis element methods.

In this talk, by summarizing some of the works with collaborators, I shall address how to cope with

these different difficulties together with recent aspects on the use of these technics in data assimilation

and data mining.

12 1

References

[1] Y Maday, T Anthony, JD Penn, M Yano. PBDW state estimation: Noisy observations; configuration-adaptive

background spaces; physical interpretations, ESAIM: Proceedings and Surveys 50, 144-168, (2015).

[2] Y Maday, O Mula, AT Patera, M Yano. The generalized Empirical Interpolation Method: stability theory

on Hilbert spaces with an application to the Stokes equation, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Engineering 287, 310-334, (2015).

[3] Y Maday, AT Patera, JD Penn, M Yanoi. A parameterized?background data?weak approach to variational

data assimilation: formulation, analysis, and application to acoustics, International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering 102 (5), 933-965, (2015).

[4] Y Maday, A Manzoni, A Quarteroni. An online intrinsic stabilization strategy for the reduced basis approxi-

mation of parametrized advection-dominated problems, Comptes Rendus Mathematique 354 (12), 1188-1194,

(2016).

[5] Y Maday, O Mula, G Turinici. Convergence analysis of the generalized empirical interpolation method, SIAM

Journal on Numerical Analysis 54 (3), pp 1713-1731 (2016).

[6] Cagniart, N and Crisovan, R and Maday, Y and Abgrall, R. Model Order Reduction for Hyperbolic Problems:

a new framework, (2016).

[7] Ballarin, Francesco and Rozza, Gianluigi and Maday, Yvon Reduced-order semi-implicit schemes for fluid-

structure interaction problem, Model Reduction of Parametrized Systems, pp. 149–167, Springer, 2017.

[8] Maday, Yvon, and Tommaso Taddei Adaptive PBDW approach to state estimation: noisy observations; user-

defined update spaces, arXiv preprint arXiv:1712.09594 (2017).

[9] Chakir, R and Maday, Y and Parnaudeau, PA non-intrusive reduced basis approach for parametrized heat

transfer problem, 2018

[10] Gallinari, Patrick and Maday, Yvon and Sangnier, Maxime and Schwander, Olivier and Taddei, Tom-

masoReduced BasisÕ Acquisition by a Learning Process for Rapid On-line Approximation of Solution to

PDEÕs: laminar flow past a backstep, Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 25-1, pp. 131–

141, Springer, 2018

[11] Chakir, Rachida and Dapogny, Charles and Japhet, Caroline and Maday, Yvon and Montavon, Jean-Baptiste

and Pantz, Olivier and Patera, AnthonyComponent Mapping Automation for Parametric Component Reduced

Basis Techniques (RB-Component), ESAIM Proc.SMAI, 2018

[12] Hammond, Janelle K and Chakir, Rachida and Bourquin, Frédéric and Maday, YvonPBDW: a non-intrusive

Reduced Basis Data Assimilation Method and its application to outdoor Air Quality Models, 2018

[13] Fick, Lambert and Maday, Yvon and Patera, Anthony T and Taddei, Tommaso A stabilized POD model for

turbulent flows over a range of Reynolds numbers: optimal parameter sampling and constrained projection,

Journal of Computational Physics, Elsevier, 2018

[14] Argaud, J-P and Bouriquet, B and de Caso, F and Gong, H and Maday, Y and Mula, O. Sensor place-

ment in nuclear reactors based on the generalized empirical interpolation method, Journal of Computational

Physics,363, pp. 354–370, Elsevier, 2018

[15] Herrero, Henar and Maday, Yvon and Pla, Francisco. Reduced basis method applied to a convective stability

problem, Journal of Mathematics in Industry, 8-1, SpringerOpen, 2018

13 2

2. SECTIONAL LECTURES

15

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Imamovic2,4, E. Karavelic2,4, A. Mejia2, P. Moreno2, M. Nikolic5, I. Rukavina2, T.Rukavina2,3

1

UT Compiegne – Sorbonne Univ. & Institute Universitaire de France, adnan.ibrahimbegovic@utc.fr

2

UT Compiegne –Sorbonne Univ.,3 Univ. Rijeka, 4 Univ. Sarajevo, 5 Univ. Split, 6 TU-Braunschweig

Abstract. In this work we address the challenge pertinent to validating safety of large engineering structures, both in

terms of integrity to failure under extreme conditions and durability within their environment. Of particular interest are

industrial domains of excellence in France, such as energy-production (nuclear power plants, large offshore turbines) and

air- or land- transportation (large airplanes, high speed trains, cargo ships). The main obstacle to overcome pertains to our

inability to certify the structural safety by performing with real-size and real-time experiments, either due to excessive

structure size, to excessive cost due to irreplaceable structure component or due to inability to reproduce with high fidelity

the extreme conditions to which the structure is exposed. We seek to propose the state-of-the-art advances in

computational methods that can be brought to bear upon this class of problems, providing the full understanding of the

potential failure modes of the given system, along with the very detailed simulation of extreme conditions brought by

man-made and natural hazards (explosion, fire, stormy wind, earthquake, tsunami …). We also seek further

developments in recently proposed approach to coupled mechanics-probability computations that can be successfully

used to provide a detailed interpretation of structure tests under heterogeneous stress field and to identify both model

parameters and their probability distribution. Finally, we propose to use such a combined approach with probability

computations for uncertainty propagation, which can offer a clear explanation of the size effect influence on dominant

failure modes of massive composite structures.

Keywords: massive structures; multiscale computations; coupled mechanics-probability approach; size effect;

This paper deals with important challenge on validating the durability and lifetime integrity of massive

composite structures under extreme conditions. The illustrative examples (see Figure 1) come from the

application domains in energy production systems, with both currently dominant nuclear or renewable

energy sources (nuclear power plant, offshore wind-turbines or hydro-turbines), as well as in air- and

land-transportation (large airplanes, high speed trains or cargo ships). Special attention is given to

costly massive structures with ‘irreplaceable’ components, which are characterized by a number of

different failure modes that require the most detailed description and interaction across the scales. We

would like to significantly improve the currently dominant experimental approach, and thus accelerate

innovations in this domain.

2. Main Objectives

The main objective is development of novel Mesh-in-Element (MIEL) Multiscale Method capable of

representing strain field heterogeneities induced by evolution (and interaction) of localized failure

mechanisms in massive structure, pertaining to micro scale (FPZ-fracture process zone), macro scale

including softening (macro cracks) and non-local macro scale (bond-slip for long fiber reinforcement).

The objective of MIEL Multiscale Method is also to provide capabilities for quantifying the risk of

premature localized failure through probability description of initial defects (microstructure

heterogeneity) and uncertainty propagation through scales. The novel scientific concept to be explored

pertains to multiscale formulation and solution of coupled nonlinear mechanics-probability problem

17

replacing the standard homogenization approach that can only provide average (deterministic)

properties of heterogeneous composites. This concept is of interdisciplinary nature with Mechanics

(defining probability distribution) and Applied Mathematics (providing uncertainty propagation)

combined in order to capture the influence of heterogeneities and fine scale defects on premature

failure.

a) b) c)

Fig. 1 Durability of (costly) massive composite structures: a) nuclear power plant both existing PWR and

new EPR systems - stringent requirement on waterproof containment structure of CBFR composites;

b) (European answer to) Boeing 787 Dreamliner, the most fuel-efficient aircraft built of CFRP

composites - requirement on no-return-to-hub for crack reparation; c) large offshore wind-turbine with

CFRP composites blades and deep-sea CBRF composites support – requirement of operation

capabilities for extreme weather conditions

The most important challenge concerns the ability to provide the sound, probability-based explanation

of size effect, with different failure modes observed for different size specimens and real structure

built of the same composite materials (see Figure 2).

Fig. 2 Mesh-In-Element (MIEL) multiscale method – validation of structural integrity of giant offshore wind-

turbines with carbo-epoxy blades and reinforced concrete support: i)left-top row: scales for 3D carbon-

epoxy woven composite with fine scale for resin constituents, meso-scale warp and weft stuffers and

non-local scales for binder; left-bottom row: scale for cement, concrete and reinforced concrete; ii) right

top: off-line probability computation for identification by Bayesian updates; right-bottom: on-line

probability computation for probability-based interpretation of size effect.

The biggest potential gain concerns changing the validation procedures for massive structures that are

beyond the size suitable for testing at present. The scientific gains concern providing the Mesh-in-

Element (MIEL) Multiscale Method that connects computations with design studies (optimization),

testing (identification) and safety verification (monitoring) of massive composite structures. The

scientific gains also concern further placing the proposed method within multiphysics framework,

along with the original use of goal oriented error estimates to provide sufficiently reliable

interpretation of extreme conditions (e.g. fluid or heat flow) and the code-coupling software

implementation to quickly integrate existing simulation codes within such a framework.

18

The main technological gain is in development of the open source computational tools that can speed-

up testing, innovation and decision-making in complex composite systems. Of special interest is the

strategy that allows to integrate the existing legacy software products that are used to verify and

validate safety of particular components assembled within such complex systems. There are multiple

challenges in solving any such problem pertaining to: theoretical formulation, discrete approximation,

algorithmic stability and robustness, and finally informatics developments capable of integrating

existing legacy codes. Two model problems of composites with great application potentials will be

examined. First pertains to cement-based fiber reinforced (CBFR) composites, which will allow for

validation of our method against recently completed experimental program in French excellence

project ECOBA. Second model of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) that is validated in

collaboration with experimentalists at Université de Technologie de Compiègne.

Further details on point of departure in the current research and developments to follow are given in

our recent works (Ibrahimbegovic et al. 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2003d, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009a,

2009b, 2009c, 2010a, 2010b, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018).

Acknowledgments

The research described in this paper is financially supported by the Region Hauts-de-France, EU

(FEDER), ANR and DFG, French Ministry of Research and French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. We

also acknowledge many interesting discussions and collaborations with: D. Brancherie (UTC), E.

Lefrancois (UTC), S. Dolarevic (Univ. Sarajevo), G. Jelenic (Univ. Rijeka), A. Kurtovic (Univ.

Sarajevo), Z. Nikolic (Univ. Split), J.L. Perez-Aparicio (Univ. Politècnica Valencia), I. Kozar (Univ.

Rijeka), B. Brank (Univ. Ljubljana), H.G. Matthies (TU Braunschweig).

References

[1] Ibrahimbegovic A., D. Markovic, Strong coupling methods in multi-phase and multi-scale., Comp.

Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 192, 3089-3107, (2003)

[2] Ibrahimbegovic A., D. Brancherie, Combined hardening and softening constitutive model for

plasticity: precursor to localized failure, Comp. Mech., 31, 88-100, (2003)

[3] Ibrahimbegovic A., A. Delaplace, Microscale and mesoscale discrete models for dynamic fracture

of structures, Comp. Struc., 81, 1255-1265, (2003)

[4] Ibrahimbegovic A., D. Markovic, F. Gatuingt, Constitutive Model of Coupled Damage-Plasticity

and Its Numerical Implementation, Revue euro. élém. finis, 12, 381-405, (2003)

[5] Ibrahimbegovic A., C. Knopf-Lenoir, A. Kucerova, P. Villon, Optimal design and optimal control

of structures undergoing finite rotations, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 61, 2428-2460, (2004)

[6] Ibrahimbegovic A., I. Gresovnik, D. Markovic, S. Melnyk, T. Rodic, Shape optimization of two-

phase material with microstructure, Eng. Comp., 22, 605-645, (2005)

[7] Ibrahimbegovic A., S. Melnyk, Embedded discontinuity finite element method for modeling of

localized failure in heterogeneous materials with structured mesh: an alternative to extended finite

element method, Comp. Mech., 40, 149-155, (2007).

[8] Ibrahimbegovic A., P. Jehel, L. Davenne, Coupled damage-plasticity model and direct stress

interpolation, Comp. Mech., 42, 1-11, (2008)

[9] Ibrahimbegovic A., G. Herve, P. Villon, Nonlinear impact dynamics and field transfer suitable for

parametric design studes, Eng. Comput., 26, 185-204, (2009)

[10] Ibrahimbegovic A., A. Kucerova, et al. ‘CE structures: multiscale damage representation,

identification..’, in ‘Damage assessment and quick reconstruction after wars and natural desasters’,

Springer, 1-28, (2009)

[11] Ibrahimbegovic A.. Nonlinear Solid Mechanics: Theoretical Formulations and Finite Element

Solution Methods, Springer, (ISBN 978-90-481-2330-8, E-book 978-1-4020-9793-5), pp. 1-571,

(2009)

[12] Ibrahimbegovic A., A. Boulkertous, L. Davenne, D. Brancherie, Modeling of reinforced-concrete

structures providing crack-spacing based on XFEM, ED-FEM and novel operator split solution

procedure., Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 83, 452-481, (2010)

19

[13] Ibrahimbegovic A., A. Boulkertous, L. Davenne, M. Muhasilovic, A. Pokrklic, ‘On modeling of

fire resistance tests on concrete and reinforced-concrete structures’, Computers and Concrete, vol

7. No. 4, 285-301, (2010)

[14] Ibrahimbegovic A., J.B. Colliat, M. Hautefeuille, D. Brancherie, S. Melnyk, , Probability based

size effect representation for failure of civil engineering structures built of heterogeneous materials,

in (eds. M. Papadrakakis, M. Fragiadakis, G. Stefanou), ‘Computational Methods in Stochastic

Dynamics’, Springer, Berlin, 289-311, (2011)

[15] Ibrahimbegovic A., H.G. Matthies, Probabilistic Multiscale Analysis of Inelastic Localized

Failure in Solid Mechanics, Comp. Assis. Meth. Eng. Sci., 19, 277–304, (2012)

[16] Ibrahimbegovic A., R. Niekamp, C. Kassiotis, D. Markovic, H. Matthies, Code-coupling strategy

for efficient development of computer software in multiscale and multiphysics nonlinear evolution

problems in computational mechanics, Advances Eng. Software, 72, 8-17, (2014)

[17] Ibrahimbegovic A., J-M. Ghidaglia, A. Serdarevic, E. Ilic, M. Hrasnica, S. Dolarevic, N.

Ademovic, ‘ECCOMAS MSF 2015 – Multiscale Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids’,

Univ. Sarajevo, (ISBN 978-9958-638-23-7), pp. 1-269, (2015)

[18] Ibrahimbegovic A., ‘Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids: Multiscale Analysis,

Probability Aspects and Model Reduction’, Springer, (ISBN 978-3-319-27994-7), pp. 1-493,

(2016)

[19] Ibrahimbegovic A., B. Brank, I. Kozar, ‘ECCOMAS MSF 2017 – Multiscale Computational

Methods for Solids and Fluids’, (ISBN 978-961-6884-49-5), Univ. Ljubljana, pp. 1-279, (2017)

[20] Ibrahimbegovic A., A. Boujelben, Long-term simulation of wind turbine structure for distributed

loading describing long-term wind loads for preliminary design, Int. J. Coupled Systems

Mechanics, 7, 233-254, (2018)

20

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Eduardo M. B. Campello 1

1

Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil

campello@usp.br

Granular and particulate materials can be found in a myriad of natural phenomena and human

applications, and across various length scales: from rock stacks and gravel piles to fine powders and

particulate flows; from heaps of nuts and beans and mounds of sand to compact aggregates of very high

added value in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food and microelectronics industries. Knowledge on the

physics of such materials has evolved significantly over the past decades, especially with the aid of

computational methods, but still there is a lot to pursue. From the point of view of their theoretical

representation, granular and particulate materials cannot be idealized as a continuum – unless the length

scale of the physical phenomenon one is interested in is very large in comparison to the size of the

grains, as happens, e.g., in the overall deformation of soil massifs in geotechnical engineering problems.

Instead, they must be understood a priori as a discrete medium, in which matter is concentrated in a very

large number of elementary solid entities (the grains or particles), each with finite size and well-defined

shape. The grains or particles typically experience numerous contact interactions, which in turn occur

with significant energy dissipation through both friction and localized plastic deformations. This

particular nature gives rise to a number of intriguing phenomena that are peculiar to these materials,

such as size segregation under shaking (and a corresponding resistance to mixing), occasional

fluidization, the formation of wave patterns at their free surfaces upon excitation (as observed in fluids),

the ability to form static piles that do not dismantle or dissolve spontaneously (as typical of solids), and

many others. These aspects illustrate well the fact that, though constituted of elementary solid entities –

i.e., by entities that have their individual behavior very well characterized –, these materials have their

own physics. The purpose of this talk is to present a discrete element model (DEM) for the simulation

of granular and particulate materials. The approach is intended to be simple, yet keeping as much

consistency as possible with classical mechanics principles. To this end, and unlike most of the DEM

formulations available in the literature, we separate from the outset the physics of the problem from the

numerical scheme devised to solve its equations. This allows us to concentrate on the physics and the

numerics independently, leading to a clearer and cleaner formulation – at least in our opinion. One

distinguished feature is the adoption of a vector type of parameterization for the description of the

rotations of the grains. This enables us to represent rotations in a manner that is formally identical to

displacements, i.e., by vectors, such that all degrees-of freedom of the model retain the same formal

structure. Complex entities such as quaternions or Euler angles are thereby circumvented, in sharp

contrast to all DEM models in the literature. We use phenomenological models to describe the various

forces involved at the level of the particle interactions. Particular attention is devoted to the modeling

of contact and adhesion (with stick-slip friction and rolling resistance), since inter-particle energy

exchange, occasional bonding and agglomeration are crucial aspects in many real-world applications

involving these types of materials. The consideration of temperature effects, which may be of utmost

importance in some applications, is also undertaken within a fully coupled thermo-mechanical

21

triangular piling

11.9 mm

300 mm

f = 7.8 Hz f = 12 Hz

λ Pmax λ

Pmax

Figure 1. Surface instabilities in a vertically vibrated granular medium. Problem definition (top) and sequences of snapshots

(from top to bottom) for two different values of the vibration frequency. Left sequence: f=7.8 Hz; right sequence: f=12 Hz.

Surface instabilities show up at the initial stages of the motion, giving rise to an array of waves separated by a typical

wavelength λ, whose magnitude varies with the imposed excitation frequency. The images above are in excellent visual

agreement with the experimental results reported by J. Duran in his famous book Sands, powders and grains: an introduction

to the physics of granular matter (Springer, 1997).

(fixed-point, iterative) numerical scheme are briefly outlined. In the end, numerical simulations

depicting some of the intriguing phenomena of these materials, as well as covering some modern

22

engineering applications such as the deposition of particles onto surfaces for additive manufacturing and

3D printing technologies, and the infiltration of particle-laden fluids into porous media for material

functionalization, are shown to illustrate the potentialities of the scheme. We remark that this abstract

aims only to outline what is addressed in the talk; for a comprehensive technical description of the

model, as well as systematic derivations of its equations, we refer to previous works by the author in

Campello [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], Campello and Zohdi [7], [8], [9], [10], Campello and Cassares [11],

[12], Gay Neto and Campello [13] and Fernandes et al. [14]. Figure 1 and Table 1 below show results

from a typical simulation, as a model example. We believe that simple, consistent computational models

may be a useful tool for the simulation of granular and particulate materials and, in a broader sense,

many other particle systems.

Table 1. Surface instabilities in an extended granular medium. Analyses results. Wavelengths and

amplitudes are measured at a time instant when the cell bottom touches the bottom layer of the stack,

exactly as in the physical experiment by J. Duran.

Frequency

Experimental Present work Experimental Present work

6.3 Hz 101.0 mm 100.0 ± 5.2 mm 85.1 mm 87.6 ± 4.0 mm

7.8 Hz 73.4 mm 72.1 ± 4.7 mm 55.5 mm 57.0 ± 3.2 mm

10.0 Hz 53.1 mm 52.3 ± 4.1 mm 33.8 mm 34.2 ± 2.4 mm

12.0 Hz 43.5 mm 42.8 ± 3.1 mm 23.4 mm 21.0 ± 2.0 mm

14.1 Hz 37.4 mm 37.0 ± 3.0 mm 17.0 mm 16.5 ± 2.0 mm

References

[1] E. M. B. Campello, "A computational model for the simulation of dry granular materials,"

International Journal of Nonlinear Mechanics, vol. 106, pp. 89-107, 2018.

[2] E. M. B. Campello, "A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems,"

Computational Particle Mechanics, vol. 2, p. 109–125, 2015.

[3] E. M. B. Campello, Um modelo computacional para o estudo de materiais granulares,

(Habilitation thesis). São Paulo: Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, 2016.

[4] E. M. B. Campello, "Computational modeling of granular materials," in Proceedings of the

XXVII Iberian-Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, Brasília,

2016.

[5] E. M. B. Campello, "Computational modeling and simulation of rupture of membranes and thin

films," Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, vol. 37, pp.

1793-1809, 2015.

[6] E. M. B. Campello, "Computational modeling of particle deposition processes," in Proceedings

of the XXXVIII Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering,

Florianópolis, 2017.

[7] E. M. B. Campello and T. Zohdi, "A computational framework for simulation of the delivery of

substances into cells," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering,

vol. 30, p. 1132–1152, 2014.

[8] E. M. B. Campello and T. Zohdi, "Design evaluation of a particle bombardment system used to

deliver substances into cells," Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, vol. 98, no. 2, pp.

221-245, 2014.

23

[9] E. M. B. Campello and T. I. Zohdi, "Effect of particle spin on the spatio-thermal distribution of

incandescent materials released from explosions," Computational Particle Mechanics, p. (in

print), 2019 (accepted).

[10] E. M. B. Campello and T. I. Zohdi, "On pressurized functionalized particle-laden fluid

infiltration into porous media," International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering,

p. (in print), 2018 (accepted).

[11] E. M. B. Campello and K. R. Cassares, "Rapid generation of particle packs at high packing

ratios for DEM simulations of granular compacts," Latin American Journal of Solids and

Structures, vol. 13, pp. 23-50, 2016.

[12] K. R. C. Seko and E. M. B. Campello, "Micromechanics of randomly-generated particle packs

for DEM simulations of granular materials using the stress-force-fabric relationship," in

Proceedings of the XXXVIII Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in

Engineering, Florianópolis, 2017.

[13] A. G. Neto and E. M. B. Campello, "Granular materials interacting with thin ﬂexible rods,"

Computational Particle Mechanics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 229-247, 2017.

[14] A. C. S. Fernandes, H. C. Gomes, E. M. B. Campello and P. M. Pimenta, "A fluid-particle

interaction method for the simulation of particle-laden fluid problems," in Proceedings of the

XXXVIII Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering,

Florianópolis, 2017.

24

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

MANIFOLD LEARNING OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

Florian De Vuyst 1 , Faker Ben Belgacem 2 , Piotr Breitkopf 3 , Georges Oppenheim 4 and Pierre Villon 5

1 LMAC, Sorbonne Universités, UTC, , Compiègne France, fdevuyst@utc.fr

2 LMAC, Sorbonne Universités, UTC, Compiègne France, faker.ben-belgacem@utc.fr

3 Laboratoire Roberval, Sorbonne Universités, UTC, CNRS, Compiègne France, piotr.breitkopf@utc.fr

4 Université Marne-la-Vallée, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, France, georges.oppenheim@gmail.com

5 Laboratoire Roberval, Sorbonne Universités, UTC, CNRS, Compiègne France, pierre.villon@utc.fr

This paper deals with the identification of dynamical systems from data, taking into account a priori

knowledge in the form of a continuous differential model. We investigate Dynamic Mode Decomposition

methods and extensions (extended DMD, kernel DMD). It appears that approximate time integrators can

be used in the design of a suitable kernel. The resulting hybrid computational approach can be seen as a

time advance solver recalibrated by data.

Let us consider the following continuous autonomous dynamical system:

where x0 ∈ Rd and F : Rd → Rd is a Lipschitz continuous mapping. From the differential problem (1)

and a time sampling parameter τ > 0, one can derive a discrete dynamical system

where Z τ

f (x) = x + F (x(s)) ds (3)

0

The admissible states {x(t)}t≥0 solutions of (1) are supposed to belong to a sub-manifold M ⊂ Rd . This

is of course also true for the discrete states {xk }k≥0 . Remark that one can use a time integrator on F

to get a prediction f˜ of f . Let φ(x, τ) denote a given time integrator over the time increment τ with x

as initial data. So we can use f˜(xk ) = φ(xk , τ). For example, the simple case of explicit forward Euler

scheme

f˜(x) = x + τF (x)

returns a first-order accurate approximation of f (with an error of order o(τ)).

The system (1) is supposed to be a rather accurate model of a true physical system from wich one can

have measurements from sensors. We will assume that the sensors return states (or observable quantities)

at discrete times t k = τk, k ≥ 0. From the data we would like to identify (estimate) the true vector field fT

of the real discrete dynamical system xk+1 = fT (xk ), with the help of the a priori knowledge of the

model (1).

Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) [2, 3, 4] is a rather recent data-driven computational ap-

proach that identifies the best linear model that maps vector-valued input states to propagated output

states. Consider the two d × N data matrices

| | | | | |

X = x1 x2 . . . xN , Y = y 1 y 2 . . . y N

| | | | | |

25 1

with input states xk and output states

y k = fT (xk ).

In standard DMD, we want to find the best least square linear model

xk+1 = fT (xk ) ≈ A xk k ≥ 0,

1

min kY − AXk2F .

A∈Md (R) 2

We straightforwardly get

A = Y X†

where X † denotes standard the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of A. DMD has been proved to be a

powerful tool in different contexts like e.g. feature extraction [2], short-term prediction, prediction of

quasi-periodic solutions [5], or state estimation for feedback control.

Since the original linear DMD, one can now find today nonlinear DMD extensions in the literature. A

nonlinear discrete dynamical system like (2) can be formulated in a different way thanks to the Koopman

theory [1]. One can define an operator K acting on functions g : M → Rd defined by K g = g ◦ f , i.e.

The operator K is referred to as the Koopman operator, or compositional operator. It is a linear operator

acting on an infinite-dimensional functional space. If K is known, then actually the discrete dynamical

system (2) is completely determined. Indeed, applying the Koopman operator to the function g(x) =

x · ei gives the ith component of f : K g(x) = f (x) · ei . It is possible to find an approximation of the

Koopman operator in a finite-dimensional space. In the literature one can find Galerkin-based approaches

as well as collocation methods. In what follows, we deal with a collocation approach. Consider a basis

of M linearly independent functions {ψi }i=1,...,M , ψi : M → R. Let Ψ(x) ∈ RM denote the vector with

{ψi (x)}i as components:

T

Ψ(x) = ψ1 (x), ..., ψM (x) .

We will assume that M d. Following Koopman’s ideas, rather than identifying the mapping between

the input states xk and the output states y k = f (xk ), we search for a linear mapping between the aug-

mented input data Ψ(xk ) and augmented output data Ψ(f (xk )), i.e. a matrix we look for A such that

| | | | | |

Z = Ψ(x1 ) Ψ(x2 ) . . . Ψ(xN ) , Y = Ψ(y 1 ) Ψ(y 2 ) . . . Ψ(y N )

| | | | | |

1

min kY − AZk2F

A∈MM (R) 2

is clearly given by A = Y Z † . This is the idea of the so-called extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition

(EDMD) approach [4]. As a next step, suppose that the basis functions ψi can reproduce the full state

vector x itself, i.e. there are M constant vectors bi such that

M

x = ∑ bi ψi (x), (6)

i=1

26 2

which can be written in vector form

x = B Ψ(x) (7)

with B = col(bi )i . By combining (5) and (7), we have the approximation

with a rectangular matrix R = BA. It is of course nonlinear by construction. In the time continuous case,

we would get a similar model in the form dtd (Ψ(x)) ≈ AΨ(x), x ≈ BΨ(x) so that

d

ẋ ≈ B (Ψ(x)) ≈ R Ψ(x), R = BA.

dt

Without neither any information on data location nor knowledge on f , one can choose standard basis

functions ψi (x) with universal approximation property like polynomials, Fourier functions, radial basis

functions, kernel-based approximation, etc as discussed in [5]. But the price to pay may be the large

amount of basis functions to return an accurate model. Sparse representation techniques and LASSO-

type algorithms [6] can be used to identify the active set of basis functions at the cost of a higher numer-

ical complexity.

When some sample states {x1 , ..., xN ∈ Rd } at different sites are available, kernel-based techniques

[10] appear to be a nice framework of approximation. Consider a symmetric positive definite kernel

k : Rd ×Rd → R. From snapshot states (x1 , ..., xn ) and (f (x1 ), ..., f (xn )), we can define an interpolation

I f of f in the form

N

I f (x) = ∑ a j k(x, x j ) (10)

j=1

with a1 , ..., aN ∈ Rd to determine to get the interpolation property I f (xi ) = f (xi ) for all i ∈ {1, ..., N},

i.e.

N

f (xi ) = ∑ a j k(xi , x j ), i = 1, ..., N.

j=1

This leads to the system of linear symmetric positive semi-definite system KA = F to solve, where

Ki j = k(xi , x j ), A = col(a j ) and F = col(f (xi )). For a positive definite kernel matrix K, we get a

unique matrix A = K −1 F. In [7], Héas and Herzet link EDMD with kernel approximation. By choosing

The Koopman operator approximation restricted to the vector space spanned by the functions k(., xi ),

i = 1, ..., N consists in finding a matrix A such that

in a least square sense. If x can be itself accurately reproduced by the kernel functions, i.e. x ≈ Bk(x),

we get the approximation

fˆ(x) = R k(x), (11)

where R can be identified from the data. From time-continuous system, we would search for approxima-

tions in the form ẋ = R k(x). Now comes the question of a good choice of kernel function for a given

dynamical system.

27 3

Suitable kernels using approximate time integrators

Let us now discuss about a suitable choice of kernel k. A first trivial remark is that if f were known, then

the best choice of kernel would be

k? (x, y) = f (x) · f (y). (12)

The kernel (12) is a reproducing kernel [8, 10] and its associated feature map (denoted Φ in the sequel,

see [9]) identifies with f itself. Consider the approximation fˆ of f defined by

N N

fˆ(x) = ∑ a j k? (x, x j ) = ∑ a j f (x j ) · f (x).

j=1 j=1

This can be written in matrix form fˆ(x) = AF T f (x) with A = col(a j ) ∈ MdN (R) and F = col(f (x j )) ∈

MdN (R). If A is chosen such that AF T = I (i.e. A = (F T )† ), then fˆ identifies itself with f : fˆ = f .

The feature map Φ does not need to be high-dimensional for exact reconstruction of f . Moreover, is

it sufficient to get d linearly independent state measurements {f (x j )} j to identify the matrix A; if this

case, we would have A = F −T .

In the context of this paper, we do not know fT nor f . We assume that the underlying dynamical

system is continuous in time and we have access to state measurements (or suitable observables) at

discrete instants t k = kτ. We have an a priori knowledge of an accurate time-continuous differential

model of the system, characterized by the vector field F . The discrete vector field f is linked to F

by the integral formula (3). If it is able to approximate this formula by an explicit one, leading to an

intermediate fidelity model f˜ of f , then we are able to define an approximate kernel k̃ in the form

Results

In the paper different choices of approximate kernels (13) built from time integration schemes are studied.

Numerical results obtained on nonlinear discrete dynamical system show both the accuracy and the

predictability of the resulting model.

References

[1] I. Mezić, Analysis of fluid flows via spectral properties of the Koopman operator, Annual Review of Fluid

Flows, 45, pp. 357–378 (2013).

[2] P. Schmid, Dynamic mode decomposition of numerical and experimental data, J. Fluid Mech., 2010.

[3] J. Tu, C. Rowley, D. Luchterburh, S. Brunton, J. Kutz, On dynamic mode decomposition: Theory and appli-

cations;, J. Comp. Dynamics, 2014

[4] M. Williams, I. Kevredikis, C. Rowley, A data-driven approximation of the Koopman operator: Extending

dynamic mode decomposition, J. Nonlinear Science, 2015.

[5] J.N. Kutz, S.L. Brunton, B.W. Brunton, J.L. Proctor, Dynamic Mode Decomposition, Data-driven modeling of

complex systems, SIAM book (2016).

[6] S. Brunton, J. Proctor and J. N. Kutz, Discovering governing equations from data by sparse identification of

nonlinear dynamical systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (2016) 3932-3937.

[7] P. Héas, C. Herzet, Optimal kernel-based dynamic mode decomposition, ArXiv preprint (2017).

[8] N. Aronszajn, Theory of reproducing kernels, T. Am. Math. Soc., 68, 3, pp. 337–404 (1950).

[9] S. Bergman, The Kernel function and conformal mapping, 2nd edn. American Mathematical Society, Provi-

dence, RI (1950).

[10] A. Berlinet and C. Thomas-Agnan, Reproducing Kernel Hilbert spaces in Probability and Statistics, Kluwer

(2004).

28 4

3. OTHER LECTURES

29

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

APPLICATION TO LARGE OVERALL MOTION OF GIANT WIND TURBINE FLEXIBLE

BLADES WITH LONG TERM RESPONSE

1 Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technology de Compiègne, abir.boujelben@utc.fr

2 Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technology de Compiègne, adnan.ibrahimbegovic@utc.fr

The current push for renewable energy resources is the main motivation for constructing large wind

turbines with flexible blades exceeding 100 meters of length. Increasing the blade dimensions leads to

serious problems of operation, stability and durability which must be addressed in the preliminary design

process. It is therefore necessary to carry out long term computations based on fluid-structure interaction

(FSI) model to better understand the blade behavior when structure flexibility and up-sizing effects are

taken into account. The first ingredient of FSI is the aerodynamic model. The computational fluid

dynamic (CFD) is considered to be the most accurate, but also by far the most costly model especially for

full-scale 3D FSI computations. It is impractical to use it for the case that concerns testing several design

configurations for comparison. Then, we prefer to use panel method (PM) which is sufficiently fast since

it is restricted only to the fluid-structure interface. It is yet reasonably accurate for computing the overall

thrust on the blade. The PM model developed in this paper is modified to account for flexible lifting

body in large overall motion respectively by introducing vorticities in fluid-structure interface and by

considering the relative flow velocity. The second ingredient of FSI is the structure model. In view of the

target size, the blades are subjected to large deformations, displacements and rotations. The finite element

model is based on the theory of deformable solid body overall large motion. In this paper, we choose

the 3D solid model which allows more rigorous deformation description, provides more accurate results

from beam and gives the local stresses within the blade which is of interest for fatigue failure, as the most

common problem for wind turbines. Compared with the standard 8-node solid element, the proposed

element is enhanced by a particular choice of the deformation measure for more accurate approximation

of bending and torsional deflections. These deflections are associated to high frequency modes leading

to stiff problems. The standard implicit time stepping scheme are not appropriate for analysis of such

problems. We propose a new robust time-stepping scheme based on mid-point scheme which improves

the numerical stability and allows us to carry out long term simulations. The FSI computation is achieved

by an iterative coupling algorithm. The model exchange in each time step the aerodynamic loads (panel

method code) and the structure displacements and velocities (FEM approximation) at the fluid-structure

interface until equilibrium. The appropriate choice of the aerodynamic and structure models leads to a

direct way to data transfer between fluid and structure parts.

2. Problem statement

2.1. Fluid flow computations by 3D vortex panel method

The flow field around the blade is assumed to be potential (∇ · v f = 0; ∇ × v f = 0), except for the layer

in contact with the blade where a vorticity field is introduced (ξ = ∇ × v f ) in order to obtain a non-zero

31 1

RR RR

circulation (Γ = S ∇ × v f · n dS = S ξ · n dS) and thus to generate the blade lift (L = ρ f |v∞ |Γ) [1].

By using the Helmholtz decomposition, the velocity field can be written as the sum of the gradient of a

scalar potential φ and the curl of a vector potential ψ

v f = ∇φ + ∇ × ψ (1)

By substituting such velocity definition into both the incompressibility condition and the vorticity ex-

pression, we obtain

∇2 φ = 0; ξ = −∇2 ψ (∇.ψ = 0) (2)

By means of Biot-Savart law, the velocity induced at a point P by vorticity filament dl with a constant

circulation Γ is derived from (2)2

Z

Γ (rξ − rP )

∇×ψ = × dl (3)

4π l |rξ − rP |3

In the discrete form, the blade surface is divided into a number of panels. A vortex ring of constant

strength Γ is placed in the center of each panel. By solving equation (2)1 , the fluid velocity at the center

of each panel is approximated by

f

v f = v∞ + vd (4)

f

where vd is the velocity induced by vortex singularities in the center of a panel derived from (3) by

superposing the contribution of the four straight filaments of the vortex rings. The zero normal flow

boundary condition and the Kutta condition are then imposed to compute the unknowns circulations

(v f − vs ) . n = 0; ΓT.E = 0 ⇒ Γw = Γu − Γl (5)

where vs is the structure velocity including the rotation velocity and the deformation velocity. The com-

puted fluid velocity is written in Eulerian formulation, when computing pressure, this velocity should be

transferred from the Eulerian to Lagrangian formulations v̄ f = v f − vs . By using the Bernoulli equation,

the pressure of the panel can be computed at its center according to

1

p = ρ ( |v∞ |2 − |v̄ f |2 ) (6)

2

2.2. Structure model based upon 3D enhanced solid element with energy conserving

time-stepping scheme

By choosing the Biot strain (H = RT (I + ∇u + d) − I) and its conjugate stress T, we introduce the finite

rotation tensor R, which further imposes the path-dependency. The follower pressure pϕ, f , output of

aerodynamic model, is parametrized in the initial configuation by using the Nanson formula and the

corresponding variational equations are written in Lagrangian description [2]

R s R R R

V δu · ρs üs dV + V symm[δH] · symm[T] + skew[δH] · skew[T] dV − s

V δu . f dV − S p δu

s · p f J(x)F−T ndS =0

R

V {symm[R

s,T δds ] · symm[T] + skew[Rs,T δP · ds ] · skew[T] − δds · P}dV = 0

(7)

To solve these equation, we propose a time-stepping scheme [4] based on the mid point approximation

with two modifications concerning an algorithmic constitutive equations and the kinematic variables

approximation in order to ensure the energy conservation via equation (7)

symm[T]alg

n+ 1

= 12 C(symm[H]n+1 + symm[H]n ); skew[T]alg

n+ 1

= 12 γ(skew[H]n+1 + skew[H]n )

2 2

(8)

2 1

ün+ 1 = (u̇n+1 + u̇n )/∆t; u̇n+1 = −u̇n + ∆t un+1 ; Rn+ 12 = 2 (Rn+1 + Rn )

2

Thus, the increments of respectively kinetic energy K and potential energy Π in free motion correspond

to

R

Kn+1 − Kn = V δus · ρs üsn+ 1 dV

R 2 R (9)

Πn+1 − Πn = V symm[δH]n+ 1 · symm[T]n+ 1 + skew[δH]n+ 1 · skew[T]n+ 1 dV − V δus . f dV

2 2 2 2

This is particularly important for nonlinear dynamic analysis with presence of high frequencies, ensuring

the robustness of the computation over very long time interval.

32 2

2.3. Fluid-structure interaction with an iterative coupling algorithm

The structural and fluid computations are performed separately and later coupled through data exchange

at the fluid-structure interface. The coupling algorithm is based on CSS algorithm, extended by a sub-

cycling between the structure and fluid solvers until reaching convergence. The coupling algorithm steps

are as follows:

f ,(k=0)

1)- Initialize the pressure distribution for the first iteration (k = 0) → Pn+1 = Pnf

2)- Repeat the iterative procedure until the convergence, advancing at each iteration (from (k − 1) to

(k) (k)

(k)) (a) The variables un+1 and vn+1 , obtained from the structure solver, are transferred to the panel

f ,(k)

method code in order to update the mesh. (b) The normal pressures vector Pn+1 is computed by panel

method code. (c) The pull-back operation is performed to transfer the pressure intensity to the initial

f ,(k)

configuration for each panel, then the convergence pressure criterion is checked by means of ||P̃n+1 −

f ,(k−1) f ,(k)

P̃n+1 || ≤ tol1 . (d) Pn+1 is transferred to the FEM code to be considered as a follower external load. (e)

(k+1) (k)

The second convergence criterion is checked pertinent to the structure displacement ||un+1 − un+1 || ≤

tol2 . If the convergence is not reached, the kinetic variables are transferred again to the fluid code to

continue with the next iteration. As the structure formulation involves finite rotations that are highly

nonlinear and require special update procedure, the computation at iteration (k + 1) should be carried out

from the configuration at tn which has already reached the convergence state.

3)- Otherwise, we advance to the next time step.

For numerical simulation, we consider the nonlinear dynamic response of the NREL offshore 5-MW

wind turbine with a 126 m rotor diameter. It is subject to a steady wind velocity 11.4m/s and an initial

rotation velocity 12rpm. In figure 1(a, b), the aerodynamics loads normal (Fn ) and tangential (Ft ) to the

rotor plane, computed by our aerodynamic code, are in good agreement with standard aeroelastic codes

(FAST, MIRAS). The normal force which causes the blade bending in the direction of the wind is much

higher than the tangential force. This is reflected in the time histories of the in-plane and out-of-plane tip

blade deflections. Compared to results reported in [3], results obtained by the iterative algorithm coupling

are considerately more accurate than those obtained by the one-iteration algorithm (see Figure 1(c, d)).

Thus, the sub-cycling between structure and fluid part is needed in order to improve the approximation

quality and avoid overestimate computed response, particularly since the proposed FSI algorithm is in

rapid convergence as shown in Figure 1( f ) (less than 10 iterations for ∆t = 0.05s). We can notice in

Figure 1(d, f ) that the the computed in-plane displacement and the twist displacement show the presence

of high frequency modes, superposed on top of low frequencies modes which is the ultimate cause of

stiff problems. By using the proposed energy conserving time-stepping scheme, we can ensure long-term

numerical stability as shown in Figure1(e). In fact, for a time step equal to ∆ = 0.01s, the computation

using the standard Newmark scheme can no longer converge for time exceeding 12s. However, the energy

conserving scheme ensures the convergence over long time interval. After validation of the proposed

model, we have herein a numerical tool that ensures a good compromise between low computational

cost and accurate results. It is suitable for testing new blades configurations in the preliminary design

process. For example, in order to avoid peak material stresses and fatigue failures, the blade can be

pre-bent at an angle θ and changes its orientation with respect to the wind direction so that it receives

the wind in the back side of the turbine (see Figure 2). This new configuration provides a more uniform

distribution of stress and reduces significantly the stress values. However, the blade rotation becomes

slower due to the decrease of the tangential force for this configuration which can affect the wind turbine

productivity.

References

[1] J. Katz and A. Plotkin Low Speed Aerodynamics (Cambridge Aerospace Series), Cambridge university press,

2001.

33 3

Problem statement (a) 8000 (b) 1000

FAST

Miras 800

Normal force (N)

6000 Panel method

600

4000

400

FAST

2000

200 Miras

Panel method

0 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60

(c) (d) radius (m) (f) radius (m)

2 2 0.12

Out-plane deflection (m)

0.1

0 1 0.08

0.06

-2

0 0.04

-4 0.02

-1 0

-6 -0.02 r=19.95 m

r=32.25 m

Iterative coupling -2 Iterative coupling -0.04 r=44.55 m

-8 -0.06 r=52.75 m

One-iteration coupling One-iteration coupling r=63 m

-0.08

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

80 time (s) time (s) time (s)

(e) (f)

Tip displacement in x direction (m)

standard newmark

60 10

energy conserving scheme

40

8

Number of iterations

20

0 6

-20

4

-40

2

-60

-80 0

0 5 10 15 20 23 30 35 0 1 2 3 4 5

time (s) time (s)

Figure 1: NREL wind turbine simulations with the proposed FSI model

t=1.2 s

Out-plane deflection (m)

6

4 Conventional upwind

2 Inclined dowind

0.00E+07

1.00E+07 0

2.00E+07 -2

3.00E+07 -4

4.00E+07 -6

5.00E+07 -8

6.00E+07 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time (s)

7.00E+07 80

Tip displacement in

9.00E+07 40 Inclined dowind

x direction (m)

1.00E+08 20

1.00E+10 0

-20

-40

Conventional Pre-bent -60

upwind downwind -80

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Conventional upwind Inclined downwind

Von Mises stress time (s)

Figure 2: Comparaison between conventional upwind blade and inclined downwind blade

[2] A. Boujelben and A. Ibrahimbegovic Finite-strain three-dimensional solids with rotational degrees of freedom:

non-linear statics and dynamics, Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, 646-654, 2016.

[3] W. Musial G. Scott J. Jonkman and S. Butterfield Definition of a 5-MW reference wind turbine for offshore

system development,Technical Report NREL/TP-500-38060 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2009.

[4] A. Boujelben and A. Ibrahimbegovic Conserving and decaying energy for finite-strain three-dimensional

solids with rotational degrees of freedom in nonlinear dynamics, Comptes rendus Mecanique, 571-580, 2018.

34 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

1

Department of Structural Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo,

Brazil

2

Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, Italy

3

Department of Structural Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo,

Brazil

The static states of a peridynamic nonlinear elastic bar of finite length in a hard device are

investigated. The nonlocal character of the model requires that the edge conditions be defined on a

boundary layer of the same length of the horizon, affecting the solution in the interior. The approach is

variational and is based on the assumption that the energy is a function of the relative displacement

between particles within the horizon, not weighted by the inverse of their relative distance as in Dayal

and Bhattacharya [1]. This implies a weak interaction between neighboring points that allows for

discontinuities in the displacement field. In the simplest linear elastic case, the jumps depend upon the

length of the horizon and are concentrated at the bar ends. Here, we consider a more complex behavior

by assuming a non-monotone constitutive relation associated with a non-convex strain energy density,

which is analogous to assumptions made by Ericksen [2] in classical nonlinear elasticity. At a micro-

scale of the same order of the length of the horizon, the displacement field is characterized by the

orderly formation of undulations and discontinuities, while at the macroscopic level the stress vs.

elongation graph is a sequence of strain hardening and softening branches. The equilibrium path,

found numerically with a pseudo-arc-length continuation method, becomes unstable above a certain

elongation. Convexification of the strain energy density provides solutions that are very different from

this because, unlike the Ericksen's model, re-arrangements of material phases along the bar is

prevented by the nonlocal nature of peridynamics. Results of this work were published in Aguiar,

Royer-Carfagni and Seitenfuss [3]. They could be used to interpret the complex phenomena of

localization of plastic strain in slip bands experimentally observed in ductile metallic bars.

References

[1] Dayal, K., Bhattacharya, K.. Kinetics of phase transformations in the peri- dynamic formulation of

continuum mechanics. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 54 (9), 1811-1842, 2006.

[2] Ericksen, J.L.. Equilibrium of bars. Journal of Elasticity, 5(3-4):191-201, 1975.

[3] Aguiar, A.R., Royer-Carfagni, G.F., Seitenfuss, A.B.. Wiggly strain localizations in peridynamic

bars with non-convex potential. International Journal of Solids and Structures 138 (1), 1-12, 2018.

transitions.

35

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

FREQUENCIES

1

University of Juiz de Fora, dancardososoares@gmail.com

2

University of Juiz de Fora, alexandre.cury@engenharia.ufjf.br

Structural modal parameters i.e. natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes are dynamic

features obtained either by measuring the vibration responses of a structure or by means of finite

elements models. Over the past two decades, modal parameters have been used to detect damage in

structures by observing its variations over time. However, such variations can also be caused by

environmental factors such as humidity, wind and, more importantly, temperature. In so doing, the use

of modal parameters as damage indicators can be seriously compromised if these effects are not

properly tackled. Many researchers around the world have found numerous methods to mitigate the

influence of such environmental factors from modal parameters and many advanced damage indicators

have been developed and proposed to improve the reliability of structural health monitoring. In this

paper, several vibration tests are performed on a simply supported steel beam subjected to different

damage scenarios and temperature conditions, aiming to describe the variation in modal parameters

due to temperature changes. Moreover, four methodologies are proposed to identify damage, such as

Robust Regression, Principal Component Analysis and Support Vector Regression. Results show a

slightly linear decrease in the modal parameters due to temperature increase, although it is not possible

to establish an empirical equation to describe this tendency.

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is based on the premise that damage cause changes in the

structure’s physical properties (stiffness, mass and damping). Over the last decades, modal parameters

and other dynamic features obtained from vibration tests have been used to assess damage, since they

are functions of such structural properties. Research in vibration-based damage identification has been

rapidly expanding over the last few years, especially in applications involving bridges and buildings.

However, modal parameters are also sensitive to environmental factors such as humidity, wind and

temperature. The latter is especially responsible for modal variations that often are higher than those

caused by structural damage. This condition might compromise the reliability of SHM techniques, by

either masking the presence of damage or giving false positive alarms. To overcome this problem,

many researchers have studied the underlying relationships between modal parameters, environmental

factors and structural damage. Such studies were performed by means of numerical simulations and

experimental tests in laboratory or in situ, as described in references Peeters et al (2001), Sohn et al.

(1999), Meruane and Heylen (2012), Nguyen et al (2014), Wei (2015), Morales et al. (2018).

36

2. Materials and Methods

To provide a better understanding over such a phenomenon, this paper proposes an experimental study

of the variation of modal parameter estimates due to temperature and damage. This study is performed

on a simply supported steel beam subjected to 20 different temperature setups and 6 structural damage

scenarios, yielding 720 tests. To assess these three damage scenarios under the effect of temperature

variation, four statistical damage detection techniques are proposed: linear and nonlinear regression,

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). Results show that

among the four proposed techniques, only one is reliable for structural damage detection.

The methodology proposed in this paper consists in placing a 25mm x 6mm x 1500mm steel beam

into an electric oven and heating it up progressively while performing vibration tests under different

temperatures and damage conditions. Figure 1 depicts the general scheme of the experiment and the

Figure 2 shows the flowchart of the proposed methodology.

The minimum temperature for all tests was set to 18°C, since it was the minimum temperature

reachable using an air conditioning system. The maximum temperature for all tests was 56°C. This

maximum temperature was set to: i) do not damage the insulation of the accelerometer’s coaxial cables

(for which safe operational temperature must be under 70°C); ii) obtain an adequate sampling of

readings (20 samples obtained at intervals of 2°C); iii) obtain a temperature gradient of 38°C which is

wider than seasonal temperature variation in many tropical countries.

Artificial damage scenarios were simulated by cutting the beam’s cross section to change local

stiffness and cause a reduction in the natural frequencies. Figure 3 details three damage scenarios. The

first one reduces the beam’s cross section area by 16.67% whereas the second by 33.34%. The fourth,

fifth and sixth damage scenarios consisted in adding a lumped mass of 10g, 20g and 50g at 375mm

from the left support, respectively.

37

Figure 3. Beam’s damage scenarios simulated through electrical saw cuts.

Figures 4 and 5 present the results obtained by the four proposed statistical damage detection

techniques applied to 720 vibration tests performed on the beam (3 tests at 20 temperatures under 3

damage scenarios). The first results correspond to a linear regression model, followed by nonlinear

(second order) regression. Then, PCA are performed. Finally, one investigates the results obtained by

Support Vector Regression.

Figure 4. Results obtained using linear (left) and nonlinear (right) regression models.

Figure 5. Results obtained using PCA (left) and SVR (right) models.

38

4. Concluding remarks on current and future research

In general, both linear and nonlinear regressions showed a rather clear relationship between damage,

temperature and natural frequencies, but in some cases, the models did not fit well the entire dataset.

Thus, this method partially identified the damage scenarios and showed a limited relationship between

those physical quantities.

Support Vector Regression provided better results, as the damage levels could be more easily

identified. However, further research is necessary using PCA, since the relationship between natural

frequencies, temperature and damage could not be properly established.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the financial support of CNPq (National Council for Scientific and

Technological Development), FAPEMIG (Foundation of Support Research of the State of Minas

Gerais), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) and UFJF

(Federal University of Juiz de Fora).

References

[1] Peeters, B., De Roeck, G., (2001). “One-year monitoring of the Z-24 Bridge: Environmental

effects vs Damage events”. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, Volumen 30, pp. 149-

171.

[2] Sohn, et al., (1999). “An experimental study of temperature effect on modal parameters of the

Alamosa Canyon Bridge”. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, Issue 28, pp. 879-897.

[3] Meruane, V., Heylen, W., (2012). “Structural damage assessment under varying temperature

conditions”. Structural health monitoring, may, Issue 11, pp. 345-357.

[4] Nguyen, V. H., Mahowald, J., Golinval, J. C., Maas, S., (2014). “Damage detection in bridge

structures including environmental effects”. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on

Structural Dynamics, EURODYN.

[5] Wei J.J., Lv Z.R (2015). “Structural damage detection including the temperature difference based

on response sensitivity analysis”. Structural engineering and mechanics, An Int'l Journal Vol. 53 No. 2

[6] F. Morales, A. Cury, “Analysis of thermal and damage effects over structural modal parameters”,

Structural Engineering and Mechanics 65 (1), 43-51, 2018.

39

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

OF ONGOING DEVELOPMENTS AND NEW ACHIEVEMENTS

1

Polytechnic School at University of São Paulo, alfredo.gay@usp.br

2

Polytechnic School at University of São Paulo, fmp.thiago@gmail.com

A research cooperation on wheel-rail contact mechanics was established in 2016 between Vale

Company and University of São Paulo. The objective is to investigate, by employing numerical

simulations, the wheel-rail contact interaction problem, focusing on heavy haul applications. On this

context, the present work provides an overview of last developments, such as shows some new

achievements and practical case studies.

Wheel-rail contact interaction is a complex phenomenon. The geometry of wheels is usually based

on a conical surface, aiming at providing a self-guidance of the wheelset while experiencing rolling on

rails. This provides unique abilities for curving and for dealing with geometrical imperfections on the

track. On the other hand, lateral oscillations of the wheelset always take place as a natural

consequence of the geometry of wheels and rails. With that, contact location usually changes all the

time during the vehicle movement. Contact actions depend on positioning of the wheelset on the track,

varying along its length according to curve radius, super-elevation, local geometry of wheels and rails,

such as operational conditions, as the traveling speed. Thus, when concerning about wheel-rail

contact, it is impossible to treat it separately from the dynamics of the whole system, which rules the

vehicle behavior. With that, computational modeling of such complex system may be viewed as a

challenge.

Computational simulation of railway systems is usually performed by multibody software, based

on rigid bodies dynamics. The wheel-rail interaction may be included as unilateral constraints, by

assuming pointwise or distributed actions. On such context, special constitutive laws may be

established to treat contact between rigid bodies, incorporating local flexibility for the purpose of

establishing contact forces properly. This is usually done by establishing creepage coefficients,

employed in contact constitutive laws.

Present work employs a distinct philosophy from usual simulators of railway vehicle dynamics. As

proposed by [1], we considered rigid bodies as special implementations within a finite element

environment. With that, one would be able to combine rigid and flexible parts, according to modeling

interests. Particularly, geometrically-exact nonlinear finite element beams and shells may be used to

compound a complex structural system. All implementations were done in Giraffe solver [2]. A way to

incorporate the rigid body implementation was proposed in [3]. To time-integrate the system, we

employed the Newmark method, adapted for dealing with finite rotations, as proposed by [4].

The particular novelty of current developments is in incorporating the master-master contact

formulation, initially proposed for beam-to-beam contact in [5]-[6], for considering contact involving

rigid and flexible bodies. Particularly for the wheel-rail contact, this is welcome in order to represent

the interaction between a wheel and a flexible track system, composed by beams, springs and

dashpots. We expect advantages on employing the master-master contact technique, since it assumes

pointwise contact interaction with no pre-defined location on material points of contacting bodies.

Contrary, it involves a particular searching procedure performed along model evolution, aiming at

40

establishing moving contact actions in a convenient way. Thus, scenarios of rolling, may be naturally

considered. In this context, the possibility of using a contact formulation that automatically handles

such changes in contact location along time is welcome.

Another need is to establish special constraints, such as hinge joints, cardan joints and others. With

that, one may set-up a system representing the primary and secondary suspensions of a boogie

employed in heavy-haul wagons. Ideas of special constraints proposed in [7] were extended in present

work, by establishing a new translational joint, practical for establishing the suspension system.

The present work also provides some particular cases studies involving dynamic behavior of a

bogie under a condition of movement along a track with a sudden change in track stiffness. This may

represent a transition between a standard track and a tunnel or a bridge, were one may find distinct

equivalent stiffness. The bogie is modeled considering a collection of rigid bodies and joints. Primary

and secondary suspensions are considered, such as a point masses, representing cargo.

Ongoing developments aim at incorporating more robust methods to solve local contact detection

problems. This is a real need for the master-master contact formulation. Furthermore, current available

constitutive equations for contact employ only linear penalties (with Coulomb saturation on tangential

direction). No advance creepage models were employed yet, which are also a need for reasonable

physical results on realistic wheel-rail contact.

At the conference, an overview presentation of the project will be offered, such as discussions on

modeling issues and challenges of ongoing works. Practical examples will also be shown.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Vale S.A. for the support through Wheel-Rail Chair project. The first

author acknowledges CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) under

the Grant 308190/2015-7.

References

[1] Cardona, M.; Geradin; Doan, D. B. Rigid and flexible joint modelling in multibody dynamics using

finite elements. Comp. Methods in App. Mech. Eng., v. 89, p. 395-418, 1991.

[2] Gay Neto, A. Giraffe User’s Manual - Generic Interface Readily Accessible for Finite Elements,

2018. Available at: <http://sites.poli.usp.br/p/alfredo.gay/>.

[3] Campos, P.R.R., Gay Neto, A. Rigid body formulation in a finite element context with contact

interaction, Comp. Mechanics, online, 2018.

[4] Ibrahimbegovic, A.; Mamouri, S. Energy conserving/decaying implicit time-stepping scheme for

nonlinear dynamics of three-dimensional beams undergoing finite rotations. Comp. Methods in App.

Mech. Eng., v. 191, p. 4241-4258, 2002.

[5] Gay Neto, A.; Pimenta, P. M.; Wriggers, P. A Master-surface to Master-surface Formulation for

Beam to Beam Contact. Part I: Frictionless Interaction. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., v.

303, p. 400-429, 2016.

[6] Gay Neto, A.; Pimenta, P. M.; Wriggers, P. A Master-surface to Master-surface Formulation for

Beam to Beam Contact. Part II: Frictional Interaction. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., v. 319,

p. 146-174, 2017.

[7] Gay Neto, A. Simulation of Mechanisms Modeled by Geometrically-Exact Beams using Rodrigues

Rotation Parameters. Comp. Mechanics, v. 59 (3), p. 459-481, 2017.

41

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

ING LINE : T HE EFFECT OF SEA CURRENT AND APPLICATION FOR A F LOATING

O FFSHORE W IND T URBINE

2 Computational Mechanics Laboratory, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo

Introduction

Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWTs) increase the number of possible sites for wind energy farms.

It is remarkable that this type of solution allows the installation in regions with water depths superior to

100 m. As FOWTs are still in their early days, a series of numerical and experimental studies on this has

been carried out in the last years by different research groups. We emphasize that, even though their high

cost, experimental investigations on the different aspects of the FOWTs are of great importance. In this

context, numerical simulations are commonly adopted in the early design phases.

As in all types of floating units, the mooring system design is an important task in the FOWT project.

The equivalent stiffness due to the mooring system has to be specified in order to deal with a series of

static and dynamic criteria. Essentially, the mooring stiffness has to be able to either keep the floating

unit offset within operational limits or to detune its natural frequencies from those arisen from the waves

and the sea current loads.

The definition of equivalent stiffness of the mooring system may be a complex task, since it depends

on each mooring line configuration, its physical properties, sea current incidence and sometimes on the

contact between the mooring line and the seabed. Reference [1] presented an analytic methodology

to quantify the stiffness due to mooring line when the floating unit experiences surge, sway and yaw

movements..

Nowadays, the mooring systems of the FOWTs farms installed mainly employ slack chain catenary

mooring lines. In this context, the contribution of a particular line to the overall stiffness can be evalu-

ated either analytically or numerically. Each line could be seen as a nonlinear spring, conteracting the

floating unit offsets by applying restoring forces. Although being a classic-well-solved problem, the an-

alytical catenary approach has some limitations. For example, it is not an easy task to take into account

hydrodynamic drag forces from ocean current analytically; see [2] and [3]. This confirms that the use of

some numerical tools for obtaining the force-displacement relation are worth.

One of the main issues of the numerical approach to model a catenary-laying mooring line or flexible

risers systems is the difficulty of modeling high-flexible structures. As FOWT mooring lines are usually

composed by steel chains, their very low (or even null) bending stiffness could lead to very strong ge-

ometric non-linearities. Consequently, there is a challenge in defining the initial static; see [4]. Many

methods have been used for calculating the initial static shape of very flexible structures. An initial con-

trolled geometry near to the target equilibrium geometry is suggested in [5]. In [6], aiming to solve a

similar problem for a riser, the authors proposed a strategy based on imposing a pretension on it in order

to increase its geometric stiffness, improving the convergence.

42 1

Figure 1: Load-steps sequences for achieving the final mooring line configuration.

This paper investigates the influence of the sea current in the relationship between force on the top of

a mooring line and the corresponding displacement. Focus is placed on the stiffness on the horizontal

plane. This force-displacement curve can be obtained by imposing quasi-static motions on the floating

unit in the horizontal direction of the plane of the catenary. Firstly, the case without sea current is

compared with the one analytically obtained. Then, the effects of the sea current acting on the mooring

line are investigated. In order to exemplify the methodology, the international benchmark of the Offshore

Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation - OC4 - is taken as a case study.

Methodology

We employ a geometrically-exact beam model to numerically obtain the force-displacement relation-

ship. The environmental loads considered in the model are the line weight, the buoyancy force, the sea

current hydrodynamic forces and the contact between the line and the seabed. A complete description

of the static loading applied to a exactly beam model can be found at [6]. All models are studied using

the GIRAFFE finite element solver. This is an in-house software, coded using C++ language and proper

for receiving new finite elements and contact models. Further information regarding GIRAFFE can be

found in [7].

The mooring line is taken completely immersed in the sea water. The combination of the effects of

the structure self-weight and the buoyancy results in a "effective weight" force. More details about the

effective weight and effective force may be found in [8]. In turn, the hydrodynamic effect caused by the

sea current is taken into account by using the Morison’s model; see [9]. In this model, the drag force

is proportional to the square of the sea current velocity. The contact between the mooring line and the

seabed is a nonlinear boundary condition. Since the portion of the line that lays on the seabed is not

known and the position of the touchdown point (TDP) could vary during the simulation, it is a crucial

problem. Techniques to deal with this problem in statics and dynamics of geometrically-exact beam

models can be found in [10] and [11], respectively.

As mentioned before, one of the contributions of this paper is the proposal of a technique to deal with

finite element modeling of very flexible structures. The main goal of this methodology is to make the

structure increase its geometric stiffness in order to speed-up the convergence. The strategy is performed

in some load-steps. At the beginning, the mooring line is supposed unstressed laying on the seabed. At

this stage, the line is meshed and its extremities are constrained to be fixed. The gravity action starts to

be considered at this step. Then, prescribed displacements at the line nodes are established, making the

line assume an initial guess position. This nodal displacement was preliminary determined by using the

analytic solution of the catenary problem. The second load-step consists in release the displacements

of almost every mesh node, except by the first and the last ones. It is important to remark that these

two nodes are related, respectively, to the anchor and the fairlead points. As a result of the release,

the mooring line seeks for its equilibrium configuration. Once this guess is not far from the real static

position, the convergence at this load-step comes easily. Fig. 1 sketches the proposed procedure.

Once the static equilibrium configuration is reached, the actual study for evaluating the line stiffness

bahavior can start. It is important to highlight that any kind of analyses may take place here: statics,

quasi-statics or dynamics. Firstly, the sea current is imposed by giving an incidence angle α and a profile

43 2

(a) Front view. (b) Superior view.

of fluid speed. Then, a quasi-static analysis is performed, by imposing motions at the fairlead node at

the axial direction of the line. The horizontal force-displacement curve is obtained directly from this

approach.

The main goal of this work is to evaluate the effects of the sea current on the contribution of a single

mooring line to the equivalent stiffness. Although the friction force caused by the contact between the

line and the seabed could be significant, this is not evaluated at this paper. The sea current is herein

defined by its intensity and incidence angle α. Fig. 2 illustrates of the mooring line, indicating the

incidence the sea current.

Preliminary Results

As already mentioned, the international benchmark of the OC4 is taken as a case study. Tab. 1 presents

the mooring line proprieties, extracted from [12].

Depth to fairleads below the free surface 14 m

Radius measured from the platform center to the anchor 837.6 m

Radius measured from the platform center to the fairleads 40.9 m

Unstretched mooring line length 835.5 m

Mooring line diameter 0.0766 m

Mass per unit length 113.35 kg/m

Axial stiffness 7.536E+8 N

Tangential drag coefficient 0.37

Normal drag coefficient 2.40

Aiming at verifing the proposed methodology, an initial test without the sea current is carried out. The

outcome for this simulation is the horizontal force-displacement. The comparison with the results for

different analytical models is showed in Fig. 3a. Two analytical models are proposed: the classic non-

extensible catenary line and an elastic cable line, as proposed by [2]. It is possible to note that the FEM

model very well agrees with the analytical solution for extensible cables.

As a preliminary test for the influence of the hydrodynamic forces for the horizontal force-displacement

curve, it has been taken into account two scenarios of sea current, characterized by incidence angles

α = 0o and α = 180o , both with a sea current speed of 5 m/s. The results are compared to the case

without sea current and showed in Fig. 3b. Even though the significant sea current velocity, there is no

significant difference between the conditions with and without sea current. This is associated with the

heavy mooring line herein investigated. The fact that sea currents direction took into account lies on the

plane of the mooring line could be another reason. Further works include the study of lighter and mixed

mooring lines and other sea currents speeds and incidence angles.

44 3

(a) Comparison between numerical and analytical mod- (b) Numerical results under sea current.

els. Without sea current.

Acknowledgments

The first and the second authors are grateful to the Office Naval Research (ONR) for the financial

support. The third and the fourth authors acknowledge the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq)

for the grants 308190/2015-7 and 310595/2015-0.

References

[1] C. P. Pesce, G. A. Amaral, and G. R. Franzini. Mooring system stiffness: A general analitycal formulation

with an application to floating offshore wind turbaines. In Proceeding of the ASME 2018 1st International

Offshore Wind Technical Conference [Submited]. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2018.

[2] O. M. Faltinsen. Sea Loads on ships and offshore structures. Cambridge Ocean Technology Series. Cam-

bridge university press, 1 edition, 1993.

[3] M. Hall, B. Buckham, and C. Crawford. Evaluating the importance of mooring line model fidelity in floating

offshore wind turbine simulations. Wind Energy, 17(12):1835–1853, 2013.

[4] R. L. Webster. On the static analysis of structures with strong geometric nonlinearity. Computers & Struc-

tures, 11(1-2):137–145, 1980.

[5] R. Antonutti, C. Peyrard, A. Incecik, D. Ingram, and L. Johanning. Dynamic mooring simulation with

Code_Aster with application to a floating wind turbine. Ocean Engineering, 151:366 – 377, 2017.

[6] A. Gay Neto, C. A.. Martins, and P. M.. Pimenta. Static analysis of offshore risers with a geometrically-exact

3d beam model subjected to unilateral contact. Computational Mechanics, 53(1):125–145, 2013.

[7] A. Gay Neto. Giraffe user’s manual v 1.0.200, 2017.

[8] A. G. Neto, P. M. Pimenta, and C. A. Martins. Hydrostatic pressure load in pipes modeled using beam finite

elements: theoretical discussions and applications. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 143(4):04017003,

2017.

[9] J.R. Morison, J.W. Johnson, and S.A. Schaaf. The force exerted by surface waves on piles. Journal of

Petroleum Technology, 2(5):149–154, 1950.

[10] A. Gay Neto, E. R. Malta, and P.M. Pimenta. Catenary riser sliding and rolling on seabed during induced

lateral movement. Marine Structures, 41:223–243, 2015.

[11] A. Gay Neto. Dynamics of offshore risers using a geometrically-exact beam model with hydrodynamic loads

and contact with the seabed. Engineering Structures, 125:438–454, 2016.

[12] A. Robertson, J. Jonkman, F. Vorpahl, W. Popko, J. Qvist, L. Frøyd, X. Chen, J. Azcona, E. Uzunoglu,

C. Guedes Soares, C. Luan, H. Yutong, F. Pengcheng, A. Yde, T. Larsen, J. Nichols, R. Buils, L. Lei, T. An-

ders Nygard, D. Manolas, A. Heege, S. Ringdalen Vatne, H. Ormberg, T. Duarte, C. Godreau, H. Fabricius

Hansen, A. Wedel Nielsen, H. Riber, C. Le Cunff, R. Abele, F. Beyer, A. Yamaguchi, K. Jin Jung, H. Shin,

W. Shi, H. Park, M. Alves, and M. Guérinel. Offshore code comparison collaboration continuation within

iea wind task 30: Phase ii results regarding a floating semisubmersible wind system. In Proceedings of the

ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. American Society

of Mechanical Engineers, 2014.

45 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

ACOUSTIC WAVE E QUATION S IMULATIONS

Carlos H. S. Barbosa1 , Schirley C. Jorge1 , Raphael F. Vilela1 , Luciano Leite1 , José J. Camata2 , Alvaro

L. G. A. Coutinho1

1 COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

2 Computer Science, Federal University of Juiz de Fora.

Abstract: Geophysical imaging faces nowadays new challenges related to 3D data acquisition, which

means that we need to simulate full 3D volumes. Therefore, we present a hybrid MPI/OpenMP ap-

proach for modeling the 3D heterogeneous acoustic wave equation. Test cases provided by the High-

Performance Computing for Energy project are solved using our optimized numerical code. Results

show that a hybrid MPI/OpenMP strategy overlapping computation and communication can be very

efficient in standard multi-core machines.

1. Introduction

Finite difference (FD) algorithms are the most straightforward approach to simulate 3D waves. The

geophysical imaging industry has relied for years on highly specialized FD codes for their modeling

and migration algorithms. Nevertheless, despite their success, nowadays geophysical imaging faces

new challenges. First of all, 3D data acquisition are now commonplace, which means that we need to

model full 3D volumes. Furthermore, reservoirs are found in deeper and more geologically complex

areas, which requires more computing power and tweaks to the physical approximations used to model

waves. Also, computer architectures have changed dramatically over the years, mostly driven by the

commodity market. New computational architectures and parallel paradigms imply that codes require

constant maintenance to beat obsolescence. Today, FD algorithms are still as popular as ever, and the

applications where they are used have increased significantly. In this work, fast and effective optimization

and porting strategies are shown to boost the performance of a classical extrapolation scheme. A standard

eighth order in space and second order in time 3D acoustic FD code, parallelized with MPI/OpenMP and

running on Intel general-purpose CPUs is analyzed and optimized. Results for the seismic imaging

benchmark released by the High Performance Computing for Energy project are shown to demonstrate

the efficiency of our approach.

A simple way to derive the heterogeneous acoustic wave equations, regarding particle velocity and pres-

sure, is using the Newton’s Law of momentum conservation and the continuity equation [1]. Thus, the

wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous medium can be described as the following first-order system of

equations:

∂v(r,t)

ρ(r) + ∇p(r,t) = f(r,t), (1)

∂t

1 ∂p(r,t) ∂iv (r,t)

+ ∇ · v(r,t) = ,

κ(r) ∂t ∂t

46 1

where, p is the pressure, v = (vx , vy , vz ) the velocity field, r = (rx , ry , rz ) the position vector, t the time. ρ

and κ are functions of the position and define the density and the acoustic bulk modulus of the medium,

respectively. The density of external body force is represented by the vector f = ( fx , fy , fz ), and the

source, iv , is the density of volume injection, such as an air gun, for instance. Finally, ∂/ ∂t is the time

derivative, and the symbol ∇ is the vector differential operator.

The first-order system of equations 1 describes how the velocity and the acoustic pressure change in a

medium with properties κ and ρ submitted to external perturbations iv and f. The numerical discretization

used to solve the coupled system of equations 1 is based on the acoustic Standard Staggered Grid scheme

(SSG) as proposed by Virieux [2]. However, Virieux’s original formulation is second-order accurate in

time and space. Here we apply a high order discretization, such as an eighth-order accurate in space, to

reach better accuracy. Thus, the discretized coupled equations are given by:

n+ 1 n− 1 ∆t

vi+ 12, j,k = vi+ 12, j,k − bi+ 1 , j,k (Dpx ) ,

2 2 2 h

n+ 1 n− 1 ∆t

vi, j+2 1 ,k = vi, j+2 1 ,k − bi, j+ 1 ,k (Dpy ) , (2)

2 2 2 h

n+ 12 n− 12 ∆t

vi, j,k+ 1 = vi, j,k+ 1 − bi, j,k+ 1 (Dpz ) ,

2 2 2 h

∆t

pn+1 n

i, j,k = pi, j,k − κi, j,k (Dvx + Dvy + Dvz ),

h

where the operators Dpx , Dpy , Dpz , Dvx , Dvy , Dvz are:

Dpx = pni+1, j,k − pni, j,k + pni+2, j,k − pni−1, j,k + pni+3, j,k − pni−2, j,k + pni+4, j,k − pni−3, j,k ,

Dpy = pni, j+1,k − pni, j,k + pni, j+2,k − pni, j−1,k + pni, j+3,k − pni, j−2,k + pni, j+4,k − pni, j−3,k ,

Dpz = pni, j,k+1 − pni, j,k + pni, j,k+2 − pni, j,k−1 + pni, j,k+3 − pni, j,k−2 + pni, j,k+4 − pni, j,k−3 ,

n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1

Dvx = vi+ 12, j,k − vi− 12, j,k + vi+ 32, j,k − vi− 32, j,k + vi+ 52, j,k − vi− 52, j,k + vi+ 72, j,k − vi− 72, j,k ,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1

Dvy = vi, j+2 1 ,k − vi, j−2 1 ,k + vi, j+2 3 ,k − vi, j−2 3 ,k + vi, j+2 5 ,k − vi, j−2 5 ,k + vi, j+2 7 ,k − vi, j−2 7 ,k ,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1 n+ 1

Dvz = vi, j,k+

2

1 −v

2

i, j,k− 1

+ vi, j,k+

2

3 −v

2

i, j,k− 3

+ vi, j,k+

2

5 −v

2

i, j,k− 5

+ vi, j,k+

2

7 −v

2

i, j,k− 7

.

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

The indexes i, j, and k represent the directions (x, y, z), n is the temporal step, ∆t is the temporal sampling

rate, and h is the grid size. The velocity is given by v, p is the pressure, and b is the buoyancy (1/ρ).

The wave propagation kernel concentrates most of the program execution time (≈ 98% of total). The first

modification to the serial code use OpenMP directives. In addition to this, current processors allow oper-

ating more than one floating-point operation per loop iteration, which is known as a Single-Instruction-

Multiple-Data (SIMD) model. In the SIMD model, instead of applying an instruction multiple times to

each chunk of a vector, it employs just one single instruction to a whole vector (e.g., float, or, at least,

a portion more extensive than a single unit (a single float). In this work, the AVX2 (Advanced Vector

Extensions) technology, with 256 bits [3], is used for SIMD computations. The code contains preproces-

sor directives and uses memory alignment allocation to ensure vectorization. The processor cores pinned

OpenMP threads using the Intel environment variable to control thread affinity. The code uses first touch

approach to reduce NUMA imbalance.

For large 3D discretizations, domain decomposition is mandatory in multi-core architectures. An

MPI communication strategy is also applied to construct our Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallel solution. It

uses non-blocking send/receiver MPI routines that allows overlap communication and computation. The

47 2

computational domain is a Cartesian grid, and it can be partitioned among the processes. Thus, each

MPI process can get all information about its domain/subdomain and neighbors relationship without any

message exchange. The subdomain stencil computation using non-blocking communication is performed

in four stages:(i) gather its subdomain boundary data and sends to appropriate neighbors; (ii) compute

the stencil only in regions that do not depend on data from neighboring processes; (iii) verify that it has

received data from some neighbor and, if true, copy the data to a ghost area; (iv) compute stencil in halo

region.

However, this scheme can result in load imbalance and performance degradation because the imple-

mentation of the send call requires the corresponding receiver to be posted on the target before initializing

the data transfer. Thus, data transfer occurs during the MPI Waitall() call even when there is enough com-

putation to overlap. To overcome this issue, we have implemented a scheme where a dedicated thread

is used to improve asynchronous communication progress. As a consequence, a new nested OpenMP

parallel region is created to compute the finite-difference stencil.

The first result presented is related to the scalability analysis of the discretized homogeneous acoustic

wave equation with 4096×4096×4096 grid points for different core numbers as shown in Table 1. Using

code profiling tools, we can get insights into the effectiveness of the domain decomposition strategy, use

of thread parallelism and the computational functional unit cores. We use the Tuning and Analysis

Utilities (TAU) [4] linked to PAPI to get hardware events (for instance, L1/L2 cache misses). OMPT tool

provides runtime state tracking, which enables a sampling-based performance tool to understand what

an OpenMP application thread is doing. These tools allow us to discover the most appropriate OpenMP

SCHEDULE strategy and also to perform stencil optimizations, which increased the performance of

the seismic modeling code. Besides, we have allocated one MPI process to each compute node and

use 16 OpenMP threads per node. Tests were carried out on Stampede2, a cluster with 4,200 Knights

Landing (KNL) nodes, the second generation of processors based on Intel’s Many Integrated Core (MIC)

architecture and 1,736 Intel Xeon Skylake nodes. Thus, the scalability analysis shows that our scheme

can reach 80% of efficiency up to 4096 cores.

Table 1: Acoustic wave propagation - scalability analysis - grid 4096 × 4096 × 4096, 500 time steps.

MPI Process Process Distribution Threads CPU Time Speed-up

64 4×4×4 1024 773.88 1.00

128 4×4×8 2048 494.83 1.56

256 4×8×8 4096 234.77 3.30

We also experiment our optimized code using the flat acoustic test at 20 Hz maximum frequency

[5] (codenamed AF-UNIT-20Hz) provided by the High-Performance Computing for Energy (HPC4E)

project1 . The AF-UNIT-20Hz test consists to run the modeling code in the 10x10x4.5 Km block with

minimum velocity 1684.08 m/s and maximum velocity 4000.0 m/s both for the P-waves. The model

includes a flat free-surface condition, where receivers record all three velocity components of motion

with a 5 milliseconds sampling. The shot is an explosive source (Ormsby wavelet with cut-off frequency

at 20Hz.) buried at a depth of 10 meters below the free surface. The second-order accurate in time and

eighth-order accurate in space discretized approach allows using 3.33 points per minimum wavelength,

i.e., a grid space of 25.0 meters and a temporal sampling rate of 0.001 seconds. Finally, to avoid spurious

reflection on the boundary of the domain the Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) developed by Cerjan

[6] is used. Considering a single shot (AF-UNIT-20Hz) located at sx = 5000m and sy = 5000m the

experiment is carried out on Lobo Carneiro (SGI ICE X), a cluster with 504 CPU’s Intel Xeon E5-

2670v3 (Haswell), where each node (252 nodes) has 24 cores. Thus, the optimized code is executed in

a dual-socket node, using all 24 available cores. OpenMP directives are inserted in the finite-difference

kernel. Besides, to ensure stencil vectorization, the code contains preprocessor directives (AVX2) and

1 hpc4e.eu

48 3

uses memory alignment allocation. The experiment takes only 720s of walltime in a single node with a

speedup of 6.3. Figure 1(b) shows the vertical velocity component (seismogram) extracted from inline

located at 5000 meters (Figure 1(a)) as specified in the AF-UNIT-20Hz experiment provided by the

HPC4E.

(a) (b)

Figure 1: Layer horizons (1(a)) related to the test cases. Vertical velocity (1(b)) extracted from inline

located at 5000 meters [5].

5. Conclusions

In this work we report improvements made in hybrid parallel high-order 3D finite difference simulation

of the heterogeneous acoustic wave equation in multi-core machines. We introduce a domain decomposi-

tion approach overlapping computation and communication. OpenMP directives and AVX2 instructions

speed-up kernel stencil computations, improving the overall performance. The code for modeling homo-

geneous acoustic wave equation with our hybrid parallel approach is freely available for download at the

High Performance Computing for Energy project website2 .

Acknowledgements

The research has received funding from CNPq, FAPERJ, the European Commission (HPC4E H2020

project) and the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications. Com-

puter resources are provided by the High Performance Computer Center, COPPE/UFRJ and TACC, The

University of Texas at Austin, USA.

References

[1] C. H. Chapman. Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

[2] J. Virieux. P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media: Velocity-stress finite-difference method, Geo-

physics, 889-901, 1986.

[3] Intel. ISA Extensions Intel AVX - Intelr Software: https://software.intel.com/en-us/isa-extensions/intel-avx,

Online, 2013.

[4] S. Shende and A. D. Malony. The TAU Parallel Performance System, International Journal of High Perfor-

mance Computing Applications, Volume 20 Number 2 Summer 2006. Pages 287-311.

[5] J. de la Puente. Website deploying a suite of geophysical tests for wave propagation problems on extreme scale

machines: http://hpc4e.eu, HPC4E Consortium Partners, 2015.

[6] C. Cerjan, D. Kosloff, R. Kosloff, and M. Reshef. A nonreflecting boundary condition for discrete acoustic

and elastic wave equations, Geophysics, 705-708, 1985

2 https://https://hpc4e.eu/downloads/software

49 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

UMN COLLAPSE USING A WELL - POSED µ(I)- RHEOLOGY

Linda Gesenhues 1 , José J. Camata 3 , Adriano M. A. Côrtes 2 , Fernando A. Rochinha 1 , Alvaro L.G.A.

Coutinho 1

1 COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2 NUMPEX-COMP, Campus Duque de Caxias, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

3 Computer Science Department, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Dense granular flows often occur in nature and industry, e.g., in avalanches, turbidity currents, grain

silos or material handling. Therefore, a high interest exists to gain further insights to predict such flows.

In the last decades, the µ(I)-rheology has been more and more established to compute dense granular

flows with a continuous model. Besides a dependency on the shear rate, this rheology model is based on

the Coulomb friction and assumes that the normal stress applied by the pressure are proportional by a

friction coefficient to the tangential stress [1]. This complex constitutive model results in an unusual vis-

coplastic shear-thinning behavior. The equations are highly non-linear and thus lead easily to numerical

instabilities, which may end in divergence, oscillation and extreme sensitivity to the input parameters.

Recently Barker et al [2] demonstrated that under some assumptions the governing equations are

ill-posed. Thus the solution, if not diverged before, might be grid-dependent and not unique. Barker

and Gray [3] suggest a regularization strategy to ensure well-posed constitutive equations. Besides the

regularization of Barker and Gray we have introduced other regularizations strategies based on thresholds

for the minimum and maximum viscosity values.

Earlier, we have managed to run 2D and 3D simulations of a column collapse using the well-posed

formulation of the µ(I)-rheology. In this experimental setup, a dense fluid column at rest is surrounded

by a lighter fluid. With time, the denser fluid collapses due to the gravity and the different densities [4].

Along the process, we noticed that different preconditioning strategies have a significant impact on the

solver’s convergence, and thus, have considerable importance for a successful simulation.

In this study, we compare the behavior of different parallel preconditioners (Block-Jacobi, ILU(n),

Algebraic Multigrid) for the column collapse using the µ(I)-rheology. This also includes a reordering of

the standard matrix (AIJ) to a blocked matrix (BAIJ). The simulations are governed by the Navier-Stokes

solver coupled with a transport solver employing the volume-of-fluid method which describes the inter-

face of the dense and light fluids. As finite element formulation, we use the residual-based variational

multiscale method. All implementations are based upon libMesh, a C++ library which interfaces PETSc

and other libraries. Furthermore, it supports adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening [5].

References

[1] Pierre Jop, Yoel Forterre, and Olivier Pouliquen. A constitutive law for dense granular flows. Nature,

441(7094):727–730, 2006.

[2] T. Barker, D. G. Schaeffer, P. Bohorquez, and J. M. N. T. Gray. Well-posed and ill-posed behaviour of the

µ-rheology for granular flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 779:794–818, 2015.

[3] T. Barker and J. M.N.T. Gray. Partial regularisation of the incompressible µ(I)-rheology for granular flow.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 828(October):5–32, 2017.

[4] Linda Gesenhues, Jose J. Camata, and Alvaro L.G.A. Coutinho. Simulation of a column collapse for dense

granular flows. In CILAMCE 2017, 2017.

50 1

[5] Benjamin S. Kirk, John W. Peterson, Roy H. Stogner, and Graham F. Carey. libMesh : a C++ library for

parallel adaptive mesh refinement/coarsening simulations. Engineering with Computers, 22(3-4):237–254,

2006.

51 2

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

DYNAMIC RESPONSE RATE FOR DIFFERENT DECK GEOMETRIES

1

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, anaxec1@gmail.com

2

Universidade Ceuma, lisboaleo77@gmail.com

3

Universidade Ceuma, rodrigo145889@hotmail.com

4

Unidade de Ensino Superior Dom Bosco, lsfneto@hotmail.com

5

Universidade de São Paulo, henriquecampelo78@hotmail.com

Abstract: The present work has as main study direction the analysis of the wind action in different types

of bridge decks geometries and their dynamic response, using classic bridge models already constructed

such as the North American bridge Tacoma Narrows and the Brazilian Rio Niteroi, such example, and

usual models (trapezoid, rectangular and double-T) for validation of results, with the objective of

obtaining study parameters that help in the analysis of these elements of vital importance for large

population centers and cities with regard to transport logistics, based on the assumption that different

from the own weight and overloads that end up generating deformations, the wind produces non-

conservative forces generating dynamic phenomena and aeroelastic effects, provoking instability

through the movement of its superstructure. In order to obtain the study parameters, we used methods

related to computational modeling and numerical simulation, aiming at obtaining results with maximum

accuracy and demonstrating the validation of the same as their practical use in the context of civil

construction, especially in bridges, considering their interrelations in the environment in which they are

inserted.

Keywords: Bridge decks, Dynamic response, Usual deck models, Aeroelastic effects

Bridges are essential elements for the development of a region, both in economic and

geographic criteria. They are made for the transition of people, vehicles and transport of objects

between two regions that are separated by rivers, seas, cliffs, etc. Therefore, studying their

interactions with the environment, in this case the wind and the conditions of the stresses that

they are subjected are of vital importance when considering that you want a bridge with good

performance and high longevity. Classically, simulations involving the action of internal or

external forces on medium and large structures were made from large-scale tests using wind

tunnels and destructive tests (in case of stress analysis), sometimes disregarding important

variables in the evaluation process. The CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) adds to the

evaluative process as a method that makes possible the study of the fluid-structure system, a

concept that analyzes the behavior of a structure not only in function of its stresses and demands

but as a global dynamic spectrum which surrounds the fluid in which it is immersed. In

agreement with the cfd, in the present work also were used mathematical methods of modeling,

attached to computational systems, that help in the obtaining of results with the maximum of

52

reliability and security. One of the most used features in computational modeling, and also used

in the formulation of the present article, is the finite element method, which consists of a

numerical procedure for the approximate solution of problems about boundary values of

differential equations, which are changed by a limited number of elements that present well

defined behavior where they are found in several forms such as triangular, quadrilateral, among

others depending on the type of problem studied. The finite elements are connected to each

other forming nodes or nodal points, when forming a set of nodes we get the name of mesh, a

concept used in the design and modeling of bridge decks for posterior simulation.

2. Main Objectives

The present research has as main objective to analyze different geometries of bridge decks and

how they are able to influence phenomena of aeroelastic instability, starting from the

assumption that the geometry of the deck can influence at generation of vortices that will

consequently induce phenomena in the all superstructure of the bridge. Using ANSYS

numerical modeling and simulation software, it was possible create usual bridge decks

geometries and subject them to simulations of wind actions under the superstructure of the

bridge, making 2D finite element analysis (FEA) meshes with a high degree of refinement and

analyzing their behavior from it. The results presented by the software refer to the frequency of

vortex shedding in low-pressure regions of the structure, also known as Strouhal number, as

also as drag (CD) and lift (CL) coefficients, comparing those coefficients with natural frequency

of the structure, it is possible to determine the performance of each deck and his tendency to

aeroelastic instability. These parameters are essential for the correct analysis of the bridge

behavior when considering the study of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). as also as drag (CD)

and lift (CL) coefficients, comparing those coefficients with natural frequency of the structure,

it is possible to determine the performance of each deck and his tendency to aeroelastic

instability. These parameters are essential for the correct analysis of the bridge behavior when

considering the study of fluid-structure interaction (FSI).

a) b)

Fig. 1: a and b, different perspectives of the Rio Nitéroi bridge evidencing its deck in double-t format

In Figure 1, the Brazilian bridge Rio Niterói, built in the 1970s with the objective of connecting

the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, presented in the 1990s vertical bending in the 50cm

range, according to records of the time in response to the action of the wind in the region. was

later corrected with the aid of shock absorbers and against weights installed in its structure

53

c) d)

Fig 2: c and d, the north american bridge Tacoma Narrows, before and after the collapse in 1940.

The Tacoma Narrows bridge, shown in figure 2, was a North American suspension bridge that

was located on the Tacoma Strait, in the United States. It collapsed in 1940, a few months after

its inauguration due to strong gusts of wind that induced dynamic effects related to resonance

and aeroelasticity in it.

Figures 1 and 2 show the importance of the study of the dynamic effects that the wind induces

in these types of structures.

Wind action in static structures, such as buildings and bridges, is one of the main factors that

must be taken on consideration in the design and execution of a project, especially when

considering structures with robust shapes (ie non-aerodynamic), the shape of these types of

elements corroborates with the appearance of undesirable phenomena for the structure, such as

vortex detachment, hammer effects and excessive oscillation, Therefore, the analysis and

prediction, as well as the consideration of the natural frequencies and requesting loads to which

bridges will be subject is essential, this process involves from a good choice of materials to the

choices of people qualified to execute and study the project In this scientific work, besides

obtaining parameters of analysis, two conclusions were evidenced, the first concerns the use of

computational resources in the scope of civil construction, in view of its practical and

facilitating bias, in addition to providing more precise results in relation to studies of structural

nature and dynamic fluid (in the case of this work), assisting in the constructive process. The

second is about the isostatic nature of most bridges, a factor that in addition to what common

sense may suggest, is of the utmost importance, considering that these types of elements have

the need to move with a certain degree of freedom, allowing a structural integrity.

Referencies

fluido estrutura. (Tese de Doutorado) Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do

Sul, Porto Alegre.

GOMES, H. C. 2013., Método dos Elementos Finitos com Fronteiras Imersas aplicado a Problemas de

Dinâmica dos Fluidos e Interação Fluido-Estrutura. (Tese de Doutorado), Universidade de São Paulo,

São Paulo.

54

BLESSMANN, J, 2005., Introdução ao Estudo da Ação Dinâmica do Vento. 2. ed. Editora da

Universidade. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.

series, Reston.

Computacional. (Tese de Doutorado), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.

55

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

315K03 FROM VALE COMPANY IN BRAZIL USING COMPUTATIONAL

MECHANICS TECHNIQUES

1

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, anaxec1@gmail.com

2

Vale, carlos.marinho@vale.com

3

Universidade Ceuma, luisjorgeed25@hotmail.com

Abstract: The present article has as main objectives the structural analysis of the belt conveyor TR-

315K-03 (2200) and in the verification of its mechanical components, such equipment implanted in

the company Vale. The research was carried out through computational models of a numerical

simulation software Procal 3D that uses finite elements method, where the obtained data adequately

show the quality of the materials used in analyzes from the force requests to which they are being

submitted and the importance of its study to ensure its efficiency.

Keys Words: Belt Conveyor, finite elements, structural analysis.

1. Introduction

Vale is considered one of the largest mining companies in the world, having facilities in

several countries such as Indonesia, Oman, Argentina, Brazil and Mozambique. Its main activity and

source of profit is designated as mining and transportation of the ore, and to do its work the railroad

systems are used to move between regions to accelerate the process in line with low emission

pollutants that the railway line can offer. Therefore the issue of logistics related to the handling of ore

is an essential factor for success in every process.

In this article, the belt conveyor used for all types of work that require the uniform and safe

movement of materials in the company was analyzed, with the objective of obtaining data through

structural and mechanical analysis. The interpretation of the results obtained through computational

modeling and numerical simulation is of vital importance for the useful life and durability of this

equipment that play an important role within the company.

Computational modeling consists of an area of knowledge that deals with the application

processes of mathematical models using computational techniques for the solution and understandings

of complex problems. Such problems with a high degree of complexity can result in an agglomeration

of physical variables for the control of the process, thus creating techniques for several models, aiming

at solving the problem.

In this way, one of the computational modeling methods is finite elements, which consists of a

numerical procedure to solve problems in the limits of differential equations, where they are modified

by a definite number of elements that have a well-defined behavior and that depending on the problem

can be found in various forms such as quadrangular, triangular and other forms that will depend on the

problem being studied.

The finite elements when connected to each other form nodes or in other words, nodal points,

consisting of a set of creating nodes, carrying a finite element mesh where their precision will depend

56

on the number formed of nodes and their formats, thus, how much smaller its size and more quantity

in a mesh, more accurate and correct will be the result. More and more modern simulation software is

used that, over time, is evolving more and more, improving the analysis, the type and the formation of

the mesh of elements, using the techniques proposed by the modeling, with more accurate results and

less number of failures.

Using the finite element methodology with the Procon 3D modeling and numerical simulation

software, it was possible to obtain the structural analysis data and the analyzes of its mechanical

components of the belt TK-315K-03 transporter where they are indispensable parameters for good

operation.

To evaluate the structural and mechanical aspects of the TR-315K-03, according to the

applicable standards and requirements, with the aid of the modeling and numerical simulation software

Procal 3D, where it was possible to analyze in detail the structural and mechanical components of the

equipment.

From the results it was observed that for the mechanical analysis, the design radius of the

concave curve is lower than the minimum required to avoid belt lifting and buckling of the edges that

57

can cause damage to the cables and delamination of the cover, belt lifting can cause material spillage

and misalignment. If this condition occurs, it is suggested to adjust it by installing an anti-lifting

system.

For the structural analysis of TR-315K-03, no major structural element was presented with

failure in the combinations used. The highest utilization rates found are located near the discharge

drum, considering the high-tension value in the belt.

For modal analysis, resonance possibilities were presented in the natural modes 2, 3 and 4

with the frequencies of the load and return rollers. During the analysis of the flexibility of the belt

changer platform, the deformation obtained from the natural frequencies of the conveyor did not have

the possibility of coupling with the excitation frequencies of the equipment, but it was found that this

displacement does not interfere with the operation of the conveyor

References

[1] ISO-5049-1, Mobile equipment for continuous handling of bulk materials, 1994.

[2] ABNT, NBR 6123, Forças Devido ao Vento em Edificações, 1988.

[3] ABNT, NBR 8800, Projeto de estruturas de aço e de estruturas mistas de aço e concreto de

edifícios, 2008.

[4] NBR 6678, Transportadores de correia - Roletes – Dimensões, 2010.

[5] FEM, Rules for the design of mobile equipment for continuous handling of bulk materials, France,

1997.

[6] ISO 5048, Continuous Mechanical Handling Equipment – Belt Conveyors with carrying idlers,

Calculation of operating power and tensile forces, 1989.

[7] CEMA 6th Edition, Belt Conveyor for Bulk Materials, 2007.

[8] DIN 22101, Continuous conveyors – Belt conveyors for loose bulk materials – Belt for calculation

and dimensioning, 2011.

[9] AISC 2005 - Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and Plastic

Design, July 2006, American Institute of Steel Construction.

[10] ASCE Standard, Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, 2005.

[11] AS 4324.1 – Mobile equipment for continuous handling of bulk materials, Part 1: General

requirements for the design of steel structures, Australian Standard, 1995.

[12] AS 3774 – Loads on bulk solid containers, Australian Standard, 1996;

[13] DNV-RP-C203, Fatigue design of offshore steel structures, 2010;

[14] HENFEL, Caixas para rolamentos, catálogo de caixas de mancais;

[15] VALE, EG-M-401, “Especificação geral para fornecimento de equipamentos mecânicos”, 2009.

[16] VALE, ET-M-406, "Especificação técnica para transportadores de correia", 2012.

[17] VALE, CP-S-501, “Critérios de projeto para estruturas metálicas”, 2013.

[18] Lemmon, R., Local Stresses in Belt Turnovers in Conveyor Belts, Bulk Material Handling by

Conveyor Belt IV, 2002.

[19] Desenhos técnicos, listados na Tabela 12.1, no ANEXO II – Relação dos desenhos consultados;

[20] DALLY J. W., Experimental stress analysis, McGRAW-HILL, 3rd ed., 1991.

[21] VISHAY PRECISION GROUP, Instruction Bulletin B-129-8 – Surface Preparation for Strain

Gage Bonding, Micro-Measurements, Rev 19, 2011.

[22] VISHAY PRECISION GROUP, Instruction Bulletin B-127-14 – Strain Gage Installations with

M-Bond 200 Adhesive, Micro-Measurements, Rev 14, 2011.

58

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

A BENCHMARK EXAMPLE OF SYSTEM RBDO AND RISK-BASED OPTIMIZATION

André T. Beck1, Rodolfo K. Tessari2, Henrique M. Kroetz3

1

University of São Paulo, atbeck@sc.usp.br

2

University of São Paulo, tessari.rodolfo@usp.br

3

University of São Paulo, henrique.kroetz@usp.br

System Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) methods and examples in the published

literature are not many. Specifically, benchmark examples with general system behavior and

progressive failure are almost non-existent, but very important to test system RBDO methods. In this

paper, a benchmark example involving progressive failure of a hyper-static truss is addressed. Two

formulations of the problem are addressed: the classical RBDO formulation, with reliability

constraints; and a risk-based formulation, which takes into account consequences of failure. It is

demonstrated that a typical system RBDO formulation always leads to isostatic structures, as the

formulation does not offer any incentive for the permanence of hyper-static members. In the risk-based

formulation, failure costs are differentiated w.r.t. primary member failure, in hyper-static structures

(existence of warning before eventual collapse), and failure of isostatic members (no warning). In this

formulation, optimal designs also include hyper-static structures, but this depends on cost of failure

scenarios. Results presented herein are relevant in the modern context of robust design considering

progressive collapse.

Keywords: structural optimization; RBDO; System RBDO; risk optimization; progressive collapse.

Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge funding of this research project by Brazilian agencies

CAPES (Brazilian Higher Education Council), CNPq (Brazilian National Council for Research, grant

n. 306373/2016-5) and FAPESP (São Paulo State Foundation for Research, grant n. 2017/01243-5).

References

target safety – Application to RC frames, Structural Safety 30, 144–161.

[2] Aoues Y, Chateauneuf A, 2010: Benchmark study of numerical methods for reliability-based

design optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 41:277–294.

[3] Beck AT, Gomes WJS, 2012: A comparison of deterministic, reliability-based and risk-based

structural optimization under uncertainty. Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics 28, 18-29.

[4] Beck AT, Gomes WJS, Bazán FAV, 2012: On the Robustness of Structural Risk Optimization

with Respect to Epistemic Uncertainties. Int. J. for Uncertainty Quantification 2, 1 - 20.

[5] Beck AT, Gomes WJS, Lopez RH, Miguel LFF, 2015: A comparison between robust and risk-

based optimization under uncertainty, Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 52, 479-492.

[6] Beck AT, Kougioumtzoglou IA, Santos KR., 2014: Optimal Performance-Based Design of Non-

Linear Stochastic Dynamical Systems. Engineering Structures 78, 145-153.

59

[7] Beck AT, Verzenhassi CC, 2008: Risk Optimization of a Steel Frame Communications Tower

Subject to Tornado Winds, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 5, 187-203.

[8] Beyer HG, Sendhoff B, 2007: Robust optimization - A comprehensive survey, Computer Methods

in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 196, 3190-3218.

[9] Enevoldsen I, Sørensen JD, 1993: Reliability-based optimization of series system of parallel

systems. J. Struct. Eng. (ASCE) 119(14), 1069–84.

[10] Gomes WJS, Beck AT, 2013. Global structural optimization considering expected consequences

of failure and using ANN surrogates. Computers & Structures 126, 56–68.

[11] Gomes WJS, Beck AT, 2014a: Optimal Inspection and Design of Onshore Pipelines Under

External Corrosion Process, Structural Safety 47, 48-58.

[12] Gomes WJS, Beck AT, 2014b: Optimal Inspection Planning and Repair Under Random Crack

Propagation, Engineering Structures 69, 285-296.

[13] Gomes WJS, Beck AT, Haukaas T, 2013: Optimal Inspection Planning for Onshore Pipelines

Subject to External Corrosion. Reliability Engineering & Systems Safety 118, 18-27.

[14] Liang J, Mourelatos ZP, Nikolaidis E, 2007: A single-loop approach for system reliability-based

design optimization. J Mech Des 129(12):1215–1224.

[15] Lopez RH, Beck AT, 2012: Reliability-based design optimization strategies based on FORM: a

review. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mech. Sciences and Eng. 34, 506-514.

[16] McDonald M, Mahadevan S, 2008: Design Optimization with System-Level Reliability, ASME

Journal of Mechanical Design 130, 021403.

[17] Nguyen TH, Song J, Paulino GH, 2010: Single-Loop System Reliability-Based Design

Optimization Using Matrix-Based System Reliability Method: Theory and Applications, ASME

Journal of Mechanical Design 132, 011005-1-11.

[18] Okasha NM, 2016: An improved weighted average simulation approach for solving reliability-

based analysis and design optimization problems, Structural Safety 60, 47–55.

[19] Schuëller GI, Jensen HA, 2009: Computational methods in optimization considering uncertainties

– an overview, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 198, 2-13.

60

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

APPLICATIONS TO OIL & GAS EXPLORATION

André T. Beck1

1

University of São Paulo, atbeck@sc.usp.br

Current global climate trends, perceived trough higher ocean levels and higher temperatures, are

leading to more intense and more frequent extreme weather events. This, combined with the increase

in urbanization and in coastal development, has the potential to drastically increase consequences of

extreme weather and other natural hazards. A major hurricane hit the coast of Santa Catarina in 2004,

for the first time on record, with winds of up to 180 km/h. Five hurricanes that hit the Gulf of Mexico,

between 2004 and 2008, where stronger than anything previously recorded, in over 50 years of

offshore exploration in the Gulf area. As a consequence, design loads for fixed offshore structures

increased by nearly 50%. As we approach times of higher uncertainties, regulations on engineering

facilities are becoming stricter, with mandatory risk analysis for all offshore and most onshore Oil &

Gas facilities. The profession is learning that absolute safety is an utopia, hence consequences of

failure have to be explicitly addressed in engineering design. These recent challenges have also led to

the development of new engineering design concepts, such as infra-structure robustness and resilience,

and performance-based design. Addressing the challenges above involves uncertainty quantification,

reliability and risk analysis. These issues should drive future research efforts in the Oil & Gas and

other industries. Addressing these problems will require a change in the deterministic way that the

engineering profession is perceived, which should also drive changes in engineering curricula.

Keywords: extreme weather, risk analysis, uncertainty quantification, reliability, Oil & Gas.

Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge funding of this research project by Brazilian agencies

CAPES (Brazilian Higher Education Council), CNPq (Brazilian National Council for Research, grant

n. 306373/2016-5) and FAPESP (São Paulo State Foundation for Research, grant n. 2017/01243-5).

References

[1] Gilbert RB et al., 2012: Achieving Reliability in the Face of Extreme Uncertainty, Proc. 5th

Asian-Pacific Symposium on Structural Reliability and its Applications.

[2] Haldar A, Mehrabian A, 2008: Structural engineering in the new millennium: opportunities and

challenges, Structural Survey 26, 279-301.

[3] Petroski H, 1992: To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design, 1st Edition,

Vintage Books.

[4] Petroski H, 2006: Success through Failure: the paradox of design, Princeton University Press,

UK.

61

[5] Petroski H, 2012: To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure, Harvard University Press.

[6] Taleb NN, 2010: The Black Swan - The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Random House, NY.

[7] Vogel RM, 1999: Stochastic and deterministic world views, Editorial: Journal of Water Resources

Planning and Management 125, 311-313.

62

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

SIMULATION

Gilson Barbosa de Lima 3

1

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, andersonmelch@gmail.com

2

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, marianajulie@outlook.com

3

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, antonio.gilson@ufcg.edu.br

Clay materials manufacturing has been reported in the literature based on the material chemical

composition and commercial type products, such as brick, roof tiles, blocks, etc. These products are

very different in size, shape, detail, complexity, material formulation, structure, and cost. The clay

product, during the manufacturing process, goes through the steps of product molding, drying and

firing. In the molding process, water is added to the clay to increase plasticity, and to facilitate the

forming of a specified product. The drying is a stage of the process that precedes firing, and needs a

large amount of thermal energy, to remove the water, which was added during the molding process.

However, drying can cause different troubles in the materials. If this moisture content is not removed

adequately, severe stresses occurs inside the material causing cracking and fissures reducing quality of

product post-drying process. Then the drying air conditions affect the moisture removal and heating of

the product. In this sense, the published [1-3] literature shows that if special care is taken during the

drying, energy costs can be reduced and a better quality product, with a smaller process time, can be

obtained.

Drying plays an important role in different industrial applications, thus, mathematical models to

describe the drying process have been reported by many researchers, especially for ceramic material

[4,5]. In this sense, this work focuses on the drying of industrial clay blocks in a cross-flow tunnel

dryer by using numerical simulation. The proposed mathematical model is based on an industrial

tunnel dryer and energy and mass transfer between the product and hot air in the drying process.

The proposed problem is time dependent and was solved using the finite volume numerical method

[7-9]. The integration of the partial differential equations, in the volume and time, resulted in a set of

linear equations in discretized form. To obtain the numerical results, a computational code in language

of the Mathematica® program, for the solutions of the equations used, was developed. Details about

the process parameters and numerical procedure can be found in the literature [4-6,10,11].

Predicted results of the moisture content and the surface product temperature (vertices) as a

function of the drying time, are presented and compared with experimental results (drying of 1 block

in oven) [6]. This comparison is possible because the analysis considers only the first layer of blocks

in the bed (y = 0).

In this sense, in accordance with the predicted results of the hollow blocks drying in a tunnel dryer

of cross-flow type, it can be concluded, that the mathematical modeling and numerical method

63

proposed in this work can be used to simulate the drying process of blocks and other clay materials in

a cross flow dryer, because a good approximation between the numerical and experimental results of

the moisture content and surface temperature of the block were obtained. Here, was confirmed that the

blocks of the first layer get dried and heated a little more than those in the last layer. This is due to the

fact that when the drying air arrives in the first layer of bricks it has a low absolute humidity and as it

goes on penetrating in the next layers of the product it receives water vapor of the blocks, increasing

the absolute humidity and reducing its temperature. During the drying process, low gradients of

temperature and moisture content, within the bed, were obtained, providing at the end of the process, a

more uniform drying and obtaining good quality products.

The results is in agreement with the concept that a non-uniform drying and high thermo-hydro-

mechanical stresses in the ceramic blocks may cause cracking, fissure and deformation in them,

affecting its quality at the end of the drying process. Since the drying process studied in the present

work has been more controllable, so products with good quality can be obtained.

References

[1] W.D. Callister, Jr. Materials science and engineering an introduction, 7td ed., John Wiley & Sons,

Inc. USA, 2007.

[2] D. A. Brosnan, G. C. Robinson. Introduction to drying of ceramics. Ohio: The American Ceramic

Society, 2003.

[3] J.S. Reed, Principles of ceramics processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.

[4] G.S. Almeida. Simulation and experimentation of red ceramics drying in industrial thermal

systems, Ph.D Thesis (Doctorate in Process Engineering), Federal University of Campina Grande,

2008. 88f (In portuguese).

[5] G. S. Almeida, J.B. Silva, C. Joaquina e Silva, R. Swarnakar, G. A. Neves, A. G. B Lima, Heat

and mass transport in an industrial tunnel dryer: modeling and simulation applied to hollow

bricks. Applied Thermal Engineering, v. 55, p. 78-86, 2013.

[6] A.M.V Silva. Drying of industrial ceramics blocks: Modeling and simulation, Ph.D Thesis

(Doctorate in Process Engineering), Federal University of Campina Grande, 2018. (In portuguese).

[7] C.R. Maliska. Computational heat transfer and fluid mechanics. Rio de Janeiro: LTC-Livros

Técnicos e Científicos Editora S.A, p453, 2004. (In Portuguese).

[8] S.V. Patankar. Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow, New York: Hemisphere Publishing

Coorporation, p197, 1980.

[9] H. K. Versteeg, W. Malalasekera. An introduction to computational fluid dynamics: the finite

volume method, Prentice Hall, London, 1995.

[10] F. V. S. Tavares, S. R. Farias Neto, E. S. Barbosa, A. G. B. de Lima, C. Joaquina e Silva. Drying

of ceramic hollow bricks in an industrial tunnel dryer: A finite volume analysis. The International

Journal of Multiphysics, v. 8, p. 297-312, 2014.

[11] G.S. Almeida, F.V.S. Tavares, W.M.P.B. Lima, A.G. Barbosa de Lima, Energetic and exergetic

analysis of the clay bricks drying in an industrial tunnel dryer. Defect and Diffusion Forum. v.369,

p.104 - 109, 2016.

64

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

POLYMER COMPOSITES: AN APPLICATION TO THE LANGMUIR-TYPE MASS

TRANSPORT MODEL AND THE FINITE-VOLUME METHOD

Rafaela Quinto da Costa Melo1, José Vieira da Silva2, Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima3

1

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Materials Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, rafaelaquinto@live.com

2

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, jvieira7@gmail.com

3

Federal University of Campina Grande, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av: Aprígio Veloso,

882, Bodocongó, Campina Grande-PB, Zip Code 58429-900, Brazil, antonio.gilson@ufcg.edu.br

Vegetal fibers have presented great potential for technological applications due to its potential as

substitute of synthetic fibers. Their use as reinforcement in polymer composite materials present

several advantages such as, low density, low cost, being obtained from renewable sources, are widely

available and environmentally superior to synthetic fiber [1-6]. The main disadvantage of these

materials is their susceptibility to the influence of environmental agents, especially humidity and

temperature [2,6-8]. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a transient and one-dimensional

mathematical modeling and its numerical solution to predict heat and mass transfer during water

absorption in polymeric composite reinforced with vegetable fiber based on the Langmuir model.

The Langmuir diffusion model (Non-Fickian diffusion) was initially proposed by Carter and Kilber

[9] and it is based on the hypothesis of the existence of probabilities describing two "states" of

absorbed water [5,6,8,10]. In the first state, the free water molecules diffuse inside the porous solid

and are absorbed with a probability λ per unit time. In the second one, the water molecules leave the

trapped state and become free with a probability μ per unit of time. For the mathematical model was

considered a plate with thickness 2a, immersed in a fluid solute (water), placed in a container of

thickness (2L+2a). The solid is homogeneous, isotropic and totally dry at the beginning of the process.

Further, the solid is symmetrical with respect to their center. The total moisture content inside the

material in a specific position x and instant t is found from the sum of the amounts of free and

entrapped solute, and the average moisture content of the solid at any time is given by integration of

the moisture content in the volume.

For the numerical solution of the governing equation, the discretization process (finite-volume

method) is done by applying the integral in all terms of the governing equation in volume and time

[11]. To solve the equation system originated by the discretization process, a computer code was

developed on the Wolfram Mathematica® platform. The equations were solved iteratively using the

Gauss-Seidel method. Details about the modeling and numerical procedure can be found in the

literature [5,6,8,9].

The formulation was applied to water absorption process in polymeric composites reinforced with

Caroá vegetable fibers. The composite studied have very large width and length compared to the

thickness, so, the pure water penetrates only in the direction of the thickness. For the validation of the

model, numerical results of the average moisture content was compared with experimental data

65

reported by Silva et al. [12] for polymer composite materials reinforced by Caroá fiber. From the

analysis it was verified a good agreement between the predict and experimental results, which confirm

that the mathematical model adequately predict the water diffusion process inside the material.

From the analysis of the predicted results, it was concluded that the water absorption is fast in the

initial stages and tends to decay for long exposure times to water until reaching the hygroscopic

saturation point. I was observed that, in regions near the surface, water absorption is faster. The water

penetrates the interior of the material generating a moderate concentration gradient along the thickness

and decreasing with the progress of the absorption process. Thus, at any point inside the solid, the

moisture content increases with immersion time until it reaches its hygroscopic saturation condition.

Here, is noticed that with a longer immersion time there is an increase in the amount of molecules

trapped within the material while decreasing the amount of free molecules to diffuse until the

equilibrium condition (μS=λC). Thus, the higher the concentration of the free solute, the higher the

concentration of immobilized solute found inside the polymer composite.

References

[1] S. V. Joshi, L. T. Drzal, A. K. Mohanty, S. Arora. Are natural fiber composites environmentally

superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?. Composites Part A: Applied science and

manufacturing, v. 35, n. 3, p. 371-376, 2004.

[2] L. Mohammed, M. N. Ansari, G. Pua, M. Jawaid, M. S. Islam. A review on natural fiber reinforced

polymer composite and its applications. International Journal of Polymer Science, v. 2015, 2015.

[3] E. Omrani, P. L. Menezes, P. K. Rohatgi. State of the art on tribological behavior of polymer

matrix composites reinforced with natural fibers in the green materials world. Engineering Science

and Technology, v. 47, p.777-780, 2015.

[4] H. Patel, A. Parkhe, P. K. Shrama. Mechanical behaviors of banana and sisal hybrid composites

reinforced with epoxy resin. International Journal of Research–Granthaalayah, v. 4, n.1, p.206-216,

2016.

[5] W. R. G. Santos, R. Q. C. Melo, A. G. B. Lima. Water absorption in polymer composites

reinforced with vegetable fiber using Langmuir-type model: An exact mathematical treatment, Defect

and Diffusion Forum, v. 371, p. 102-110, 2016.

[6] R. Q. C. Melo, A. G. B. Lima, Vegetable fiber-reinforced polymer composites: fundamentals,

mechanical properties and applications. Diffusion Foundations, v.14, p.1 - 20, 2017.

[7] L. H. Carvalho, E. L. Canedo, S. R. Farias Neto, A. G. B. Lima, Moisture transport process in

vegetable fiber composites: Theory and analysis for technological applications. In: Industrial and

Technological Applications of Transport in Porous Materials. Springer Heidelberg, p. 37-62, 2013.

[8] R. Q. C. Melo, W. R. G. Santos, A. G. B. Lima, W. M. P. B. Lima, J. V. Silva, R. P. Farias. Water

absorption process in polymer composites: Theory analysis and applications. In: Transport

phenomena in multiphase systems. Series: Advanced Structured Materials.1 ed. Heidelberg

(Germany): Springer International Publishing, 2018, v. 93, p. 219-249.

[9] H. G. Carter, K. G. Kibler. Langmuir-type model for anomalous moisture diffusion in composite

resins. Journal of Composite Materials, v. 12, n. 2, p. 118-131, 1978.

[10] T. I. Glaskova, R. M. Guedes, J. J. Morais, A. N. Aniskevich, A comparative analysis of moisture

transport models as applied to an epoxy binder. Mechanics of Composite Materials, v. 43, n. 4, p.

377-388, 2007.

[11] C. R. Maliska. Computational heat transfer and fluid mechanics. Rio de Janeiro: LTC-Livros

Técnicos e Científicos Editora S.A, 2004. (In Portuguese).

[12] C. J. Silva, A. G. B. Lima, E. G. Silva, T. H. F. Andrade, R. Q. C. Melo, Water absorption in

caroá-fiber reinforced polymer composite at different temperatures: A theoretical investigation.

Diffusion Foundations, v.10, p.16 - 27, 2017.

66

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

MENT FOR H ELMHOLTZ PROBLEMS

1 POEMS, CNRS-ENSTA-Inria, Palaiseau (France) axel.modave@ensta-paristech.fr

2 Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Inria, IECL (France) xavier.antoine@univ-lorraine.fr

3 Université de Liège (Belgium) christophe.geuzaine@uliege.be

Solving high-frequency time-harmonic scattering problems using ﬁnite element techniques is chal-

lenging, as such problems lead to very large, complex and indeﬁnite linear systems. Optimized Schwarz

domain decomposition methods (DDMs) are currently a very promising approach, where subproblems

of smaller sizes are solved in parallel using direct solvers, and are combined in an iterative procedure.

It is well-known that the convergence rate of these methods strongly depends on the transmission

condition enforced on the interfaces between the subdomains. Local transmission conditions based on

high-order absorbing boundary conditions (HABCs) have proved well suited [1, 2]. They represent a good

compromise between basic impedance conditions (which lead to suboptimal convergence) and the exact

Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map related to the complementary of the subdomain (which is expensive

to compute). However, a direct application of this approach for domain decomposition conﬁgurations

with cross-points, where more than two subdomains meet, does not provide satisfactory results.

We present an improved DDM that eﬃciently addresses conﬁgurations with cross points. Noting

that these points actually are corners for the subdomains, our strategy consists in incorporating a corner

treatment developed for HABCs into the DDM procedure. After a presentation of the key aspects of the

methods, the eﬀectiveness of our approach is discussed with two-dimensional ﬁnite element results.

In order to solve scattering problems set on inﬁnite or very large domains by ﬁnite element methods,

a common strategy consists in computing the numerical solution only on a truncated computational

domain, and using a non-reﬂecting treatment at the artiﬁcial boundary, such as a HABC or a perfectly

matched layer (PML). To describe our approach, we consider a two-dimensional Helmholtz problem

deﬁned on a rectangular computational domain Ω:

∆u + k2 u = s, in Ω,

(

(1)

∂n f u + B u = 0, on Γ f , ( f = 1 . . . 4)

where k(x) is the wavenumber, s(x) is a source term, Γ f is an edge of the rectangular domain, ∂n f is

the exterior normal derivative on Γ f ⊂ ∂Ω, and B is a non-reﬂecting boundary operator. Following [3],

we use a Padé-type HABC, which is obtained by approximating to exact DtN operator for the half-space

problem, with constant k and s = 0 outside. It corresponds to using, for each edge Γ f ,

on Γ f ,

2ıαk N

B u = −ıkαu − ∑ ci (u f ,i + u),

M i=1

67 1

where ∂2ττ is the second-order tangent derivative, α = eıφ/2 , ci = tan2 (iπ/M) and M = 2N + 1. The

accuracy of the numerical solution at the boundary depends on the number N and the angle φ [3].

Because of the spatial derivative in equation (2), additional boundary conditions must be prescribed

on the auxiliary ﬁelds at the boundary of the edges (i.e. at the corner of the domain) to close the sys-

tem. Following [4], we introduce new relations that ensure the compatibility of the system without any

supplementary approximation. With these relations, the auxiliary ﬁelds deﬁned on adjacent edges are

coupled at the common corner. For the ﬁelds {u f ,i }Ni=1 deﬁned on Γ f , having an adjacent edge Γ f 0 , the

boundary conditions at the corner Pf ,c = Γ f ∩ Γ f 0 can be written as

∂n f ,c u f ,i + D u f ,i = 0, on Pf ,c , (i = 1 . . . N) (3)

with

on Pf ,c ,

N

2ıαk (α2 ci + 1 − α2 )u f ,i − α2 (ci + 1)u f 0 , j

D u f ,i = −ıkαu f ,i −

M ∑ cj α2 ci + α2 c j + 1

= 0, (i = 1 . . . N)

j=1

where ∂n f ,c is the exterior normal derivative at Pf ,c ⊂ ∂Γ f , and {u f 0 , j }Nj=1 are the auxiliary ﬁelds deﬁned

on Γ f 0 . Finally, the problem consists in solving the main ﬁeld u(x) on the domain with boundary con-

ditions on the edges (equation (1)) and N auxiliary ﬁelds on each edge with boundary conditions at the

corners (equations (2)-(3)). See [4] for a three-dimensional version of this strategy.

The Helmholtz problem deﬁned on Ω is decomposed into subproblems deﬁned on non-overlapping

subdomains ΩI (I = 1 . . . N dom ), with Ω = I ΩI and ΩI ΩJ = 0/ if I 6= J. We consider here a structured

S T

decomposition of a rectangular domain Ω into an array of rectangular subdomains (see ﬁgure 1). The

edges of each subdomain ΩI are denoted ΓI, f ( f = 1 . . . 4). Each edge could be an interface edge (if there

is a neighboring subdomain beyond the edge) or a boundary edge (if it belongs to the boundary of Ω).

At each iteration of the DDM algorithm, the subproblems are

solved in parallel, and data are exchanged at the interfaces between

the subdomains to synchronize the solutions. The additive Schwarz

∗ • ∗

DDM can be described as follows, at iteration ` + 1:

Ω4 Ω3

g4,f,d,i

I

(

∆u`+1 + k2 u`+1 = s, in ΩI ,

• •◦ •

= g`I, f , on ΓI, f ,

I I g1,f,c,i

∂nI, f u`+1

I + B u`+1

I ( f = 1 . . . 4) g1,f g2,g Γ

edge, or it is set to zero if ΓI, f is a boundary edge.

∗ • ∗

⇌ Transmission variables

for interface edges

f and gJ,g according to

`+1 ⇌ Transmission variables

for boundary/cross points

on ΓJ,g ,

I, f = −gJ,g + 2B uJ , Figure 1: Example of domain decom-

g`+1 ` `+1

J,g = −gI, f + 2B uI ,

g`+1 ` `+1

on ΓI, f , position (2 × 2 conﬁguration) with

the transmission variables.

where ΓI, f = ΓJ,g is the common interface edge.

The convergence of this algorithm is accelerated by using an iterative Krylov method (GMRES) on the

top of the procedure for updating the transmission variables. See e.g. [1] for more details.

Because the HABC is used as transmission operator (on the interface edges) and as boundary op-

erator (on the boundary edges), the description of the DDM algorithm is incomplete. It should include

the auxiliary ﬁelds deﬁned on the edges and, since these ﬁelds are governed by equation (2), additional

conditions should be prescribed at the boundary of the edges. The boundary points of each edge ΓI, f

are denoted PI, f ,c (c = 1, 2). Each point could be a cross point (at the cross of two interface edges), a

corner point (at the cross of two boundary edges) or a boundary point (at the cross of one interface edge

and one boundary edge). They are represented with the symbols ◦, • and ∗ on ﬁgure 1.

68 2

At iteration ` + 1 of the DDM algorithm, we have the additional operations:

• For all boundary/interface edge ΓI, f , compute the auxiliary ﬁeld u`+1 I, f ,i solution to

on ΓI, f ,

( 2 `+1

∂ττ uI, f ,i + k2 (α2 ci + 1)u`+1 2

I, f ,i + α (ci + 1)uI

`+1

= 0,

∂nI, f ,c u`+1 `+1 `

(c = 1, 2)

where g`I, f ,c,i is a transmission variable if the adjacent edge of ΓI, f at the boundary point PI, f ,c is

an interface edge, or it is set to zero if the adjacent edge is a boundary edge.

• For all boundary/cross point shared by the edges ΓI, f and ΓJ, f of neighboring subdomains ΩI and

ΩJ , update the transmission variables g`I, f ,c,i and g`J, f ,d,i according to:

g`+1 ` `+1

on PJ, f ,d ,

g`+1 ` `+1

on PI, f ,c ,

The auxiliary ﬁelds of two adjacent edges of one subdomain are coupled by the operator D at the com-

mon corner. All these operations are rather naturally included in the DDM algorithm. A GMRES is used

for updating all the transmission variables, which are now associated to shared edges and shared points.

In order to verify and to analyze the eﬃciency of the proposed DDM, we present ﬁnite element results

obtained with two 2D benchmarks. The numerical scheme is based on a Galerkin method adapted from

[1], with meshes made of triangles, nodal ﬁnite elements, and second-degree basis functions. The sim-

ulations are made with the GetDP and GetDDM environments [5].

In the ﬁrst benchmark, we consider the scattering of an incident plane wave by a disk. The scattered

ﬁeld is computed on a rectangular domain Ω, which is partitioned into six subdomains (ﬁgure 2a). A

Neumann condition is prescribed on the boundary of the disk, and the HABC with the corner treatment

is used on the exterior boundary. In the DDM algorithm, transmission operators based on an optimized

impedance condition [2] and the HABC are tested. In the former case, a speciﬁc treatment ensures the

compatibility between the impedance condition (on the interface edges) and the HABC (on the boundary

edges) at the boundary points. The eﬀect of the boundary/cross-point treatments is analyzed by keeping

or removing the corresponding terms in the ﬁnite element scheme.

100 100

10−2 10−2

Relative L2−error

Relative residual

10−4 10−4

10−6 10−6

10−8 Impedance + boundary-point treat 10−8 Impedance + boundary-point treat

HABC + no point treat HABC + no point treat

HABC + boundary-point treat HABC + boundary-point treat

HABC + boundary/cross-point treat HABC + boundary/cross-point treat

10−10 10−10

0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60

GMRES iteration GMRES iteration

Figure 2: Scattering benchmark: Conﬁguration and solution (a). History of residual (b) and L2 −error (b) for trans-

mission operators based on the basic impedance condition (red lines) or the HABC (black lines) with/without point

treatments. Parameters: N = 4 and φ = π/3

69 3

(a) Velocity model

(b) Domain 1 × 45

250 3 lines + (N dom /3) columns

5 lines + (N dom /5) columns

200

150

(c) Domain 3 × 15

100

50

(d) Domain 5 × 9 0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Number of subdomains N dom

Figure 3: Marmousi benchmark: Velocity model (a) and solution with three kinds of domain partition (b)-(d). The

HABC is used both as boundary condition and transmission operator. The point treatments are enabled. The

number of iterations to reach the relative residual 10−6 is plotted as a function of the number of subdomains for

the three kinds of domain partition (e).

For both kinds of transmission operator, the boundary-point treatment is required for converging

towards the good solution. Indeed, without this treatment, the residual decreases with the iteration

number, but the error stagnates (ﬁgures 2b and 2c, respectively). By contrast, the error decreases cor-

rectly when the boundary-point treatment is enabled. In that case, the convergence is faster with the

transmission operator based on the HABC, and it is even faster with the cross-point treatment.

We ﬁnally address a more challenging benchmark with a heterogeneous medium: the Marmousi

model, which represents a realistic geological structure (ﬁgure 3a). Although the HABC was initially de-

rived by assuming a constant wavenumber, it provides good accuracy for problems with heterogeneous

media [4], and we have observed that it accelerates the convergences of the DDM for the Marmousi

benchmark (results not shown here). On ﬁgure 3, the convergence of the method is compared for dif-

ferent domain partitions. For a larger number of subdomains (which is required to solve large prob-

lems), the DDM converges signiﬁcantly faster with a multi-dimensional partition than with the mono-

dimensional partition, which conﬁrms the eﬃciency and the interest of our approach.

References

[1] Y Boubendir, X Antoine, and C Geuzaine. A quasi-optimal non-overlapping domain decomposition algorithm

for the Helmholtz equation. Journal of Computational Physics, 231(2):262–280, 2012.

[2] M Gander, F Magoules, and F Nataf. Optimized Schwarz methods without overlap for the Helmholtz equation.

SIAM Journal on Scientiﬁc Computing, 24(1):38–60, 2002.

[3] R Kechroud, X Antoine, and A Soulaïmani. Numerical accuracy of a Padé-type non-reﬂecting boundary con-

dition for the ﬁnite element solution of acoustic scattering problems at high-frequency. International Journal

for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 64(10):1275–1302, 2005.

[4] A Modave, A Atle, J Chan, and T Warburton. A GPU-accelerated nodal discontinuous Galerkin method with

high-order absorbing boundary conditions and corner/edge compatibility. International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering, 112(11):1659–1686, 2017.

[5] B Thierry, A Vion, S Tournier, M El Bouajaji, D Colignon, N Marsic, X Antoine, and C Geuzaine. GetDDM: an

open framework for testing optimized Schwarz methods for time-harmonic wave problems. Computer Physics

Communications, 203:309–330, 2016.

70 4

Stock Price Change Prediction Using News Text Mining

Marcelo Beckmann1, Nelson F.F. Ebecken1a, and Beatriz S. L. Pires de Lima1b

1

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia - Bloco B, Sala

101 - Ilha do Fundão, PoBox 68506, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil

Abstract. Along with the advent of the Internet as a way of propagating news in a digital format, came the need

to understand and transform this data into information. The advances of data mining and text mining techniques for

this purpose brought new opportunities of research applied to financial market.

This work presents a computational framework that aims to predict the changes of stock prices along the day, given

the occurrence of news articles related to the companies listed in the Down Jones Index. For this task, an automated

process that gather, clean, label, classify, and simulate investments was developed. This process integrates the existing

data mining and text algorithms, with the proposal of new techniques of alignment between news articles and stock

prices, pre-processing, and classifier ensemble. The result of experiments in terms of classification measures like

Accuracy, Precision, Recall, AUC, G-mean, F-measure, and the Cumulative Return obtained through investment

simulation outperformed the other results published in the reviewed literature.

This work also argues the techniques of accuracy measure and cross validation applied to this field of research

has too few to contribute in terms of investment recommendation for financial market, and the successful use of

text mining for this purpose must follow some precepts.

Altogether, the developed methodology and results contribute with the state of art in this emerging research field,

demonstrating that the correct use of text mining techniques is an applicable alternative to predict price

movements in financial market.

Keywords: Financial Market, Financial Economics, Stock Market Prediction, Predictive Analytics, Natural

Language Processing, Text Mining, Sentiment Analysis, Data Mining

1. Introduction

The advances in data mining and text mining, allied with the velocity and the way the news articles

are published, created opportunities to use text mining and sentiment analysis applied to financial

market prediction (TMFP). This work aims to provide scientific evidences that data mining and text

mining can be used to automatically interpret news articles and learn patterns to predict the market

movements, providing this way investment recommendations to be used by traders and automated

trading systems to achieve returns. To accomplish this objective, a complete process of data mining

and text mining was developed to predict the price movements in the stock market for the 30

companies listed in the Down Jones Industrial Index (DJIA) along the day (intraday). Because the

complex and unstable nature of financial markets, the traditional data mining algorithms were not

enough to make correct predictions, then a new data preparation technique to deal with imbalanced

a

Nelson Francisco Fávilla Ebecken, Ph.D., E-mail: nelson@ntt.ufrj.br

b

Beatriz S. L. Pires de Lima, Ph.D., E-mail: bia@coc.ufrj.br

71

class problem, and a classifier ensemble technique to remove class overlapping was proposed in this

work.

(Beckmann, Ebecken, & De Lima, 2017) discovered after an extensive survey related to TMFP that

around 50% of reviewed works use only Accuracy as a classification measure which is not

recommended for imbalance problems (Weiss & Provost, 2001), (Ling, Huang, & Zhang, 2003),

(Weis, 2004), (He & Garcia, Learning from Imbalanced Data, 2009), (He & Ma, Imbalanced

Learning: Foundations, Algorithms, and Applications, 2013), (Ali, Shamsuddin, & Ralescu, 2013),

and others studies use cross validation which also is not recommended for time series (Hastie,

Tibshirani, & Friedman, 2003), (Arlot & Celisse, 2010), (Bergmeir, Hyndman, & Koo, 2015).

The experiment results for the developed framework are demonstrated in terms of classification

measures like Accuracy (Sokolova & Lapalme, 2009), Precision, Recall, AUC (Fawcett, 2004), G-

mean (Barandela, Sánchez, García, & Rangel, 2003), and F-measure (Van Rijsbergen, 1979), and an

investment simulator was developed to validate the predictions generated by the classifier. The

classifier measures and the Cumulative Return obtained with the investment simulation

outperformed the other results published in the reviewed literature.

2. Methodology

The main processing flow of the proposed methodology can be seen in Fig 1, and this process is

repeated for each company listed in the DJIA, with each company owing a predictive model. Only

data mining and text mining techniques will be used, and no econometric techniques were applied

during this process. All the TMFP process was developed with RapidMiner platform and its

respective extensions (Mierswa, Wurst, Klinkenberg, Scholz, & Euler, 2006), and the innovation

proposed in this work was developed in a new extension called TradeMiner.

The process depicted in Fig 1 starts with the gathering of news articles (A), from internet using a

web crawler in full operation from January to September of 2013. The source of news came from

Yahoo Finance, and Google Finance. Each news article record is composed of the news content in

English, the stock symbol, and the published date and time. The stock prices (also known as market

data) associated with the DJIA companies were collected minute by minute, using a free web service

(B). The market data were labelled (D) as SURGE, for prices with rise >= 75% of the maximum

ascent observed during the day, and PLUGE for prices with fall >= 75% of the maximum descent

observed during the day. The news articles need to be labelled (E) according the changes in the stock

prices τ minutes after its publication, by associating a label r(C) to a new article published at time t,

given a set of stock prices labels C={c(t-1), c(t), c(t+1), ..., c(t+τ)}, as explained in the equation (1).

𝑟(𝐶) = {𝑞𝑠 < 𝑞𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝐶 < 0, 𝑃𝐿𝑈𝑁𝐺𝐸

𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑅𝐸𝐶𝑂𝑀𝐸𝑁𝐷𝐸𝐷

In equation (1), qs is the number of occurrences of SURGE and qp, the occurrences of PLUNGE,

72

and the price delta before and after C, represented as C = c(t+τ+1)-c(t-1). The rationale for this

alignment proposal is: only a strong turnaround in the stock prices, and the continuous change of

prices before and after the time offsets, will make possible to identify the proper characteristics in

the news articles for a profitable trading recommendation.

Fig. 1 The text mining modelling process applied to stock price change prediction.

To maximize the classifier efficacy, the predictive model is trained every week, in a technique known

in the literature as sliding window (Dietterich, 2002). The training dataset incorporates 6 months of

news articles kept in its chronological order, and the test dataset contains 1 week of new records to

evaluate the model. As the processing advances to a new week, the training dataset incorporates the

week tested previously, and discards the first week 6 months ago (F).

2.3 Training

The news articles are converted into a Bag of Words (BOW) matrix (Harris, 1954). The stop words,

terms with size less than two characters, and terms with frequency lower than 2% and greater than

95% were removed (Miner, et al., 2014), (Zhai & Massung, 2016). The use of n-grams (Sidorova &

al., 2014), which consists in a series of consecutive words of size n, with the maximum n=3 in this

work, helped to reduce the dimensionality and carries the existing semantic from the original text.

The discovered n-grams and individual words were represented as an Inverse Document Frequency

(TF-IDF) measurement (Robertson, 2004) (G). The most representative BOW features were selected

(H) by using a Pearson's Chi-Square statistic (Pearson, 1900), (Forman, 2003). This work aims to

predict only the SURGES, then to simplify the decision surface, the PLUNGE examples were

merged with the NOT RECOMMENDED (the majority class). To balance the dataset (I), the noisy

examples from majority class where removed using a novel technique called KNN Undersampling

(Beckmann, Ebecken, & De Lima, 2015). The prepared data is then submitted to a Support Vector

Machine (SVM) (Cortes & Vapnik, 1995) Machine Learning algorithm, with the LIBSVM

73

implementation (Chang & Lin, 2011), and used the Radial Basis Function (RBF) as kernel, with C

and Gamma parameters adjusted via grid search (Hsu, Chang, & Lin, 2003).

2.4 Test

The test phase consists in to apply the models generated in the training phase into the test dataset.

The word list is used to generate a new BOW with TF-IDF measurements (G). The Chi-Square word

weights are used to select the most relevant words (H), and the model generated by the SVM

algorithm is used to predict the SURGES and NOT RECOMMENDED in the test dataset. This

prediction is applied to each new article, but several news articles can be published in the same time

offset τ, however, only one recommendation needs to be given for each period of time, then a novel

classification ensemble algorithm that uses a Genetic Algorithm (Holland, 1975), (Goldberg, 1989),

(Whitley & Sutton, 2012) was developed to mitigate the class overlapping problem, by adjusting the

voting threshold for a best recommendation, given the predictive outcome of each news article at

that period of time (K).

2.3 Evaluation

The output of test phase are the classification results of 30 predictive models, corresponding to 30

stocks listed on DJIA index. These models are evaluated given the G-Mean classification measure.

If at least 10 models have a minimal value of G-Mean >= 55.00, then these models are considered

stable enough to perform an investment simulation, otherwise the entire TMFP process needs to be

adjusted (L). The investment simulation (M) consists in to use the output of (K) to buy stocks using

a short-term investment strategy. The simulation is evaluated given its Cumulative Return (CR).

Positive CRs indicates these models could be used in a real investment scenario.

Further details about this methodology and experiments can be found in (Beckmann, Ebecken, &

De Lima, 2017).

3. Experiments

To observe how the stock prices are affected by news articles, a set of experiments using the

proposed methodology demonstrated the classifier performances when predicting a SURGE or NOT

RECOMMENDED movement in the stock prices, in a period of τ=1, 2, 3, and 5 minutes after the

news article be published. The maximum averaged results after 10 runs, in terms of classification

measures such as Accuracy (99.77), Precision (99.88), Recall (92.74), AUC (67.87), G-mean (92.66),

F-Measure (76.00), and CR (21.47) are all associated with τ=1. These values outperformed the other

results found after an extensive literature review in (Beckmann, Ebecken, & De Lima, 2017). The

source and data for this methodology are open, and the instructions to reproduce these experiments

and make new developments are available in (Beckmann, Ebecken, & De Lima, 2018).

4. Conclusions

This work presented a computational framework using data mining and text mining to find patterns

between the news articles published, and the respective movements in the stock prices, creating a

predictive model to forecast the stock prices changes along the day (intraday), for the 30 companies

74

listed in the DJIA, as published in (Beckmann, Ebecken, & De Lima, 2017). The best experiment

used a time offset of 1 minute after the news article was published, and the maximum results in

terms of classification measures and Cumulative Return obtained after three months of investment

simulation outperformed the other results published in the reviewed literature. These positive results

can be accredited to the precise workflow developed, the proper use of F-measure and G-mean as

classification measures and process adjusting, and the new algorithms proposed in this work.

These results offer evidences that the stock prices movement can be predicted using text mining,

and indicates the stock prices started to be affected for the news articles in the few minutes after they

are published. Nevertheless, when the news articles are accumulated in a wider period, occurs a loss

of signal, probably because there is no mechanism developed to distinguish which news articles are

affecting the stock price, being more difficult to obtain a stable model under these conditions.

Despite the good results presented in the experiments, the association between news articles and

stock prices accumulated in a wider period deserves more attention in a future work.

References

Ali, A., Shamsuddin, S., & Ralescu, A. (2013). Classification with class imbalance problem: a review.

Int. J. Advance Soft Compu. Appl, Vol. 5, No. 3.

Arlot, S., & Celisse, A. (2010). A survey of cross-validation procedures for model selection.

Statistics Surveys, 4, 40-79.

Barandela, R., Sánchez, J., García, V., & Rangel, E. (2003). Strategies for learning in class imbalance

problems. Pattern Recognition, 36(3), pp. 849-851.

Beckmann, M., Ebecken, N., & De Lima, B. (2015). A KNN Undersampling Approach for Data

Balancing. JILSA - Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications, 7, 104-116.

Beckmann, M., Ebecken, N., & De Lima, B. (2017). Thesis: Stock Price Change Prediction Using

News Text Mining. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Civil Engineering Program/COPPE, Federal

University of Rio de Janeiro.

Beckmann, M., Ebecken, N., & De Lima, B. (2018). A Practical Guide for Stock Price Prediction

Using Text Mining. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Civil Engineering Program/COPPE, Federal

University of Rio de Janeiro.

Bergmeir, C., Hyndman, R., & Koo, B. (2015). A Note on the Validity of Cross-Validation for

Evaluating Time Series Prediction. Monash University, Departmnet of Econometrics and

Business Statistics.

Camerer, C., & Loewenstein, G. (2004). Advances in Behavioral Economics. Princeton University

Press.

Chang, C., & Lin, C. (2011). LIBSVM : a library for support vector machines. ACM Transactions

on Intelligent Systems and Technology, pp. 2:27:1-27:27.

Cortes, C., & Vapnik, V. (1995). Support-Vector Networks, Machine Learning. Machine Learning,

vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 273-297.

Dietterich, T. (2002). Machine Learning for Sequential Data: A Review. Proceedings of the Joint

IAPR International Workshop on Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition

(pp. 15-30). London: Springer-Verlag.

Fawcett, T. (2004). ROC Graphs: Notes and Practical Considerations for Researchers. HP

Laboratories.

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Forman, G. (2003). An extensive empirical study of feature selection metrics for text classification.

Journal of Machine Learning Research 3, 1289-1305.

Goldberg, D. E. (1989). Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Boston,

MA: Addison-Wesley.

Harris, Z. (1954). Distributional Structure. Word, 10, 146–162.

Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2003). Model Assessment and Selection. In The Elements

of Statistical Learning, Data Mining, Inference and Prediction (pp. 245-247). New York:

Springer Series in Statistics.

He, H., & Garcia, E. (2009). Learning from Imbalanced Data. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge

and Data Engineering, Volume 21 Issue 9, 1263-1284.

He, H., & Ma, Y. (2013). Imbalanced Learning: Foundations, Algorithms, and Applications (1st

Edition ed.). Wiley-IEEE Press. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118646106

Holland, J. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hsu, C. W., Chang, C. C., & Lin, C. J. (2003). A practical guide to support vector classification.

Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.

Ling, C. X., Huang, J., & Zhang, H. (2003). AUC: A Better Measure than Accuracy in Comparing

Learning Algorithms. In B. C.-d. Yang Xiang (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol.

2671). Halifax, Canada.

Mierswa, I., Wurst, M., Klinkenberg, R., Scholz, M., & Euler, T. (2006). YALE: Rapid Prototyping

for Complex Data Mining Tasks. Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGKDD International

Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.

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Statistical Analysis for Non-structured Text Data Applications. Elsevier.

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of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen

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Information Retrieval and Text Mining. ACM. doi:10.1145/2915031

76

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

SUBJECTED TO THE UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADING: NUMERICAL

ANALYSIS WITH FTOOL® AND SAP2000®

1

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, breendalorranavieiralima@gmail.com

2

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, michell.macedo@ifgoiano.edu.com

1. Introduction

Entre os vários problemas de engenharia a serem estudados, um de grande interesse para a engenharia

de fundação, é o problema de contato entre vigas e as bases elásticas nas quais elas se apoiam. Esse

conceito foi introduzido por [1], baseando-se na hipótese de [2], em que o modelo da base elástica é

caracterizado fisicamente por um sistema de molas com rigidez equivalente à do solo. Nesse trabalho,

especificamente, será abordado o estudo de vigas de concreto com extremidades engastadas sobre base

elástica submetidas a carregamento uniformemente distribuído. O objetivo principal é apresentar

metodologias de modelagem da base elástica por meio das ferramentas fornecidas pelos softwares

Ftool® [3] e SAP2000® [4]. Dessa forma, buscou-se apresentar formas mais adequadas de disposição do

conjunto de molas sob a viga e o valor da constante de mola, a fim de se obter valores de deformações

e esforços solicitantes com boa aproximação, comparados com aqueles determinados pelas formulações

analíticas de [1]. Essa é uma alternativa mais acessível e simples de análise do problema, em comparação

aos altos custos computacionais gerados pelos softwares de Método dos Elementos Finitos.

2. Analytical Formulation

Conforme [1], considere uma viga sobre base elástica sujeita às cargas verticais. Devido a ação dessas,

a viga fletirá e surgirão forças de reações distribuídas ao logo do contato viga-solo, no sentido oposto

ao deslocamento vertical da viga, denominadas de pressões de contato 𝑝 (Fig.1 (a)). Para [2] a

intensidade da pressão de contato em um ponto da viga, é diretamente proporcional a deflexão da viga

𝑦 nesse mesmo ponto. Significa que o comportamento da base é elástico-linear - “Lei de Hook”, e

caracterizada pela constante de mola 𝑘. Em vigas cuja a base elástica são camadas de solo, a constante

de mola, depende do produto da largura 𝑏 da viga em contato com o solo e o coeficiente de recalque do

solo 𝑘0 (Eq.1). [1] definiu o parâmetro 𝜆 que engloba a rigidez da viga à flexão e a elasticidade da base

(Eq.2). E, para [5], pode-se classificar as vigas sobre base elástica em três grupos conforme a rigidez

relativa: curtas (𝜆 𝑙 < 𝜋/4), médias (𝜋/4 < 𝜆 𝑙 < 𝜋) e longas (𝜆 𝑙 > 𝜋).

Pela condição de equilíbrio em um elemento infinitesimal 𝑑𝑥 de uma viga sobre base elástica sujeita a

um carregamento uniformemente distribuído 𝑞. Na qual atuam os esforços solicitantes e seus

acréscimos: momento fletor 𝑀 e esforço cortante 𝑉 (Fig.1 (b)). E, utilizando-se as expressões

fundamentais da Resistência dos Materiais de [6], [7]. [1] determinou a equação diferencial geral

fundamental da linha elástica de viga sobre base elástica (Eq.3). Cuja solução 𝑦(𝑥) para o problema

abordado é (Eq.4).

77

(a) (b)

Figura 1: Viga sobre base elástica: (a) pressões de contato; (b) elemento infinitesimal

𝑞 𝑠𝑒𝑛ℎ(𝜆𝑥) 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜆(𝑙 − 𝑥)) + 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜆𝑥) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ(𝜆(𝑙 − 𝑥)) + 𝑠𝑒𝑛ℎ(𝜆(𝑙 − 𝑥)) 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜆𝑥) + 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜆(𝑙 − 𝑥)) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ(𝜆𝑥)

𝑦(𝑥) = [1 − ]

𝑘 𝑠𝑒𝑛ℎ(𝜆𝑙) + 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜆𝑙)

(4)

3. Modeling Methodologies

Os procedimentos para a modelagem da viga sobre base elástica na interface dos softwares consistem

em: 1º) Criar a geometria (nós e barras); 2º) Aplicar os apoios às extremidades da viga (apoios de 3º

gênero/engastes); 3º) Criar e atribuir o material (concreto) e as dimensões e formatos das seções

transversais (retangulares); 4º) Atribuir a base elástica ( conjunto de molas independentes caracterizadas

pela constante de mola e rigorosamente espaçadas sob os pontos da viga) e; 5º) Aplicar o carregamento

ao modelo. Para a modelagem específica da base elástica, apresenta-se três metodologias:

I) Ftool® v. 3.01 - Apoios Elásticos: Para cada segmento de 1 metro de viga é necessária 1 mola sob a

metade desse segmento. A quantidade de molas equivale ao valor do comprimento da viga. É necessário

informar: direção (eixo Y) e valor da constante de mola por metro de viga na direção Y (Fig.3).

II) SAP2000® v. 19 - “Joint Springs”: Semelhante a metodologia utilizada no Ftool®: quantidade e

distribuição das molas. É necessário informar: tipo (simples); direção (impede parcialmente a translação

na direção da coordenada Z do eixo global) e valor da constante de mola por metro de viga (Fig.4 (a)).

III) SAP2000® v. 19 - “Line Springs”: Atribui aos pontos associados aos tramos da viga um conjunto de

molas distribuídas linearmente. É necessário informar: tipo (simples); valor da constante de mola por

metro de viga; comportamento da mola aos esforços (somente compressão) e vetor-direção da linha de

molas (componente Z do eixo global) (Fig.4 (b)).

Logo, a quantidade e disposição dessas molas sob a viga respaldam-se no valor da constante de mola

que representa a rigidez do solo (mola) por um metro de viga.

(a)

(b)

Figura 3: Viga sobre base elástica - SAP2000® v. 19: (a) Joint Springs; (b) Line Springs

78

4. Numerical Examples

Figura 4: Viga biengastada de concreto sobre base elástica - carregamento uniformemente distribuído

Geometria Módulo de Coeficiente de Solicitaçã

Modelo Viga

𝑙 (20x40) Elasticidade 𝐸 Recalque 𝑘0 o𝑞

V05AF média 5m Areia Seca Fofa

V10AF longa 10 m 12 753 kN/m³

Concreto

V05AC longa 5m Areia Seca 10 kN/m

25 GPa

Compacta

V10AC longa 10 m

166 770 kN/m³

A modelagem das vigas de 10 metros sobre base elástica consistiu na criação de uma barra contendo

100 pontos espaçados de 10 cm, ou 100 tramos de 10 cm, e atribuição de 10 molas sob os pontos

estratégicos. Para as vigas de 5 metros, 50 pontos espaçados de 10 cm e aplicação de 5 molas. Enquanto,

para as vigas de 1 metro, composta de 100 tramos de 1 cm e 1 mola. O objetivo é mapear os resultados

para melhor verificação.

5. Results

Observou-se que as configurações dos diagramas são semelhantes para as vigas sobre base elástica

modeladas tanto na interface Ftool® como SAP2000® - “Joint Springs”. Fato que se justifica pelo

princípio de ambas modelagens serem a mesma.

Notou-se que as vigas sobre areia seca fofa, para as três metodologias, os valores do deslocamento

vertical e rotação de tangente à elástica foram iguais dos analíticos. Enquanto, o diagrama de momento

fletor presenciou pontos angulosos no meio do vão da viga, em especial, as vigas de 10 m , para a

modelagem com o Ftool® e SAP2000® - “Joint Springs” (Fig.5(a)). O mesmo não aconteceu na

modelagem com o SAP2000® - “Line Springs”. O diagrama de esforço cortante, nos pontos de molas

apresentou-se descontinuidades nos valores, significativamente nas vigas de 10 m. Contudo, fazendo a

média entre os valores nas seções logo antes e depois dos pontos de mola, observou que o resultado

aproximou do analítico (Fig.5(b)). Esse comportamento não aconteceu com o recurso “Line Springs”.

Quando a base elástica se torna mais rígida, vigas sobre areia seca compacta, os efeitos mencionados

anteriormente são mais significativos, tanto na viga de 5 e 10 metros. Mesmo assim, o comando “Line

Springs” continua sendo um recurso viável (Fig.6).

79

(a) (b)

Figura 5: Vigas de concreto sobre areia seca fofa: (a) Momento fletor; (b) Esforço cortante

6. Conclusions

Ftool® é viável para a determinação das deformações da viga (deslocamentos verticais e rotação da

tangente à elástica). Em contrapartida, nos resultados dos esforços solicitantes, apresentaram-se pontos

angulosos no diagrama de momento fletor e descontinuidades nos diagramas de esforço cortante. Esses

pontos angulosos e descontinuidades tendem a aumentar quanto mais longas forem as vigas e mais rígida

for a base elástica, ou seja, quanto maior for a constante de mola. Referente às análises de vigas feitas

com o software SAP2000®, especificamente utilizando o comando “Joint Springs”, verificou-se que os

resultados obtidos são semelhantes aos do Ftool®. Por outro lado, através do comando “Line Springs”

do software SAP2000® foi possível obter resultados dos esforços solicitantes de maneira mais precisa,

sem pontos angulosos ou descontinuidades nos diagramas de momento fletor e esforço cortante,

respectivamente. Em síntese, constatou-se que quanto mais longa for a viga e mais rígido o meio

elástico, maior serão as discrepâncias dos valores dos esforços solicitantes obtidos mediantes a utilização

do software Ftool® e SAP2000® (comando “Joint Springs”) comparados com a solução analítica.

80

Acknowledgments

Ao Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano Campus Rio Verde (IFGoiano).

À empresa Multiplus®, representante no Brasil do SAP2000® v. 19 e ao Luiz Fernando Martha, autor do

Ftool® v. 3.01, os quais autorizaram a publicação dos resultados mediante a utilização dos softwares.

References

[1] Hetényi, M; (1946). Beams on Elastic Foundation. Scientific Series, vol. XVI. Ann Arbor: The

University of Michigan Press, University of Michigan Studies.

[2] Winkler, E; (1867). Die Lehre von der Elastizitat und Festigkeit. Dominicus, Prague.

[3] FTOOL® - Two – Dimensional Frame Analysis Tool. Educational Version 3.01; 2015.

[4] SAP2000® - “Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Structure.Structural Analysis

Program’’. Advanced 19, Computers and Structures, Inc; 2016.

[5] Süssekind, J. C; (1980). Curso de Análise Estrutural 2: Deformações em Estruturas e Métodos das

Forças. Vol. 2. Ed. 4. Porto Alegre: Editora Globo.

[6] Hibbeler, R. C; (2010). Resistência dos materiais. Ed. 7. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[7] Beer, F. B.; Johnston, E. R; (2015). Mecânica dos Materiais. Ed. 7. São Paulo: McGraw Hill.

81

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

LAZY-WAVE CONFIGURATION

Bruno da Fonseca Monteiro1, Bruno Martins Jacovazzo2, Carl Horst Albrecht3, Breno

Pinheiro Jacob4

1

Polytechnic School of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, bruno.monteiro@poli.ufrj.br

2

Polytechnic School of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, brunojacovazzo@poli.ufrj.br

3

Polytechnic School of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, carl@poli.ufrj.br

4

Laboratory of Computer Methods and Offshore Systems, LAMCSO - PEC/COPPE/UFRJ,

breno@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

This paper describes the first steps towards of an innovative computational tool, based on evolutionary

optimization methods, for the synthesis and optimization of a group of risers in lazy-wave

configuration that connect a floating platform at the sea surface to the wellheads at the sea bottom. In

previous works [1, 2, 3], some authors have presented such an optimization tool based on evolutionary

algorithms for the synthesis and optimization of lazy-wave riser; however, considering only one

individual riser. The objective in that case was reduce costs, only. The main advance of this work

consists in the optimization of a set of close risers among themselves, where in addition to minimizing

the cost, it is sought to avoid the clash between them. Moreover, for optimization assessment,

geometric parameters are taken as the design variables and the design constraints consider for

structural integrity. Extreme environmental conditions of a Brazilian offshore field are used in the case

study. The results open many roads for future developments, indicating that evolutionary algorithms

(EAs) can provide an efficient riser system with multiple lines.

References

[1] Pina AA, Albrecht CH, de Lima BSLP, Jacob BP. Tailoring the particle swarm optimization

algorithm for the design of offshore oil production risers, Optimization and Engineering, 12:215–235,

2011. DOI:10.1007/s11081-009-9103-5.

[2] Vieira IN, Jacob BP, Lima BSLP, Bio-inspired algorithms for the optimization of offshore oil

production systems, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (Print) , v. 1, p.

n/a-n/a, 2012. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.4301/pdf

[3] Monteiro BF, Pina AA, Baioco JS, Albrecht CH, Lima BSLP, Jacob BP, Toward a methodology

for the optimal design of mooring systems for floating offshore platforms using evolutionary

algorithms, Marine Systems & Ocean Technology, v. 1, p. 1, 2016.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40868-016-0017-8

82

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID MECHANICS: DIRECT SEARCH AND LINKED

LIST TECHNIQUES EVALUATION

Carlos Alberto Dutra Fraga Filho1, Lucas Lustosa Schuina1, Brenda Silva Porto1

1

Development, Implementation and Application of Computational Tools for Problem

Solving in Engineering Research Group, Federal Institute of Espírito Santo,

Mechanical Engineering Coordination, Av. Vitória, 1729

29040-780 – Jucutuquara, Vitória, ES, Brazil

email: cadff1@gmail.com

Engineering, Applied Mathematics and Physics. Regardless of the problem studied, the search

for neighbouring particles must be done at each numerical iteration. The aim of this paper is to

present results found in the particle search process using the direct method and the linked list,

allowing a discussion about the efficiency of both methods and the variables that influence it.

Two classical hydrodynamic problems (dam breaking and lid-driven cavity) have been

simulated. The particle numbers and the interpolation functions (kernels employed in the SPH

particle method) varied in simulations. Results for different combinations of kernel/ particle

numbers were found. The linked list algorithm implemented presented similar performance to

direct search. The evaluation of proposals of maintaining the neighbours list without

modifications during some numerical iterations, aiming to improve computational efficiency,

needs to be performed.

Keywords: neighbour particle search; direct search; linked list; computational efficiency

1. Introduction

The literature on Lagrangian particle models presents several techniques for the search of

neighbouring particles. Two of these techniques are the direct search and linked list. In the

first and more simple technique, a reference particle is fixed and the distances to all other

particles are found. If a distance is smaller than the cut-off radius (kh), a neighbouring particle

is found and stored in a matrix with a number of lines equal to the number of particles in the

domain and a number of columns equal to the expected number of neighbouring particles for

each fixed particle.

Figure 1 presents the flowchart of the direct search algorithm and the neighbourhood of a

fixed particle (region within the circumference of radius equal to kh). Figure 2 presents the

algorithm of the second technique implemented in this work (the linked list algorithm).

83

Figure 1. The direct search algorithm and the graphical representation of a fixed particle and its

neighbourhood.

84

The second technique implemented and tested was the linked list technique [1-3]. In this

method, the domain is divided into a grid containing a certain number of cells. Each cell

contains a number of particles that can vary during the numerical simulation. Figure 3 shows

the grid and cells defined in this technique. The reduced search region is shaded in light blue.

Figure 3. The region in which the search is performed in the linked list method.

1. Objective

The main objective of this work is to implement two searching techniques: direct search and

linked listed in order to evaluated their computational efficiencies.

2. Findings

Two hydrodynamic cases, with the solution of the equations of motion being provided by the

SPH method, were evaluated in a 2-D domain: dam breaking and lid-driven cavity flow.

3.1. Dam breaking

The 2-D geometry simulated was a tank with a height a length of 0.420 m and a height of

0.440 m. The damned water had a height of 0.114 m height and and a width of 0.114m. The

simulation finished when the wave achieved the left wall of the reservoir. The physical-

mathematical modelling of this dynamic problem can be found in [4]. The interpolation

function/ particle number combinations and the results found are shown in Table I.

Table I. Processing time for differents kernel/ number of particles in dam break simulation

function Direct search Linked List

1296 Cubic spline 2h36m25s 3h29m20s

1296 Lucy’s Quartic 1h40m13s 3h23m7s

1296 Quintic spline 2h33m51s 4h30m28s

Considering the surprising results found in the first simulations, with lower performance

of the linked list, more studies were carried out to optimize the first algorithm implemented.

Liu and Liu (2003) [5] presented a form of storage of neighbouring particles in pairs, which

has the following characteristics:

along the process of searching for neighbours of a fixed particle i, after the comparison

between the interparticular distances and the cutting radius, a particle j is identified as a

neighbour of i. The pair of particles, i and j, is stored.

in the search for neighbours of the particle j, we take advantage of the information that the

particle i is a neighbour of the particle j (it is not necessary to redo the computational operations

to locate this pair of neighbours).

85

Thus, fewer computational operations will be performed and it is expected that there will be

a decrease in CPU time.

2.2. Lid-driven cavity flow

The modified routines have been employed in simulations of a square lid-driven cavity,

isothermal flow. The sides of the square cavity were 1.0 × 10−3 m in length. The modelling of

this problem is available in [6]. The simulation finished when the steady-state has been

reached. The results found are shown in Table II.

Table II. Processing time for different kernel/ number of particles combinations

Interpolation Number of particles CPU time (s)

function (per side of cavity) Direct search Linked List

31x31 294 330

Cubic spline 41x41 580 548

51x51 1049 1053

31x31 297 337

Quintic spline 41x41 655 657

51x51 1147 1149

The FORTRAN Programming Language was employed in the serial computational codes

used in simulations, which were performed in a computer with 4GB of RAM memory, Intel

Core i5-3210M 3rd generation processor, and Linux operational system.

3. Concluding remarks and future research

The analysis of the results provided by the implemented search algorithms allowed to conclude

that the simple use of the linked list technique is not sufficient for the best efficiency in the

process of neighbouring particle searching. The best results were found when larger numbers

of particles were employed in the discretization of the domain. The storage of neighbouring

particles in pairs promoted a significant improvement in computational efficiency, which is in

accordance with the conclusions presented in [5].

There are proposals of maintaining the neighbours list (without modifications) during some

numerical iterations [1-3]. They need to be tested in order to verify the correct neighbours

identification (accuracy maintenance) and improvement of the computational efficiency.

References

[1] Viccione G., Bovolin V., Carratelli E. P. Defining and optimizing algorithms for

neighbouring particle identification in SPH fluid simulations. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids

58:625–638, 2008.

[2] Dominguez J. M., Crespo A. J. C., Gómez-Gesteira M., Marongiu J. C. Neighbour lists in

smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 67(12): 2026-2042, 2011.

[3] Winchenbach R., Hochstetter H., Kolb A. Constrained Neighbor Lists for SPH-based Fluid

Simulations. Proceedings of Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer

Animation, Zurich, Switzerland, 2016.

[4] Fraga Filho C.A.D., An algorithmic implementation of physical reflective boundary

conditions in particle methods: Collision detection and response. Physics of Fluids 29, 113602,

2017.

[5] Liu G.R., Liu M.B. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics: a Meshfree Particle Method.

World Scientific, Singapore, 2003.

[6] Fraga Filho C.A.D., Chacaltana J.T.A., Pinto W.J.N. Meshless Lagrangian SPH method

applied to isothermal lid-drive cavity flow at low-Re numbers. Comp. Part. Mech., 2018.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40571-018-0183-x

86

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Cátia da Costa e Silva1, Sascha Maassen2, Nils Viebahn3, Paulo de Mattos Pimenta4, Jörg

Schröder5

1

Polytechnic School at University of São Paulo, Brazil, catiacosta@ifsp.edu.br

2

Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany, nils.viebahn@uni-due.de

3

Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany, sascha.maassen@uni-due.de

4

Polytechnic School at University of São Paulo, Brazil, ppimenta@usp.br

5

Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany, j.schroeder@uni-due.de

ABSTRACT

This work presents a geometrically exact Bernoulli-Euler rod [5] and a Kirchhoff-Love Shell [4]

connection model. For the rods transversal shear deformation is not accounted for and the shell is a shear

rigid model. The connection between the two models are made by having de displacements on both

elements be the same and making the rotation compatible as well. The parameterization of the rotation

field is done by the rotation tensor with the Rodrigues formula that makes the updating of the rotational

variables very simple. This parametrization can be seen in [5]. Cubic Hermitian interpolation for the

displacements together with a quadratic Lagrange interpolation for the torsion angle of the rod were

employed within the usual Finite Element Method, leading to adequate C1 continuity. For the shell a

consistent plane stress condition is incorporated at the constitutive level of the model. A triangular finite

element, with a quadratic interpolation for the displacements are applied for the shell model. The

connection between the two models is done by a Lagrange multiplier. This model can be used in any

case of rod and shell working together like with reinforced shells.

1. INTRODUCTION

The objective of this work is to present the compatibility of the geometrically exact Bernoulli-Euler rod

formulation and Kirchhoff-Love shell formulation. The basic kinematical assumption that select the

class of admissible motions is obtained by imposing that rod cross sections that are initially orthogonal

to the chosen axis remain orthogonal to it after deformation for the rod. The basic kinematical

assumption for the shell is based on a deformation gradient written in terms of the first- and second-

order derivatives of the displacements. The resulting finite element formulation provides C1-continuity

using a penalty approach, which penalizes the kinking at the edges of neighboring elements. This

approach enables the application of well-known C0-continuous interpolations for the displacements,

which leads to a simple finite element formulation, where the only unknowns are the nodal

displacements. Our theory is called geometrically exact because no approximation is employed after the

basic kinematical assumption is made. Displacements and rotations can be unlimited large.

2. ROTATION RODRIGUES PARAMETERS

As seen in denote the vector of Rodrigues parameters. The Rodrigues parameterization furnishes

4

ˆ

Q 1 2 , where Skew and 2 . (2.1)

4 2 2

Q ei eir .

Vector can be obtained from with the aid of

87

4

axial SkewQ (2.2)

1 trQ

The curvature is

axial Q QT Ξ and r QT axial QTQ ΞT , (2.3)

r

4

Ξ I 1 . (2.4)

4 2

2.1. INCREMENTAL DESCRIPTION

Let

i and

i 1

denote a quantity

at instants ti

and ti 1

, respectively. And let

be an

incremental quantity. Thus, one gets for the rotation tensor the following relations

Qi 1 QQi , where

ˆ i 1 , Q Q

ˆ ˆ i . (2.5)

Qi 1 Q and Qi Q

We recall the following result by Rodrigues, which is probably the most relevant result by him,

4

i 1 1 (2.6)

4 i i

2 i

4

Ξ I 1 . (2.7)

4 2 2

e3i e3i 1

2 1

e3m e3m e3m , (2.8)

where is the incremental torsion angle.

2

e ij 1 e ij (2.9)

1 eki 1 eki

Let

e r , e r , e r

1 2 3

be an orthogonal system placed at the reference configuration of the rod. The vectors

e , 1, 2

r

r

, are placed on the cross section of the rod, shown in [5]. Thus, e3 is orthogonal to this plane.

The position of the rod material points in the reference configuration is and r the director

r

er 0,

We introduce the coordinate 3 , , where is the rod length at reference

configuration. In the current configuration, the position of the material points is given by

1

x z r , r Qr r , with e3 z z , and z e3r u and z u . (3.2)

88

Introducing a linear elastic material law, a simple potential for the beam can be formulated based on

r

r r

generalized cross-sectional strains

, incorporating the axis stretch and curvature. The strain

energy per unit reference length is then given by

1 r

r Dr . (3.3)

2

A constitutive tensor D is used to model linear elasticity in this case. The potential will be minimized

using the standard finite element procedure.

4. GEOMETRICALLY EXACT KIRCHHOFF-LOVE SHELL KINEMATICS

The middle surface of the shell is plane in the reference. Let

e r , e r , e r

1 2

be an orthogonal system with

3

r r

the vectors e placed on the shell reference mid-plane and e3 normal to this plane. The position of the

rod material points in the reference configuration is and r is the director just like in the rod.

r

In the current configuration, the position of the material points is given by

x z r , r Qr r , z u , (4.2)

,

With

z, = er u, and z, u, with , (4.3)

1

e1 z,1 z,1 ,

1

e3 z,1 z,2 (z,1 z,2 ), (4.4)

e2 e3 e1 .

5. CONTINUITY CONSTRAINS

Figure 1: general case the finite elements threshold showing field continuities

continuity constraint: S =R

constraint functional: con = (S R ) 0 (5.1)

with S , R indicating sides of each element threshold, shell and rod respectively

The procedure to induce satisfaction of this constraint states that by this constraint the rotation field

appears as a continuous field.

89

Here the Lagrange multiplier approach is introduced that ensures the constrain in an exact manner.

6.EXAMPLE

To show the applicability of the formulation a simple example shown in Figure 2 was computed with

an elasticity module of 21000 and Poisson of 0.3125. Fist the beam was clamped on extremity A (case

A) then, to evaluate just the torsion, the displacements degrees of freedom were set to zero also on

extremity B (case B). As seen on table 1 the example shows a similar response to the linear problem,

then one can conclude that this connection is working.

Non-Linear Non-Linear

Linear

Case A Case B

ux 0 2,6E-05 0

uy 0 9,5E-05 0

uz 0,05362 0,05389 0

uy 0,00135 0,00135 0

0,00354 0,00367 0,00367

Table 1 :Values at point B

7. CONCLUSIONS

This work is relevant to structural analysis because there are many practical cases that need shells

coupled with rods. And the connection between two analogous theory was made and granted good

results. A very simple example was computed to show that to connection through the rotation degree of

freedom works the results were compared with a linear analysis and it showed similar response. These

rod and shell theories are used for very flexible structures, like thin shells and slender rods.

REFERENCES

[1] Pimenta P. M. and Yojo T., “Geometrically-exact analysis of spatial frames”, Applied Mechanics

Reviews, ASME, New York, v.46, 11, 118-128, 1993.

[2] Pimenta P. M., “Geometrically-Exact Analysis of Initially Curved Rods”, in: Advances in

Computational Techniques for Structural Engineering, Edinburgh, U.K., v.1, 99-108, Civil-Comp

Press, Edinburgh,1996.

[3] Pimenta P. M., Campello E. M. B., “Shell curvature as an initial deformation: geometrically exact

finite element approach”, Int. J. Num. Meth. Engrg., 78, 1094-1112, 2009.

[4] Viebahn, N., Pimenta, P.M. & Schroeder, J., “A simple triangular finite element for nonlinear thin

shells - Statics, Dynamics and anisotropy”, Computational Mechanics, online, 2016.

[5] Silva, C.C., Maassen, S., Pimenta, P.M. & Schröder, J. “Geometrically exact analysis of Bernoulli-

Euler rods” submitted to Computer Methods In Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2018

90

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

WITH A NICKEL-BASED ALLOY AND STEEL

1

National School of Engineers of Saint-Etienne, Chawki.Tahri@enise.fr, eric.feulvarch@enise.fr,

jean-michel.bergheau@enise.fr

2

Federal Mogul Powertrain Ignition Products, Christophe.Bertoni@federalmogul.com

3

National School of Mines of Saint-Etienne, klocker@emse.fr

Abstract

Ever since the invention of the internal combustion engine, an essential material has always been present

in spark plug: Nickel-based alloys. Over the years, these materials gained great importance. They are

widely used in automotive and aerospace, as they can withstand high homogeneous temperature,

aggressive corrosion, different stress levels, etc. Manufacturing of more and more complex structures

makes the selection of materials the most important factor. Independently from the level of stress,

temperature and corrosive environment, components must be reliable during service. Alloys that can

meet the above mentioned requirements are often high-priced materials which require advanced

technologies during the production of components [1]. Resistance welding is one of the micro-joining

processes, in which a weld is performed between two workpieces; shell (steel) and copper coated with

a nickel-based alloy (Fig. 1.a), whose chemical compositions are given in table 1.

Ni Cr Fe Al C Mn S Si Bi Cu

Gradient

The copper coated with a nickel-based alloy is welded, through an electric resistance machine, to the

shell using a high frequency direct current (Fig. 1.a). The welding frequency plays a major role in the

welded zone quality (Fig. 1). Optimization of the welding sequence and process is one way to reach

this goal. However, experimental optimization requires prototyping and measurements which are

extremely expensive and time consuming and finally, very few solutions can be used. For the numerical

simulation of high resistance welding using high frequency, the literature is not very abundant. The

presence of eddy currents changes indeed the distribution of power due to joule effect. Thereby changing

the joule effect along the contact interface and consequently strongly influencing the quality of the weld

achieved. Finite-element simulations can be used in that aim but the difficulty is that welding processes

involve complex geometries and physical phenomena.

91

2D Model

Nickel-based

alloy

Copper Gripper

Gripper

Current density J

h (

H

Shell Shell Y

(a) X (b)

nickel-based alloy Welded zone

Shell

(c)

Figure 1 : (a) Scheme of the welding strategy, (b) 2D modeling of welding process and (c) 3D modeling of welding process.

The local models are insufficient to predict residual stresses and distortions, only global 3D models can

correctly evaluate it [2]. These types of simulations require substantial computing times and

performance. The idea is to compare the different results coming from an electrokinetic model using a

3D and a 2D (with different thicknesses (e) (Fig. 1.b, c)) geometry. The results obtained using a

simplified two-dimensional model are discussed and compared to results from a complete 3D

simulation. Once the appropriate thickness (e) is determined (Fig. 1.a, b), electrodynamic-thermal

simulations are performed using a 2D model. This new procedure is suitable to investigate the influences

of the welding machine parameters, such as the frequency (50 and 5000 Hz), the gripper’s altitude (H),

and the copper’s altitude (h) (Fig. 1.a) as well as other factors that contribute to weld quality. A

comprehensive analysis procedure has been developed to perform the incrementally coupled thermal-

electrical-mechanical analysis to simulate the resistance welding of nickel-based alloys. These

simulations are accompanied with experiments.

92

References

[1] Pollock T. M., Tin S., Nickel-based superalloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry,

microstructure, and properties. Journal of Propulsion And Power, 22, 2 (2006) 361-374.

[2] Feulvarch, E, V Robin, and J M Bergheau. “Thermometallurgical and Mechanical Modelling of

Welding – Application to Multipass Dissimilar Metal Girth Welds.” Science and Technology of

Welding and Joining 16, no. 3 (April 2011): 221–31.

93

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

Philippe R B Devloo 1 , Chensong Zhang 2

1 FEC/UNICAMP, phil@fec.unicamp.br

2 Chinese Academy of Science, zhangcs@lsec.cc.ac.cn

Different formulations and numerical approximations are presented for the simulation of discrete

fracture networks in two dimensions. In all cases the fracture flow is represented by a one dimen-

sional flow coupled with a two dimensional flow through porous media. The different formulations are

compared in terms of computation of total flux, conservation properties and size of global system of

equations.

Abstract We compare H 1 approximation, H(div) approximation, H(div) approximation with MHM

(Multiscale Hybrid Mixed) multiscale reduction and H(div) with SBFem enhanced resolution at the

fracture tips.

The different formulations are implemented using the NeoPZ programming environment that is freely

available on github [https://github.com/labmec/neopz.git||NeoPZ-github].

94 1

Some Results About Existence and Uniqueness

Solution for Stochastic Bending Beam

∗1 *2

Cláudio R. A. da Silva Júnior , Pedro D. Danizete

1

Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering and Materials (PPGEM), Federal Technological

University of Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

2

Graduate Program in Mathematics, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract. This paper present a theorem of existence and uniqueness for solution by stochastic beam

bending. The used stochastic version of the Lax-Milgram, Babuska 2004, for demonstration this

theorem. Present results of the existence and uniqueness for theoretical solutions for theory of beam

Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko.

Keywords: Stochastic Bending Beam; Lax-Milgram lemma; Euler-Bernoulli's beam; Timoshenko's

beam

1. Introduction

The field of stochastic mechanics has been subject of extensive research and significant

developments in recent years. Stochastic mechanics incorporates the modeling of randomness or

uncertainty in the mathematical formulation of mechanics problems. This is in contrast to the more

established field of structural reliability, where uncertainty and randomness are also addressed, but

where problem solutions are obtained mainly based on deterministic mechanics models.

The analysis of stochastic engineering systems has received new impulse with use of finite

element methods to obtain response statistics. Initially, finite element solutions where combined

with the Monte Carlo method, and samples of random system response where obtained.

Perturbation and Galerkin methods where used in this context, Araújo and Awruch (1994). Such

methods allowed representation of uncertainty in system parameters or in loads by means of

stochastic processes. At the end of the 80’s, Spanos and Ghanem (1989) used the Galerkin finite

element method to solve a stochastic beam bending problem, where Young’s modulus was

modeled as a Gaussian stochastic process. The space of approximate solutions was built using the

finite element method and chaos polynomials. These polynomials form a complete system in

L 2 ( Ω,F , P )

L2 ( Ω , F ,P ) = Ψ , where Ψ = span {ψ i }i =0 is the space generated by the chaos

∞

95

polynomials and ( Ω, F , P ) a probability space. The ideas presented in this study where

innovative and represented a new method to solve stochastic problems.

Babuska al. (2005) presented a stochastic version of the Lax-Milgram lemma. The paper

presents a hypothesis which represents limitations to the modeling of uncertainty via Gaussian

processes. For certain problems of mechanics, use of Gaussian processes can lead to loss of

coercivity of the bi-linear form associated to the stochastic problem. This difficulty was indeed

encountered in the study of Ávila (2004), and resulted in non-convergence of the solution for the

bending of plates with random parameters. This non-convergence was due to the choice of a

Gaussian process to represent the uncertainty in some parameters of the system. This failure to

converge also affects solutions based on perturbation or simulation methods.

This paper presented results of the existence and uniqueness of theoretical solutions for

stochastic bending for Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theory. These results were obtained

with the use of the Lax-Milgram lemma using appropriate hypotheses about the problem data

In this section, the strong and weak formulations of the problem of stochastic bending of Euler-

Bernoulli beams are presented. At the end of this section, the Lax-Milgram lemma is used to

present a proof of existence and uniqueness of the solution. The strong form of the stochastic beam,

2

dx 2( dx

2

)

d E.I ( x,ω ) . d u2 = f , ∀ ( x,ω ) ∈ ( 0 ,l ) × Ω;

(1)

u ( 0 ) = u ( l ) = 0;

2

d u d 2u

dx 2

= = 0;

x =0

dx 2 x =l

where E is the Young’s modulus, I is the moment of inertia, Ω is a sample space and f is a load

term. For the existence and uniqueness of the response, the following hypotheses are considered:

(

H1 : ∃ c , C ∈ ℝ + : P ω∈ Ω : E .I ( x , ω ) ∈ c , C , ∀ x ∈ 0, l = 1 )

(2)

( )

H2 : f ∈ L 2 Ω , F , P ; L 2 ( 0, l ) .

Hypothesis H1 ensures that the beam stiffness modulus is positive-defined and uniformly limited

in probability e a hypothesis H2 ensures that the stochastic loading process is limited.

In order to study existence and uniqueness, the abstract variational problem associated to the

strong form (Eq. 1) needs to be defined. The abstract variational problem associated to the beam

bending problem defined in Eq. (1) is defined in V = L2 ( Ω, F , P; Q ) , with

d 2u d 2u

Q = u ∈ H 2 ( 0, l ) u ( 0 ) = u ( l ) = 0 ∧ 2 = = 0 ,

dx x =0

dx 2 x =l

L 2 ( Ω , F , P; Q ) = u : ( 0, l ) × Ω → ℝ u é mensurável e ∫ u ( ω ) dP ( ω ) < +∞ . (3)

2

H 2 ( 0,l )

Ω

96

Expression (2) means that an element u ∈ L 2 ( Ω , F , P; Q ) for ω ∈Ω , fixed, u ( ⋅, ω ) ∈ Q . On

the other hand, for x ∈ ( 0, L ) , fixed, u ( x , ⋅ ) ∈ L 2 ( Ω , F , P ) . Defining the tensorial product

between v ∈ L 2 ( Ω , F , P ) and w ∈ Q as u = v.w , one should note that for fixed ω∈Ω ,

u ( ⋅, ω ) = v ( ⋅ ) .w ( ω ) ∈ Q , (4)

whereas for a fixed x ∈ ( 0, L ) , u ( x, ⋅ ) = v ( x ) .w ( ⋅) ∈ L 2 Ω , F , P . Hence, one has ( )

L ( Ω, F , P; Q ) ≃ L ( Ω, F , P ) ⊗ Q ⇒ V ≃ L ( Ω, F , P; Q ) ⊗ Q . It is also necessary to

2 2 2

redefine the differential operator for the space obtained via tensorial product. The operator

Dωα : V → L 2 ( Ω , F , P ) ⊗ L 2 ( 0, l ) , Matthies & Keese (2005), acts over an element u ∈ V the

following way,

( ) ( x ).w ( ω) ,

α

Dωα u : d αv (5)

dx

where α ∈ ℕ and α ≤ 2. V is a Hilbert space, with internal product defined as

(u,v )V = ∫ ( Dω2u ( ω) ,Dω2v ( ω) )L (0,l ) dP ( ω) .

2

(6)

Ω

The bilinear form a :V ×V → ℝ is defined as,

a ( u,v ) = ∫ ( E.I .Dωu ( ω) ,Dωv ( ω) )L (0,l ) dP ( ω) .

2 2

2

(7)

Ω

The abstract variational problem associated to the strong form, Eq. (1), is defined as follows:

Find u ∈V such that

(8)

a ( u,v ) = ℓ ( v ) , ∀v ∈V .

From the hypotheses of limited probability one can show that the bilinear form has the following

properties:

a. continuity

a ( u,v ) ≤ C ∫ Dω2u ( ω) 2 Dω2v ( ω) 2 dP ( ω) ≤ C u V v V ;

L ( 0 ,l ) L ( 0 ,l )

Ω

b. coercivity

(

a ( u,u ) ≥ c ∫ Dω2u ( ω) ,Dω2u ( ω) ) dP ( ω) ≥ c ∫ Dω2u ( ω) dP ( ω) = c u

2

2

L2 ( 0,l )

V

L ( 0,l )

2

Ω Ω

From hypothesis H1 and H2, which state the continuity and coervicity of the bilinear form, and

from the Lax-Milgram lemma, it is guaranteed that the problem defined in Eq. (1) has an unique

solution, and continuous dependency on the data.

In this section, the strong and weak formulations of the problem of stochastic bending of

Timoshenko beams are presented. The Lax-Milgram lemma, again, is used to present a proof of

existence and uniqueness of the solution. The strong form of the stochastic Timoshenko beam

bending problem is given as,

97

( )

d α d φ + β ( dw − φ ) = 0;

dx dx dx

d

(

dx β ( dw )

dx − φ ) = − f , ∀ ( x,ω) ∈ ( 0,l ) × Ω;

(9)

w ( 0,ω) = w ( l,ω) = 0;

φ ( 0,ω) = φ ( l,ω) = 0, ∀ω∈Ω;

where α= E.I and β = G.A are the bending and shear stiffness, respectively, Ω is the sample

space, w is the transversal beam displacement field, φ is the angular displacement field and f is a

load term. In order to guarantee existence and uniqueness of the solution, the following hypotheses

are necessary:

(

∃α, α ∈ ℝ + \ {0} : P {ω∈Ω : α ( x, ω) ∈[ α,α] , ∀x ∈[ 0, l ]} = 1;

)

H1:

({

∃β, β ∈ ℝ + \ {0} : P ω∈Ω : β ( x, ω) ∈ β, β , ∀x ∈[ 0, l ] = 1;

}) (10)

(

H2: f ∈ L2 Ω, F , P; L2 ( 0, l ) . )

Hypothesis H1 ensures that the beam stiffness modulus is positive-definite and uniformly limited

in probability. Hypothesis H2 ensures that the stochastic load process has finite variance. These

hypotheses are necessary for the application of the Lax-Milgram lemma, Babuska al (2005), which

is used in the sequence, to demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of the solution. In this section,

a brief theoretical study of existence and uniqueness of the solution of stochastic Timoshenko

beam bending problems is presented. For operators with derivatives of order greater than two, no

such study has been found in the literature. The study requires definition of stochastic Sobolev

spaces, tensorial product and density between distribution spaces and Lp spaces. The study also

requires definition of the abstract variational problem associated to the strong form, Eq. (9). The

stochastic Sobolev space where the solution to the stochastic beam bending problem is constructed

( (

is V = L2 Ω, F , P; H 01 ( 0, l ) ) ) , such that,

2

V = ( w, φ ) : ( 0, l ) × Ω → ℝ 2

. (11)

w ( ω ) H 1 0,l dP ( ω ) , ∫ φ ( ω ) ( )

2 2

∫ ( ) H 1( 0,l )

dP ω < +∞

Ω Ω

Eq. (11) means that, for ω ∈Ω fixed, ( w (⋅, ω) , φ (⋅, ω) ) ∈ H ( 0, l ) × H ( 0, l ) , whereas for

1

0

1

0

v ∈ L 2 ( Ω , F , P ) and ( θ, ϑ ) ∈ H 01 ( 0, l ) × H 01 ( 0, l ) as ( w, φ ) = ( v.θ, v.ϑ ) , one has, for fixed

ω∈Ω ,

w ( ⋅, ω) = v ( ⋅) .θ ( ω) ∈ H 01 ( 0, l ) ;

(12)

φ ( ⋅, ω) = v ( ⋅) .ϑ ( ω) ∈ H 0 ( 0, l ) ;

1

98

whereas for fixed x ∈ ( 0, l ) ,

w ( x, ⋅) = v ( x ) .θ ( ⋅) ∈ L2 ( Ω, F , P ) ;

(13)

φ ( x, ⋅) = v ( x ) .ϑ ( ⋅) ∈ L ( Ω, F , P ) .

2

( 2

)

L2 Ω, F , P; ( H 01 ( 0 ,l ) ) ≃ L2 ( Ω, F , P ) ⊗ ( H 01 ( 0,l ) ) ⇒ V ≃ L2 ( Ω, F , P ) ⊗ ( H 01 ( 0 ,l ) ) .

2 2

It is also necessary to redefine the differential operator for the space obtained via tensorial product.

( )

The operator Dων : V → L2 ( Ω, F , P ) ⊗ L2 ( 0, l ) , acts over an element w ∈ V the following

2

way,

ν

( )

Dων w : d vν ( x ) .θ ( ω) ,

dx

(14)

(⋅, ⋅) V

:V ×V → ℝ ,

l

Ω0

1

2

The inner product defined in Eq. (15) induces the V norm, u V

a : V ×V → ℝ , is defined as

l

a ( u, v ) = ∫∫ ( ( α.Dωφ.Dωυ) +β.( Dωw − φ) .( Dωh − υ) ) ( x, ω) dxdP ( ω) . (16)

Ω0

The abstract variational problem associated to the strong form, Eq. (9), is defined as follows:

Find u ∈ V such that

(17)

a ( u,v ) = ℓ ( v ) , ∀v ∈V ;

where ℓ :V → ℝ is a linear functional given by,

l

ℓ ( v ) = ∫ ∫ ( f .v ) ( x,ω ) dxdP ( ω) . (18)

Ω 0

From the hypotheses H1, Eq. (10), one can show that the bilinear form has the following

properties:

a. continuity

99

l

a ( u,v ) ≤ ∫ ∫ α ( Dωφ.Dωυ )( x,ω) + β . ( ( Dω w − φ ) .( Dωh − υ ) ) ( x,ω) dxdP ( ω)

Ω0

l

1 1

l

2 2

2 2

Ω 0 0

1 1

l l

2 2

2 2

Ω 0 0

≤ C. Dωφ . Dωυ + Dω w − φ

L 2 ( Ω ,F , P )⊗ L 2 ( 0 ,l ) L 2 ( Ω ,F , P )⊗ L 2 ( 0 ,l ) L 2 ( Ω ,F , P )⊗ L 2 ( 0 ,l )

. Dωh − υ ≤ C. u . v ,

L 2 ( Ω ,F , P )⊗ L 2 ( 0 ,l ) V V

{ }

where C = max α, β .

b. coercivity

l

a ( u,u ) ≥ ∫∫ ( α.Dωφ.Dωφ) +β.( Dωw −φ) .( Dωw −φ) ( x,ω) dxdP ( ω)

Ω0

l

≥ c ∫∫ ( Dωφ.Dωφ) + ( Dωw −φ) .( Dωw −φ) ( x,ω) dxdP ( ω) ≥ c. u V2 ,

Ω0

From hypothesis H1, which state the continuity and coervicity of the bilinear form, and from the

Lax-Milgram lemma, Babuska al (2005), it is guaranteed that the problem defined in Eq. (17) has

unique solution and continuous dependency on the data ( α, β, f ) .

4.Conclusions

In this work, results were presented on the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for the

stochastic bending problems of Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams. For that, hypotheses

related to the limitation and regularity of the elastic coefficients and loading term were necessary.

From this, the Lax-Milgram lemma was used to obtain the result of existence and uniqueness of

weak solutions. In addition, we obtained the continuity of the weak solutions with respect to the

data.

Acknowledgments

This article is part of a research project of process number 420615/2016-4 developed in the

PPGEM/UTFPR and supported by the National Research Council, CNPq.

100

References

Araújo, J.M. and Awruch, A.M. (1994), “On stochastic finite elements for structural analysis”, Computers

and Structures, 52(3), 461-469.

Ávila da S. Jr, C. R.,, (2004), "Application of the Galerkin method to stochastic bending of Kirchhoff plates",

Doctoral thesis. Florianópolis (SC, Brazil): Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University

of Santa Catarina, [in Portuguese].

Babuska, I.; Tempone, R.; Zouraris, G. E., (2005), “Solving elliptic boundary value problems with uncertain

coefficients by the finite element method: the stochastic formulation”, Computer Methods in Applied

Mechanics and Engineering, 194(12), 1251-1294.

Matthies, H. G. and Keese, A., (2005), “Galerkin methods for linear and nonlinear elliptic stochastic partial

differential equations”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194(12), 1295-1331.

Spanos, P.D. and Ghanem, R., (1989), “Stochastic finite element expansion for media random”, Journal

Engineering Mechanics, 125(1), 26-40.

101

Bubnov Galerkin Method Applied Euler Bernoulli

Beam Stochastic Bending

Cláudio R. A. da Silva Júnior1, Pedro D. Danizete*2

1

Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering and Materials (PPGEM), Federal Technological

University of Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

2

Graduate Program in Mathematics, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract. This research is presented a study about stochastic bending Euler Bernoulli beam. The

uncertain is modeled by random variables. From this, the Bubnov-Galerkin method is applied to obtain

approximate numerical solutions for the stochastic transverse displacement process. The approximation

spaces are generated by the generalized polynomials of chaos and dense global functions in the spaces

of the theoretical solutions. The Monte Carlo method is used for evaluation perfomance's Bubnov

Galerkin.

Keywords: Bubnov Galerkin method; generalized polynomials of chaos; stochastic bending Euler's

beam.

1. Introduction

The last few decades have witnessed tremendous developments in the modeling of the

structural behavior of mechanical systems, due to advances in computational mechanics.

Numerical, and computational methods such as finite element, finite difference, boundary element,

and so on, have reached wide acceptability and ample coverage of applications. New

developments address the solution of complex, non-linear problems. Multi-physics analysis allows

the investigation of new, unforeseen interaction effects between structures and soils or fluids. But

despite the tremendous robustness and accuracy of modern computational mechanics tools, one

significant aspect of most engineering problems has been neglected by so-called deterministic

computational mechanics: uncertainties, Spanos and Ghanem (1989).

In the present paper, the Bubnov-Galerkin method and chaos polynomials are used to obtain

approximate solutions for the stochastic displacement response of stochastic bending of Euler-

Bernoulli beams. Uncertainties in bending stiffness are modeled as parameterized stochastic

process, indexed in uniform random variables, in agreement with the conditions for existence and

uniqueness of the solution. The space of approximate solutions is constructed using generalized

chaos polynomials. A stochastic version of the Lax–Milgram lemma, Babuska al (2005), is used

for a brief theoretical study about the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The Bubnov-

102

Galerkin method is applied to obtain numerical solution for a example stochastic bending

problems. The performance of numerical solutions is evaluated by comparing first and second

order moments of the approximated displacement responses with the same statistics obtained via

Monte Carlo simulation.

In this section, the strong and weak formulations of the problem of stochastic bending of Euler-

Bernoulli beams are presented. At the end of this section, the Lax-Milgram lemma is used to

present a proof of existence and uniqueness of the solution. The strong form of the stochastic

beam,

ì 2

ï dx 2 ( dx

2

)

ï d E.I ( x,w) . d u2 = f , " ( x,w) Î ( 0 ,l ) ´ W;

ï

íu ( 0 ) = u ( l ) = 0;

ï 2

ïd u =

d 2u

= 0;

ï dx 2 dx 2 x=l

î x =0 (1)

where E is the Young’s modulus, I is the moment of inertia, Ω is a sample space and f is a load

term. For the existence and uniqueness of the response, the following hypotheses are considered:

(

H1 : $c, C Î ¡ ++ : P wÎW : E.I ( x, w) Î éëc, C ùû , "x Î éë0, l ùû = 1.)

H2 : f Î L2 ( W, F , P; L2 ( 0, l ) ) .

(2)

Hypothesis H1 ensures that the beam stiffness modulus is positive-defined and uniformly limited

in probability e a hypothesis H2 ensures that the stochastic loading process is limited.

In order to study existence and uniqueness, the abstract variational problem associated to the

strong form (Eq. 1) needs to be defined. The abstract variational problem associated to the beam

V = L 2 ( W, F , P ; Q )

bending problem defined in Eq. (1) is defined in , with

ì

ï d 2u d 2u ü

ï

Q = íu Î H 2 ( 0, l ) u ( 0 ) = u ( l ) = 0 Ù 2 = 2 = 0ý

ï

î dx x=0 dx x =l ï,

þ

ì

ï ü

ï

L2 ( W, F , P; Q ) = íu : ( 0, l ) ´ W ® ¡ u é mensurável e ò u ( w) dP ( w) < +¥ ý.

2

H 2 ( 0,l )

ï

î W ï (3)

þ

u Î L ( W, F , P; Q )

2

u ( ×, w) Î Q

Expression (2) means that an element for w ÎW , fixed, . On

x Î ( 0, L ) u ( x, ×) Î L2 ( W, F , P )

the other hand, for , fixed, . Defining the tensorial product

v Î L2 ( W, F , P )

between and wÎ Q as u = v.w , one should note that for fixed wÎW ,

u ( ×, w ) = v ( ×) .w ( w ) Î Q

, (4)

103

x Î ( 0, L ) u ( x, ×) = v ( x ) .w ( ×) Î L2 ( W, F , P )

whereas for a fixed , . Hence, one has

L ( W, F , P; Q ) ; L ( W, F , P ) Ä Q Þ V ; L ( W, F , P; Q ) Ä Q

2 2 2

. It is also necessary to

redefine the differential operator for the space obtained via tensorial product. The operator

Dwa : V ® L2 ( W, F , P ) Ä L2 ( 0, l )

, Matthies and Keese (2005), acts over an element u Î V

the following way,

( ) ( x ).w ( w) ,

a

Dwa u : d av

dx (5)

where a Î ¥ and a £ 2. V is a Hilbert space, with internal product defined as

(

(u,v )V = ò Dw2u ( w) ,Dw2v ( w) L (0,l ) dP ( w)

W

) 2

. (6)

The bilinear form a :V ´V ® ¡ is defined as,

W

(

a ( u,v ) = ò E.I .Dw2u ( w) ,Dw2v ( w) ) L2 ( 0 ,l )

dP ( w)

. (7)

The abstract variational problem associated to the strong form, Eq. (1), is defined as follows:

ìïFind u ÎV such that

í

ïîa ( u,v ) = l ( v ) , "v ÎV . (8)

From the hypotheses of limited probability one can show that the bilinear form has the following

properties:

a. continuity

a ( u,v ) £ C ò Dw2u ( w) 2 Dw2v ( w) 2 dP ( w) £ C u V v V

L ( 0 ,l ) L ( 0 ,l )

W ;

b. coercivity

(

a ( u,u ) ³ c ò Dw2u ( w) ,Dw2u ( w) ) dP ( w) ³ c ò Dw2u ( w) dP ( w) = c u

2

2

L2 ( 0,l )

V

L ( 0,l )

2

W W

From hypothesis H1 and H2, which state the continuity and coervicity of the bilinear form, and

from the Lax-Milgram lemma, it is guaranteed that the problem defined in Eq. (1) has an unique

solution, and continuous dependency on the data.

3. Uncertainty Representation

available. Sometimes, the first and second order moments are the only information available. The

probability distribution function is defined based on experience or heuristically. In order to apply

Galerkin’s method, an explicit representation of the uncertainty is necessary. Given the incomplete

information about the probability distribution of a given parameter, an hypothesis of finite

dimensional noise is assumed. This implies that the uncertainty over a given input parameter

+

J : ( 0,l ) ´ W ® ¡

will be represented in terms of a finite set of random variables:

104

J ( x,w) = J ( x, x ( w) ) = J ( x,x1 ( w) , K , x N ( w) ) .

(9)

From this hypothesis, the uncertainty in beam and foundation stiffness coefficients are modeled

via parameterized stochastic processes. These are defined from a linear combination of

deterministic functions and random variables, Grigoriu (1995),

N

J ( x, w ) = m J ( x ) + å ji ( x ) x i ( w) = m J ( x ) + F t ( x ) .x ( w )

i =1 , (10)

m J ( ×) J ( ×, × ) F : ( 0,l ) ® ¡ N

where is the expected value of random process , is a vector-valued

( 0, l ) , "i Î {1,K , N} . x ( w) = {xi ( w)}i=1

N

ji Î C0 ( 0, l ) I C

2

independent random variables, such that:

ìïE [ xi ] = 0, "i Î {1, K , N} ,

í

ïî P ( wÎ W : xi ( w) Î G i ) = 1, "i Î {1,K , N} , . (11)

E [×] G x

where is the expected value operator. In Eq. (11), i is the image of random variable i ,

Gi = xi ( W ) Gi = [ ai , bi ] Ì ¡ Gi = bi - ai < ¥, "i Î {1, K , N}

that is, , with , , limited. In this

{Gi }i=1 , is given by

N

N

, and in terms of

N

G = Õ Gi

i=1 . Since the random variables are independent, the joint probability density is given by:

N

r ( x ( w ) ) = Õ r i ( xi )

i =1 , (12)

ri ( ×) xi . Hence, the

where is the marginal probability density function of random variable

dP ( ×)

probability measure is defined as:

N

dP ( x ( w) ) = Õ ri ( xi )d xi

. i =1 (13)

From the measure and integration theory one knows that the probability measure defined in Eq.

(13) is the measure obtained from the product between probability measure spaces associated to

x ( w) = {xi ( w)}i =1

N

x :W ®G

the random variables , with i i.

From the Doob-Dynkin lemma, Rao and Swift (2010), the transversal displacement random

x ( w) = {xi ( w)}i =1

N

u ( x, w) = u ( x, x ( w) ) = u ( x, x1 ( w) , K , x N ( w) )

. (14)

In this paper, polynomials of the Askey-Wiener scheme are used construct the problems solution

space.

105

4. Bubnov-Galerkin Method

The Galerkin method is used in this paper to solve the stochastic beam bending problem with

uncertainty in the beam and foundation stiffness coefficients. In order to develop numerical

solutions which are compatible with the conditions for existence and uniqueness of the theoretical

solution, existence and uniqueness results are used. An element from a space isomorph to the

V ; L2 ( W, F , P ) Ä Q

space obtained via tensor product, , can be represented from elements of

L ( W, F , P )

2

separable spaces, dense in spaces and Q . Hence, the strategy to construct

approximated, numerical solutions and to use Bubnov-Galerkin method is to use bases of finite

L 2 ( W, F , P )

dimensions, but dense in and Q . Due to the simplicity of the spatial domain for the

present problem, no spatial discretizations are employed. Hence, functions employed in

construction of the responses are defined in the whole problem domain. For more complex spatial

domains, special techniques like finite element, boundary element or finite differences would have

to be employed.

It is proposed that approximated solutions to the stochastic displacement response of the beam

have the following form:

¥

u ( x, x ( w) ) = å uidi ( x, x ( w) )

i =1 , (15)

where i

u Î ¡ , "i Î ¥ are coefficients to be determined and i are the test functions.

d ÎV

Numerical solutions to the variational problem defined in Eq. (11) will be obtained. Hence, it

becomes necessary to define spaces less abstract than those defined earlier, but without

compromising the existence and uniqueness of the solution. From the theorem of Cameron and

L2 ( W ,F ,P )

S = L2 ( W,F ,P )

Martin (1947), have . Consider two complete orthogonal systems

ì d 2f d 2f ü

F = span ïífi Î C ( éë0, l ùû , ¡ ) fi ( 0 ) = fi ( l ) = 0 Ù 2i ( 0 ) = 2i ( l ) = 0 , "i Î ¥ ïý

2

ïî dx dx ïþ

and

L2 ( W,F , P )

= span {yi }i =1 = L ( W, F , P )

¥

Y= Y Q

= 2

, such that F = Q , and define the tensor product

between F and S as:

(fÄy )i ( x, x ( w) ) = f j ( x ) .yk (x (w)) , with j, k Î¥ . (16)

d = ( fÄy )

To simplify the notation, we will use i i . Since approximated numerical solutions

are derived in this paper, the solution space has finite dimensions. This implies truncation of the

= span {yi }i =1

Yn =

n

VM = F m Ä Y n

results in Y n ( n = dim Y n =)

. The dimension of , , depends on the dimension

106

x ( w)

of the random variable vector and on the order of chaos polynomials. Let "s" be the

x ( w)

dimension of random vector and “p” the order of chaos polynomials , then the dimension of

Y n is given by:

( s + p )!

n= .

s!.p! (17)

Since

dim F n =< ¥ and dim Y n =< ¥ , one has that the dimension of the approximation space,

VM

, is given by

M = dim (VM ) = dim ( F m Ä Y n ) = dim ( F m ) .dim ( Y n ) = m.n

(18)

With the above definitions and results, it is proposed that numerical solutions are obtained from

truncation of the series expressed in Eq. (15) at the M th term:

M

uM ( x, x ( w) ) = å ui di ( x, x ( w) )

i =1 . (19)

Substituting Eq. (19) in Eq. (8), one arrives at the approximated variational problem consists in

finding the coefficients of the linear combination expressed in Eq. (19). Using a vector-matrix

representation, the system of linear algebraic equations can be written as

KU = F , (20)

K Î MM (¡ ) U = {ui }i =1 F = { f i }i=1

M M

is the loading vector. Elements of the stiffness matrix are defined as,

l

K = éë kij ùû

M ´M

(

, kij = ò ò EI .Dw2di .Dw2d j ) ( x, w)dxdP ( w).

W0 (21)

The load vector is given by

l

F = { f j} f j = ò ò ( q.d j ) ( x, w)dxdP ( w)

M

,

j =1

W0 . (22)

5. Numerical Examples

In this section, two numerical examples are presented, for bending of random Euler-Bernoulli.

In the example, uncertainty on the beam stiffness is considered. The uncertainties in stiffness are

represented using parameterized, weakly stationary, random processes. The beam is simply

(l = 1 m ) , the cross-section has width

b = 1100 m and the beam is subject to an uniform distributed load of q ( x ) = 1 kPa.m, "x Î [ 0, l ] .

In this example the uncertainty is assumed on the Young´s modulus of beam material,

E : [ 0, l ] ´ W ® ¡ +

, which is modeled as a parameterized random process:

107

( n.lx ) + x ( w) sin ( n.lx )ùûú

N

E ( x, x ( w) ) = m E + 3.s E å éx2.n -1 ( w) cos

ê

n =1 ë

2.n

, (49)

where

m E is the expected value and s E is the standard deviation of Young´s modulus and

x ( w) = {xn ( w)}n=1

2.N

( 2.N = dim x ( w) ). Numerical solutions are obtained for

s E = ( 101 ) .m E

. Results obtained via

Monte Carlo simulation, and used as reference. The Fig. 1 presents results for the expected value

of mid-spam displacements, obtained trough Monte Carlo simulation, and by means of the

p Î {1, 2,3}

Galerkin solutions of order . The difference between the curves is imperceptible,

showing that even a Galerkin solution of order p=1 is already accurate.

The Fig. 2 show the variances graphics obtained via Monte Carlo simulation and via Galerkin

p Î {1, 2 ,3}

method for , respectively. Other than what was observed for the expected value,

approximations for the variance are only accurate for p=2.

108

Figure 2: Variance of value of displacements.

4.Conclusions

In this paper, theoretical and practical results for bending of stochastic Euler-Bernoulli beams

have been presented. The uncertainty in beam stiffness was modeled as parameterized random

processes. The Lax-Milgram lemma was use to establish a proof for existence and uniqueness of

the theoretical solutions. This study guided construction of the approximate solution space. The

Bubnov-Galerkin method was employed in the construction of approximate, numerical solutions to

Euler-Bernoulli beam bending. Tensor product of finite-dimensional spaces was used to construct

the approximate solutions. In order to represent the random displacement response, a family of

Legendre polynomials, originated from the Askey-Wiener scheme, were employed. In general, it

was observed that even low-order numerical solutions (p=1) provide accurate approximations of

the expected value of the response. For the variance of the displacement responses, higher order

polynomials were needed, but accurate results were already obtained for p≥3, for all cases studied.

The developed numerical solution developed herein, using chaos polynomials of the Askey-Wiener

scheme, was shown to be an accurate and efficient solution for problems of stochastic bending of

Euler-Bernoulli beams. If a proper family of chaos-polynomials is selected, and if the conditions

for existence and uniqueness of the solution are respected, excellent convergence rates are

obtained in the approximation of random displacement responses.

Acknowledgments

This article is part of a research project of process number 420615/2016-4 developed in the

PPGEM/UTFPR and supported by the National Research Council, CNPq.

References

Babuska, I.; Tempone, R. and Zouraris, G. E., (2005), “Solving elliptic boundary value problems with

uncertain coefficients by the finite element method: the stochastic formulation”, Computer Methods in

Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194(12), 1251-1294.

Cameron, R.H. and Martin, W.T., (1947), “The orthogonal development of nonlinear functionals in series of

FourierHermite functionals”, Annals Mathematics, 48, 385-392.

Grigoriu, M., 1995, “Applied Non-Gaussian Processes: Examples, Theory, Simulation, Linear Random

Vibration, and Matlab Solutions”, Prentice Hall.

Matthies, H. G. and Keese, A., (2005), “Galerkin methods for linear and nonlinear elliptic stochastic partial

differential equations”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194(12), 1295-1331.

Rao, M. M. and Swift J. R., 2010, “Probability Theory with Applications”, Springer; 2nd ed.

109

Spanos, P.D. and Ghanem, R., (1989), “Stochastic finite element expansion for media random”, Journal

Engineering Mechanics, 125(1), 2640.

110

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

ELASTIC PROBLEMS

1 Federal University of Santa Catarina, herminio@sinmec.ufsc.br

2 Federal University of Santa Catarina, felipe.g@sinmec.ufsc.br

3 Federal University of Santa Catarina, guesser@sinmec.ufsc.br

4 Federal University of Santa Catarina, maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

Solid mechanics is a research field that deals with the mechanical behavior of a wide variety of materials

undergoing external loads. Among the various types of solids, porous materials, for instance, can be

found in applications such as soil and rock mechanics, biomechanics, ceramics, etc. These applications

are studied in the field of poromechanics, which is a specific branch of the solid mechanics that considers

all types of porous materials. An important characteristic of such materials is that they contain a network

of interconnected pore channels saturated with a fluid. In most situations the mechanical behavior of the

porous matrix and the fluid flow through the pore channels are two tightly coupled phenomena interfering

with each other. When the fluid moves from one region to another in the porous matrix it changes the

pressure field inside the pore channels, which is perceived by the porous matrix as a force imbalance. As a

consequence, the porous matrix tends to deform in order to find a new configuration of stress equilibrium.

When the porous matrix deforms, the pore channels are also modified, which directly affects the fluid

flow and the pore pressure field. It is clear then that a fluid flow model and a structural model must be

considered in order to solve this coupled phenomenon.

The basis of the theory that describes coupled poromechanics has been established by Terzaghi

(1923) [1], where the effective stress principle has been presented. According to this principle, the

effective stresses σ 0 acting on the solid porous matrix is balanced by the pore pressure p and the total

stress tensor σ externally applied to the system, that is:

σ 0 = σ + αpII (1)

where α is the Biot’s coefficient and I is the second-order identity tensor. Almost 20 years later, Biot

(1941) [2] generalized this theory to three-dimensions and it has become known as Biot’s consolidation

theory. In this theory, the governing equations are the mass conservation equation for deformed porous

media and the stress equilibrium equations for a porous matrix. Considering only small strains and linear

behavior for the porous matrix, the stress equilibrium equations can be written as:

with C being the fourth-order tensor written in Voigt notation, ∇s being the symmetric nabla operator

and i being the Voigt represetation of I. Finally, the mass conservation equations in this case reads,

1 ∂p

+ ∇ · v f + αvs = q (3)

M ∂t

with the Biot’s modulus given by a combination of the solid and fluid compressibilities (cs and c f ,

respectively), porosity φ and α, that is, M = [φc f + (α − φ)cs ]−1 . Additionally, the seepage velocity

(Darcy velocity) and the solid velocity are respectively given by:

k ∂u

v = − · (∇p − ρ f g) and vs = (4)

µ ∂t

111 1

Figure 1: (a) Corner-point and (b) unstructured grids.

in which k, µ, ρ f , g and u stand for the absolute permeability tensor, fluid viscosity and density, gravita-

tional acceleration vector and the displacement vector, respectively.

For real applications, the system of coupled partial differential equations composed of Equations

(3) and (2) must be solved by numerical techniques. In the groundwater community, the most common

approach is to apply the Galerkin Finite Element Method (FEM) for discretizing both fluid flow and

structural models. The use of FEM for solving coupled geomechanics is probably because of historical

reasons, as problems involving solid mechanics have always been solved by FEM. Although this method

presents the advantage of being applied to unstructured grids (see Figure 1b), thus providing great ge-

ometrical flexibility, it does not ensure local mass conservation, which is an important characteristic

specially for multiphse flows. In reservoir simulators, for instance, where multiphase flows are the main

mathematical models considered, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is the most common choice. The

reason for employing the FVM in reservoir simulators is because its basic premisse is to ensure local

conservation in every control volume of the grid. In this context, another common approach for solving

coupled geomechanics is to solve the fluid flow model in a resevoir simulator with the FVM, and then

solve the geomechanical model in a separate FEM software. There are a number of drawbacks in this

approach that deserves further discussion. First, reservoir simulators are usually applied to corner-point

grids, as the one depicted in Figure 1a, where the variables are stored at the grid block centroids. In the

FEM software, unstructured grids are usually employed, with the variables stored at the grid nodes. This

situation requires the interpolation of variables between two different grids, which represents an extra

source of numerical errors and additional computational cost. Moreover, synchronizing two different

softwares and managing the traffic of information between the two of them can be a cumbersome task.

In order to avoid these drawbacks, a number of researchers have been proposing unified methodologies

for solving both geomechanical and fluid flow models. In the FEM community, a number of works in

this direction can be mentioned ([3, 4, 5] and many others). On the other hand, a few important attempts

have being proposed for solving coupled geomechanics in a unified finite volume formulation. For ins-

tance, Shaw & Stone (2005) [6] solved linear poroelasticity in unstructured cell-centered grids, although

emphazis has been placed on corner-point grids. Later on, dal Pizzol and Maliska (2013) [7] presented

a finite volume formulation for coupled geomechanics in Cartesian staggered grids for two-dimensional

problems. Important advances on cell-centered finite volume formulations were also developed in [8, 9]

for two-dimensional unstructured grids.

The present work proposes the solution of coupled geomechanics by employing the Element-based

Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) for discretizing the partial differential equations of both fluid flow and

geomechanical models. As a finite volume method, the EbFVM ensures mass and momentum (force)

conservation for each control volume of the grid, which is an important feature specially for fluid flows.

Moreover, the EbFVM provides great geometrical flexibility as it is naturally applied to unstructured

grids. In this work, three-dimensional unstructured grids composed of tetrahedra, hexahedra, prisms and

pyramids are employed. These types of grids are of particular interest for building radial grids around

wells in order to better capture the radial flow pattens in this region (see Figure 1b). In the EbFVM, the

control volumes are built around the nodes of the grid, therefore the variables of the problem (p and u, in

this case) are stored at the grid nodes, characterizing a cell-vertex method. As shown in Figure 2a, each

element of the grid is subdivided into sub-elements, or sub-control volumes, associated to each element

vertex. The control volume is then built by the union of all sub-elements sharing a common node. Figure

2b shows a control volume built around a node of a three-dimensional grid. Each control volume Ωi is

bounded by a control surface Γi composed of faces identified by one integration point, ip, on its centroid

112 2

Figure 2: Geometrical entities for (a) two-dimensional grid and (b) three-dimensional grid.

The discretized mass and stress equilibrium equations are obtained by integrating Equations (3) and

(2) in each control volume and applying the divergence theorem. The resulting surface integrals over

Γi are then evaluated at the integration points of the control volume. This means that mass fluxes and

forces are computed at the control volume surfaces, which is precisely what ensures mass and momentum

(force) conservation. When the algebraic representation of Equations (3) and (2) are grouped together,

the following linear system is obtained:

−K L u bu

Q A = (5)

−H p bp

∆t ∆t

where the block matrices K and L accounts for the effective stresses and the pore pressures acting on

control volumes’ surfaces. The second block-line of Equation (5) contains the mass conservation equa-

tions, where matrices A, H and Q represent the accumulation terms, the mass fluxes due to the seepage

velocity and the mass fluxes due to the solid movement. The linear system of Equation (5) is solved in a

monolithic way by an LU decomposition.

The proposed methodology is first validated against the well known Mandel’s problem, where a

rock slab is compressed in vertical direction and the lateral boundaries are fully permeable, as depicted

in Figure 3. In this problem, the poroelastic equations cannot be decoupled as in the one-dimensional

poroelastic column of Terzaghi, which makes it a suitable test case for assessing the proposed formula-

tion. The problem has been solved with grids composed of four types of elements: hexahedra, tetrahedra,

prisms and pyramids. As it can be seen, good agreement with the analytical solution is obtained for all

types of grids.

The final problem intends to reproduce a water withdrawal from a 12 meters aquifer composed of

sand. The aquifer is trapped between two layers of silty clay with low permeability. The whole struc-

ture consists of a cylinder with 250 meters radius and 50 meters height. A vertical well with prescribed

Figure 3: Mandel’s problem: Pressure and displacement profiles for different time steps.

113 3

constant pressure is placed at the center of the structure. Due to symmetry, only a quarter of the geom-

etry is considered, as depicted in Figure 4. The left side of this figure shows the pressure and vertical

displacement fields. The graphic in the middle shows the pressure profile along the vertical center line

of the structure. The well is placed between z = 27, 5 and z = 40 meters, where pressure is constant. It

is interesting to notice the positive values of pressure that establishes in the adjacent aquitards. This is

known as the Noordbergum effect and it’s an evidence of the coupling between fluid flow and geome-

chanics. The rightmost graphic of Figure 4 shows the vertical displacement in the radial direction. After

250 days, the maximum subsidence observed is of 40 mm right above the well.

In this work the EbFVM has been used for solving both physical models involved in geoemechanics:

the fluid flow and geomechanical model. This a promising alternative for solving coupled geomechanics

for two main reasons. Since it is a fully conservative method, it is able to accurately solve multiphase

flows in porous media. Moreover, the momentum equation is also satisfied for each control volume of

the grid. The second reason is because it is able to handle unstructured grids composed of different types

of elements. This allows for the use of radial grids in the near-well region in order to better capture the

flow patterns in the vicinity of the well. To the knowledge of the authors, there is no other numerical

scheme that present all this features together.

References

[1] K. Terzaghi. Die berechnung der durchlassigkeitsziffer des tones aus dem verlauf der hydrodynamis-

chen spannungsercheinungen, Sitzung berichte. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien Mathematiesch-

Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 1923.

[2] M.A. Biot. General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. Journal of Applied Physics 12 (1941), 155–

164.

[3] J. A. White, R. I. Borja Stabilized low-order finite elements for coupled soliddeformation/fluid-diffusion and

their application to fault zone transients. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 197

(2008), 4353–4366.

[4] M. Ferronato, N. Castelletto, G. Gambolati A fully coupled 3-d mixed finite element model of Biot consolida-

tion. Journal of Computational Physics 229 (2010), 4813–4830.

[5] J. Choo, R. I. Borja A stabilized mixed finite elements for deformable porous media with double porosity.

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 293 (2015), 131–154.

[6] G. Shaw, T. Stone Finite volume methods for coupled stress/fluid flow in commercial reservoir simulators.

SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium (2005), Houston, Texas U.S.A.

[7] A. dal Pizzol, C. R. Maliska A finite volume method for the solution of fluid flows coupled with the mechanical

behavior of compacting porous media. Porous Media and its Applications in Science, Engineering and Industry

1453 (2012), 205–210.

[8] J.M. Nordbotten Cell-centered finite volume discretizations for deformable porous media. Int. J. Numer. Meth.

Engng. v100, issue 6, (2014), 399–418.

[9] J.M. Nordbotten Convergence of a cell-centered finite volume discretization for linear elasticity. SIAM J.

Numer. Anal. v53, issue 6, (2012), 2605–2625.

114 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

FLOATS

Daiane G. Faller1, Clare Eayrs1, Jhon Mojica1, Nelson F. F. Ebecken3, David M. Holland1,2

1

Center for global Sea-Level Change, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United

Arab Emirates, dgf3@nyu.edu

1

Center for global Sea-Level Change, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United

Arab Emirates, clare.eayrs@nyu.edu

1

Center for global Sea-Level Change, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United

Arab Emirates, jfm11@nyu.edu

2

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, 10012,

United States of America, david.holland@nyu.edu

3

Laboratory of Technology Transference Nucleus-COPPE, Federal University of Rio de

Janeiro, Brazil, nelson@ntt.ufrj.br

In this study, we investigate the ability of a Lagrangian transport model to predict float

trajectories in the Southern Ocean (Weddell Sea - Antarctica, 20°E-15°W, 62°S-67°S).

Between 2014 and 2018, the project SOCCOM (Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate

Observations and Modeling) deployed 4 floats within the selected region with the endeavor to

measure different oceanographic variables such as temperature, nutrients, oxygen, pressure,

among others. The float is designed to drift between the surface and 2000 meters collecting

data profiles, transmitting the data via satellite each time it reaches the surface. However, if

the surface is covered by ice, to avoid being trapped, the float avoids the surface, stores the

data and descends for another round of profiling, waiting until the ice retreats to safely

transmit the data. In such cases, the data is transmitted without tracking (position) information

as the float relies on GPS to obtain its location.

Aiming to simulate the ‘virtual’ trajectory of the floats we used the offline particle-tracking

ARIANE and velocity fields from HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) ocean model

outputs with 1/12° horizontal resolution and 32 vertical levels. HYCOM is a primitive

equation general circulation model with high horizontal resolution and adaptive vertical

coordinate system, using terrain-following coordinate at shallow water and z-level coordinates

in the mixed layers and/or unstratified water. When combined with NCODA (Navy Coupled

Ocean Data Assimilation), HYCOM is able to assimilate data from in situ profiles and

115

altimeter data, which allows the model physics to be adjusted by the real observational data,

resulting in more realistic results. ARIANE is a Fortran toolkit with a staggered C-grid for the

Lagrangian interpretation of the circulation calculated by numerical ocean models. ARIANE

performs an analytical calculation, where each trajectory segment respects locally the

continuity equation.

Before the simulation, the float temperature profiles with known locations were used to

validate the reliability of the HYCOM output. The model and float profiles showed good

correlation and small misfit (observational data minus model data) from the surface down to

1000 meters, so the velocity fields from the first 14 layers of the HYCOM output

(representing the first 1000 m) were used with the particle-tracking model. During the particle

simulation virtual particles are introduced into the flow field near the initial float position,

with the central particle located at the known float position. The method used create a grid

with 4 by 4 degrees, with the same resolution as the HYCOM grid (1/12°), which represents

144 particles per grid cell (totaling 2304 particles). The particles are allowed to move freely

via hydrodynamic forcing in the horizontal domain of each layer, however, vertical

movements are not considered, i.e., particles cannot move between layers. At the end of the

simulation, the position of the particles along each float pathway is extracted as well the

profiles from the HYCOM fields (temperature, salinity and velocity). The robustness of the

results is checked by comparing the modelled profiles with those obtained by the floats.

Regional and global models that use data assimilation are only able to assimilate data with

known position. There is limited information on the real ocean state during winter at the polar

regions. Using this method to retrieve valuable data sets that previously had no positional

information vastly improves the winter oceanographic database, particularly in the poorly

sampled Southern Ocean. Our results provide a larger data set from which to examine and

interpret meso- and small- scale processes and identify the main ocean features of the region.

116

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

NANO-REINFORCED MATERIALS

Dang Phong Bach, Delphine Brancherie, Ludovic Cauvin

Laboratoire Roberval FRE UTC-CNRS 2012, Compiègne, France

1. Introduction

Popularity of nanocomposites is still encreasing due to their remarkable physical properties (mechanical,

electrical,...). Thus, understanding of their behavior has become a crucial issue on the experimental point

of view but also on the analytical and numerical aspects. With the use of nano-reinforcement, size effects

usually not observed with “standard” (in terms of size) reinforcement appear: the mechanical properties

are not only dependent on the volume fraction of reinforcement but also on the size of the reinforcements.

This size effect, due to local phenomena at the atomic scale, could be attributed to the increase of the

ratio (interface matrix-inclusions) / (volume fraction of inclusions). In order to model this size effect,

a coherent interface at the matrix-inclusion interface is usually considered. The introduced interface is

therefore characterized by a surface stress-strain relation leading to a surface elastic behavior. In terms

of modelisation, most of the works consider analytical developments and tend to estimate the overall

mechanical properties of nano-composites [1–6]. The main limitations of such analytical works is that

the shape of the inclusions is limited to cylindrical and spherical ones. Moreover, such techniques do

not allow to easily consider material non linear behavior. The development of dedicated computational

approaches is therefore necessary to circumvent those limitations. If we omit the high cost works based

on molecular dynamics [7, 8] few numerical approaches are proposed in the literature to describe the

behavior of nano-reinforced materials. The first one consists in introducing interface-type elements in a

standard Finite Element (FEM) framework to account for the surface elasticity [9]. The second approach

investigated in the literature by Yvonnet and co-authors [10] consists in taking into account the surface

effect in the framework of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) . The last one discussed in

this work is the Embedded Discontinuity Finite Element Method (EFEM) which take into account the

interface at the local level of the elements. We propose first to compare the two former approaches (FEM

and XFEM). After validation of the implemented strategies, we investigate, the influence of the homog-

enization hypothesis in terms of boundary conditions on the computed effective mechanical properties.

In particular, a statistical analysis is performed on random RVEs ( Representative Volume Elements).

Further results are presented in the context of elastoplastic behaviors. A comparison of the two previous

numerical approaches with EFEM will be discussed during the presentation.

We consider here a continuum body which is described by a bounded domain Ω ⊂ Rd (d = 2 or 3) , with

boundary ∂Ω. This domain consists of two phases Ω(1) and Ω(2) ( in the remainder of this paper Ω(1)

and Ω(2) denote inclusion and matrix, respectively). These two phases are divided by an interface Γ (see

figure 1a).

117 1

(a) Geometry (b) FEM conformal mesh (c) XFEM mesh (d) EFEM mesh

Figure 1: Cylindrical inclusion with imperfect interface treated in plane strain models

The generalized Young-Laplace equation [11] is then used to deal with the coherent interface equilib-

rium:

[[σ]] · n + divs σs = 0 (2)

where [[σ]] denotes the jump of stress across the interface Γ, divs denotes the surfacic divergence and σs

is the surfacic stress tensor.

By appealing to the extended divergence theorem, we can build the weak form of the previous problem

as: Z Z

δu · (div σ + b)dΩ + δū¯ · (divs σs + JσK · n)dΓ = 0 ∀(δu, δū¯ ) (3)

Ω Γ

For XFEM enrichment strategy, the interface is defined as the zero level-set of the function φ(x) (see

figure 1c). The displacement is interpolated as:

n n n

u (x) = ∑ Ni (x)ui + ∑ N j (x)ψ(x)a j with ψ(x) = ∑ |φi |Ni (x) − ∑ φi Ni (x)

h

(4)

i=1 j∈VΓ i=1

i=1

where Ni (x) is the shape function associated to node i and VΓ denotes the set of nodes associated to

elements whose support is cut by the interface.

The use of the previous interpolation in the weak form of equilibrium equations (3) leads to the following

discrete system to be solved:

(K + Ks) d = f (5)

For the FEM with interface-type elements approach (see figure 1b), taking into account coherent interface

is based on an explicit discretization of the interface through the use of interface elements with surface

elasticity. In that case, we have to consider the classical interpolations for the 2D elements in the bulk

and the 1D elements on the interface Γ:

n m

uh (x) = ∑ Ni (x)ui and uhs (x) = ∑ Ñi(x)ũi (6)

i=1 j=1

where Ñi is the shape function of 1D interface elements associated to node i and ũi corresponds to

the displacements of node i along the interface direction obtained by projecting the components of the

displacement in the global frame onto the local frame:

Using those interpolation in the weak form of the equilibrium system leads to the discretised system to

be solved:

(K + Ks) u = f (8)

118 2

3. Several numerical results

In this section, few selected results of this work are presented. Additional results will be discussed during

the presentation. Figure 2a presents the comparison in terms of rate of convergence and efficiency of two

implemented numerical approaches (XFEM and Interface Element). Figure 2b presents the effective

(homogenized) normalized bulk modulus obtained for different sets of interface elastic properties (set

A: λs = 6.842 N/m, µs = −0.375 N/m; set B: λs = 3.48912 N/m, µs = −6.2178 N/m; set C: λs = 0

N/m, µs = 0 N/m) in terms of the radius of nanopore for a fixed volume fraction f=0.2. For the effective

properties both approaches give very similar results but the efficiency and the rate of convergence is

better for Interface element (see figure 2a).

-0.4 0.58

setA XFEM/level set XFEM/level set

-0.6 setB XFEM/level set 0.56 Set A Interface element

setC XFEM/level set GSCM [Le Quang et He 2009]

setA Interface element

-0.8 0.54

setB Interface element

setC Interface element

bulk modulus

-1 0.52

log 10 (e)

Set C

-1.2 r = 0.6 0.5

-1.6 0.46

1

r = 0.95

-1.8 0.44

r=1 Set B

-2 0.42

-1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 0 10 20 30 40 50

log 10 (h) Ro in nanometers, f=0.2

(a) Convergence analysis with different (b) Size-dependent effective bulk modulus for

interface parameters periodic boundary condition

Influence of the homogenization hypothesis on the computed effective mechanical properties has been

studied in terms of boundary conditions (Kinematic Uniform (KUBC), Static Uniform (SUBC) and Pe-

riodic). A comparison with an analytical homogenization technique [3] is also carried out. Periodic

boundary condition show a good agreement with the analytical model.

1.1

KUBC

1 SUBC

Normalized effective plane strain

PERIODIC

Set A GSCM

0.9

bulk modulus

0.8

Set B

0.7

0.6

Set C

0.5

0.4

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Volume fraction

Figure 3: Size-dependent effective bulk modulus for different type of boundary condition

Finally, in order to get closer to real microstructures, different RVEs consisting of randomly distributed

nanopores are analyzed to compute the effective properties in terms of the radius of the pores:

119 3

0.44

0.43

0.42

bulk modulus

0.41

0.4

0.39

0.38

0 10 20 30 40 50

R0 in nanometers, f=0.3

References

[1] P Sharma and S Ganti. Size-dependent eshelby’s tensor for embedded nano-inclusions incorporating sur-

face/interface energies. Transactions-American society of mechanical engineers journal of applied mechan-

ics, 71(5):663–671, 2004.

[2] P Sharma, S Ganti, and N Bhate. Effect of surfaces on the size-dependent elastic state of nano-

inhomogeneities. Applied Physics Letters, 82(4):535–537, 2003.

[3] H. Le Quang and Q. C. He. Estimation of the effective thermoelastic moduli of fibrous nanocomposites with

cylindrically anisotropic phases. Archive of Applied Mechanics, 79(3):225–248, Mar 2009.

[4] HL Duan, Jian-xiang Wang, ZP Huang, and Bhushan Lal Karihaloo. Size-dependent effective elastic con-

stants of solids containing nano-inhomogeneities with interface stress. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics

of Solids, 53(7):1574–1596, 2005.

[5] Sébastien Brisard, Luc Dormieux, and D Kondo. Hashin–shtrikman bounds on the bulk modulus of a

nanocomposite with spherical inclusions and interface effects. Computational Materials Science, 48(3):589–

596, 2010.

[6] Sébastien Brisard, Luc Dormieux, and Djimedo Kondo. Hashin–shtrikman bounds on the shear modulus of a

nanocomposite with spherical inclusions and interface effects. Computational Materials Science, 50(2):403–

410, 2010.

[7] D. Brown, V. Marcadon, P. Mélé, and N. D. Albérola. Effect of filler particle size on the properties of model

nanocomposites. Macromolecules, 41(4):1499 – 1511, 2008.

[8] S. Güryel, M. Walker, P. Geerlings, F. De Profta, and M. R. Wilsonb. Molecular dynamics simulations of the

structure and the morphology of graphene/polymer nanocomposites. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics,

19:12959 – 12969, 2017.

[9] Gao Wei, YU Shouwen, and Huang Ganyun. Finite element characterization of the size-dependent mechani-

cal behaviour in nanosystems. Nanotechnology, 17(4):1118, 2006.

[10] Julien Yvonnet, H Le Quang, and Q-C He. An xfem/level set approach to modelling surface/interface effects

and to computing the size-dependent effective properties of nanocomposites. Computational Mechanics,

42(1):119–131, 2008.

[11] Yu Z Povstenko. Theoretical investigation of phenomena caused by heterogeneous surface tension in solids.

Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 41(9):1499–1514, 1993.

———————————————————————

120 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION AND A SOIL STRUCTURE-INTERACTION ANALYSIS.

David Sebastián Cotes Prieto 1, César Andrés Méndez Poveda2, William Giovanny Alfonso León3, Oscar

Javier Begambre Carrillo4

1

Industrial University of Santander, david.cotes@correo.uis.edu.co

2

Industrial University of Santander, cesar.mendez@correo.uis.edu.co

3

Industrial University of Santander, william.alfonso@correo.uis.edu.co

4 Industrial University of Santander, ojbegam@uis.edu.co

1. Abstract

In current engineering practice in Colombia, footings linked by beams is one of the more employed shallow

foundation systems when the ratio of transferred (from the super-structure to the foundation) flexural moment

and axial load is high. Its broad implementation is due to its capacity to control excessive differential

settlements, soil pressure and uplifting. There are a lot of simplified “traditional” methodologies used for the

analysis of these foundation systems, however more accurate results can be obtained when taking into account

the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI). Often a discouraging “side-effect” of the use of SSI is that wider

dimensions for the elements are usually needed to accomplish minimum structural codes requirements. This

work presents preliminary results of a research project that pretends to encourage the use of SSI in analysis and

design of these kind of foundations by taking advantage of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) ,which has

proven being efficient for solving other structural engineering problems, to minimize the quantity of concrete

for the footings and beams, required to achieve proper differential settlements and soil pressure, and to avoid

uplifting (according to Colombian structural and construction code “NSR-10”). Structural analysis of the

system was done using finite element analysis integrating: (i) elastic springs with stiffness according to the

ballast coefficient to simulate the soil, (ii) the Kirchhoff plates theory for footings modeling and (iii) the Euler-

Bernoulli beams theory for link beams modeling. All the analysis and optimization were done using a self-

made code in Matlab R2017a. The efficiency of the proposed analysis and optimization methodology was

proved using a real-life problem of an already existing foundation. Results showed that the proposed

methodology is a good alternative to reduce the quantity of concrete required in this kind of foundations.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, shallow foundation, soil-structure interaction, finite element method.

2. Methodology

2.1. Structural case

The foundation system proposed for analysis and design is form by two footings linked by a beam. One of the

footings is commonly known as a center footing while the other is an eccentric footing. The solicitations are

modeled in the geometrical center of the footings and consists in an axial load and a flexural moment (that

causes flexure in the beam) for each, these forces are directly transferred from the super-structure to the

foundation system. Additional flexural moment is calculated for the eccentric footing based on the eccentricity

of the transferred force, this condition gives a high ratio of the total flexural moment and the axial force.

Described above is presented in Figure 1.

Kirchhoff plates theory to model footings, and Euler-Bernoulli frames theory to model beams [1], were

employed using the finite element method (FEM) implementing rectangular four-node plate elements for the

footings and linear two-node bar element for the beam [1]. To model soil-structure interaction, linear springs

were used as supports in the nodes [2]. Springs stiffness corresponds to the geotechnical parameter known as

ballast coefficient [3] [4]. The structural model was programed using Matlab R2017a [5]. Results obtained

from the model, needed for the optimization method restrictions, are: (i) maximum soil pressure (Qmax) (related

to springs force), (ii) differential settlement (ds) (between footings), and (iii) maximum displacement (dmax);

this last result is needed to verify if there is or not uplifting in the foundation [6]. Figure 2 illustrates deformed

shape for a foundation system obtained in the Matlab 121 R2017a program.

Figure 1. Foundation system conventions and modeling.

To minimize the quantity of concrete required for the foundation system, particle swarm optimization (PSO)

was implemented [7]. This heuristic method was selected due to its successful use on the optimization of other

structural engineering problems [8]–[10]. The objective function to minimize is the volume of the system as

described in Equation 1 [11].

The function has eight independent variables which describe the footings and beam dimensions and one

dependent variable which is volume. Equation 2 presents the restrictions adopted (described in 2.2) for the

optimization, which are based on structural and geotechnical engineering criteria proposed on the Colombian

structural and construction code “NSR-10” [12]. Minimum and maximum values allowed for the independent

variables were chosen based on NSR-10 recommendations and constructive criteria. To control de velocity of

the method a hybrid between the constriction factor [13] and the inertial weight [14] was used. Figure 3

presents the flow diagram that describes the integration of the structural modeling and the PSO

programed by the authors.

Lcolx

differencial settlement ≤

Restrictions = { 160 (2)

maximum soil pressure ≤ admisible soil pressure

maximum displacement ≤ 0

122

Start

material parameters, loads, iterations number and particle numbers.

Calculate differential settlements, maximum soil pressure and maximum displacement using

FEM.

NoEnd

Are restrictions

satisfied?

Yes

it=1

Calculate differential settlements, maximum soil pressure and maximum displacement using

FEM.

Are restrictions

satisfied?

moves). does not move).

Selection of the best positions (for each particle and for all

the swarm).

it=it+1

it<=maxit

End

Figure 3. Flow diagram that describes the integration of the structural modeling and the PSO.

3. Partial results

Results presented in Table 1 are based on a real case of study, the algorithm was executed three times for three

different values of maximum iterations (maxit=5, 10, 15) maintaining a constant value of swarm particles

(N=10), for a total of nine numerical experiments performed. The movement of the particles can be seen in

Figure 4. It can be noticed the all experiments of maxit=5 resulted in values of the standard deviation high

when compared to maxit=10 and 15, so a higher number of iterations is required to obtain better results,

however as it can be seen in Figure 5 in all cases (for the minimum standard deviation of each set of

experiments) it was possible to obtain lower values for the objective function (volume) compared to the real

case of study results, so minimization process was123achieved.

Table 1. PSO results.

Real maxit=5 maxit=10 maxit=15

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

bx1 [m] 2.000 2.753 1.284 2.904 1.128 1.263 1.193 3.450 1.364 3.200

by1 [m] 2.000 1.681 3.096 1.986 3.205 1.022 1.105 1.445 3.652 1.364

bz1 [m] 0.400 0.474 0.520 0.473 0.449 0.586 0.650 0.503 0.421 0.560

bx2 [m] 1.800 0.763 0.501 1.652 2.908 0.817 1.759 1.369 1.150 1.581

by2 [m] 1.800 1.404 2.352 0.747 0.473 2.713 1.825 0.521 0.589 1.785

bz2 [m] 0.400 0.673 0.687 0.440 0.625 0.582 0.425 0.498 0.532 0.509

hv [m] 0.800 0.363 0.376 0.668 0.365 0.677 0.688 0.432 0.248 0.455

bv [m] 0.500 0.390 0.493 0.676 0.519 0.273 0.265 0.514 0.652 0.346

ds [mm] 2.562 4.006 3.787 2.521 4.446 4.654 3.217 3.437 3.481 3.512

Qmax [kPa] 181.069 183.660 212.117 143.944 238.810 313.712 227.533 173.530 173.224 205.523

dmax [mm] -1.965 -0.586 -1.516 -1.078 -1.524 -3.188 -2.470 -0.902 -0.850 -1.626

ffitness [m]3 3.560 3.432 3.850 4.651 3.286 2.992 3.086 3.455 3.241 3.275

st dev [m] - 0.529 1.151 0.821 0.533 0.046 0.175 0.120 0.798 0.007

3.7

3.6

maxit=10 (st dev=0.046)

Best function [m]3

Real

3.3

3.2

3.1

2.9

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

Iteration

4.

Figure 4. Swarm displacement behavior (maxit=10, std Figure 5. Best function results for minimum standard

dev=0.046 [m]). deviations obtained.

References

[1] E. Onate, Structural Analysis with the Finite Element Method - Linear Statics, vol. 1. 1989.

[2] T. R. S. Mullapudi and A. Ayoub, “Soil Structure Interaction through Two Parameter Foundation,” in Proceedings of

the ASME 2010 29th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, 2016, no. 2002, pp. 1–6.

[3] A. D. Kerr and N. E. Soicher, “A Peculiar Set of Problems in Linear Structural Mechanics,” Int. J. Solids Struct., vol.

33, no. 6, pp. 899–911, 1996.

[4] M. Mesa Lavista, J. Álvarez Pérez, E. Tejeda Piusseaut, and C. A. Recarey Morfa, “Determination of the domain

dimensions in embankment numerical modeling,” Dyna, vol. 83, no. 198, p. 44, 2016.

[5] The Mathworks Inc, “Matlab R2017a.” The Mathworks Inc, Massachusetts, USA, 2017.

[6] G. Gazetas, “4th Ishihara Lecture. Soil-foundation-structure systems beyond conventional seismic failure thresholds,”

Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., pp. 23–29, 2014.

[7] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” Neural Networks, 1995. Proceedings., IEEE Int. Conf., vol.

4, pp. 1942–1948 vol.4, 1995.

[8] S. Talatahari, E. Khalili, and S. M. Alavizadeh, “Accelerated Particle Swarm for Optimum Design of Frame Structures,”

Math. Probl. Eng., vol. 2013, 2013.

[9] P. K. Jena and D. R. Parhi, “A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Crack Detection in Cantilever

Beams,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 3263–3272, 2015.

[10] M. Khajehzadeh, M. R. Taha, A. El-Shafie, and M. Eslami, “Modified particle swarm optimization for optimum design

of spread footing and retaining wall,” J. Zhejiang Univ. A, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 415–427, 2011.

[11] A. Petrowski, J. Dréo, P. Siarry, and E. Taillard, Metaheuristics for Hard Optimization. Berlin-Germany: Springer,

2006.

[12] Comisión asesora permanente para el régimen de construcciones sismo resistentes, Reglamento colombiano de

construcción sismo resistente. NSR-10. Bogotá D.C, 2010.

[13] R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Comparing inertia weights and constriction factors in particle swarm optimization,” Inst.

Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 84–88 vol.1, 2000.

[14] R. Correa, O. Begambre, and J. Carrillo, “Validación de un algoritmo híbrido del PSO con el método simplex y de

topología de evolución paramétrica,” DYNA, pp. 255–265, 2011.

124

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

UNCOUPLED AND COUPLED WITH FLUID

1

University of Brasilia, davidson.francajunior@gmail.com

2

University of Brasilia, lineu@unb.br

1. Introduction

The cylindrical shells are characterized by a curved surface object with a small thickness compared to

their other dimensions, being generally made of solid material. Despite extensive theoretical studies on

vibrations in cylindrical shells, most works are limited to classical boundary conditions: pinned-

pinned, clamped-clamped, and clamped-free. However, it is known that in engineering applications,

the walls of cylindrical shells are generally connected to other structural components (cover, bottom

plate, etc) through various types of connections, in which the idealization of different conditions (Fig.

1) represents a fundamental role in the analysis of these situations in the mathematical and/or

numerical model.

Figure 1: A Diagram of the tank: (a) the cross-section; (b) the transversal section.

Several studies have theoretical analytical, numerical and experimental approaches to the study of

vibrations in cylindrical shells for different boundary conditions, such as [1-7]. In this work, the free

vibrations of an empty, fully filled cylindrical reservoir with an inviscid and incompressible liquid are

studied for various boundary conditions. The reservoir is modeled by a cylindrical shell and the fluid

represented by an acoustic cavity. The analytical solution is based on the variational calculation

through the energy theory implemented in MAPLE software. The fluid is modeled by the wave

equation and the fluid-structure interaction performed by incorporating an additional mass of fluid into

the dynamic equations of motion of the shell. The numerical discretization is done with the finite

element method (MEF) using the software ANSYS. The forced vibration comes from a harmonic

point load in the shell, in which the frequency domain response spectra were investigated for the

decoupled shell with different boundary conditions.

125

2. Analytical Formulation

The cylindrical shell (Fig. 1) is composed of thin walls of length L, median radius R, radial angle φ

and thickness h. The shell material is considered to be elastic with Young's modulus E, Poisson

coefficient v and specific mass ρ. The coordinates of the displacement vector on the surface of the

shell in the axial, circumferential and radial direction are respectively u, v and w. The deformations

and the changes in the curvature of the shell assumed based on the linear theory of Flügge [8]. The

dynamic motion equations can be obtained through the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure through the

Lagrangian function (Γ). The Lagrangian function, the internal energy of deformation and the kinetic

energy of the cylindrical shell, according to [9], is given by:

h

2 2 L

EP =

1

2 ( z z )

+ + z * z dv

h 0 0

−

= Ec máx − E P máx 2

(1)

2 L 2 2 2

Rh u v w

Ec =

2 t + +

t

t

dzd

0 0

where ECMÁX is the maximum kinetic energy of the shell and EPMÁX is the internal energy of the

maximum deformation of the cylindrical shell. Part of the beam modes presented by [10]. When

applying the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure ( A = 0 ; B = 0 ; C = 0 ) in the Lagrangian function, we have

a system of three equations of motion. These equations can be expressed in matrix form, by symmetric

terms, in which for nontrivial solutions, the determinant of the characteristic matrix is defined as zero.

This yields the characteristic polynomial in which the roots characterize the natural frequencies.

Through the analyzed analytical procedure, for a cylindrical shell with boundary condition pinned-

pinned, the coupling is performed by the additional mass of fluid imposed in the shell equation in

terms compounded by the mass of the structure. The expression of the additional mass was developed

by [11] and imposing such a parameter has a hydrodynamic pressure of the transformed fluid in an

additional virtual mass in the shell structure.

3. Numerical Simulation

In the modeling the following properties of the materials were adopted: the steel shell considered to be

made with Young's modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson Coefficient υ=0,29 and specific mass ρe=7760

Kg/m3; the liquid is water with specific mass ρf=1000 Kg/m3 and speed of sound propagation in water

c=1500 m/s. For the geometric properties, were adopted: the cylindrical shell with radius R=0,175 m,

length L = 0.664 m and thickness h = 0.00102 m; the acoustic cavity with radius R = 0,175 m and

length L = 0,664 m. The formulation used was U-P, displacement for structure and pressure for the

fluid.

Figure 2: Numerical models: (a) Uncoupled shell; (b) Uncoupled fluid and (c) Fluid-Structure

interaction.

126

4. Results

The analytical results were compared with the numerical results and are presented in Figure 3. The

study was limited to a low-frequency range (m = 1) and different numbers of circumferential waves.

(a) (b)

Figure 3: Natural frequencies of the mode shape m = 1 for different boundary conditions for (a)

uncoupled shell and (b) coupled with fluid.

Based on Figure 3, it is possible to observe that the analytical and numerical results practically

coincide, validating the analytical technique and numerical modeling in ANSYS®. It is observed that

the lower natural frequencies of the cylindrical shell do not necessarily occur for small values of n,

both for the uncoupled shell and for the shell coupled with fluid, and also, as n increases, natural

frequencies tend to be common values. Such a phenomenon is justified by the fact that when the shell

vibrates in small circumferential modes the energy of membrane extensional deformation

predominates in the total deformation energy of the system. However, as the number of modes n

increases, the flexural deformation energy becomes predominant in the system.

The presence of the fluid reduced the natural frequencies, showing that the mode of additional mass in

which the structure predominates over the fluid is predominant during vibration. From the numerical

modeling validated in the analysis in free vibrations, the harmonic point load was imposed on the

cylindrical shell, P(z,ϕ,t) = 100 sen (ϖt), in the radial direction, at the center of the cylindrical shell

(z=L/2) and for its angle ϕ=00. The excitation frequency (ϖ) of the load was varied from 0 to 2500

rad/s and the damping ratio adopted was equal to two percent (ξ = 2%). Thus, it was possible to obtain

the displacement amplitude curves as a function of this applied excitation frequency.

(a) (b)

127

(c) (d)

(e)

Figure 4: Frequency spectrum for a cylindrical shell for z = L / 2 and ϕ=180º: (a) pinned-pinned, (b)

pinned-free, (c) clamped-clamped, (d) clamped-free e (e) clamped-pinned.

Based on the frequency spectra shown, it can be concluded that the peaks of the curves with the

displacement amplitudes occur at applied frequencies approximately equal to the first natural

frequencies at which the shell is excited. This is observed for all boundary conditions, where the

difference between the applied and the natural frequency did not exceed 3%. As can be analyzed, the

largest amplitudes were identified both in the radial (w) direction of the shell and in the

circumferential direction, showing that for forced vibrations the circumferential displacement becomes

important in the analysis.

5. Conclusions

With the numerical modeling, it was possible to analyze the effect of the fluid-structure coupling

through the identification of the dominant modes of the system. This fact was fundamental to observe

that even having influence in the dynamic behavior, the different bindings produce typical

characteristic modes of the structure. In general, both for the decoupled and coupled fluid-structure

problem it can be concluded that the boundary conditions with one or both free edges cause the lower

frequencies, i.e. it is clear that a reduction of system rigidity occurs and consequently a decrease in

natural frequencies. By imposing the harmonic point load on the decoupled cylindrical shell, it was

possible to show the way of obtaining the operational modes, since the analytical treatment in these

situations is more complex.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the University of Brasília (UNB), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher

Education Personnel (CAPES) and the Foundation for Research Support of the Federal District (FAP-

DF) for the resources received.

128

References

[1] Kurylov Y. & Amabili M. (2010). Polynomial versus trigonometric expansions for non linear

vibrations of circular cylindrical shells with diferente boundary conditions. In: Journal Sound and

Vibration; 329 (9): 1435–49.

[2] Qu Y.; Hua H. & Meng G.; (2013). A domain decomposition approach for vibration analysis of

isotropic and composite cylindrical shells with arbitrary boundaries. In: Journal Composite

Structures. 95 (2013) pp. 307-321.

[3] Mendes, N. B., Pedroso, L. J. & Ribeiro, P. M. V., (2014). Um estudo de vibrações livres

acopladas em cascas cilíndricas com anéis enrijecedores e contendo fluido. CILAMCE 2014 –

XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, Fortaleza, CE,

Brasil, 19 p.

[4] Ma X., Jin G., Xiong Y. & Liu Z. (2014). Free and forced vibration analysis of coupled conical-

cylindrical shells with arbitrary boundary conditions. International Journal Mechanical Sciences;

88:122–37.

[5] Tang D., Yao X., Wu G. & Peng Y. (2017). Free and forced vibration analysis of multi-stepped

circular cylindrical shells with arbitrary boundary conditions by the method of reverberation-ray

matrix. In: Journal Thin-Walled Structures. 116 (2017) 154-168.

[6] França Jr, D. O., Pedroso, L. J. & Mendes, N. B., (2017). Estudo de Vibrações Livres

Desacopladas e Acopladas Fluido-Estrutura em Cascas Cilíndricas para Diferentes Condições de

Contorno. CILAMCE 2018 – XXXVIII Iberian Latin American Congress on Computational Methods

in Engineering, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, 20 p.

[7] Li, H; Luo, H.; Wei S. & Wen B.; (2018). The Influence of Elastic Boundary on Modal Parameters

of Thin Cylindrical Shell. International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, Vol. 23, pp. 93–105.

[8] Flugge, W., (1934). Statik und Dynamic der Schalen. Berlin, Julius Springer.

[9] Brush, D. O.; Almroth, B. O.; (1975). Buckling of Bars, Plates, and Shells. New York: McGraw-

Hill. 379 p.

[10] Blevins, R. D., (1979). Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape. First Edition, Van

Nostrand Renhoid Company, New York, United States.

[11] Lindholm, U. S., Kana, D. D. & Abramson, H. N. (1962). Breathing vibrations of a circular

cylindrical shell with an internal liquid. In: Journal Aerospace Science. 29, 1052-1059.

129

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

CYLINDRICAL TANKS UNDER FREE VIBRATIONS

1

University of Brasilia, davidson.francajunior@gmail.com

2

University of Brasilia, lineu@unb.br

1. Introduction

The dynamic structural analysis of cylindrical shells is considerably complex due to the fact that they

have flexural and extensional vibrations together. In this sense, a shell has three deformed modalities:

the deformed axial (u), circumferential (v) and radial (w). According to [1], because they have higher

displacement amplitudes, the radial deformations produce the lower natural frequencies for a cylindrical

shell. This fact directly influences the coupled analysis, since to perform the fluid-structure interaction

the modal deformed of the tank with fluid are assumed the same as in the vacuum.

The study of vibrations in cylindrical shells over the years, and still does today, following the classic

works of [2-5], among other various theories that have been improved over time. From this, several

works bring theoretical analytical and numerical approaches to the fluid-structure coupling, in which we

can mention some works that couple the fluid as a virtual mass in the shell equations only in the radial

modal deformed direction, such as: [6-10]. In this work, the free vibrations of a cylindrical tank totally

filled with an incompressible and incompressible liquid are studied, for different forms of mass coupling

between fluid and structure. The tank is modeled by a cylindrical shell and fluid-structure interaction is

accomplished by incorporating a virtual additional mass into the shell equations in seven different ways:

coupled mass in the axial, circumferential and radial deformed as well as the combinations between

them. The analyzed analytical methodology is based on the energetic formulation implemented in

MAPLE software. For the validation of the procedure, the results were compared with the values

obtained in the experiment performed by [9].

2. Analytical Formulation

2.1 Cylindrical Shell

The cylindrical shell (Fig. 1) is composed of thin walls of length L, median radius R, radial angle ϕ and

thickness h. The shell material is considered to have Young's modulus E, coefficient of Poisson v and

specific mass ρ. The coordinates of the displacement vector on the surface of the shell in the axial,

circumferential and radial direction are respectively u, v and w. The deformations and the changes in the

curvature of the shell assumed on the basis of the linear theory of [4].

130

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of tank: (a) Coordinate system and geometry of cylindrical shell (b) the

cross-section; (c) fluid-structure interaction by additional mass of fluid.

The dynamic equations of motion can be obtained through the Ritz procedure through the Lagrangian

function, given by:

= Ec máx − E P máx (1)

where ECMÁX is the maximum kinetic energy of the shell and EPMÁX is the internal energy of the maximum

deformation of the cylindrical shell. The internal energy of deformation and the kinetic energy of the

cylindrical shell, according to [11], is given by:

h

2 2 L

EP =

1

2 ( z z + + z * z dv ) (2)

h 0 0

−

2

2 L 2 2 2

Rh u v w

Ec =

2 t + t + t dzd

(3)

0 0

Since A, B and C are constants that expose the amplitude of the axial, circumferential and radial

displacements, respectively. The number of longitudinal half-waves is m and the number of

circumferential waves is n. The plot ϕm(z)represents the longitudinal displacements of the shell. In the

proposed method, a beam with pinned-pinned boundary condition presented by [12]. Applying the Ritz

procedure in the Lagrangian function ( A = 0 ; B = 0 ; C = 0 ), we have a system of three equations

of motion. These equations can be expressed in matrix form, expressed by symmetric terms, and are

given by:

C

21 C22 C23 B = 0 (4)

C31 C32 C33

C

For non-trivial solutions, the determinant of the characteristic matrix is defined as zero. This yields the

characteristic polynomial in which the roots characterize the natural frequencies. Through the

implementation on the software MAPLE, it is possible to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the

uncoupled shell.

Through the analyzed analytical procedure, for a cylindrical shell with pinned-pinned boundary

condition, the coupling is performed by the additional mass of fluid imposed on the shell equation in

terms compounded by the mass of the structure. The expression of the additional mass was developed

by [13] and is given by:

131

2mH

sen

f R H L J n (i )

=

−

h L (5)

2m R J n (i )

'

=

r R

Since ζ is the virtual additional mass expression, ρf is the density of the acoustic fluid and J'n is the

derivative of the Bessel functions. By imposing such a parameter there is a hydrodynamic pressure of

the transformed fluid in an additional virtual mass in the shell structure. Mass couplings were studied in

the following way:

𝐶11 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶12 𝐶13 𝐶11 𝐶12 𝐶13 𝐶11 𝐶12 𝐶13

[ 𝐶21 𝐶22 𝐶23 ] [𝐶21 𝐶22 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶23 ] 𝐶

[ 21 𝐶22 𝐶23 ]

⏟ 𝐶31 𝐶32 𝐶33 ⏟𝐶31 𝐶32 𝐶33 ⏟𝐶31 𝐶32 𝐶33 + 𝜁𝜔2

CASE A CASE B CASE C

𝐶11 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶12 𝐶13 𝐶11 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶12 𝐶13 𝐶11 𝐶12 𝐶13

[ 𝐶21 𝐶22 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶23 ] [ 𝐶21 𝐶22 𝐶23 ] [𝐶21 𝐶22 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶23 ]

𝐶33 + 𝜁𝜔 2 𝐶33 + 𝜁𝜔2 (6)

⏟ 𝐶31 𝐶32 𝐶33 ⏟ 𝐶31 𝐶32 ⏟𝐶31 𝐶32

CASE D CASE E CASE F

[ 𝐶21 𝐶22 + 𝜁𝜔2 𝐶23 ]

⏟ 𝐶31 𝐶32 𝐶33 + 𝜁𝜔2

CASE G

In the modeling, the following properties of the materials were adopted: the steel shell with Young's

modulus E=200 GPa, Poisson ratio υ=0,29 and specific mass ρe=7760 Kg/m3; the liquid is water with

specific mass ρf=1000 Kg/m3 and velocity of sound propagation in water c=1500 m/s. Regarding the

geometric properties, the following was adopted: the cylindrical shell with radius R=0,175 m, length

L=0,664 m and thickness h=0,00102 m; the acoustic cavity with radius R=0,175 m and length L=0,664

m.

The formulation implemented on the software MAPLE is analogous to the uncoupled problem, where

the characteristic matrix determinant is defined as zero. With this, the roots of the characteristic

polynomial, in this case, represent the coupled natural frequencies.

4. Results

The analytical results obtained were compared with the experimental results and are presented in Table

1. The N index is the order of the frequencies, m is the longitudinal mode shape number and n is the

number of circumferential waves.

Table 1 – Comparisons of natural frequencies (Hz) the cylindrical shell coupled with fluid.

Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff.

N m n Ref [9] Case A Case B Case C Case D Case E Case F Case G

(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1 1 4 92,00 220,37 139,53 199,58 116,93 103,28 12,26 198,94 116,24 103,19 12,16 100,80 9,57 100,71 9,47

2 1 5 104,00 230,13 121,28 217,84 109,46 116,12 11,65 217,56 109,19 116,08 11,62 114,40 10,00 114,36 9,96

3 1 3 119,00 311,53 161,79 256,05 115,17 134,03 12,63 253,74 113,23 133,69 12,34 128,15 7,69 127,86 7,45

4 1 6 147,00 297,80 102,59 288,13 96,01 159,74 8,67 287,96 95,89 159,71 8,65 158,17 7,60 158,14 7,58

5 1 7 206,00 396,05 92,26 387,71 88,21 223,51 8,50 387,60 88,16 223,49 8,49 221,96 7,75 221,94 7,74

Based on Table 1 it is possible to observe that the additional mass can increase the inertial load of the

shell in the axial, circumferential and radial direction, and among their combinations. The shell

displacements are larger in the radial direction, but incorporating the additional mass of the axial,

132

circumferential and radial direction (Case G) brings more realistic results, since, even if small, the

viscous tension of the fluid in these directions also influences the phenomenon physical vibration. It

should be noted that cases C, E, and F also produced good results, but cases A, B and D do not simulate

adequately and cannot be used. In this way, Case G can be recommended to perform the fluid-structure

coupling.

5. Conclusions

This work addressed the aspects of fluid-structure interaction in problems applied in the dynamic

analysis in vertical cylindrical tanks. The influence of the way of incorporating the additional mass of

fluid in the shell has become clear and must be taken with care since it has been found that the error

between the analytical and experimental results differ based on this parameter. The procedure of

coupling the fluid in the three deformed shells (u, v and w) can be used to analyze the tank in different

modes of vibration by producing results very close to the experimental result.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the University of Brasília (UNB), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher

Education Personnel (CAPES) and the Foundation for Research Support of the Federal District (FAP-

DF) for the resources received.

References

[1] Soedel, W., (2005). Vibrations of Shells and Plates. Third Edition, Marcel Dekkler, New York,

United States.

[2] Love, A. E. H., (1888). The small free vibrations of a thin elastic shell. International Phil. Trans.

Roy. Soc., pp. 491–549.

[3] Donnell, L. H., (1933). Stability oh thin walled tubes under torsion. Inc. NACA Report, No 479.

[4] Flugge, W., (1934). Statik und Dynamic der Schalen. Berlin, Julius Springer.

[5] Mushtari, K. M., (1938). On the stability of cylindrical shells subject to torsion. International

Trudy Kaz. Avais, Russian.

[6] Lakis, A. A. & Paidoussis, M. P., (1971). Free vibration of cylindrical shells partially filled with

liquid. International Journal of Sound and Vibration, pp. 1–15.

[7] Gonçalves, P. B. & Batista, R. C., (1986). Frequency Response of Cylindrical Shells Partially

Submerge dor Filled with Liquid. In: Journal of Sound and Vibration. DOI: 0022-460X/87/040059+12.

[8] Fernholz, C. M, Robinson, J. H., (1990). Fully-Coupled Fluid/Structure Vibration Analysis Using

MSC/NASTRAN. NASA technical memorandum 102857.

[9] Amabili, M. & G. Dalpiaz; (1995). Breathing Vibrations of a horizontal circular cylindrical tank

shells, partially filled with liquid. International Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, pp. 117–187.

[10] França Jr, D. O., Pedroso, L. J. & Mendes, N. B., (2017). Estudo de Vibrações Livres Desacopladas

e Acopladas Fluido-Estrutura em Cascas Cilíndricas para Diferentes Condições de Contorno.

CILAMCE 2018 – XXXVIII Iberian Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in

Engineering, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, 20 p.

[11] Brush, D. O.; Almroth, B. O.; (1975). Buckling of Bars, Plates, and Shells. New York: McGraw-

Hill. 379 p.

[12] Blevins, R. D., (1979). Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape. First Edition, Van

Nostrand Renhoid Company, New York, United States.

[13] Lindholm, U. S., Kana, D. D. & Abramson, H. N. (1962). Breathing vibrations of a circular

cylindrical shell with an internal liquid. In: Journal Aerospace Science. 29, 1052-1059.

133

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

AGE

1 Laboratoire Roberval, FRE UTC-CNRS 2012, delphine.brancherie@utc.fr

This work deals with a modeling tool aiming at describing, without mesh dependency, ductile failure

phenomena. The non linear behavior of ductile materials can be decomposed into two phases precursor

to failure: the pre-peak phase in which plasticity and damage are evolving in the bulk, and the softening

post-peak phase in which strain localization occurs and leads to a macro-crack growth responsible for

the failure of the structure. This second phase is responsible for the mesh-dependency observed numer-

ically when dealing with such softening materials. Many authors have proposed localization limiters::

non-local techniques [11, 8], rate-dependency regularization [9, 10] or mesh size depending softening

parameters [4, 1], to cite only a few of them.

In this work, we present the extension of the strong discontinuity approach as a localization lim-

iter to the regularization of a coupled damage-plasticity version of Lemaitre’s phenomenological model

[7]. The proposed extension of the strong discontinuity approach (also called embedded discontinuity

approach) takes into account the two phases of the nonlinear behavior of the considered material. The

pre-peak phase, characterized by the evolution of plasticity and damage in the bulk, is described through

the use of classical continuum models. The second phase of the behavior, characterized by the coales-

cence of micro-cracks and development of macro-cracks, is described by the introduction of a surface

of discontinuity of the displacement field. A traction-displacement jump relation is considered on the

interface to represent the localized dissipation occuring due the development of macro-cracks. The reg-

ularization properties of the strong discontinuity approach has to be attributed to the introduction of the

interface and the related surfacic dissipation.

The Finite Element implementation of the method is based on the use of the incompatible modes

method [6]. It has proven its regularizing effect in the case of brittle materials [2]. In this work, we

intend to attest its regularizing effects in the ductile fracture framework by considering both plane strain

and axisymmetric test problems. We investigate, in particular, the influence of the criterion for the

introduction of the displacement discontinuity.

Moreover, the key points of the extension of the strong discontinuity approach to the framework of

finite strain will be presented and discussed.

Several numerical examples will be presented to assess the regularizing capabilities of the approach

as well as its efficiency in reproducing the crack path observed experimentally.

References

[1] Barenblatt, G.I., The mathematical theory of equilibrium crack in the brittle failure. Advances in Applied

Mechanics, Vol.7, 55–125, 1962.

[2] Brancherie, D., Ibrahimbegovic, A.. Novel anisotropic continuum-discrete damage model capable of repre-

senting localized failure of massive structures. Part I : theoretical formulation and numerical implementation.

Journal of Engineering Computations, Vol. 26, 100–127, 2009.

[3] de Souza Neto, E.A.. A fast, one-equation integration algorithm for the Lemaitre ductile damage model.

Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 18, 541–554,2002.

[4] Dugdale, D.S., Yielding of steel sheets containing slits. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics and Solids,

Vol. 8, 100–104, 1960.

134 1

[5] Dujc, J., Brank, B., Ibrahimbegovic, A.. Quadrilateral finite element with embedded strong discontinuity for

failure analysis of solids. Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, Vol. 69, 223–258, 2011.

[6] Ibrahimbegovic, A., Wilson, E.L.. A modified method of incompatible modes. Communications in Applied

Numerical Methods, Vol. 7, 187–194,1991.

[7] Lemaitre, J., Chaboche, J.L., Mechanics of Solid Materials. University Press: Cambridge, 1990.

[8] Mulhaus, H.B., Aïfantis, E.C., A variational principle for gradient plasticity. International Journal of Solids

and Structures, Vol. 28, 845-857, 1991.

[9] Needleman, A., Material rate dependence and mesh sensitivity in localization problems. Computer Methods

in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 63, 69–85, 1988.

[10] Niazi, M.S., Wisselink, H.H., Meinders, T., Viscoplastic regularization of local damage models: revisited.

Computational Mechanics, Vol. 51, 203–216, 2013.

[11] Pijaudier-Cabot, G., Bažant, Z.P., Non-local damage theory. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol.

113, 1512-1533, 1987.

135 2

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

12-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

FOR QUANTITATIVE IMAGING OF BONES IN THE VISCOELASTIC CASE

Dimitri Komatitsch1 , Simon Bernard1 , Vadim Monteiller1 , Philippe Lasaygues1 and Régine Guillermin1

1 Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Centrale Marseille, LMA, Marseille, France, komatitsch@lma.cnrs-mrs.fr

We introduce an ultrasonic quantitative imaging method for long bones based on full-waveform in-

version. The cost function is defined as the difference in the L2 -norm sense between observed data and

synthetic results at a given iteration of the iterative inversion process. We use a full-wave viscoelastic

implementation, but in order to reduce the computational cost we resort to a two-dimensional approxi-

mation. The inverse problem is solved iteratively based on a quasi-Newton technique called the Limited-

memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method. We show how the technique can be made to work

well for benchmark models consisting of a single cylinder, and then five cylinders, the latter case includ-

ing significant multiple diffraction effects. We then show pictures obtained for a tibia-fibula bone pair

model. Convergence is fast, typically in 15 to 30 iterations in practice in each frequency band used. We

discuss the so-called ‘cycle skipping’ effect that can occur in such full waveform inversion techniques

and make them remain trapped in a local minimum of the cost function. We illustrate strategies that can

be used in practice to avoid this, as also demonstrated in [1] in the simpler acoustic case only. Future

work should include real data instead of synthetic ones only.

The main idea behind our work from a medical tomography point of view is that bone strength is re-

lated to bone mass, geometry, architecture, and composition [2]. In particular, recent studies have shown

that the thickness and porosity of the cortical bone layer plays a major role in bone resistance to fracture

at various sites such as the hip, radius and vertebrae [3, 4, 5, 6]. Bone diseases such as osteoporosis

affect bone remodeling, which results in increased cortical bone porosity and reduced cortical thickness,

and therefore in an increased risk of fracture. Osteoporotic fractures cause substantial suffering to the

patient, have a high mortality rate, and are an increasing source of burden in aging societies [7].

Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed from dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most

commonly-used predictor of bone fracture risk [7]. DXA-measured BMD correlates to fracture risk, but

has a limited predictive power [8]. This comes from the fact that DXA measures bone mineral quan-

tity but ignores other relevant parameters related to bone geometry and mechanical properties. Higher-

resolution methods such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)

and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) can provide detailed images of bone ge-

ometry and architecture [9] but are of limited clinical use because of high costs, irradiation, or long

acquisition time.

Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) techniques have been developed as an alternative to X-ray methods

for bone quality assessment [10, 11]. Ultrasounds can indeed provide information on bone mechanical

parameters through the measurement of the speed of sound and/or of attenuation, as well as geometrical

information. They are non-ionizing and low cost, two considerable advantages over X rays. While QUS

methods have originally focused on trabecular bone assessment, they have recently been extended to

cortical bone measurements [12]. Most notably, model-based approaches relying on guided ultrasound

wave propagation in the cortical shell of long bones have yielded promising results for instance for

thickness measurements of the radius bone [13].

Ultrasonic Computed Tomography (USCT) has been proposed as a tool to provide quantitative im-

ages of the speed of sound in the cross-section of long bones with millimetric resolution [14], allowing

for accurate assessment of cortical thickness. The main difficulty of bone USCT is the large impedance

136 1

Figure 1: Result of FWI for wave velocity (a) and mass density (b) for a realistic tibia-fibula bone pair

model. The insert shows the true geometry. The actual velocity values are 2800 m.s−1 for bone and 1500

m.s−1 for the surrounding media, while the density values are 1800 kg.m−3 for bone and 1000 kg.m−3

for the surrounding media. It can be observed that, while the velocity map is correctly estimated, the

estimation of density is difficult.

contrast between hard bones and the surrounding soft tissues. In that context, ray-based and first-order

Born or Rytov approximation methods commonly used in USCT of soft tissues [15, 16] do not provide

quantitative images, except in the case of specific but time-consuming algorithms such as Compound

USCT [17]. Iterative approaches based on high-order approximations have been proposed to address the

nonlinear inverse problem for high-contrast targets [18, 19]. Lasaygues et al. [14] applied one of such

iterative methods, called distorted Born diffraction tomography (DBDT), to bone-mimicking phantoms

and obtained fairly accurate estimates of their geometry, with a relative error on their size of about 5%,

as well as of their wave speed, with a relative error of about 10%. Recently, a Born-based inversion

method was proposed to image the internal structure of long bones from reflection data acquired in an

axial configuration [20], but no quantitative assessment of the wave speed was obtained.

References

[1] Simon Bernard, Vadim Monteiller, Dimitri Komatitsch, and Philippe Lasaygues. Ultrasonic computed to-

mography based on full-waveform inversion for bone quantitative imaging. Physics in Medicine and Biology,

62(17):7011–7035, 2017.

[2] C. J. Hernandez and T. M. Keaveny. A biomechanical perspective on bone quality. Bone, 39(6):1173–1181,

2006.

[3] Gerold Holzer, Gobert von Skrbensky, Lukas A. Holzer, and Wolfgang Pichl. Hip fractures and the contri-

bution of cortical versus trabecular bone to femoral neck strength. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research,

24(3):468–474, 2009.

[4] Roger M. D. Zebaze, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Ann Bohte, Sandra Iuliano-Burns, Michiko Mirams, Roger Ian

Price, Eleanor J. Mackie, and Ego Seeman. Intracortical remodelling and porosity in the distal radius and

post-mortem femurs of women: a cross-sectional study. Lancet, 375(9727):1729–1736, 2010.

[5] Jean-Paul Roux, Julien Wegrzyn, Monique E. Arlot, Olivier Guyen, Pierre D. Delmas, Roland Chapurlat, and

Mary L. Bouxsein. Contribution of trabecular and cortical components to biomechanical behavior of human

vertebrae: an ex vivo study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25(2):356–361, 2010.

[6] Yohann Bala, Roger Zebaze, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Sandra Iuliano, James M Peterson,

Shreyasee Amin, Åshild Bjørnerem, L Joseph Melton, Helena Johansson, John A Kanis, Sundeep Khosla,

137 2

and Ego Seeman. Cortical porosity identifies women with osteopenia at increased risk for forearm fractures.

Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 29(6):1356–1362, 2014.

[7] O. Ström, F. Borgström, John A. Kanis, Juliet Compston, Cyrus Cooper, Eugene V. McCloskey, and Bengt

Jönsson. Osteoporosis: burden, health care provision and opportunities in the EU. Arch. Osteoporos., 6:59–

155, 2011.

[8] S. C. E Schuit, M van der Klift, A. E. A. M Weel, C. E. D. H de Laet, H. Burger, E. Seeman, A. Hofman,

A. G Uitterlinden, J. P. T. M van Leeuwen, and H. A. P Pols. Fracture incidence and association with bone

mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam study. Bone, 1(34):195–202, 2004.

[9] Eve Donnelly. Methods for assessing bone quality: a review. Clin. Orthop., 469(8):2128–2138, 2011.

[10] Pascal Laugier. Instrumentation for in vivo ultrasonic characterization of bone strength. IEEE Transactions

on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 55(6):1179–1196, 2008.

[11] Pascal Laugier and Guillaume Haïat. Bone Quantitative Ultrasound. Springer Netherlands, 2011.

[12] Kay Raum, Quentin Grimal, Peter Varga, Reinhard Barkmann, Claus C. Glüer, and Pascal Laugier. Ultra-

sound to assess bone quality. Curr. Osteoporos. Rep., 12(2):154–162, 2014.

[13] Quentin Vallet, Nicolas Bochud, Christine Chappard, Pascal Laugier, and Jean-Gabriel Minonzio. In vivo

characterization of cortical bone using guided waves measured by axial transmission. IEEE Transactions on

Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 63(9):1361–1371, 2016.

[14] Philippe Lasaygues, Régine Guillermin, and Jean-Pierre Lefebvre. Ultrasonic computed tomography. In Pas-

cal Laugier and Guillaume Haïat, editors, Bone Quantitative Ultrasound, pages 441–459. Springer Nether-

lands, 2010.

[15] Cuiping Li, Nebojsa Duric, Peter Littrup, and Lianjie Huang. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with

ultrasound tomography. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 10(10):1615–1628, 2009.

[16] Roberto J. Lavarello and Andrew J. Hesford. Methods for forward and inverse scattering in ultrasound

tomography. In Jonathan Mamou and Michael L. Oelze, editors, Quantitative Ultrasound in Soft Tissues,

pages 345–394. Springer Netherlands, 2013.

[17] Philippe Lasaygues, Edgard Ouedraogo, Jean-Pierre Lefebvre, Marcel Gindre, Marilyne Talmant, and Pas-

cal Laugier. Progress towards in vitro quantitative imaging of human femur using compound quantitative

ultrasonic tomography. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 50(11):2633, 2005.

[18] C. Lu, J. Lin, W. Chew, and G. Otto. Image reconstruction with acoustic measurement using distorted Born

iteration method. Ultrason. Imaging, 18(2):140–156, 1996.

[19] Régine Guillermin, Philippe Lasaygues, Guy Rabau, and Jean-Pierre Lefebvre. Quantitative non-linear ul-

trasonic imaging of targets with significant acoustic impedance contrast - An experimental study. J. Acoust.

Soc. Am., 134(2):1001–1010, 2013.

[20] Rui Zheng, Lawrence H. Le, Mauricio D. Sacchi, and Edmond Lou. Imaging internal structure of long bones

using wave scattering theory. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 41(11):2955–2965, 2015.

138 3

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

STEEL DECK

Geraldo Donizetti de Paula2,

Rovadávia Aline de Jesus Ribas3

1

Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, djemersonmateus@yahoo.com.br

2

Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, gdepaula9@gmail.com

3

Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, roviaaline@gmail.com

RESUMO

O sistema misto de laje com forma incorporada steel deck é muito utilizado no Brasil. No entanto em

outros países aplicam-se outros sistemas de construção. Neste artigo faz-se um estudo comparativo do

sistema Slim Floor com o sistema misto convencional. O sistema Slim Floor é caracterizado por

proporcionar ganho na espessura final do pavimento, pois as vigas se encontram incorporadas a laje.

Assim, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento dessa outra técnica no país. Ao aplicar a

metodologia do sistema Slim Floor, em comparação com o steel deck, conseguiu-se uma redução de

45% na espessuara do pavimento tomado como referência.

ABSTRACT:

The mixed slab system with built-in steel deck is widely used in Brazil. However in other countries

other construction systems are applied. In this article we make a comparative study of the Slim Floor

system with the conventional mixed system. The Slim Floor system is characterized by a gain in the

final thickness of the floor, since the beams are incorporated in slab. Thus, this work aims to

contribute to the knowledge of this other technique in the country. When applying the methodology of

the Slim Floor system, in comparison with the steel deck, a reduction of 45% in pavement thickness

was obtained as reference.

139

1- INTRODUÇÃO

O sistema misto de laje com forma incorporada steel deck vem sendo muito aplicado no Brasil. Em

outros países aplicam-se ainda outros sistemas de construção, dentre eles o sistema conhecido como

Slim Floor, no qual a mesa inferior é mais larga que a superior, podendo a laje se apoiar nessa mesa

(Figura 1). Esse perfil é obtido ao se cortar um perfil I ou H longitudinalmente e a posterior soldagem

de uma chapa de aço, mais larga que a mesa original. No entanto, a atual norma brasileira de estruturas

de aço, a NBR 8800 [1], não contempla esse tipo de dimensionamento, que é pouco conhecido por

profissionais da área [2]. Neste artigo é focada a aplicação das vigas mistas incorporadas tipo Slim

Floor ou Pavimentos Mistos de Pequena Espessura, fazendo-se um estudo comparativo do sistema

sistema Slim Floor com o sistema misto convencional em steel deck. Para o dimensionamento do

sistema Slim Floor foi utilizado o software CoSFB® [3].

2- DESCRIÇÃO DO PROBLEMA

Para o estudo, utilizou-se uma estrutura de uma edificação localizada na cidade de Ouro Branco-MG,

que será um parte de um Instituto Federal. Na Figura 2, tem-se um detalhe do projeto que mostra a

viga em estudo. Essa viga é formada por um perfil W530x66, resultando em um sistema laje mais viga

com uma altura total de 675 mm (Figura 3).

A sobrecarga para o dimensionamento do sistema steel deck é de 3 kN/m², para salas de aula,

conforme a NBR 6120 [4]. Há também o peso do revestimento em granilite, que representa uma carga

permanente de 0,2 kN/m², considerando-se uma espessura de 10 mm. As cargas referentes ao peso

próprio do sistema estrutural utilizado não foram discriminadas, pois é apresentado apenas o resultado

do cálculo em steel deck, ou seja, a espessura final do pavimento, que consiste da viga mais a laje.

140

3- DIMENSIONAMENTO DO PAVIMENTO SLIM FLOOR

Para o dimensionamento, em atendimento às normas NBR 6118 [6] e NBR 8800 [1], do pavimento

Slim Floor, foram utilizadas as mesmas cargas citadas anteriormente, ou seja, carga permanente

devido ao granilite de 0,2 kN/m² e a sobrecarga de utilização referente a uma sala de aula de 3 kN/m².

Nesse processo é considerado um perfil tipo IFB tipo A, em que a carga permanente referente ao peso

do perfil é somente a metade de seu peso próprio, pois ele é utilizado cortado ao meio. O peso da

chapa soldada ao perfil e o peso do concreto da vigota pré-moldada e da capa de concreto são

calculados pelo próprio programa CoSFB® [3].

Ao efetuar o dimensionamento, têm que ser consideradas duas etapas importantes: a primeira, em que

o concreto está fresco, nesse caso só a viga atua na resistência do pavimento, e a segunda, em que o

concreto já está curado, atuando todo o sistema em conjunto [7, 8].

No primeiro caso, no qual é feita a verificação no estado limite último, em que só a viga resiste aos

esforços solicitantes, o Eurocode 4 [9] usa para essa verificação, o fator de segurança de 1,35 para a

carga permanente do sistema estrutural. A sobrecarga não é considerada nessa etapa, pois não há

nenhuma sobrecarga atuando na laje nesse momento. A carga que atua, então, é a soma do peso

próprio da viga e do peso próprio da laje de concreto (pré-laje mais a capa), resultando em uma

espessura de 375 mm, no caso em estudo. O peso total do sistema Slim Floor, considerando a laje

mais a viga escolhida – que foi um perfil HE 550 A – e a placa soldada na parte inferior, representa

uma carga permanente de 9,84 kN/m². Como as vigas estão espaçadas de 3 m, isso resulta em uma

carga distribuída de 29,52 kN/m. Levando em consideração que o sistema estrutural é composto por

vigas bi apoiadas e um fator de segurança de 1,35, chega-se a um momento solicitante no meio do vão

de 435,54 kNm. Na Tabela 1 mostram-se esses valores obtidos no software CoSFB® [3].

Carga na laje 9,84 kN/m²

Carga Distribuída Posição inicial (x=0) Posição Final (9,35)

na viga 29,52 kN/m 29,52 kN/m

Nessa etapa, a viga resiste sozinha a um momento de 837,24 kNm, o que resulta em segurança

estrutural em relação ao momento fletor atuante, e na Tabela 2 mostram-se os valores desses

momentos obtidos no software CoSFB® [3].

Posição X(m) Med (KNm) Mrd (KNm)

4,67 435,54 837,27

O esforço cortante atuante na viga é de 186,33 kN, enquanto ela resiste a 833,77 kN, resultando,

também, em segurança estrutural ao sistema nessa fase inicial de construção. Na Tabela 3 tem-se o

valor do esforço cortante resistente.

(kN) 833,77

Foi feita a análise para verificar se a quantidade de conectores stud bolts utilizada seria o suficiente

para haver interação entre a laje e a viga, tendo-se aplicadas duas linhas de conectores espaçados de

170 mm. Para que haja interação parcial entre os dois elementos, teria que se ter uma interação mínima

141

de 0,60. A interação existente foi de 0,83, na qual o valor do esforço horizontal de cálculo foi de

3477,03 kN e a força resistente do conector de 2897,67 kN, conforme mostra-se na Tabela 4.

x(m) Ncd(kN) Nstuds(kN) η ηmín OK

4,68 3477,03 2897,67 0,83 0,6

A seguir, foi feita a análise do sistema trabalhando em conjunto, em que a laje e a viga resistem

conjuntamente aos esforços solicitantes. Além do peso próprio do sistema, tem-se a sobrecarga

atuando, de 3 kN/m², referente a uma sala de aula [4]. O Eurocode 4 [9] considera, para o estado

limite último, a combinação de cargas com os fatores de segurança de 1,35 para o peso próprio e 1,5

para a sobrecarga. Com esses coeficientes, tem-se uma carga distribuída de 53,35 kN/m. Isso resulta

em um momento solicitante de 582,83 kNm e um esforço cortante de 249,44 kN, enquanto os esforços

resistidos pela interação entre a viga e a laje são de 1347,09 kNm e 833,77 kN, respectivamente,

conforme mostra-se na Tabela 5. O sistema, do ponto de vista estrutural, considerando o ELU, mostra-

se bastante seguro, mas deve-se verificar o ELS.

Tabela 5 – Momento e esforço cortante resistentes e solicitantes com interação laje e viga

Med= 582,83 kNm 1347,09 kNm (Mpl, red.) OK

Ved= 249,44kN 833,77 kN (Vpl,rd) OK

Segundo Barros [7], os parâmetros para verificação da flecha em estruturas do tipo Slim Floor, são

diferentes das estruturas convencionais, sendo permitida uma flecha de L/200. A norma NBR 8800 [1]

prevê uma flecha admissível de L/350 para pisos. Como o trabalho segue normas europeias, foi

admitida a flecha de L/200, que resultou em uma flecha admissível de 4,68 cm. Na verificação nesse

estudo, foi encontrada uma flecha inicial de 4,53 cm e uma final de 4,75 cm (valores muito próximos

ao limite de 4,68 cm - L/200).

5- CONCLUSÕES

375 mm, uma redução de 300 mm, que representa 45% da altura do pavimento convencional.

Devido à flecha excessiva, teve-se que utilizar um perfil de dimensões maiores, o que resultou em uma

folga considerável no tocante ao momento fletor e esforço cortante. Para o momento fletor, o momento

final resistido pelo sistema Slim Floor foi de 1347,09 kNm, enquanto o momento solicitante foi de

582,83 kNm, ou seja, 2,3 vezes maior que o necessário.

Para o esforço cortante ocorreu a mesma condição, na qual o esforço que o sistema resiste é de

833,77 kN, e o atuante foi de 249,44 kN, ou seja, o sistema Slim Floor resiste a um esforço cortante

3,3 vezes maior que o necessário. Então, para se atender a limitação da flecha, foi necessário aumentar

a espessura do pavimento, fazendo com que a viga ficasse com uma segurança exagerada em relação

ao momento fletor e ao esforço cortante, o que gera aumento de custos em uma construção.

REFERÊNCIAS

aço e de estruturas mistas de aço e concreto de edifícios. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT, 2008.

142

[2] Andrade, D.M. Comparativo de Dimensionamento de Pavimento Misto de Steel Deck com o

Sistema Slim Floor Utilizando o Software CoSFB. 2017. 68p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia

Civil). Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, 2017.

[3] CONSTRUCTALIA. Slim Floor. An innovative concept for floors. Manual da Arcelor Mittal,

[1996]. Disponível em: < http://constructalia.arcelormittal.com/files/SlimFloor_EN--

9b4c958d6dca408cc87f6ffff15a8f4a.pdf>. Acesso em: 15 mai. 2017.

[4] ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. NBR 6120. Cargas para o cálculo de

estruturas de edificações. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT, 1980.

[5] MD BRASIL ARQUITETOS. Projeto do Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais de Ouro Branco.

Fortaleza, 2013.

[6] ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. NBR 6118. Projeto de estruturas de

concreto - Procedimento. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT, 2014.

[7] Barros, M. O. Análise e dimensionamento de pavimentos mistos slim floor. 2011. 132 p.

Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Civil). Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova

de Lisboa, Lisboa, 2011.

[8] SANTOS, V. J. M.; LIMA, D. M.; SAKIYAMA, F. I. H.; Slim Floor: método de dimensionamento

e estudo paramétrico. Revista Eletrônica de Engenharia Civil, Universidade Federal de Goiás, v.13, n°

1, 2017.

[9] EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION. Eurocode 4 – Design of composite

steeland concrete structures – part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. Bruxelas, 2004.

.

143

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

HIGH-SPEED TRAINS BY USING THE DISCONTINUOUS DEFORMATION ANALYSIS (DDA)

1

UT Compiegne-Sorbonne Univ., Lab. Roberval, 60203 Compiègne Cedex, France, dong.ding@utc.fr

2

UT Compiegne-Sorbonne Univ., Lab. Roberval, 60203 Compiègne Cedex, France, ouahsine@utc.fr

3

UT Compiegne-Sorbonne Univ., Lab. Roberval, 60203 Compiègne Cedex, France, , peng.du@utc.fr

Abstract: High speed trains that run through snowfall blow up the snow which sticks to the underfloor

equipment and freezes rapidly into ice. When trains enter a warmer region, the frozen snow and ice

drop at high speed from train causing the ballast to fly up and seriously damage the car body and the

environment along the track. To clarify the dynamic behavior of ballast stones at the time of collision

with a lump of snow/ice, discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) method has been was carried out.

The DDA simulation illustrates the relationship between the number of ballast stones and the mass,

shape, speed and angle of the ice /snow hitting the track.

Keywords: Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), high speed train; ballast flying;

During winter, train services in snowy countries are usually struck by constantly recurring

problems related to snow, ice and coldness. The occurrences of dry snow and temperature changes are

two different scenarios that have been pointed out as particularly unfavorable. The dry and light snow

can whirl around and cling to the train while running, as seen in Figure 1(a). This phenomenon causes

snow packing as shown in Figure 1(b). The trains carrying snow enter a warmer region and the

generated heat and vibration cause the snow to melt. The frozen ice/snow then drops at high speed

from the train, causing the ballast to fly up and seriously damage the car body and the environment

along the track [1-3]. The discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) method was used to investigate

dynamic behavior of ballast stones at the time of collision with a lump of snow/ice. It also used to

analysis influence factors of ballast flying, thus providing theoretical basis for optimizing ballast bed

profile and preventing ballast flying.

(a) (b)

Figure 1. Snow fly and stick to the underfloor equipment

1

144

2. Method and Model

2.1 Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

In this study a numerical model based on the method of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

(DDA) [5,6] is presented to simulate the dynamic behavior of ballast stones colliding with the accreted

snow/ice. The ballast stones are considered as a stack of rigid blocks moving against each other [4]. The

contact and cohesion between stones as well as their geometric shape are included in this analysis.

In two dimensions, the first order approximation of the displacement (u, v) at any point (x, y) of a

block i is interpolated as:

u 1 0 ( y y0 ) ( x x0 ) 0 ( y y0 )

d (T ) d (1)

v 0 1 ( x x0 ) 0 ( y y0 ) ( x x0 )

where d is the vector of variables associated with an individual block comprising the rigid body

translations and rotation at the centroid of the block, 0 , 0 and 0 and the normal and shear strains,

x , y and xy , respectively:

d T 0 0 0 x y xy

T

(2)

The equilibrium formulation in the DDA method is provided by the principle of potential energy

minimization. For a system of n blocks, the total potential energy is given by

=d Tp k pq dq d Tp f p p, q 1,....6n (3)

where includes contributions from block strain energy and energy terms emanating from point

and gravity loads, block to block contacts, initial stresses and boundary constraints. For more

information regarding the derivation of these contributions, the reader is referred to Shi (1992) and Shi

and Goodman(1989)[7,8]. Minimization of the above energy potential yields

k pq d q f q 0 (4)

d q

Consequently, Equation (4) takes the partitioned form:

k11 k12 k12 ... k1n d1 f1

k21 k22 k23 ... k2 n d 2 f 2

k31 k32 k33 ... k3n d3 f3 (5)

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

k kn 3 ... knn

n1 kn 2 d n f n

where fi is a 6 1 vector of forces acting on block i and d i contains the variables associated with

block i . The off-diagonal submatrices kij , ( i j ) contain the stiffness components associated with

the contact between block i and j and kij refers also to the components of the material stiffness of

block i .

2.2 Track bed model

According the European standard (13450, 2002) [9-11], half of the ballasted track bed model was

built as shown in Figure 2. The distance between the bottom of the vehicle and the top of the ballast

is set to 600 mm, which is equal to the sum of the heights of half of bogie and rail. The properties of

the materials (ice and ballast) such as unit mass, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio are shown in

Table1.

2

145

Figure 2. Track bed model

Table1. Properties of ice and ballast

unit mass elastic modulus Poisson ratio velocity

ice 800 kg /m3 5600 Pa 0.06 250(300/350) km /h

ballast 2600 kg /m3 500000 Pa 0.25 0

The validation of the numerical results is done by using Japanese experimental data [2]. In these

experiments, an air cannon was used to eject ice/snow with different masses and angles as shown in

Figure3(a). The geometries of the ballast bed and ice/snow are created wherein the ballast bed

corresponds to the European gradation standards. The relationship between the number of ballast

stones and the mass, shape, speed and angle of the ice/snow will be investigated and compared with

test data by DDA simulation.

(a) (b)

Figure 3. Japanese snow/ice flying experiment and results

References

[1] Kloow L. High-Speed Train Operation in Winter Climate. Foreign Rolling Stock, 2015.

[2] Kawashima I, Endo F. Experimental studies on ballast-flying phenomenon caused by dropping

of accreted snow/ice from high-speed trains, RTRI Report, 17 (8), 2003.

[3] G.Q.Jing, D.Ding. Snow Flight Characteristic and Prevention Research of High Speed Railway

in Cold Region. Journal of Railway Engineering Society,2017, (9):29-34.

[4] Hadji S, Ouahsine A, Naceur H, et al. Modelling of transport and collisions between rigid

bodies to simulate the jam formation in urban flows. International Journal of Multiphysics,

2(2):247-266, 2008.

[5] S. Kaidi, M. Rouainia, A. Ouahsine (2012).. (2012), ’Stability of breakwaters under

hydrodynamic loading using a coupled DDA/FEM approach. J. Ocean Engineering, Vol.55,

2012, 62–70.

[6] S. Kaidi, A. Ouahsine, P.Sergent, M. Rouainia (2012). Discontinuous Deformation Analysis to

assess the stability of rockfill dams under seismic loading’. C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, Série IIb, vol.

340 (10), 2012. 731-738

3

146

[7] Shi, Gen-Hua. "Discontinuous deformation analysis: a new numerical model for the statics and

dynamics of deformable block structures." Engineering computations 9.2 (1992): 157-168.

[8] Shi, Gen‐ hua, and Richard E. Goodman. "Generalization of two‐ dimensional discontinuous

deformation analysis for forward modelling." International Journal for Numerical and

Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 13.4 (1989): 359-380.

[9] Bonnett, Clifford F. Practical railway engineering. Imperial College Press, 2005.

[10] Selig, Ernest Theodore, and John M. Waters. Track geotechnology and substructure

management. Thomas Telford, 1994.

[11] Alemu, A. Y. "Survey of Railway Ballast Selection and Aspects of Modelling

Techniques." Division of Highway and Railway Engineering, Department of Transport Science,

School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology ,2011.

4

147

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

ARY STIFFNESS

1 São Paulo State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bauru, Brazil

e-mail: douglas.roca@unesp.br

2 National Institute for Applied Sciences Central Val de Loire, Blois, France

e-mail: jean-mathieu.mencik@insa-cv.fr

3 Dalian University of Technology, Institute of Internal Combustion Engine, Dalian, China

e-mail: btang@dlut.edu.cn

4 São Paulo State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bauru, Brazil

e-mail: paulo.jpg@feb.unesp.br

5 São Paulo State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ilha Solteira, Brazil

e-mail: mj.brennan@unesp.br

1. Introduction

Periodic structures, also called metamaterials, are a new class of composite materials [1] capable of

exhibit novel properties never seen before in materials found in nature, offering new possibilities to

enhance the performance of structures using these materials [2]. Metamaterials have important char-

acteristics to deal with electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic waves and, at first, they were proposed to

deal as electromagnetic wave absorbers [3, 4]. The analogy between electromagnetic waves and acoustic

waves led the development of metamaterials to deal with acoustic waves [5]. Metamaterials, when re-

lated to structural vibration, are composed tailoring identical periodic substructures, designed to decrease

wave propagation through the structure, enhancing determined phenomena. One of those, the band gap

or stop-band phenomena, describe a certain frequency region which the wave propagation on periodic

structures doesn’t exist. This phenomena can be used as a form of passive control of vibration and noise

in engineer structures, specially in strategic areas as naval, civil construction, automotive and aerospace

industries. Metamaterials offers the exceptional capacity to create desired properties through structural

arrangements of its inner elements. Therefore, take advantage of the capacity to control the parameters

that effective act on the metamaterial, changing its properties and, consequently, its dynamics, have at-

tracted considering interest over the last decade. One way to design tunable metamaterials occurs with

the introduction of nonlinear elements [6].

Motivated by the challenge in understand the bad gaps of wave propagation in periodic structures at

frequencies often encountered in engineering applications, this work aims to study the band gap behavior

of a periodic structures as rods and beams to which grounded stiffness elements are attached at set

distances apart. According to [7], Bloch’s theorem states that for any periodic structure with identical

unit periodically arranged in the structure, the change the wave amplitude across the unit cell, due to

propagating wave without attenuation, does not depend upon the location of the unit cell within the

structure. Therefore, it is possible to understand the wave propagation through the entire structure just

by considering the wave motion in a single unit cell. The first order Harmonic Balance Method (FHBM)

is used to derive the dynamic stiffness terms of the nonlinear spring and nonlinear stiffness coefficient of

the spring is considered both positive and negative. Next, analytical and numerical simulation studies of

the nonlinear behavior of the adopted model are performed.

148 1

2. Problem statement

The problem considered in this work is illustrated in Figure (1), where a rod and a beam of length L is

coupled at x = 0 to a nonlinear spring, with linear and nonlinear coefficientes represented by s1 and s3 ,

respectively. At the other end, x = L, there is a harmonic force with magnitude FL . Rod displacements at

x = 0 and x = L are U0 and UL . Where the linear and angular displacements at x = 0 and x = L are W0

and wL , respectively. According to [8], the dynamic stiffness matrix relating forces and displacements at

(a) (b)

Figure 1: (a) Rod and (b) beam coupled to nonlinear spring at x = 0 and force at x = L.

both ends of a rod and beam elements can be written as Eqs., respectively.

F0 EAkl cot (kl L) + Dr0 −EAkl / sin (kl L) U0

= (1)

FL −EAkl / sin (kl L) EAkl cot (kl L) UL

F0 −K11 + Db0 −P K12 V W0

M0 EIkb3 −P Q11 −V Q 12

Θ0

(2)

FL = N K12 −V −K11 P WL

ML V Q12 P Q12 ΘL

where,

K11 = EIkb3 (cos (kb L) sinh (kb L) + sin (kb L) cosh (kb L)) /N, K12 = EIkb3 (sin (kb L) + sinh (kb L)) /N

P = EIkb2 (sin (kb L) sinh (kb L)) /N, V = EIkb2 (cos (kb L) − cosh (kb L)) /N

Q11 = EIkb (cos (kb L) sinh (kb L) − sin (kb L) cosh (kb L)) /N, Q12 = EIkb (sin (kb L) − sinh (kb L)) /N

N = cos (kb L) cosh (kb L) − 1

Rod amplitudes of displacement at end x = 0 and x = L are U0 and UL , respectively. The quasi-

longitudinal wavenumber is represented by kl . Beam amplitudes of linear and angular displacements

at ends x = 0 and x = L, and the bending (flexural) wavenumber are represented by W0 , Θ0 , WL , ΘL

and kb , respectively. Forces and moments applied to the ends of rod and beam at x = 0 and x = L

are F0 , FL , M0 and ML . Using the first order Harmonic Balance Method (FHBM), the dynamic stiff-

ness terms of the nonlinear stiffness attached to the rod and beam are given as Dr0 = s1 + 3s3U02 /4 and

Db0 = s1 + 3s3W02 /4, respectively. For convenience, the nonlinear spring coefficients for the rod and

beam study cases are written in a nondimensional form as α1 = s1 L/ES, α3 = s3 L/ES, γ1 = s1 L3 /EI,

γ3 = s3 L3 /EI, where E, S and I are, respecively, the Young’s Modulus, rod cross-section area and beam

second moment of area.

Figures (2) and (3) shows the propagation constants versus the nondimensional wavenumber, kl L, of a

rod grounded to a nonlinear stiffnes spring for different values of α1 and α3 . In Fig (2a) it is possible to

observe the propagation constant for the linear spring case, α3 = 0, and shows that the spring has more

influence over the system dynamics in the low frequency. When the nonlinear coefficient α3 is different

from zero, Figs. (2b) and (3), it is possible to observe the increase of the bandwidth of attenuation

in low frequencies and, also, that the system shows great attenuation for higher frequencies. Figures

(4) and (5) shows the propagation constants versus the nondimensional wavenumber, kb L, of a beam

149 2

2 6

P hase ← | → Atten. 1 4

P hase ← | → Atten.

0

2

-1

0

-2

-2

-3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

kl L kl L

(a) (b)

Figure 2: Propagation constants for the rod grounded to a nonlinear springs at x = 0, force at x = L and

U0 = 0.1. (a) (blue) α1 = 0.1, α3 = 0; (red) α1 = 0.5, α3 = 0; (black) α1 = 1, α3 = 0. (b) (blue) α1 = 1,

α3 = 100; (red) α1 = 1, α3 = 1000; (black) α1 = 1, α3 = 10000.

4

P hase ← | → Atten.

-2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

kl L

Figure 3: Propagation constants for the rod grounded to a nonlinear springs at x = 0, force at x = L and

U0 = 0.1. (a) (blue) α1 = 1, α3 = −100; (red) α1 = 1, α3 = −1000; (black) α1 = 1, α3 = −10000.

grounded to a nonlinear stiffnes spring for different values of γ1 and γ3 . Figure (4a) shows the propagation

constants curves for γ3 = 0. As expected, the linear spring attached to the beam has great influence at

low frequencies. In Fig. Fig. (4b), the attenuation constants increases for both low and high frequency as

the positive value of γ3 increases. For negative γ3 , Fig. (4), the attenuation constants decreases for both

low and high frequency as γ3 value increase.

4. Conclusions

This work presented a study of the band gap behavior of a periodic rod and beam which grounded nonlin-

ear stiffness elements are attached in one of the ends and harmonic forced on the other one. The nonlinear

stiffness coefficients considered are both positive and negative. Such a system can be considered as a

metamaterial whose properties can be tailored to achieve a certain dynamic behavior. A particular chal-

lenge is to arrange for the band gap in wave propagation along the beam to occur at low frequencies,

so that it can be used to control vibration transmission at frequencies often encountered in engineering

applications. The work involved analytical and numerical investigation into the band gap behavior of rod

and beam with such elements attached. It is expected that the results showed in this work improves the

comprehension of wave propagation and band gaps in periodic structures like rods and beams.

150 3

2 2

P hase ← | → Atten.

P hase ← | → Atten.

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

-2 -2

-3 -3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

kb L kb L

(a) (b)

Figure 4: Propagation constants for the beam grounded to a nonlinear springs at x = 0, force at x = L

and W0 = 0.1. (a) (blue) γ1 = 0.1, γ3 = 0; (red) γ1 = 0.5, γ3 = 0; (black) γ1 = 1, γ3 = 0. (b) (blue) γ1 = 1,

γ3 = 100; (red) γ1 = 1, γ3 = 1000; (black) γ1 = 1, γ3 = 10000

2

P hase ← | → Atten.

-1

-2

-3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

kb L

Figure 5: Propagation constants for the beam grounded to a nonlinear springs at x = 0, force at x = L and

W0 = 0.1. (a) (blue) γ1 = 1, γ3 = −100; (red) γ1 = 1, γ3 = −1000; (black) γ1 = 1, γ3 = −10000.

References

[1] J. Li, C.T. Chan Double-negative acoustic metamaterial, Physical Review E, Vol. 70, No. 5 (2004), pp. 055602.

[2] A. Sihvola, Metamaterials in electromagnetics, Metamaterials, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2007), pp. 2-11.

[3] J.B. Pendry, Negative refraction makes a perfect lens, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 85, No. 18 (2000), pp.

3966.

[4] T. Tanaka, Plasmonic metamaterials produced by two-photon-induced photoreduction technique, J. of Laser

Micro/Nanoengineering, Vol. 3, No. 3 (2008), pp. 152-156.

[5] G.W. Milton, J.R. Willis, On modifications of Newton’s second law and linear continuum elastodynamics,

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 363,

No. 2079 (2007), pp. 855-880.

[6] R.C. McPhedran, I.V. Shadrivov, B,T. Kuhlmey, Y.S. Kivshar, Metamaterials and metaoptics, NPG Asia Ma-

terials, Vol. 3, No. 11 (2011), pp. 100.

[7] A.S. Phani, J. Woodhouse, N.A. Fleck, Wave propagation in two-dimensional periodic lattices, The Journal of

the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 119, No. 4 (2006), pp. 1995-2005.

[8] F. Fahy, J. Walker, Advanced applications in acoustics, noise and vibration, CRC Press, 2004.

151 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

INCANDESCENT FRAGMENTS

Eduardo M. B. Campello 1

1

Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil

campello@usp.br

The release of incandescent fragments from bulk materials (usually metallic or ceramic) is a common

side effect in many human activities and engineering applications. This is the case of (but is not

restricted to) manufacturing processes that involve cutting, grinding, sanding and welding, as well as

metal-to-metal contact observed in construction sites, worn-out brakes, ballistic impacts, explosions,

pyrotechnics, etc. Besides being potentially hazardous if in direct contact to humans, incandescent

fragments may be the starting point of unwanted fires, especially if in dry or semi-dry environments.

Depending on (i) their thermal state, (ii) their kinetic energy when released and (iii) the type of

material on which they land, incandescent fragments can be a dangerous source of fire ignition and

human injury. These aspects depend on a number of factors, among which the most relevant are the

thermal properties and the trajectories of the fragments. In a recent work by Zohdi [1], a simple

computational model was proposed to track the time evolution of hot fragments with respect to both

position and temperature. Therein, however, the fragments were allowed to have only translational

motion. The present work is an extension of Zohdi´s model in the sense that particle spin is now

incorporated into the problem´s dynamics, affecting both the particles´ trajectories and their cooling

rates. Our approach is based on discrete particle dynamics following the works of Campello [2,3],

combined with standard differential equations from heat transfer to capture the temperature evolution

of the fragments. We use the released energy from an initial blast pulse to provide the starting kinetic

energy of a system of particles, and then numerically compute the trajectory and thermal state of the

particles over time. Gravitational settling, drag forces, drag-induced heating, as well as convective and

radiative cooling, are considered. Additionally, since the particles are allowed to spin, and thereby

have a more complex interaction with the surrounding air, the influence of Magnus forces is further

investigated. It is shown that particle spin may have a quite significant effect on the spatio-thermal

footprint of the fragmentation, especially when small to mid-sized fragments are present (of the order

of fractions of millimeters to a few millimeters). We believe that simple particle models of the type as

shown here may be a useful tool to estimate fire hazards distributions as well as to guide ﬁre safety

rules in industrial and construction workplaces.

References

[1] T. I. Zohdi. Modeling the spatio-thermal fire hazard distribution of incandescent material ejecta in

manufacturing, Comput. Mech., 2018 (online first) (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00466-018-1617-2).

[2] E. M. B. Campello. A computational model for the simulation of dry granular materials, Int. J.

Nonlinear Mech., v. 106, 89–107, 2018 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2018.08.010).

152

[3] E. M. B. Campello. A description of rotations for DEM models of particle systems, Comp. Part.

Mech., v. 2, 109–125, 2015.

153

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

1

University of São Paulo, eduardo.naccache@usp.br.

2

University of São Paulo, valerio.almeida@usp.br

Abstract. As the concrete used in each floor of a building or in each group of elements comes from

different mixtures, its statistical parameters can be assumed constant only inside the same mix. In this

work a reliability analysis of the horizontal displacement of a concrete frame is undertaken

considering different statistical parameters for the concrete of different groups of elements. The

horizontal load is an equivalent static wind with statistical properties. The concrete frame is linear

elastic and the reliability methods applied are the Monte Carlo with simple sampling and the First

Order Reliability Method (FORM).

Keywords: Reliability; Finite element method; Service limit state; Equivalent static wind.

1. Introduction

Reliability has found a large application field in structural engineering. Although very far from a pure

probabilistic approach, the current reliability methods allow the performance assessment of different

structural requirements. A performance-based wind engineering (PBWE) is proposed in Tessari,

Kroetz and Beck (2017). The performance of a steel latticed tower subjected to wind loads, either

equivalent static wind as dynamic wind, are assessed by means of reliability methods. The potential of

the PBWE with probabilistic approach for the design of steel towers was made evident as it is a way to

make a balance between expected failure costs for different performance measures and to optimize the

structure performance before different load scenarios.

In earthquake engineering the performance-based design has found even more acceptance. A four-

storey concrete building under seismic action has its horizontal displacement performance verified in

Abdelouafi, Benaissa and Abdellatif (2015). The seismic analysis was a static equivalent lateral load

called pushover analysis. The results of some reliability methods such as the FORM, Importance

sampling and Response surface were compared and found good agreement but with FORM being a

much less time consuming as it is expected when the problem involves a low number of variables.

In Corelhano, Corrêa and Beck (2012), the reliability of concrete frames regarding the top horizontal

displacement was studied too. The most important feature is the model error used in the limit state

function. The horizontal displacement of forty-two frames with different reinforcement ratios; number

of floors; number of bays; columns sections; beams sections were calculated one time with simplified

models and one time with rigorous models to represent cracking of the concrete. The horizontal

154

displacement ratio between these two situations is the variable which represents de model error and its

parameters could be estimated from these forty-two observations.

In this work the reliability analysis of concrete frames considering different concrete parameters for

different groups of elements is aimed. The non-linearities are not considered so the structure model is

relatively simple, but on the other hand, the reliability analysis regards hundreds of variables as each

element dimension is regarded as such.

2. Main objectives

This work has some important objectives. First one is applying reliabilities methods in a problem that

involves a great number of variables and understand the pros and cons of each one of them. The

second one is to develop a design procedure in the moulds of the Performance based engineering

(PBE) that would lead a probable designer to an optimal and functional solution. The third and the last

one is to make way for more complex structural analysis to be associated with the performance-based

design, also for not letting the simpler ones be forgotten as not deserving a modern treatment.

3. Concluding remarks

With this work the authors expect to get along a promisor area of the engineering research, what very

probably is, for the evolution of the design process seems to pass through a performance measure,

slowly leaving behind the traditional design philosophies.

Beside the evolution of the design process goes the search for increasing realism of the structural

analysis. In this matter, the authors expect to extend the reliability analysis for structures with

increasingly complexity degree such as three-dimensional frames and considering the soil structure

interaction.

155

What becomes clear is the fact that as the complexity level of the structural problems increases, the

performance-based design comes out as the more reasonable approach. It is not by chance that in the

earthquake engineering this new philosophy has found its first application. Then, without mistake, one

can state that as the engineering community abandon the very much simplified methods and

considerations such as the equivalent static wind and the rigid interaction between the soil and the

foundations, more necessary the performance-based design will be.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the academic support given by the PPGEC-EPUSP (Programa de Pós-

Graduação em Engenharia Civil da Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo) and the financial

support of CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) and Cnpq

(Consenlho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico).

References

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Earthquake Research, 2, 39-46, 2013.

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buildings: comparison between FORM and ISM. Procedia Engineering, 114, 650-657, 2015.

[3] Augusti, G., Ciampoli, M. Performance-based design in risk assessment and reduction.

Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 23(4):496-508, 2008.

[4] Beck, A. T., Carrêa, M. R. S. New Design Chart for Basic Wind Speeds in Brazil. Latin American

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32, No.2, p 119-127, 2010.

[6] Ciampoli, M., Petrini, F., Augusti, G. Performance-based wind engineering: towards a general

procedure. Structural Safety, 33(6), 367-378, 2011.

[7] Ciampoli, M., Petrini, F. Performance-based aeolian risk assessment and reduction for tall

buildings. Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 28, 75-84, 2011.

[8] Corelhano, A. G. B., Corrêa, M. R. S., Beck, A. T. Reliability of buildings in service limit state for

maximum horizontal displacements. Ibracon structures and materials journal, v.5, pp. 84-103, 2012.

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industrial aerodynamics, 13, 3-27, 1983.

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[12] Epaarachchi, D. C., Stewart, M. G., Rosowsky, D. V. Structural reliability od multistory

buildings during construction. Journal of structural engineering, vol. 128, No. 2, 205-213, 2002.

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[14] JCSS. Probabilistic model code. Joint Committee on structural safety. 2001.

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156

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based wind engineering. First International forum in engineering decision making, 5-9, 2004.

[22] Rackwitz, R. Optimization – the basis for code-making and reliability verification. Structural

Safety, vol. 22, 27-60, 2000.

[23] Ranganathan, R., Deshpande, C. Reliability analysis of reinforced concrete frames. Journal of

Structural Engineering, vol. 113, No. 6, 1315-1328, 1987.

[24] Sorensen, J. D., Kroon, I. B., Faber, M. H. Optimal reliability-based code calibration. Structural

Safety, vol. 15, 197-208, 1994.

[25] Tessari, K. R., Kroetz, M. H., Beck, A. T. Performance-based design of steel towers subject to

wind action. Engineering Structures, 143, 549-557, 2017.

[26] Wilson, E. L. Three-Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Structures. Computers and

Structures Inc. Berkeley, California, 2002.

157

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

E MISSION T OMOGRAPHY (PET)

Eliete Biasotto Hauser 1 , Evandro Manica 2 , Gianina T. Venturin 3 , Samuel Greggio 4 ,Eduardo Rigon

Zimmer 5 , Wyllians Vendramini Borelli 6 , Jaderson Costa Da Costa 7

1 Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns)/School of Sciences, PUCRS, eliete@pucrs.br

2 Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, evandro.manica@ufrgs.br

3 Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), PUCRS, gianina.venturin@pucrs.br

5 Department of Biochemestry, UFRGS, eduardo.zimmer@ufrgs.br

6 School of Medicine, PUCRS, wyllians.vb@gmail.com

7 Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns)/School of Medicine, PUCRS, jcc@pucrs.br

The main purpose of this study is to estimate the unknown transport rates in a irreversible two-tissue

compartment model, solved by Laplace transform method, for kinetic modeling of [18F]2-fluor-2deoxy-

D-glucose(FDG) , in order to quantify amyloid in Positron Emission Tomography(PET) image. The

image-derived arterial input function (IDAIF) is obtained, noninvasively, from a first order differential

equation that describe the dynamics of the radiotracer on the from the discrete time activity curve in

a carotid volume of interest(VOI) (known to be amyloid free). The transport constants are determined

applying the initial conditions, the effective dose injeceted, the half-life of the tracer, the discrete activity

curves (TAC) and, iteratively, minimizing the sum of the quadratic residuals(Levenberg-Marquardt).

After calculating a convolution integral, the analytical solution is completely described. We present

numerical results generated by this methods applied in data obtained from the projects at the Brain

Institute (InsCer/BraIns) at Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) and comparing

our results with those published in the literature.

The mathematical model for the problem is expressed by the system of two differential equations:

d

dt C1 (t) = K1 Ca (t) − ( k2 + k3 )C1 (t)

(1)

d

C2 (t) = k3 C1 (t)

dt

where, Ca (t) is the IDAIF, C1 (t) and C2 (t) are, respectively, the concentration in the non-displaceable

and displaceable compartments, K1 and k2 , k3 , k4 are kinetic rate constants which have to be determined.

In order to determine the IDAIF Ca (t) , we use the dynamics of the radiotracer on the reference

region(carotids), governed by the differential equation

dCr 0 0

= K1Ca (t) − k2Cr (t) (2)

dt

where Cr (t) is the concentration of the radiotracer in the reference region, K1 0 > 0 and k2 0 > 0 are pro-

portionality rates describing, respectively, the tracer influx into and the tracer outflow from the reference

tissue(Carotids VOI). Cr (t) will be approximated by means of nonlinear regression of the data obtained

from a TAC curve on a Positron Emission Tomography(PET) image (Figure1 and Figure2). Data used

to determine the TAC and Ca (t) come from PET image data obtained from a experiment performed at

Brain Institute(BraIns) at Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS).

The equations (1) and (2) are integrated with respect to time together with their partial derivatives

with respect to the parameters ki .

158 1

Figure 1: Carotids Volume of interest(VOI) on the positron emission tomographic(PET).

We apply the Laplace transform with respect to t in Eq.(1), denoting £ {Ci (t)} = Ci (s) and

d Ck (t)

£ = sCi (s) −Ci (0) .

dt

With C1 (0) = 0 and C2 (0) = 0, obtain the an algebric system of 2 equations:

( s + k2 + k3 )C1 (s) = K1Ca (s)

(3)

− k3C1 (s) + s C2 (s) = 0

Then, using the inverse Laplace transform, Ci (t) = £−1 Ci (s) , and we consider ∗ to denote the

convolution operation, we obtain

159 2

−1 K1Ca (s) −1 1

C1 (t) = £ = K1 £ ∗ £−1 Ca (s)

( s + k2 + k3 ) ( s + k2 + k3 )

(4)

k3C1 (s)

C2 (t) = £−1 = k3 ∗ £−1 C1 (s) .

s

The analtical solution is

Z t

−( k2 +k3 )t

C1 (t) = K1 e ∗ Ca (t) = K1 e−( k2 +k3 ) (t−u) Ca (u) du

0

Z t

(5)

C2 (t) = k3 ∗ C1 (t) = k3 C1 (u) du .

0

Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Image-Derived Arterial Input Function (IDAIF), Kinetic Mo-

delling, Parameter Estimation, Laplace Transform, Positron Emission Tomography(PET).

References

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[18F]-FDG PET human brain studies, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow Metabolism, page1825âpage1835,

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[6] E. B. Hauser,G. T. Venturin, s. Greggio, W. Borelli, J. C. da Costa, Image-Derived Carotid Arterial In-

put Function as an Inverse Problem in Kinetic Modeling of [18F]2-Fluoro-2 Deoxy-D-Glucose(FDG) in

Azheimer’s Disease, 15th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical

Engineering, page1-page7, 2018.

[7] E. B. Hauser, G. T. Venturin, S. Greggio, E. Manica, E. R. Zimmer, J.C.C. Costa. Laplace Transform Method

for 11C-PIB Two-Tissue Reversible Compartment Model with Image-Derived Arterial Input Function, Ibero-

Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, ABMEC, page1-page10, 2017.

[8] E. B. Hauser, G. T. Venturin, S. Greggio, J.C.Costa. Mathematical modeling to quantify the pharmacoki-

netic process of [18F]2-fluor-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Constanda,Kirsch. Integral Methods in Science and

Engineering, Birkhäuser, 2015.

[9] E. B. Hauser. Laplace Transform in Tracer Kinetic Modeling, Meeting on Nuclear Applications, ABEN,p

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Laruelle, J. Logan, R. P. Maguire, M. A. Mintun, E. D. Morris, R. Parsey, J. C. Price, M. Slifstein, V. Sossi,

T. Suhara, J. R. Votaw, D. F. Wong, R. E. Carson. Consensus nomenclature for in vivo imaging of reversibly

binding radioligands, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow Metabolism, page1533âpage1539, 2007.

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160 3

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Tsopelas, S. T. DeKosky, J.C. Price. Simplified quantification of Pittsburgh Compound B amyloid imaging

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Estimates by WARM Analysis of [11C] PiB Uptake Distinguish among and between Neurodegenerative Dis-

orders and Aging, Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, page1-page11, 2017.

[21] Y. Su, T. M. Blazey, A. Z. Snyder, M.E. Raichle, R. C. Hornbeck,P. Aldea, J. C. Morris, T. L. S. Benzinger.

Quantitative Amiloid Imaging Using Image-Derived Arterial Input Function, PLoS One. page1-page16, 2015.

[22] D. Vriens, L-F. de Geus-Oei, W.J.G. Oyen, E.P. Visser. A Curve-Fitting Approach to Estimate the Arterial

Plasma Input Function for the Assessment Of Glucose Metabolic Rate and Response to Treatment, The Journal

of Nuclear Medicine, page1933-page1939, 2009.

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[24] H. Zaidi. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging, Springer, 2006.

[25] . Zhou, K. Chen, E.M. Reiman, D.Li, B. Shanet. A method for generating image-derived input function in

quantitative 18F-FDG PET study based on the monotonicity of the input and output function curve, Nuclear

Medicine Communications, page362âpage370, 2012.

161 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

TION FOR HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS

Andre Luis Ferreira da Silva1 , Ruben Andres Salas1 , Emilio Carlos Nelli Silva 1

1 Department of Mechatronics System Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

1. Introduction

Fiber-reinforced composite materials have been used more frequently and their properties can be im-

proved by optimum fiber orientation. Models which are based in discrete candidate angle as the models

DMO, SFP, BCP and NDFO are efficient to avoid multiple local minima and problems related to initial

fiber configuration. Among the methods of optimization of fiber angles the NDFO method stands out.

Such method uses only one variable per element, regardless of the number of chosen angles. However,

the NDFO method has been applied so far in materials where the stress-strain relationship can be con-

sidered linear. This work proposes the application of an adaptation of NFDO using the Neo-Hookian

model of Ciarlet-Simo, which can be used for materials subjected to large deformations. To consider

the effect of the fiber on the element, a transversely isotropic part is added to the isotropic portion of

the strain energy function. The optimization problem solved in this work is the well-known minimum

compliance design. The unwanted effects of fiber discontinuity are treated using the filter proposed by

Lazarov which consider as a filter a solution of a modified Helmholtz equation. A numerical example is

presented to demonstrate the result of the proposed method.

2. Theoretical Formulation

A hyperelastic material is one for which there is a strain energy function per unit undeformed volume Ψ

depend upon the right Cauchy-Green tensor C as [1] [2] [3]

Ψ = Ψ(C) (1)

Since 12 Ċ is work conjugate to the second Piola-Kirchhoff tensor S, its possible to determine the deriva-

tive of Ψ in respect to time as [3]

∂Ψ 1

Ψ̇ = : Ċ = S : Ċ (2)

∂Ċ 2

and therefore S is defined as

∂Ψ

S=2 (3)

∂C

For isotropic materials, the strain energy function can be written as a function of the invariants of C as

162 1

where the invariants I1 , I2 and I3 are defined as [4]

I1 =tr(C) (5a)

I2 =C : C (5b)

2

I3 =det(C) = J (5c)

∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ −1

S=2 I+4 C + 2I3 C (6)

∂I1 ∂I2 ∂I3

Due to Ψ can be an arbitrary function of the invariants, Eq. 6 becomes complex because of a large number

of possible constitutive parameters [4]. The Neo-Hookean hyperelastic equation can be used for large

strain range and has only two constitutive parameters. The strain energy and the second Piola-Kirchhoff

tensor for Neo-Hookean hyperelasticity are defined as [2]

1 1

Ψnh = µ(I1 − 3) − µ ln J + λ(J − 1)2 (7)

2 2

where µ and λ are Lamé coefficients, J is the Jacobian and I is the identity matrix.

A transversely isotropic material is characterized by an isotropic plane and physical properties symmet-

rical with respect to this plane. Fig. 2. represents a transversely isotropic in an undeformed configuration

Ωr and in a deformed configuration Ω. The isotropic plane is obtained from the directions 1 − 2. In

direction 3 there is a vector a which represents the main direction of orthotropy.

The portion of strain energy Ψtrn which represents the transversely isotropic behavior is a function of

two pseudo invariants of C given by

I4 =ar · C ar (9a)

2 r

I5 =ar · C a (9b)

1

Ψtrn = [α + β lnJ + γ(I4 − 1)] − α(I5 − 1) (10)

2

and the corresponding second Piola-Kirchhoff tensor is [2]

Strn = 2β(I4 − 1)C−1 + 2[α + 2β lnJ + 2γ(I4 − 1)]ar ⊗ ar − α(Car ⊗ ar + ar ⊗ Car ) (11)

where α, β and γ are constants that depend on Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio.

163 2

3. Topology Optimization Formulation

The optimization of fiber angles based in discrete methods follows the basic concept of choosing a set of

candidate angles and using a weight function to determine an effective elastic tensor as a weighted sum

of the elastic tensors which corresponds to each candidate. However, owing to the fact that in this work

it is used a hyperelastic model, it is necessary to utilize a different approach. Since the collaboration

of the fiber for the stiffness of the material is considered in the transversally isotropic part of second

Piola-Kirchhoff tensor and considering the fact that when some load is applied parallel to the isotropic

plane, only the matrix of the composite material is loaded, thus the second Piola-Kirchhoff tensor can be

defined as

nc

S = Snh + ∑ wi Stri (12)

i=1

where wi are the weighting functions and nc the number of candidate angles.

All methods which use a selection of discrete angles are intended to drive only one weighting function

wi to 1, whereas all the others are driven to 0. What differentiates fiber optimization methods based on

the selection of candidate angles is the way the wi function does the parameterization. In this work wi is

given by [5]

ŵi

wi = nc (13)

∑k=1 ŵk

where nc is the number of candidate angles and ŵi is a normal distribution function which can be written

as [6]

(θ−θic )2

−

ŵi = e 2p2

θ

(14)

where i represents the number of candidate angles, θ is the design variable, θic represents the candidate

angles and pθ is a penalization constant.

The optimization problem solved in this work consisting of the well-known compliance minimization

which is defined as

Z Z

min b · u dΩ + t · u dS

Ω ΓN

Z Z Z

s.t. P : ∇v dΩ = b · v dΩ t · v dS (15)

Ω Ω ΓN

min

θc ≤ θ ≤ θmax

c

where b are the body forces, t are the surface forces, v is a test function, u are the displacements and P

is the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor.

The relation between the first and the second Piola-Kirchhoff tensors is given by

P = S · FT (16)

where S is the second Piola-Kirchhoff tensor and F is the deformation gradient. S is calculated as a sum

of the isotropic part with a weighting sum of the transversally isotropic part, such as

nc

S = Snh + ∑ wi Strn,i (17)

i=1

4. Numerical Example

The numerical example presented here is a box domain with dimensions represented by Fig 4. Table 1

shows the material properties used in this example. The candidates angles are

θc = [−78.75, −67.5, −56.25, −45, −33.75, −22.5, −11.25, 0, ...symmetric..., 90] (18)

164 3

and the domain has 120x40x6 tetrahedral elements linearly interpolated.

38.3 · 103 8.27 · 103 4.14 · 103 0.26 [0, −100, 0]T 45 10

5. Conclusion

An optimization method for fiber orientation based on NDFO method considering hyperelastic mate-

rial has been proposed. The proposed method uses weighting functions to select only one transversely

isotropic second Piola-Kirchhoff among a set of candidates.

Continuity is achieved by using a modified Helmholtz equation as a filter method. By increasing the r

value in the filter, it is obtained higher values of the objective function.

The result shows in the example demonstrates it is possible to optimize the fibers orientation by using

a formulation where the linear elastic behavior approximation is not considered. With this formulation,

the number of possible modeled materials has been increased and there is no limitation imposed by the

small deformations.

6. Acknowledgements

ALF Silva thanks CAPES ( Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement) and INCT/CEMTEC

(Nacional Institute on Advanced Eco-Efficient Cement-Based Technologies) for the financial during his

Master’s Degree under Grant 88887.165790/2018-00. Authors also acknowledge the support of the

RCGI (Research Centre for Gas Innovation), hosted by the University of SÃ£o Paulo (USP) and spon-

sored by FAPESP (2014/50279-4) and Shell Brazil.

References

[1] Ogden, Raymond W Non-linear elastic deformations, Courier Corporation, 1997.

[2] Bonet, J. and Burton, AJ. A simple orthotropic, transversely isotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation for

large strain computations, Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 151-164, 1998.

[3] Bonet, Javier and Wood, Richard D. Nonlinear continuum mechanics for finite element analysis, Cambridge

university press, 1997.

165 4

[4] Wriggers, Pete Nonlinear finite element methods, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.

[5] J. Stegmann, E. Lund. Discrete material optimzation of general composite shell structures. Int J Number

Methods Eng 2008, 62(14) 2009-27

[6] Kiyono, C. Y., Silva, E. C. N., & Reddy, J. N. (2017). A novel fiber optimization method based on normal

distribution function with continuously varying fiber path., Composite Structures, 160, 503-515.

166 5

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS APPLIED TO MOVING HYDROFOILS

Emmanuel LEFRANÇOIS

Roberval Laboratory CNRS FRE 2022 - Sorbonne Universités - Université de Technologie de Compiègne

CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne, France - e-mail: emmanuel.lefrancois@utc.fr

The research presented in this article focuses on the development of a numerical tool for investigating

fluid-structure interactions (FSI) between a fluid flow that is not confined (infinite) and a current turbine

with blades. Many similarities may be observed from its aerial version (wind turbine) but a major point

of concern results from a fluid density 800 times higher than in the air. The constant search for an

optimal solution (by increasing size and reducing mass) inevitably leads to flexible behavior resulting

from hydrodynamic loads, and this flexible behavior may have serious impacts on the efficiency of the

device. The FSI model may here without loss of generality be restricted to a 2D airfoil placed in a flow

and having two degrees of freedom (dof), namely plunging and pitching motions. The Panel Method

approach [2, 3] is of particular interest for fluid flow calculations around lifting device due to the fact it

has been originaly designed for. This potential approach is restricted to incompressible and irrotational

flows, however if completed by a Kutta condition, it can be extended to lifting flows. The FSI approach

is here based on a partitioned coupling with a dedicated solver for each of the two physics (namely fluid

flow and structure dynamics). Exchanges take place regularly between the two solvers via a coupling

scheme [4, 5] that is based on successive solutions produced by the fluid and structure solvers. The

coupling is said to be loosely coupled partitioned if only one shot (that is to say a single computation)

per time step is required for each field, and strongly coupled partitioned if an iterative procedure is used

to ensure convergence of the coupled solution. The major drawback of the standard partitioned FSI

coupling scheme is that where higher density fluids are involved (meaning strong effects of added mass),

convergence is no longer guaranteed, and divergence will generally be observed, regardless of the chosen

time step for incompressible flows [6]. The objective in this paper is to show that in order to take into

account heavy fluid flows such as in sea currents, the coupling scheme must be corrected, as described

for example in [1], in order to counteract the penalizing impact of the added mass effect on the classical

FSI coupling scheme. This correction is based on estimating an added mass matrix [Madd e ] that may

considerably improve and/or ensure the iterative phase of a strongly coupled partitioned approach.

c

θ(t) 25%c

~n P

Kθ ~eθ ~r

w(t) P F

V∞, ρ α G F cpi ~t

chord c N −1

z,~k Kz z N

N +1

y,~ Position at rest x 4 cp3

3 cp2

2 cp1 1

0 x,~ı O

(a) Dynamics of a 2D hydrofoil (b) Panel Method discretization

Figure 1: Fluid-stucture interaction for a 2D hydrofoil with plunging and pitching motions

167 1

2. Fluid-structure coupling for a 2D movable hydrofoil

2.1. Dynamics for a hydrofoil with two degrees of freedom

Here we consider a 2D airfoil with chord length c, of mass m and flexibly attached to a fixed point,

as illustrated in Figure 1(a). Two dof are here considered, namely plunging w(t) and a pitching θ(t)

motions. From Lagrange’s equation and the kinetic and potential energies of the airfoil we obtain the set

of two equations:

m −mPG ẅ Kz 0 w Rz

+ = (1)

−mPG IP θ̈ 0 Kθ θ M P + PG mg

with Kz denoting the axial rigidity along the z−axis, Kθ the torsional rigidity with respect to the y−axis

and I |G the mass moment of inertia about G. The terms Rz and M P denote respectively the vertical

component of the generalized force obtained from the pressure integration, and the resulting pitching

moment at P. Finally, this may be condensed to the following:

[M]{Ü } + [K]{U (t)} = {Fp (t)}, with {U (0)} = {U 0 } and {U̇ (0)} = {0}, (2)

where [M] and [K] denote respectively the mass and the rigidity matrices corresponding to the attachment

of the airfoil, and {U } denotes the two dof. The term {Fp } denotes for the sollicitation vector resulting

from aerodynamic loads.

Panel methods are particularly suitable for calculating the flow field over an airfoil that undergoes un-

steady time-dependent motion in a fluid that may be assumed inviscid and incompressible. The main

idea in the Panel Method is not to solve this Laplacian equation in the classical way for the entire fluid

domain, but to cast the same analysis in a boundary integral equation form, where the Hess & Smith

Panel Method (HSPM) was introduced, is considered to be the reference paper. In this approach, with

→

−

2D non-stationary flows being restricted as set out in [9], the velocity V at any point ~x = (x, z) of the

fluid domain is decomposed according to:

→

− →

− σ(s)~r τ(s) V2 ∂ϕ

˛ ˛

V (~x) = V ∞ +~v with ~v = ds + ~eθ ds and p + ρgz + ρ +ρ = f (t). (3)

2πr 2 2πr 2 ∂t

S S

→

−

where V ∞ defines the velocity of the uniform flow at infinity. The vector ~v denotes the disturbance

field due to the airfoil and results from two contributions, since the airfoil may be represented by two

elementary flows (also called singularities) corresponding to source flow (σ(s)) and vortex flow [9] (τ(s)).

For points belonging to the interface between the flow and the airfoil, the boundary condition that

stipulates no flow through surface enables us to define a given set of equations to be solved for σ(s).

Completed by the Kutta condition that stipulates that the flow must leave the trailing edge smoothly, the

set to be solved for σ(s) and τ is now complete. In order to couple the fluid flow with the structure,

we need to know the pressure p. This may be calculated at any point using the non-stationary form of

Bernoulli’s equation.

The coupling process is required to perform FSI calculations in order to regularly update the variables

common to both the fluid and the structure solvers. In order to better counteract the added mass effect that

results from heavy fluid flow such as in a liquid (sea currents) and that may lead to divergence, here we

propose correcting the classical FSI coupling scheme in relation to the added mass effect. The main idea

(in the case of conservative systems only) is that if the real added mass matrix [Madd, f ] could be calculated

exactly, the force term appearing in equation (2) would be exactly replaced by {Fp }i ≡ −[Madd, f ]{Ü }i .

For most cases, the real added mass matrix [Madd, f ] is out of reach. The classical partitioned coupling

168 2

scheme (denoted by CLAS) is then modified in accordance with [1], and equation (2) is now related to

the corrected scheme (denoted by CORR):

([M] + [Madd,e ]) {Ü }i+1 + [K]{U }i+1 = {Fp }i + [Madd,e ]{Ü }i , (4)

where i and i + 1 are indexes for the iterative process, and [Madd,e ] is the matrix corresponding to the

estimated added mass effect resulting from the pressure load all around the structure. Each component

Madd,e (i, j) is related to the force on the body in the i-axis resulting from a unit acceleration along the

j-axis. At convergence, the two additional terms cancel out and we get back to the original form of the

coupling equation (2). Adding extra terms on both parts of the original equation, helps to reduce the

penalizing effect of {Fp } and to increase the beneficial effect of [M]{Ü } on the convergence process.

3. Results

In this example an hydrofoil (NACA 2412, 105 panels) is flexibly attached to a fixed point, as illustrated

in Figure 1(a). Immersed in a uniform flow (V∞ , ρ), the airfoil is initially removed from its position

at rest (wo = 0.2 m and θo = 8 deg.) until a stationary fluid state is reached. It is then relaxed to allow

the fluid-structure coupling process to take place freely: it will be remarked that the mechanical energy

decreases with time because of a transfer of energy to the fluid tracked in the form of a vortex wake. The

point of this example is to look at the influence of the volumetric mass ρ on the convergence property

of the FSI scheme, to show the severe limit observed for the classical coupling scheme (that we term

CLAS), and finally to show the beneficial effect of the scheme corrected from the added mass effect (that

we term CORR). Fluid flow conditions and structure characteristics are summarized in Table 1.

[kg/m3 ] [m/s] [kg] [kg/m2 ] [N/m] [Nm/rad] [kg] - -

[1 − 2000] 5 10 100 104 104 0.71ρ −0.15ρ 0.05ρ

Table 1: Fluid flow conditions and structure properties

The estimated added mass matrix [Madd,e ] (symmetric) is calculated according to [10]. The airfoil

is considered fixed over a given number of time steps nFIX , then its flexibility is restored in order to start

the free fluid-structure interaction. The time step ∆t = 10−3 s is related to the two natural frequencies

( f1 = 1.59 Hz, f2 = 5.03 Hz) extracted from an eigenvalue analysis. The same analysis, in accordance

with equation (4), is conducted over nstep time steps, for both the CLAS scheme (with [Madd,e ] = [0])

and the CORR scheme, for a range of volumetric mass given in Table 1. For each time step, the number

of iterations to convergence is extracted. The case (ρ = 8 hg/m3 ) corresponds to the limit observed

for the CLAS scheme to converge. Any density above this value causes the coupling to diverge, as

reported in Table 2. For the considered case, the CLAS scheme excludes densities higher than 20 kg/m3 .

# iterations (CLAS) 10 8 8 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

# iterations (CORR) 10 8 7 6 6 6 6

Table 2: Effect of density on the averaged total number of iterations for convergence

Above this value the coupling scheme systematically diverges. The CORR scheme, on the other hand,

systematically converges, whatever the density value, which confirms its capacity to support heavy fluids.

But the number of iterations is not the only determinant of whether a scheme is capable of converging.

The results below are solely obtained by using the CORR scheme. Figure 2(a) and (b) shows that

increasing the fluid density gives rise to a predictable higher level of energy dissipation in the fluid,

since a wake and vortex are generated that are simply convected downstream of the flow with their own

energy (which the airfoil is consequently deprived of). Energy signals are normalized according to the

initial energy Eo resulting from initial perturbations wo and θo . The two signals Em and W have opposite

behaviors, in agreement with the principle of energy conservation. In other words, an irreversible transfer

of the mechanical energy Em is observed between the main flow and the airfoil, due to the produced work

W . The higher the density, the higher the observed dissipative effect.

169 3

0.5

0.5

0 0

−1 −1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

x [m] x [m]

1 1

0.8

Em 0.8

Ep

E /Eo

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

Ek

0.2 0.2

0

W 0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

time [s] time [s]

Figure 2: Dissipative effect due to airfoil energy transfer to the wake

4. Conclusions and prospects

This paper presents a corrected version of a strongly iterative partitioned FSI scheme for studying the

dynamics of an airfoil flexibly attached and immersed in a heavy fluid. The intended application of our

work mainly concerns the fluid-structure coupling that may operate between a moving lifting component

(such as a marine current turbine) and a surrounding heavy fluid such as water. The mathematical model

for the fluid is based on the potential Panel Method that offers the dual benefit of being restricted to a

boundary element analysis and of ensuring the lifting capability of the component. The mathematical

model for the structure, on the other hand, is based on the dynamics of a 2D airfoil that encounters

plunging and pitching motions. Correcting the FSI scheme to counteract the penalizing effect of the

added mass allows convergence to be ensured, whatever the value of the added mass. The application

case is intended to show how the classical FSI scheme is only applicable to a narrow range of fluids

(ρ ≤ 8 kg/m3 ), whereas taking into account the added mass effect on the coupling scheme can ensure the

convergence required by coupling considerations. We are currently looking at the possibility of extending

this approach to 3D applications to cover more realistic rotor geometries (wind mills, marine turbines),

in order to establish the full requirements of FSI calculations for such devices.

References

[1] M. Song, E. Lefrançois and M. Rachik. Development of a partitioned algorithm for fluid-structure coupling

with no fluid density dependency. Computer & Fluids, DOI : 10.1016/j.compfluid.2013.05.022, 2013

[2] Joseph Katz and Allen Plotkin, Low-Speed Aerodynamics, Cambridge Aerospace Series, 2nd Edition, 2001

[3] John J. Bertin and Russell M. Cummings, Aerodynamics for Engineers, Pearson Edition, 6th Edition, 2014

[4] Piperno S, Farhat C, Larrouturou B. Partitioned procedures for the transient solution of coupled aeroelastic

problems. part I: Model problem, theory and two-dimensional application. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech.

Engrg. 124, pages 79-112, 1995.

[5] Felippa CA, Park KC, Farhat C. Partitioned analysis of coupled mechanical systems. Computer Methods in

Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 190, Issues 24-25, 3247-3270, 2001.

[6] van Brummelen E.H., Added mass effects of compressible and incompressible flows in fluid-structure interac-

tion, J. Appl. Mech. 76 (2009), 021206-7.

[7] Fernández M. A., Gerbeau J.-F. and Grandmont C., A projection semi-implicit scheme for the coupling of an

elastic structure with an incompressible fluid. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 69 (4), pp.794-821, (2005)

[8] Küttler U., and Wall W., Fixed-point fluid-structure interaction solvers with dynamic relaxation, Computa-

tional Mechanics 43 (2008), no. 1, 61-72.

[9] T.Cebeci, M.Platzer, H.Chen, K.-C. Chang and J.P.Shao, Analysis of Low-Speed Unsteady Airfoil Flows,

Springer, Horizons Publishing, 2005

[10] C. E. Brennen, A review of added mass and fluid inertial forces, Technical Report, Report Number CR 82.010.

Contract Number N62583-81-MR-554, 1982.

170 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

CATION TO OVERALL SAFETY OF STRUCTURES IN QUASI - STATIC SETTING

1 Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France

emina.hadzalic@utc.fr, adnan.ibrahimbegovic@utc.fr

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

emina.hadzalic@gf.unsa.ba, samir.dolarevic@gf.unsa.ba

I NTRODUCTION

In fluid-structure interaction problems, the external fluid acts both as the source of the loading on the

structure and as source of the saturation of the material. The both aspects of the external fluid influence

have to be taken into account in order to provide a sound design of the structure in terms of structural

integrity and durability. In order to do so, the structure in the interaction problems of practical inter-

est such as dam-reservoir systems, storage tanks or water containers, has to be represented in terms of

saturated porous media. For numerical representation of the structure response, we propose the use of

coupled discrete beam lattice model based on Voronoi cell representation of the domain with nonlinear

Timoshenko beam finite elements acting as cohesive links, capable of modeling the response and lo-

calized failure in pore-saturated structures. Numerical implementation of the internal solid phase-pore

fluid coupling, which is governed by Biot’s porous media theory, results with an additional pressure-type

degree of freedom placed at each node of Timoshenko beam finite element. In fluid-structure interaction

problems of our interest, we can assume a small motion of the external fluid. This hypothesis allows us to

choose mixed displacement/pressure based finite element formulation for the external fluid motion, with

the governing equations derived from the acoustic wave theory. The chosen formulation of the external

fluid motion features both displacement and pressure degrees of freedom. This allows for the structure

and the external fluid finite elements to be connected directly at the common nodes, without any special

numerical treatment of the fluid-structure interface.

For numerical representation of the structure response, we choose coupled discrete beam lattice

model based on Voronoi cell representation of the domain with cohesive links as nonlinear Timoshenko

beam finite elements enhanced with additional kinematics [1, 2, 3]. These enhanced kinematics in terms

of embedded strong discontinuities in axial and transverse direction allow for modeling crack formation

and propagation both in mode I and mode II. Mode I relates to crack opening, and mode II relates to

crack sliding. The coupling between the solid phase and the internal pore fluid is introduced in the model

through Biot’s porous media theory and Darcy’s law governing the pore fluid flow [4, 5]. The pore fluid

flow is spread across the mesh of CST (Constant Strain Triangle) finite elements, which coincide with

Delaunay triangles. The duality property between the Voronoi cell and Delaunay triangle representations

in combination with Hammer quadrature rule for numerical integration on CST elements, results with an

additional pore pressure degree of freedom placed at each node of Timoshenko beam finite element.

Biot’s formulation of coupled problem combines equilibrium and continuity equations. The strong

form of equilibrium equations for Timoshenko beam finite element is written as

dN dV dM

+ n(x) = 0; + q(x) = 0; +V (x) + m(x) = 0 (1)

dx dx dx

171 1

where n, q and m are the distributed external loads, N = N 0 − bpAe , V = V 0 and M = M 0 are the total

stress resultants (the axial force, the shear force and the bending moment, respectively), p is the pore

pressure and b is the Biot coefficient. We assume that p is positive in compression. Following Terzaghi’s

principle of effective stresses, the superscript (0 ) denotes effective stress resultants.

The strong form of continuity equation exploits Darcy’s law for pore fluid flow, and is written as

1 k

ṗ + b∇ · u̇ − ∇ · ∇p = 0 (2)

M γf

where M is Biot modulus, u is the displacement of the solid phase, k is the coefficient of permeability of

isotropic porous media, and γ f is the specific weight of the pore fluid.

For numerical representation of the external fluid motion we choose mixed displacement/pressure

finite element formulation. We assume that the motion of the external fluid remains small and irrotational,

with inertial effects being negligible due to quasi-static simplification. The strong form of governing

equations is written as [6, 7]

p Λ

∇p + ∇ × Λ − fb = 0; ∇ · u + = 0; ∇ × u − = 0 (3)

β ϑ

where p is the pressure, u is the displacement vector, Λ is the ’vorticity moment’ and ϑ is the penalty

parameter. The parameter β is the bulk modulus of the external fluid, and fb is the external load vector.

For numerical discretization of the external fluid domain, we choose Q4-P4-Λ4 finite element. The

’vorticity moment’ degree of freedom can be statically condensed on the element level, so the only

unknown variables remaining on the global level are displacements and pressures.

N UMERICAL RESULTS

In this section, we simulate the response of a nonlinear dam-reservoir system with the aim of quanti-

fying the overall safety of the dam structure against localized failure. The geometry of the dam-reservoir

system and the loading program are shown in Figures 1a and 1b.

1.0 m

pervious

A

p=0

Specific weight [MPa]

ious

Imposed

perv

displacements

6.0 m

5.1 m

γs

y γw

x

0 7 14 21 28

Time [days]

3.0 m 8.0 m

We compute the maximum overload the dam structure can withstand, on top of already acting self-

weight and hydrostatic loading. The computation of maximum overloads for both horizontal and vertical

direction is carried out by imposing corresponding displacements at the top base of the dam. The specific

weight of the water is γw = 0.01 MPa, and the specific weight of the dam material is γs = 0.02 MPa.

The mechanical properties of Timoshenko beam finite element are: Young’s modulus E = 10000 MPa,

172 2

the yield and fracture limits in tension, compression and shear σy,t = 0.015 MPa; σy,c = 0.20 MPa;

σy,s = 0.015 MPa; σ f ,t = 0.02 MPa; σ f ,c = 0.30 MPa; σ f ,s = 0.02 MPa. The coefficient of permeability

of dam material is k = 10−7 m/s, and the bulk modulus of external fluid is β = 1000 MPa. All numerical

computations are performed with a research version of the computer code FEAP, developed by R. L.

Taylor [8].

Pressure [kPa]

0.00

0.000e+00 12.75

0.0127 25.50

0.0255 38.25

0.0382 51.00

5.100e-02

1

Numerical model

0.8 Analytical solution

y/Hreservoir

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Hydrostatic pressure kPa]

(a) Pressure and pore pressure distribution (b) Hydrostatic pressure distribution

We first assume linear elastic response of dam structure, and perform the computation for the first two

loading phases indicated in Figure 1b. The computed pressure field in the reservoir and in the body of the

dam due to the self-weight and hydrostatic loading are shown in Figure 2a. The computed pressure field

in the reservoir is practically identical with the analytical solution for the hydrostatic pressure distribution

(Figure 2b).

9

Horizontal overload [kN]

0

-1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

Horizontal displacement [mm]

(b) Deformed (c) Cracks formed and (d) Cracks formed and

(a) Horizontal overload configuration propagating in mode I propagating in mode II

140

Vertical overload [kN]

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

-1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

Vertical displacement [mm]

(b) Deformed (c) Cracks formed and (d) Cracks formed and

(a) Vertical overload configuration propagating in mode I propagating in mode II

173 3

Next, we assume nonlinear behavior of dam material, and perform computations following the load-

ing program shown in Figure 1b, with the aim to determine the maximum overload dam can withstand

until ultimate failure. The computed admissible horizontal overload is 8.3810 kN (Figure 3a). The to-

tal horizontal reaction resulting from the self-weight and hydrostatic loading is 130.05 kN. Thus, we

can conclude that the computed factor of safety against failure is 1.06. The failure mode for horizontal

overload is shown in Figures 3b-3d. The computed admissible vertical overload is 139.2103 kN (Figure

4a). The total vertical reaction resulting from the self-weight and hydrostatic loading is 252.7516 kN.

Thus, we can state that the computed factor of safety against failure is 1.55. The failure mode for vertical

overload is shown in Figures 4b-4d.

C ONCLUDING REMARKS

In this paper, we have presented an efficient approach for dealing with acoustic fluid-structure in-

teraction problems in quasi-static setting. The structure is considered as saturated porous media whose

response is obtained with nonlinear coupled discrete beam lattice model. The external fluid motion is

described with mixed displacement/pressure based formulation. The chosen finite element representa-

tions of the structure response and the external fluid motion feature the same displacement and pressure

degrees of freedom. This allows for the structure and the external fluid finite elements to be connected

directly at the common nodes ensuring the exchange of both pressure and motion at the fluid-structure

interface, without any special numerical treatment of the common boundary. The results of numerical

simulations show that with the proposed model we are able to capture localized failure in the pore-

saturated structure for a particular loading program, and to quantify overall safety of the pore-saturated

structure against failure with respect to fundamental load cases, self-weight and hydrostatic loading. The

proposed numerical model of interaction shows excellent performance in terms of fast convergence rates

and efficient computational time.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and French Embassy in Bosnia

and Herzegovina. Professor Adnan Ibrahimbegovic was supported by the funding for Chaire de Mé-

canique Picardie (120-2015 RDISTRUCT-000010 and RDISTRUCT-000010), EU funding (FEDER) and

IUF-Institut Universitaire de France (Membre Senior). These grants and financial supports are gratefully

acknowledged.

References

[1] A.Ibrahimbegovic. Nonlinear solid mechanics: theoretical formulations and finite element solution methods,

Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

[2] M. Nikolic, A.Ibrahimbegovic, P. Miscevic. Brittle and ductile failure of rocks: embedded discontinuity ap-

proach for representing mode I and mode II failure mechanisms, International Journal for Numerical Methods

in Engineering, 102(8):1507–1526, 2015.

[3] E.Hadzalic, A.Ibrahimbegovic, S.Dolarevic. Failure mechanisms in coupled soil-foundation systems, Coupled

Systems Mechanics, 7(1):27–42, 2018.

[4] M. Nikolic, A.Ibrahimbegovic, P. Miscevic. Discrete element model for the analysis of fluid-saturated frac-

tured poro-plastic medium based on sharp crack representation with embedded strong discontinuities, Com-

puter Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 298:407–427, 2016.

[5] E.Hadzalic, A.Ibrahimbegovic, M.Nikolic. Failure mechanisms in coupled poroplastic medium, Coupled Sys-

tems Mechanics, 7(1):43–59, 2018.

[6] KJ.Bathe, C.Nitikitpaiboon, X.Wang. A mixed displacement-based finite element formulation for acoustic

fluid-structure interaction, Computers & Structures, 56(2-3):225–237, 1995.

[7] X.Wang, KJ.Bathe. Displacement/pressure based mixed finite element formulations for acoustic fluid-structure

interaction problems, International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 40(11):2001–2017, 1997.

[8] O.C. Zienkiewicz, R.L. Taylor. The Finite Element Method, vols. I, II, II, Elsevier, 2005.

174 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

M ULTI - SURFACE PLASTICITY MODEL WITH SOFTENING FOR SOLIDS WITH MARKED

DIFFERENCE OF FAILURE

1 University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

emir.karavelic@utc.fr

2 Université de Technologie de Compiègne/Sorbonne Universités, Laboratoire Roberval de Mécanique,

1. Introduction

In this work we develop plasticity model much inspired by bahaviour of concrete. We present the con-

crete model built in the view of failure models for massive structures, where the elastic behavior is

followed by the creation of the fracture process zone with a large number of micro-cracks and subse-

quent final failure mode in terms of the macro-cracks. The fracture process zone is represented by the

non-associated Drucker-Prager model since the number of micro-cracks is considered sufficiently large

and their orientation random. The macro-crack is represented with a surface of displacement discontinu-

ity on which are concentrated all localized dissipative mechanisms due to the apparition and development

of localization zones [1].

2. Multi-surface model

The constitutive model governed by Hooke’s law, in the presence of plastic deformation, is no longer

pertaind to the total, but the elastic deformation. Namely, by assuming the independence of the elastic

response on plastic flow, the total deformation can be split additively into elastic εe and plastic part ε p ,

ε = ε e +εε p (1)

By further assuming that the elastic response remains linear, reducing to Hooke’s law in the absence of

plastic deformation, we can construct the free energy potential as a quadratic form in terms of deforma-

tions

ψ(εε,εε p ,ζζ) := 21 (εε −εε p ) · C(εε −εε p )) + 12 ζKζ (2)

Besides the stress tensor σ we define the stress-like internal variable q, which is dual to the strain-

like internal state variable ζ. We assume that this dual variable is used to define the yield criterion which

corresponds to the classical Drucker-Prager model:

r

1 2 (3)

σ, q) :=k dev[σ

φy (σ σ] k + tan(ϕ)tr[σσ]) − (σy − q)

3 3

where

σ] = σ − 13 (tr[σ

dev[σ σ])1 (4)

is the deviatoric part of the stress tensor, tan(ϕ) is material parameter which can characterize the internal

√

friction and σy is uni-axial yield stress. In (10) the Frobenius norm is used with k σ k:= σ : σ. Instead

to the yield function, plastic flow develops along the normal to the plastic potential function resulting

175 1

with nonassociated Drucker-Prager model. Here, we will use plastic potential function similary to yield

function

φ p (σ σ] k + 13 tan(ψ)tr[σ

σ, q) :=k dev[σ σ] (5)

where tan(ψ) is material parameter describing the angle of dilatancy.

Given three fundamental equations in (1), (2) and (3) with (5), are sufficient to completely define

the stress tensor computation as well as the internal variables evolution corresponding to the plasticity

model, simply by using the the second principle of thermodynamics and the principle of maximum plas-

tic dissipation [2]. It can be shown that the corresponding value of Lagrange multiplier γ̇ for associative

plasticity model is obtained from the consistency condition, which assures that in a plastic loading pro-

cess, subsequent stress and deformaton states remains on subsequent yield surface. Consequences of the

principle of maximum plastic dissipation that characterize such associative plasticity model are the con-

vexity of the yield surface in stress space and normality of plastic flow with respect to the yield surface.

Drucker’s stability postulate is also in agreement with this principle thus we can conclude that proposed

model with Drucker-Prager nonassociative flow rule is not stable in sense of Drucker. However, stability

postulate is sufficient but not a necessary criterion. Since the uniqueness of stress and strain trajectories

for a given loading exists, the material can be regarded as locally stable, thus the condition of uniqueness

rather than the stability postulate may be regarded as a basic for establishing stress-strain relationship.

For non-associative flow rule, the plastic multiplier γ̇ is obtained by using the plastic consistency

condition φ˙y = 0, and can be expressed as

∂φy

γ̇ = h−1 · Cε̇ε (6)

σ

∂σ

where we used relation

∂φy ∂φp ∂φy ∂φy

h−1 = ·C + ·K (7)

σ

∂σ σ

∂σ ∂q ∂q

We can simplify corresponding results in (6) for proposed model to obtain:

γ̇ = (8)

2G + 9Kα1 α2 + 32 Kh,iso

Once the plastic multiplier γ̇ is determined the corresponding stress increment can be obtained and

the elastic-plastic constitutive

Cep = C + C p (9)

where C p is plastic tangent stiffness tensor and represents the degradation of the stiffness of material

due to plastic flow. It can be noted from (33) that tensor C p lacks symmetry, and so does Cep if a

nonassociative flow rule is used which we stated for Drucker-Prager model:

Cep = C − (10)

2G + 9Kα1 α2 + 23 Kh,iso

The stress update and formation of the elastoplastic tangent modulus requires the derivative of the

yield and of the plastic potential function. Thus, even for linear criteria this is a cumbersome task when

carried out in the general six-dimensional stress space. It will be shown in the following that computation

in principal stress space simplifies the presented procedure above, remarkably. Firstly, the dimension of

the problem reduces from six to three, and secondly, in the three-dimensional stress space the stress

states can be visualised graphically, making it possible to apply geometric arguments. The approach is

applicable for general isotropic yield criteria, but in the following only Drucker-Prager criteria will be

considered. As only isotropic material models are considered the manipulations can be carried out with

respect to any set of coordinate axes. Therefore the predictor stress is transformed into principal stress

space and returned to the yield surface. Considering the fact that the stress return preserves the principal

directions, the updated stress can then be transformed back into the original coordinate system. The

176 2

constitutive matrices are also formed in principal stress space and then subsequently transformed. All

transformations rely on standard coordinate transformation.

Drucker-Prager model in principal stress space is right-circular cone with its axis equally inclined

with the respect to each of the coordinate axes and its apex in the tension octant. It can be shown that

plastic deformation must be accompanied by an increase in volume if ϕ 6= 0. This property known as

dilatancy is consequences of the dependency of yield surface for associative or plastic potential surface

for nonassociative flow rule, on hydrostatic pressure. Figure 1 shows the Drucker-Prager yield surface

open in direction of the negative hydrostatic axis along with plastic potential function. From flow rule the

plastic strain increment dεipj is perpendicular to plastic potential surface at the actual yield point M. The

vector dεipj can be decomposed into vertical and horizontal component where horizontal components

dεipvj represents the plastic volume change, which is always positive for ψ > 0 so and for associative

plasticity. When using a negative dilatancy angle, we find that stress-strain curve gradually approaches

a line with a negative slope. In other words, hardening is followed by softening and during this unstable

behaviour the material resistance vanishes completely.

J1/2

2

d pv

ij

Current loading surface

p

d ij

Plastic potential surface

-I1

Figure 1: The loading and plastic potential surfaces for the Drucker-Prager material with a nonassociated

flow rule

Invoking three main ingredients sufficent for the constitutive model of plasticity we can provide the

stress tensor computation as well as internal variables evolution. The principal stresses and deformations

as well as their directions are found by solving the well-known eigenvalue problem. The three eigen-

vectors of deformation tensor form a coordinate transformation tensor, thus forming the transformation

matrix T . All the remaining ingredients of the plasticity model can be obtained from the standard ther-

modynamics considerations. After the computation of plastic multiplier and updating stress tensor we

also have to obtain the elastoplastic tangent modulus which constist of a material and of a geometric part

[3].

σ 3 3

∂σ ∂σi ∂

C= =∑ ni ⊗ ni + ∑ σi (ni ⊗ ni )

∂εε i=1 ∂εε ε

i=1 ∂ε (11)

| {z } | {z }

Cmat Cgeo

In order to take into account two types of dissipative mechanism, for compression and tension one, we

build multisurface model in order to better reproduce the behavior of massive structures: a bulk dissipa-

tion characterized by the development of micro-cracks, which is taken into account by introduction of

the Drucker-Prager model and a surface dissipation taking place at the level of the localization zones in

terms of the macro-cracks triggered with plasticity criterion in strain space defined by three surfaces [4].

φ2 (εεe ) = εe2 − (εy − q) ≤ 0 (12)

e

φ3 (εε ) = εe3 − (εy − q) ≤0

Figure 2a shows proposed criterion in terms of principal stresses. One can note that in tension region

elastic stage is followed by softening, while in compression the fracture process zone is defined, followed

by softening.

Figure 2b cleary reveals that the only loading case which is not limited is the three-axial compression

along the three axes such as produced by hydrostatic pressure. Figures 3 and 4 shows stress-strain curve

for performed numerical tests.

177 3

s

2

1/2

J2

s 3

s 1

Drucker-Prager

-I1

hydrostatic

axis

(a) (b)

Figure 2: Multisurface criterion (a) in principal stress space (b) in meridian plane

6

4

Shear stress [MPa]

=0

1

=20

=-10

(a) (b)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Shear strain [%]

5 0

Linear hardening

4.5 -5 Saturation hardening

4

-10

3.5

-15

Stress [MPa]

Stress [MPa]

3

-20

2.5

-25

2

-30

1.5

-35

1

0.5 -40

(a) (b)

0 -45

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 -0.4 -0.35 -0.3 -0.25 -0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0

Axial Strain [%] Axial Strain [%]

Figure 4: Macroscopic response: (a) uniaxial tension test; (b) uniaxial compression test

3. Conclusion

It has been shown that proposed model combining the inelastic hardening and inelastic softening is able

to explain the failure of a massive structure. The class of problem of main interest for this kind of model

pertains to the failure of massive structures where final failure mechanism is preceeded by significant

development of plastic zone and where the contribution of the so-called fracture process zone remains of

equal importance for total plastic dissipation as the actual failure mechanism itself.

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a scholarship from the French Ministry of For-

eign Affairs and French Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.This support is gratefully acknowledged.

Adnan Ibrahimbegovic was supported by the funding for Chaire-de-Mecanique and IUF. This support is

gratefully acknowledged.

References

[1] Karavelic E, Nikolic M, Ibrahimbegovic A (2017) Concrete meso-scale model with full set of 3D failure modes

with random distribution of aggregate and cement phase. Part I: Formulation and numerical implementation.

Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., doi:10.1016/j.cma.2017.09.013

[2] Ibrahimbegovic A (2009) Nonlinear Solid Mechanics: Theoretical Formulations and Finite Element Solution

Methods. Springer, London

[3] Ibrahimbegovic A, Gharzeddine F, (1999) Finite deformation plasticity in principal axes: from a manifold to

the euclidean setting. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 171,341-369

[4] Ibrahimbegovic A, Brancherie D, (2003) Combined hardening and softening constitutive model of plastic-

ity,precursor to shear slip line failure. Computational Mechanics,31,88-100, doi:10.1007/s00466-002-0396-x

178 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

FINITE ELEMENT MODEL VALIDATION

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil, tzampaolo@gmail.com

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil, massarop@sc.usp.br

3

Abambres’ Lab, Portugal, abambres@netcabo.pt

4

Tal Projecto, Portugal, tpribeiro@gmail.com

Abstract: Tapered steel beams and columns are increasingly being used as primary load carrying

structures. To design and determine the load carrying capacity of these structures numerical modeling

methods, such as the finite element method, have been widely employed in the past few years. This

paper presents a systematic study on the influence of the finite element model on the ultimate bearing

capacity and postbuckling behavior of tapered steel columns with circular hollow section. The aim is

to investigate the influence of model simplifications, mesh density and quality, element types and

boundary conditions.

Keywords: Finite element model validation; mesh quality; nonlinear buckling; tapered column.

The considerable stiffness, strength and ductility of metals, as well as recent advances in

manufacturing technology, have led to the construction of highly efficient structural metal systems

(large strength-to-weight ratios) – in particular, those composed by thin-walled members have shown

to be a quite economic solution featuring reduced transportation and construction times (Loughlan

2004). Non-prismatic (tapered) members are widely used in modern metal construction in Civil,

Mechanical and Aeronautical industries, mostly due to their (i) structural efficiency, (ii) functionality,

and (iii) low fabrication costs (Zhang and Tong 2008) - Fig. 1 shows some typical applications of long

tapered steel columns in airport structures.

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Tapered steel columns in (a) Barajas (Madrid) and (b) Beijing international airport.

In order to take advantage of those benefits, accurate, simple and efficient design methods

must be available. Nevertheless, it is well-known (Marques et al. 2012) that safety verifications in

179

steel standards (e.g., CEN 2005, 2006, AISC2010, SA 2016), most mostly

ly adapted from prismatic member

rules, might be unsafe (up to 300% in some cases - Bedynek et al. 2013), difficult to perform, and/or

quite conservative (not taking advantage of the economy of non non-prismatic

prismatic members). A commonly

adopted alternative to thosee methods, as recommended by design codes, is the use of advanced

(physically and geometrically nonlinear) FEA, which is obviously unfeasible in current design practice

due to their time and know-how how requirements (besides involving expensive FEA software). Although

the large amount of research performed in the last few decades, either concerning (i)

numerical/analytical

/analytical formulations (e.g., Ghadban et al. 2017, Kim and Jang 2017, Balduzzi et al. 2017,

Lee and Lee 2018), or (ii) design methods (e.g., Marques et al. 2012, Papp 2016), it is still imperative

the development of groundbreaking (i.e., simultaneously accurate, easy-to-use,

easy use, versatile, efficient and

affordable) design rules/tools for tapered steel members. Within this context, the work presented

herein is part of an ongoing investigation that aims to propose (until the end of the year) an Artificial

Neural Network (ANN)-based based design scheme for simply supported circular hollow section (CHS)

tapered steel columns, exhibiting a parabolic taper and typicall

typically used (i) in high-rise

rise building (high-

(high

ceiling) lobbies, and (ii) as support of large span roof structures (see Fig. 2). For that purpose, the first

step consists in the performance of an extensive parametric finite element analysis (FEA) for the

computationon of (i) elastic buckling and (ii) ultimate bearing capacity loads.

The parametric analysis (PA) involves nine independent (input) variables, as defined in Tab. 1.

All combinations of input variable values were taken for the PA, resulting in a total of 58320 distinct

columns to be simulated.

FE-based parametric analysis.

180

2. Main Objectives

The accuracy of the finite element simulations is highly dependent on the model adopted (i.e.

the simplifications adopted to the geometry to be analyzed), boundary conditions and the mesh quality

and density. Thus, care has to be taken during this initial stage of the FE simulations in order to

achieve accurate and reliable results. This paper addresses details and important conclusions about the

modelling, simplifications and mesh validation procedures carried out before the onset of the PA, all

performed using the FE package ANSYS Mechanical APDL (Ansys Inc 2014).

3. Future research

In Civil Engineering, ANNs have provided a convenient and often highly accurate solution to

problems within all branches, appearing from publications statistics to be one of the great successes of

computing (Flood 2008). The first journal article on civil engineering applications of neural networks

was published by Adeli and Yeh (1989). The authors used a simple one-neuron model to the design of

steel beams. Since then, many other applications of ANNs within all fields of Civil Engineering arose

with increased complexity and sophistication (Adeli 2001). Areas like (i) buckling load prediction

(e.g., Sharifi and Tohidi 2014), (ii) bearing capacity prediction (e.g., Gandomi et al. 2013), (iii)

constitutive modeling (e.g., Oeser and Freitag 2016), (iv) structural reliability and/or optimization

(e.g., Papadrakakis and Lagaros 2016), or (v) structural health monitoring (e.g., Min et al. 2012), have

received special focus until today. Many successful ANN-based models have been proposed to assess

the behavior of metals and structures, when composed by prismatic members (e.g., Guzelbey et al.

2006, Efstathiadesa et al. 2007, Lu et al. 2009, Sheidaii and Bahraminejad 2012, Xu et al. 2013,

Tohidi and Sharifi 2015, 2016, Nazari et al. 2015, Banu and Rani 2016). Several works have revealed

a huge decrease in computing time when comparing the proposed ANN model with the FEA

counterpart, and without compromising accuracy – e.g, when estimating the temperature of a tubular

truss under fire, Xu et al. (2013) concluded that the ANN computes the desired output 1800 times

faster than FEA. Surprisingly, unlike for prismatic members, virtually no effort has been done to

develop analysis and design methods for tapered metal members based on ANNs.

References

Adeli H (2001). Neural networks in civil engineering: 1989–2000, Computer‐Aided Civil and

Infrastructure Engineering, 16(2), 126–142.

Adeli H, Yeh C (1989). Perceptron Learning in Engineering Design, Computer-Aided Civil and

Infrastructure Engineering, 4(4), 247-256.

AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction (2010). Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

(ANSI/AISC 360-10), AISC, Chicago, USA

Ansys Inc. (2014). ANSYS APDL (Mechanical), release 15.0, Canonsburg, PA.

Balduzzi G, Morganti S, Auricchio F, Reali A (2017). Non-prismatic Timoshenko-like beam model:

Numerical solution via isogeometric collocation, In Computers & Mathematics with Applications,

74(7), pp. 1531-1541.

Banu PSN, Rani SD (2016). Knowledge-based artificial neural network model to predict the properties

of alpha+ beta titanium alloys, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 30 (8), 3625-3631.

Bedynek A, Real E, Mirambell E (2013). Tapered plate girders under shear: Tests and numerical

research, 46(January), pp. 350-58

CEN - Comité Européen de Normalisation (2005). Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-1:

General rules and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1), Brussels

CEN - Comité Européen de Normalisation (2006). Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Part 1–5:

Plated structural elements (EN 1993-1-5), Brussels

181

Efstathiadesa C, Baniotopoulosa CC, Nazarkob P, Ziemianskib L, Stavroulakisc GE (2007).

Application of neural networks for the structural health monitoring in curtain-wall systems,

Engineering Structures, 29(12), 3475-84.

Flood I (2008). Towards the next generation of artificial neural networks for civil engineering,

Advanced Engineering Informatics, 22(1), 4–14.

Gandomi AH, Yun GJ, Alavi AH (2013). An evolutionary approach for modeling of shear strength of

RC deep beams, Materials and Structures, 46(12), 2109–2119.

Ghadban AA, Al-Rahmani AH, Rasheed HA, Albahttiti MT (2017). Buckling of Nonprismatic

Column on Varying Elastic Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions, Mathematical problems

in engineering, Volume 2017, 1-14.

Guzelbey IH, Cevikb A, Gogus MT (2006). Prediction of rotation capacity of wide flange beams using

neural networks, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 62(10), pp. 950–61

Kim H, Jang G-W (2017). Higher-order thin-walled beam analysis for axially varying generally

shaped cross sections with straight cross-section edges, Computers & Structures, 189(September), 83-

100.

Lee J, Lee B (2018). Elastica and buckling loads of nonlinear elastic tapered cantilever columns,

Engineering Solid Mechanics, 6(1), 39-50.

Loughlan J (Ed.) (2004), Thin-Walled Structures − Advances in Research, Design and Manufacturing

Technology, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol.

Lu Y, Ye L, Su Z, Zhou L, Cheng L (2009). Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based Crack

Identification in Aluminum Plates with Lamb Wave Signals, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems

and Structures, 20(1), 39-49.

Marques L, Taras A, Silva LS, Greiner R, Rebelo C (2012). Development of a consistent buckling

design procedure for tapered columns, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 72(May), 61-74.

Min J, Park S, Yun C-B, Lee C-G (2012). Impedance-based structural health monitoring incorporating

neural network technique for identification of damage type and severity, Engineering Structures,

39(June), 210–220.

Nazari A, Rajeev P, Sanjayan JG (2015), Offshore pipeline performance evaluation by different

artificial neural networks approaches, Measurement, 76 (December), pp. 117-28

Oeser M, Freitag S (2016). Fractional derivatives and recurrent neural networks in rheological

modelling – part I: Theory, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 17(2), 87–102.

Papadrakakis M, Lagaros ND (2016) Reliability-based structural optimization using neural networks

and Monte Carlo simulation, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 191(32),

3491–3507.

Papp F (2016). Buckling assessment of steel members through overall imperfection method,

Engineering Structures, 106 (January), pp. 124-36

SA - Standards Australia (2016). Australian standard: Steel Structures, AS 4100—1998 (R2016),

Sydney.

Sharifi Y, Tohidi S (2014). Lateral-torsional buckling capacity assessment of web opening steel

girders by artificial neural networks — elastic investigation, Frontiers of Structural and Civil

Engineering, 8(2), 167–177.

Sheidaii MR, Bahraminejad R (2012). Evaluation of compression member buckling and post-buckling

behaviour using artificial neural network, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 70(March), 71–77.

Tohidi S, Sharifi Y (2015). Neural networks for inelastic distortional buckling capacity assessment of

steel I-beams, Thin-Walled Structures, 94 (September), pp. 359-371

Tohidi S, Sharifi Y (2016). Load-carrying capacity of locally corroded steel plate girder ends using

artificial neural network, Thin-Walled Structures, 100 (March), pp. 48-61

Xu J, Zhao J, Wang W, Liu M (2013). Prediction of temperature of tubular truss under fire using

artificial neural networks, Fire Safety Journal, 56 (February), pp. 74-80

Zhang L, Tong GS (2008). Lateral buckling of web-tapered I-beams: A new theory, Journal of

Constructional Steel Research, 64(12), 1379-93.

182

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

accuracy of numerical schemes and the forms of applying

boundary conditions of the finite volume method on the Laplace

equation

1

Technological Federal University of Parana, fgiacomini@utfpr.edu.br

2

Technological Federal University of Parana, anavargas@utfpr.edu.br

Reliable accuracy and predictions of transport phenomena are the main purpose in Computational Fluid

Dynamics (CFD). The final intent of scientific interest is the validation of a mathematical model and for

this numerical verification is necessary. Two verification steps are: the computational code verification

and the numerical solution verification. Therefore, the objective of this work is to verify the effect on

the discretization error and its order caused by the form to apply the boundary conditions in problems

solved with the finite volume method. For this, they are considered: one and two-dimensional Laplace

equation with the verification of the order of accuracy a priori and a posteriori; uniform grids; up to

seven primary and secondary interest variables with numerical approximations of first and second orders

of accuracy; Dirichlet boundary conditions; tri and pentadiagonal solvers; grids with up to millions of

nodes; quadruple precision; and number of iterations suficiente to achieve the machine rounding error.

The form of apply the boundary conditions considered are four: with and without ghost volume; half

volume; and zero thickness volume. The a priori estimate of the order of accuracy is performed by

means of the deduction of the formal order based on the Taylor series. This approach is used to

effectively verify the order of accuracy of the numerical solutions calculated a posteriori by the use of

hibrid techniques, with numerical approximations of different orders, or not. The a posteriori estimate

is made based on the estimation of the discretization error obtained through Repeated Richardson

Extrapolation (RRE) [1]. As results obtained it is expected that: i) if the mixing fator exist, it does not

change the effectiveness of RRE [2]; ii) the accuracy order obtained a posteriori by means of RRE

corroborates the formal order obtained a priori; iii) RRE provides subsidies for cases in which it is not

possible to estimate a priori or a posteriori the orders of the numerical error; iv) the form to apply

boundary conditions with half volume results in the smallest numerical error [3]. Additional topics

include deduction of true orders from the numerical scheme, apparent order analysis, numerical

parameter effect on hibrid scheme, if any, and parabolic equation with or without source term.

References

with repetead Richardson extrapolation for 2D laplace equation, Applied Mathematical Modelling 37,

7386-7397, 2013.

183

[2] A. P. da S. Vargas. Repeated Richardson extrapolation and schemes of 1st and 2nd order, mixed and

Crank-Nicolson on the advection-difusion and Fourier 2D equations, Doctoral Thesis, PGMEC-UFPR,

2013.

[3] F. F. Giacomini. Verification of the form to apply boundary conditions in one-dimensional problems

with the finite volume method, Master’s Dissertation, PGMEC-UFPR, 2009.

184

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS USING FRAME FINITE-ELEMENT MODELS

Tiago Sten Freitas1, Fabrício Nogueira Corrêa2, Breno Pinheiro Jacob3

1

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia - COPPE/UFRJ,

tiagosten@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

2

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia - COPPE/UFRJ,

fabricio@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

3

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia - COPPE/UFRJ,

breno@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

ABSTRACT

O termo problemas de contato é empregado para as situações gerais onde ocorrem interações entre

um ou mais corpos. Os problemas de contato são frequentes em mecânica dos sólidos, visto que

as ações de contato são o mecanismo mais comum para as transferências de forças entre estruturas

ou sólidos em geral.

Problemas de contato são notadamente complexos quando não são conhecidos os pontos ou

regiões de contato, principalmente em problemas dinâmicos definidos no espaço tridimensional.

Para tal, deve-se conhecer a trajetória dos corpos no espaço e, por sua vez, a distância entre eles.

Assim que o contato é identificado, deve-se solucionar a equação de movimento dos corpos

considerando suas equações constitutivas, as condições de contorno e as condições iniciais que

definem o contato.

Este tipo de problema é notadamente não-linear por além de envolver não-linearidades

geométricas, envolvem não-linearidades físicas devido a vários fatores, tais como: grandes

deformações da seção dos corpos em contato, efeitos de atrito, etc.

Tradicionalmente, o problema de contato em modelos numéricos é baseado no uso de escalares

generalizados ligados por dois nós, um de cada corpo, definidos por molas não lineares com

patamar nulo para representar que os sólidos estão afastados e não nulos para representar forças

elásticas durante o contato.

O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um algoritmo mais aprimorado para identificação de

contato, baseado na interpenetrabilidade volumétrica, em análises globais de estruturas esbeltas

de seção circular, modeladas através de elementos finitos reticulados, de pórtico ou treliça

espacial. As forças elásticas de ação-reação são calculadas de forma expedita pela aplicação de

uma rigidez de contato, enquanto a dissipação de energia do contato é definida pelo

amortecimento estrutural de Rayleigh.

Este método é adequado para tratar o contato externo ou mesmo de uma ou mais estruturas

internas a outra (pipe-in-pipe).

Neste contexto, cabe recordar que as análises globais tem como objetivo avaliar, por exemplo, o

comportamento dinâmico das estruturas esbeltas, os modos de vibração, os esforços e curvaturas;

não sendo objeto da avaliação os efeitos mais localizados e complexos que envolveriam, por

exemplo, o uso de elementos finitos tridimensionais e equações constitutivas mais rigorosas para

estimativa das tensões e deformação da seção devido ao contato/impacto.

Deste modo, análises globais são aplicáveis em projetos de cabos de torres teleféricas, linhas de

ancoragem e risers de estruturas de exploração de petróleo offshore - que são dutos de escoamento

185

responsáveis pela ligação entre o poço e a unidade flutuante, aplicados nas operações de

perfuração, produção, exportação, injeção e completação. Em qualquer uma destes problemas, o

contato entre estruturas adjacentes pode ocorrer e ser mitigado globalmente com o método

apresentado neste trabalho.

Em sistemas de risers, por exemplo, onde grupos de risers são colocados lado a lado, o contato

externo entre eles (clashing) deve ser evitado e depende do afastamento dos slots, da força da

corrente marítima sobre cada estrutura, da diferença de peso e demais características físicas e

geométricas entre risers adjacentes, etc. A Figura 1 ilustra de forma esquemática a necessidade

de verificação de contato entre dois ou mais risers.

Ainda no cenário offshore, o contato externo entre estruturas pode ocorrer, por exemplo, em uma

situação de blackout de uma sonda de perfuração posicionada dinamicamente por propulsores. A

unidade de perfuração em blackout desconecta seu riser do poço, ficando em deriva livre pela

perda de funcionamento dos propulsores com o riser de perfuração pendurado. Nesta situação, ela

pode se aproximar de uma unidade de produção ancorada na mesma localidade, havendo risco da

colisão entre a coluna de perfuração e as linhas de ancoragem (Figura 2). Se isto acontecer, a linha

de ancoragem pode exceder seu limite de carga e romper, o riser de perfuração pode ser danificado

e a coluna de perfuração pode ainda se prender na linha de ancoragem, guiando a unidade de

perfuração em deriva para cima da unidade de produção.

Além disso, existem situações mais específicas onde o contato pode existir quando uma estrutura

está dentro de outra tubular (pipe-in-pipe). Na área de exploração de petróleo, operações de

descida de colunas de revestimento pelo interior da coluna de riser em operações de perfuração

de poços é um bom exemplo deste tipo de contato.

Em todos os casos citados, as análises globais envolvendo a modelagem das linhas por elementos

finitos reticulados devem ser capazes de simular o efeito do contato, contando com um algoritmo

de identificação dos pontos de contato e de aplicação das forças de ação-reação no modelo de

elementos finitos solucionado no domínio do tempo.

186

Neste contexto, este trabalho mostra que o algoritmo desenvolvido para identificação de contato

é adequado para análises dinâmicas globais no domínio do tempo de estruturas esbeltas modelas

por elementos finitos reticulados de seção circular. A abordagem envolve a identificação continua

de contato através de um método analítico, evitando que usuário pré-defina possíveis regiões de

contato, escalares generalizados, ou se preocupe com o tamanho dos elementos finitos nestas

regiões. O desempenho computacional é garantido através do uso de bounding box para busca de

possíveis regiões de contato.

Dois modelos genéricos serão estudados apenas para apresentar a funcionalidade do método: um

simulando o contato externo de linhas; e outro, o contato pipe-in-pipe. A eficiência computacional

também será abordada.

REFERENCES

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Engenharia Civil). Programa de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE) da

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2002.

submarinos. 2009. P. 156 Tese (Doutor em Ciências em Engenharia Civil). Programa de Pós-

Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE) da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro –

UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2009.

assentamentos de colunas de revestimentos. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Interciência, 2009.

[4] BELYTSCHKO, T.; FISH, J. Um Primeiro Curso em Elementos Finitos. Rio de Janeiro, RH,

Editora LTC, 2009. 256 p.

Portuguesa: exploração e produção de petróleo e gás uma colaboração Brasil, Portugal e Angola.

Rio de Janeiro: Lexikon: PUC-Rio 2009.

[6] “ISO 11960-2:2004 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Steel pipes for use as casing or

tubing for wells”. Geneva, Suíça, ISO – International Organization for Standardization, 2006.

[7] CORRÊA, F.N., Ferramentas Computacionais para Análise Acoplada de Sistemas Offshore,

Tese de D.Sc., COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, 2008.

[8] CHAKRABARTI, S. K., Handbook of Offshore Engineering – 2vols., 1st Ed., Elsevier, 2008.

[9] WRIGGERS, P., Computational Contact Mechanics. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

[10] LAURSEN, T.A., Computational Contact and Impact Mechanics. Berlim, Springer, 2002.

[11] HUGHES, T.J.R., TAYLOR, R.L., SACKMAN J.L., CURNIER A., KANOKNUKULCHAI

W., “A Finite Element Method for a Class of Contact-Impact Problems”, Comput. Methods Appl.

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Penalizadas do Método dos Elementos Finitos, Tese de D.Sc., COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ,

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[17] HUNĔK, I., “On Penalty Formulation for Contact-Impact Problems”, Computers &

Structures, vol.48, pp. 193–203, 1993.

[18] HALLQUIST, J.O., GOUDREAU, G.L., BENSON, D.J., “Sliding Interfaces with Contact-

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[19] BATHE, K.-J., Finite Element Procedures, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1996.

[20] ZIENKIEWICS, O. C., TAYLOR, R. L., The Finite Element Method, 6 ed, Singapore,

McGraw-Hill, 2005.

[21] OÑATE, E, ROJEK, J., “Combination of Discrete Element and Finite Element Methods for

Dynamic Analysis of Geomechanics Problems”, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., vol.193,

pp. 3087–3128, 2004.

[22] HUGHES, T. J. R., The Finite Element Method – Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element

Analysis, New York, Dover Publications, 2000.

[23] COOK, R. D., MALKUS, D. S., PLESHA, M. E, WITT, R. J., Concepts and Applications

of Finite Element Analysis, 4 ed, United States, Jonh Wiley & Sons, 2002.

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[25] BERG, M., KREVELD, M.V., OVERMARS, M., SCHWARZKOPF, O., Computational

Geometry – Algorithms and Applications, Springer, 2000.

[26] ZHONG, Z.-H., NILSSON, L., “Automatic Contact Searching Algorithm for Dynamic Finite

Element Analysis”, Computers & Structures, vol.52, pp. 187–197, 1994.

[27] BENSON, D.J., HALLQUIST, J.O., “A Single Surface Contact Algorithm for the Post-

Buckling Analysis of Shell Structures”, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., vol.78, pp. 141–

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[28] WRIGGERS, P., ZAVARISE, G., “On Contact Between Three-Dimensional Beams

Undergoing Large Deflections”, Comm. Numer. Methods Engrg., vol.13, pp.

[29] SILVA, D.M.L., CORRÊA, F.N., JACOB, B.P., “A Generalized Contact Model for the

Simulation of Complex Offshore Operations”, XXVII CILAMCE – Iberian Latin-American

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188

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER

1

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia – COPPE/UFRJ,

raiquintas@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

2

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia – COPPE/UFRJ,

fabricio@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

3

Escola Politécnica – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, carl@lamcso.coppe.ufrj.br

Faced with the threat posed by global warming and climate change to the future of the planet,

society has intensified the pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, countries have

been mobilizing to reduce the use of fossil fuels, which is a major contributor to anthropogenic

greenhouse gas emissions.

At the same time, as the world population continues to grow, demand for energy will increase.

Thus, to ensure the supply of this energy, without counting on fossil fuels, it will be necessary to

invest in alternative energy sources.

Because of that, renewable energy has gained increasing importance in the energy production

industry. Among the sources of renewable energy, one that has a great potential for generation, but is

still not much explored, is the wave energy.

Wave energy has some advantages over other sources of renewable energy, such as a higher

energy density and its generation consistency, but the efficiency of the devices developed to convert

this energy into useful electrical energy is generally very low, which makes the production of energy

by waves still unpractical [1].

Therefore, this work aims to study and propose strategies to theoretically increase the

hydrodynamic efficiency for a wave energy conversion device.

For this purpose, it will be used a submerged pressure differential device with cylindrical

geometry. This device will be simulated numerically for the cases of regular and irregular sea to find

the value of the parameters that optimize the device’s efficiency.

References

[1] B. Drew, A. R. Plummer, M. N. Sahinkaya. A review of wave energy converter technology, Proc.

IMechE Vol. 223 Part A: J. Power and Energy, 887-902, 2009.

189

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

1

Laboratoire Roberval UMR CNRS/FRE 2012, Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de

Compiègne, fangtao.yang@utc.fr

2

ICD/LASMIS, UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie,

BP2060, F10010 Troyes, France

1. Introduction

The metal forming process is of great importance in the industry. The damage of ductile material as well

as the fracture occurring during metal forming process is a great concern during metal forming

processes. The 2D simulation of ductile damage [1] [2] is widely studied in the literature, however 3D

simulation of ductile damage, especially the representation of the cracks based on h-adaptive

methodology is still an opening problem to be discussed.

2. Damage model

The elasto-plastic model proposed by Hooputra et al. [3] is used to describe the inelastic behavior of the

ductile material. The equivalent plastic strain is given by Eq.1.

T sinh k0 T sinh k0

Dpl , pl (1)

sinh k0

Where T and T correspond to the equivalent plastic strain at ductile damage initiation for equibiaxial

tensile and equibiaxial compressive deformation, respectively. For isotropic materials the stress

triaxiality in equibiaxial tensile deformation state, , is 2/3 , and in equibiaxial compressive

deformation state, , is -2/3. The stress triaxiality is defined as p / q where p is the pressure

stress, q is the Mises equivalent stress and pl is the equivalent plastic strain rate. The damage variable

D is defined in Eq. 2 which increases monotonically with plastic deformation.

d pl

D pl (2)

D , pl

3. 3D h-adaptive methodology

3.1 3D mesh refinement strategy

During the metal forming processes, with the plastic strain accumulating, the damage increases which

results in a highly localized physical field. These two physical quantities are chosen as indicators to

make a referenced size map. The mesh is then refined by bi-section technique [4]. This technique given

by a minimum size ratio 2 between old coarse mesh and new fine mesh. This requires field transfer

operator to capture the evolution of the physical field in a reliable way.

190

The cracks are represented by deleting totally damaged elements. The damage value ranges from 0 to 1.

We define a critical damage value as Dc 0.99 [5]. If all integration points in an element having the

damage value bigger than this critical damage value, this element is defined as totally damaged elements.

As discussed in section 3.1, the totally damaged elements located within very narrow damage bands and

the size of totally damaged elements are limited to be equal or smaller than minimum mesh size.

Therefore, when these elements are removed from the mesh, the volume reduction is very small. Based

on this fact, the compensation of the volume can be performed by relocating the nodes on the crack

surface. This process is similar to a smoothing process, however the displacements of the nodes are

small. As a result, the topology of the mesh around the crack surface can be kept.

3.3.1 Nodal field transfer --- shape function interpolation

The mesh is refined according to cumulative strain and damage field. Then the nodal fields and

integration fields should be transferred from old (coarse) mesh to the new (fine) mesh. Nodal fields are

transferred by shape function interpolation as expressed in Eq. 3:

nGauss

j ( x, y , z )

S new N

i 1

old

i ( x, y , z ) Siold (3)

where N iold is the shape function corresponding to node of the containing element in old mesh which

contains the node j in the new mesh. The nodal value Siold is at ith node of the containing element. The

nodal value S new

j is at jth node in the new mesh. Sometimes, after refinement and relocation process, a

node in the new mesh may be located outside the old mesh. In order to interpolate around all boundary

of the old mesh, the shape function here can be negative outside the element. In this case, we choose the

element in the old mesh which is nearest to the considered node in the new mesh as the containing

element. Because this node is very near to the “containing” element, the continuity of shape function is

not disturbed.

Some authors [7] in the literature transfer the integration field by a meshless interpolation called diffuse

approximation [6]. This method is aimed to reconstruct the field by an interpolation function using a

group of neighboring points based on moving least square. A brief introduction is expressed as

following, in Eq. 4:

a0

a

S ( X X 0 ) P ( X X 0 ) X 0 1 x x0 y y0 z z0 1

T

a2

(4) a3

in which X 0 is the evaluation point and S is the field we want to reconstruct in the vicinity of the

evaluation point. P is the basis of a polynomial function and is the coefficient vector to be solved.

The coefficient vector is obtained by satisfying the following criterion in Eq. 5:

n n

Min : J ( X X 0 ) wi ( S ( X i X 0 ) Si ) 2 wi ( P ( X i X 0 ) Si ) 2 (5)

T

i 1 i 1

in which Si is the field value on the neighboring point X i . wi is the interpolation weight corresponding

to each neighboring point.

However, most of them treat with a 2D problem or a nearly non-localized problem (no crack

propagation). In our case, the integration field is 3D and highly localized. According to our experience,

the only diffuse approximation is not enough to achieve a robust transfer. The solution is to introduce

also the shape function interpolation process. The whole meshless-FEM based hybrid transfer process

is illustrated in the following Fig. 1. The integration fields of the old mesh are transferred to the nodal

points of the new mesh by diffuse interpolation (meshless) and then again transferred to the integration

191

points of the new mesh by finite element shape function interpolation. The advantages of this hybrid

transfer process is that it preserves the extrema value of the field, especially when the field is localized

as well as minimum the numerical diffusion of the transfer process.

4. Numerical results

This adaptive methodology is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation on aluminum board

under tensile test. The aluminum alloy EN AW-7108 T6 is used to run the simulation. The numerical

process is carried out by ABAQUS Explicit® in a quasi-static frame. The parameters in equivalent

plastic strain are listed in Tab. 1.

Parameters T T k0

Values 0.26 193.0 5.277

Three different shape of specimens with a uniform thickness 0.5mm are used. For each of the specimen,

the initiation and propagation of the crack are displayed. The adaptive process does not influence on the

evolution of the plasticity and damage field. The cracks propagate within a narrow bands. The damage

field on the specimens are colored with blue equals to 0 and red equals to 1.

Figure 2. The crack initiation and propagation on the double arc specimen

Figure 3. The crack initiation and propagation on the double notched specimen

192

Figure 4. The crack initiation and propagation on the specimen with double holes

We can see in the Fig. 2, the double arc specimen is fixed at the left extreme and a load is added at the

right extreme. The crack initiates in the middle of the specimen and propagates to the two arc boundaries.

In Fig. 3, the double notched specimen is also fixed at its left extreme and a load is given at the right

extreme. The crack initiates around two notches and propagates to the middle of the specimen. The

specimen with two holes in Fig. 4, is fixed at the bottom and a load is given at the top. Three cracks

appear on the specimen. We can see that in all numerical results the initial meshes are very coarse

meshes and the meshes are refined around the cracks because of the accumulation of the plasticity and

damage in these zones. The advantages of our method are that saving lots of the computational cost and

no need to pre-refined mesh along the potential crack path.

References

[1] Hooputra, H., Gese, H., Dell, H., & Werner, H. (2004). A comprehensive failure model for

crashworthiness simulation of aluminium extrusions. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 9(5),

449-464.

[2] C. Labergere, A. Rassineux, K. Saanouni, Numerical simulation of continuous damage and fracture

in metalforming processes with 2d mesh adaptive methodology, Finite Elements in Analysis and

Design 82 (2014) 46–61.

[3] Bouchard, P. O., Bay, F., Chastel, Y., & Tovena, I. (2000). Crack propagation modelling using an

advanced remeshing technique. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 189(3),

723-742.

[4] A. Rassineux, 3d mesh adaptation. Optimization of tetrahedral meshes by advancing front technique,

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 141 (3) (1997) 335–354.

[5] K. Saanouni, Damage mechanics in metal forming: Advanced modeling and numerical simulation,

John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

[6] P. Breitkopf, G. Touzot, P. Villon, Consistency approach and diffuse derivation in element free

methods based 22on moving least squares approximation, Computer Assisted Mechanics and

Engineering Sciences 5 (4) (1998) 479–501.

[7] D. Brancherie, P. Villon, and A. Ibrahimbegovic. On a consistent field transfer in non-linear inelastic

analysis and ultimate load computation. Computational Mechanics, 42(2):213-226, 2008.

193

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

PSEUDOSPECTRAL AND IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHODS

1

Universidade Federal de Goiás, fpmariano@ufg.br

2

Universidade Federal de Goiás, aanascimento@ufg.br

3

Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, aristeus@mecanica.ufu.br

Phenomena involving aeroacustic, transition to turbulence and combustion are problems that

engineers aim to understand using techniques of Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) [1]. In these

problems are used methods of high order accuracy to obtain results to analyze the real physical

phenomena mentioned. High order methods provide an excellent accuracy, for example, high order

finite differences method and compact schemes [2]. On the other hand, they have disadvantaged of

computational expensive cost in comparison to conventional methods. The mathematical formulation

of spectral methods become possible to join high accuracy with low computational cost [3,4]. This low

computational cost is given by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) [5], since the order (O) of the

computational cost of a fluid flow problem solution with finite differences method is O(N2), where N

is the number of the grid points, the cost of the FFT is of O(Nlog2N). Furthermore, it was also

developed the projection method [4], which uncouple the pressure field in the spectral space. Using

the projection tensor is not necessary to calculate the Poisson equation, as has been done by

conventional methodologies to simulate incompressible fluid flows. Normally, to solve this equation is

the most expensive part of a CFD numerical codes [1]. The disadvantage of the spectral methodology

is the difficulty to work with complex geometries and boundary conditions [5]. One of the most

practical methodologies to work with complex and moving geometries is the Immersed Boundary

(IBM) [6]. It is characterized by the imposition of a term source, which has the role of a body force

added to the Navier-Stokes equation to represent virtually a body immersed in the flow [7].

A methodology used, in the present paper, works with Fourier pseudospectral method connected

with Immersed Boundary Method [8]. It is proposed to simulate flows with non-periodic boundary

conditions making use of the term source of immersed boundary. On the other hand, the accuracy of

immersed boundary is improved, at least to second order for smooth solution problems.

The present work shows the simulations of flows over cylinders stationary and flows over cylinders

fixed by springs and dampers. These are some classical problems to validate the procedure of Fluid

Structure Interaction (FSI), i.e., the cylinder can move into the flow and interacts of the fluid flow

edges. These kinds of problems have a great industrial interest and a challenge for researchers in CFD

[9, 10, 11].

It is generate an inlet uniform profile flow, the fluid flow cross the section of a circular cylinder

and we verify the drag and lift coefficients, this variables determine the forces that act on bodies

immersed in flow, the drag coefficient (Cd) determines the resistance force of the fluid on the body

immersed, while the lift coefficient (Cl) determines the force that exists in the direction perpendicular

to incoming flow, an interesting problem in aeronautical engineering is the optimization of airfoils,

that consist in maximize the lift and minimized the drag of the airfoil profiles. Other parameter

194

analyzed is the Strouhal number (St) which determines the non-dimensional vortex shedding, it is

important to solve problems of fluid-structure interaction, for example, pillars of bridges, or wings of

aircraft, submitted to a flow, if the frequency of vortex shedding is close to the natural frequency is

extremely damaging to these structures.

The Fig. 1 shows vorticity isocontours (-1,0<w<1,0) of fluid flow over a cylinder, at Reynolds

number equal 100. In the Fig. 1 it is possible to see the periodical boundary conditions and the

Immersed Boundary method acting over the flow.

The Tab. 1, shows the comparison between Cd, Cl and St for different Reynolds numbers and with

different authors.

[12] [13] [14] [15] Present work

Re Cd Cl St Cd Cl St Cd Cl St Cd Cl St Cd Cl St

100 1,39 0,20 0,160 1,44 0,33 0,165 1,42 0,34 0,171 1,39 0,34 0,160 1,45 0,35 0,175

150 1,37 0,25 0,175 1,47 0,58 0,184 1,37 0,49 0,200

200 1,42 0,66 0,202 1,38 0,68 0,192 1,27 0,47 0,213

300 1,22 0,27 0,190 1,08 0,39 0,221

To study the effects of fluid structure interaction (FSI) we realize simulations of flows over

cylinder fixed by two spring-damper systems in agreement of the works of [10] and [11]. Furthermore,

we perform the simulations of two different time advanced methods, the first is the classical explicit

Euler and the second one is the forth order Runge-Kutta with six steps and low dissipation and low

dispersion method (RK46) purposed by [16]. In the Fig. 2 is shown the vorticity field of both methods

at the same time and at the same Reynolds number.

Figure 2. Vorticity field of flows over cylinder fixed by spring. In the left figure the simulation is

realized using the explicit Euler and the right using the forth order Runge-Kutta method.

195

In the Fig. 2 it is noteworthy the change of the flow pattern of the wake vortices, in the simulation

of RK46 the pattern of flow is the 2-C and in the explicit Euler the pattern is 2-S. The Fig. 3 presents

the maximum displacement of center of the cylinder using the RK46 in comparison with the [10]. The

solution is very similar to work of the reference, but it is a little overestimated. It is important

understand that the results of [10] are obtained using a Finite Volume Method.

The Fourier pseudospectral method allows solver the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with

high order accuracy and with low computational cost when compared another high order method,

because the pressure disentail and the use FFT algorithm. In the simulations of the flow over a circular

cylinder it is possible observe the drag and lift coefficients and Sthrouhal number quite like other

authors. In the simulations of fluid structure interaction, it is important highlight the time advanced

method in both, fluid and rigid body movement, differential equations. It is required the use the high

order time-advanced method, in the present paper we adopted the Runge-Kutta with low dissipation

and low dispersion purposed by [16]. This way allows we obtain the correct flow pattern and

displacement of the cylinder center.

References

[1] S.V. Patankar. Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Hemisphere, 1980.

[2] G.E. Karniadakis, S.A. Orszag. Nodes, modes and flow codes. Physics Today, 34-42, 1993.

[3] S.A. Orszag. Spectral Methods for Problems in Complex Geometries, Journal of Computational

Physics, 70-92, 1970.

[4] C. Canuto, M.Y. Hussaini, A. Quarteroni, T.A. Zang. Spectral methods: fundamentals in single

domains, Springer-Verlag, 2006.

[5] W.L. Briggs, V.E. Henson. The DFT, SIAM, 1995.

[6] C.S. Peskin. The immersed boundary method, Acta Numerica, 479–517, 2002.

[7] Z. Wang, J. Fan, K. Luo. Combined multi-direct forcing and immersed boundary method for

simulating flows with moving particles, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 283-302, 2008.

[8] F.P. Mariano, L.Q. Moreira, A. Silveira Neto, C.B. da Silva, J.C.F. Pereira. A new incompressible

Navier-Stokes solver combining Fourier pseudo-spectral and immersed boundary methods, Computer

Modeling in Engineering Science, pp. 181-216, 2010.

196

[9] S. Enriquez-Remigio, A. Silveira Neto. A new modeling of fluid-structure interaction problems

through immersed boundary method/virtual physical model (IBM/VPM), Proceedings of the 19th

Brazilian Congress of Mechanical Engineering, 1-10, 2007.

[10] M.J. Chern, Y.H. Kuan, G. Nugroho, G. TingLu, T.L. Horng. Direct-forcing immersed boundary

modeling of vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder, Journal of Wind Engineering and

Industrial Aerodynamics, 109–121, 2014.

[11] S.P. Singh, S. Mittal. Vortex-induced oscillations at low Reynolds numbers:

Hysteresis and vortex-shedding modes, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 1085–1104, 2005.

[12] A.L.F. Lima e Silva, A. Silveira Neto, J. Damasceno. Numerical simulation of two dimensional

flows over a circular cylinder using the immersed boundary method, Journal of Computational

Physics, 351-370, 2003.

[13] M.C. Lai, C.S. Peskin. An immersed boundary method with formal second order accuracy and

reduced numerical viscosity, Journal of Computational Physics, 705–719, 2000.

[14] S. Xu and Z.J. Wang, An immersed interface method for simulating the interaction of a fluid with

moving boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics. 454-493, 2006.

[15] D.V. Le, B.C. Khoo, K.M. Lim, An implicit-forcing immersed boundary method for simulating

viscous flows in irregular domains, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2119-

2130, 2008.

[16] V. Allampalli, R. Hixon, M. Nallasamy, S. Sawyer. High-accuracy large-step explicit Runge-

Kutta (Hale-RK) schemes for computational aeroacoustics, Journal of Computational Physics, 3837-

3850, 2009.

197

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

DERS

1 Universidade Federal de Goiás, eldergualberto55@gmail.com

2 Universidade Federal de Goiás, fpmariano@ufg.br

3 Universidade Federal de Goiás, aanascimento@ufg.br

The study of flow around slender structures (circular and rectangular cylinders) are of practical inter-

est to many fields of engineering because many civil structure and industrial structure can be assimilate to

this shape. Many publications about circular cylinder such as Sarpkaya (1979, 2004), Sumer and Freds0e /

(1997), Bearman (1984), Williamson and Govardhan (2004, 2008), are motivation to any researchers sty-

ding this physical problem. In contrast, flow around rectangular cylinders has not been investigated to

the same extent, although this has many technical applications such as building aerodynamics; Franke et

al. (1990), Klekar and Patankar (1992), Davis and Moore (1982), Davis et al. (1984), Okajima (1982,

1990), Mukhopadhyay et al. (1992) and Suzuki et al. (1993). In this paper, addresses the application

Fourier Pseudoespectral Method (FPM) coupled with Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for incom-

pressible and isothermic flow, two-dimensional domain, through cylinders of circular and rectangular

cross-sections. The Navier-Stokes equations are solving for FPM, and the geometries are represented by

immersed boundary. Computer simulations were solving for low Reynolds numbers and four rectangu-

lar models having width-to-height ratios of 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 16.0 were considered. Results about vortex

sheddings and Strouhal are discussed.

References

[1] Franke, R., Rodi, W., Schönung, B., Numerical calculation of laminar vortex shedding past cylinders. J. Wind

Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 35, 237-257, 1990.

[2] Klekar, K.M., Patankar, S.V., Numerical prediction of vortex shedding behind square cylinders. Int. J. Numer.

Meth. Fluids 14, 327-341, 1992.

[3] Davis, R.W., Moore, E.F., A numerical study of vortex shedding from rectangles. J. Fluid Mech. 116, 475-506,

1982.

[4] Davis, R.W., Moore, E.F., Purtell, L.P.,A numerical-experimental study of confined flow around rectangular

cylinders. Phys. Fluids 27, 46-59, 1984.

[5] Okajima, A., Strouhal numbers of rectangular cylinders. J. Fluid Mech. 123, 379-398, 1982.

[6] Okajima, A., Numerical simulation of flow around rectangular cylinders. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 33,

171-180, 1990.

[7] Mukhopadhyay, A., Biswas, G., Sundararajan, T., Numerical investigation of confined wakes behind a square

cylinder in a channel. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 14, 1473-1484, 1992.

[8] Suzuki, H., Inoue, Y., Nishimura, T., Fukutani, F., Suzuki, K., Unsteady flow in a channel obstructed by a

square rod (crisscross motion of vortex). Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 14 (1), 2-9, 1993.

[9] Sarpkaya, T.,Vortex-induced oscillations: a selective review. J. Appl. Mech. 46, 241-258, 1979.

[10] Sarpkaya, T.,A critical review of the intrinsic nature of vortex-induced vibrations. J. Fluids Struct. 19, 389-

447, 2004.

198 1

/ J., Hydrodynamics Around Cylindrical Structures. World Scientific, Singapore, 1997.

[11] Sumer, B.M., Freds0e,

[12] Williamson, C.H.K., Govardhan, R., Vortex-induced vibrations. Annu. Rev.Fluid Mech. 36, 413-455, 2004.

[13] Williamson, C.H.K., Govardhan, R., A brief review of recent results in vortex-induced vibration, J. Wind Eng.

Ind. Aerodyn. 96, 713-735,2008.

[14] Bearman, P.W., Vortex shedding from oscillating bluff bodies. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 16, 195-222, 1984.

199 2

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

PERELASTIC MODEL

1 Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

In order to satisfy requirements such as unicity of solutions and physically plausible mechanical

behavior, it is mandatory that the strain energy function W of hyperelasticity fulfills some mathematical

conditions, such as policonvexity and the Baker-Ericksen inequalities. Policonvexity is assured by the

positive definiteness of the Hessian of W, implying uniqueness of solutions and numerical stability in the

framework of computer simulations with Newton type methods. The Baker-Ericksen inequalities, on the

other hand, are sufficient to guarantee that the material behaves in a physically plausible way, although

they are rarely taken into account during the procedure of curve fitting. A hyperelastic model must,

therefore, be developed in a way that its equation for W allows the simultaneous satisfaction of both of

these requirements. Here we propose such an isotropic constitutive model based on a modification of a

previously developed equation in order to enable the fulfillment of the aforementioned conditions as well

as incorporating anisotropic capability based on the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden model.

——————————————-

200 1

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

STUDY

Flavio Torres da Fonseca 1 , Roque Luiz da Silva Pitangueira 2 , Samuel Silva Penna 3

1 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, flaviotf@dees.ufmg.br

2 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, roque@dees.ufmg.br

3 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, spenna@dees.ufmg.br

Abstract

The INSANE (Interactive Structural Analysis Software) is being developed by the Structural Engineering

Department of Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEES/UFMG) since 2002. Through these years,

the system has evolved from a simple 2D frame element analysis software to a very complex system,

with many different methods, elements, constitutive models and solution types. However, the system

also suffered from a well known phenomena called software erosion: a slow deterioration of software

performance over time. In this paper, the INSANE system will be briefly described and a diagnosis

of its actual state will be presented. Software erosion causes, consequences and possible solutions or

preventions will be discussed.

The INSANE (Interactive Structural Analysis Software) software started to be developed in 2002, by

the Structural Engineering Department of Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEES/UFMG), as an

undergraduate research program. Its initial objective was to create a simple 2D frame element analysis

software to be used as an academic resource in Structural Analysis courses [1, 2]. However, since the

beginning, its software architecture and class organization were planned to be as general as possible, in

order to enable its expansion.

Since then, many undergraduate and graduate researchers have worked on it, resulting in 29 Master

Thesis and 5 Doctoral Dissertations [3].

Today, the INSANE is a complex system with many methods (Finite Element Method - FEM, Gener-

alized Element Method - GFEM, Boundary Element Method - BEM and Mesh Free Methods), linear and

non linear (physically and geometrically) analysis, static and dynamic analysis, as well as many different

constitutive models [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].

Despite many efforts have been put in creating a friendly and complete user interface [10], its devel-

opment did not follow the advances of the analysis modulus, so the last stable version of INSANE was

released in 2004 and presents only the frame elements interface.

Software erosion can be described as a slow deterioration of software performance over time. It is a

phenomena that has been studied by computer scientists for decades and has been detected not only

in academic softwares, but also in well known open sources and proprietary projects, as Mozilla web

browser, VIM text editor, ANT and version 2.4 of Linux kernel [11, 12, 13].

201 1

The biggest problem with software erosion is that its effects accumulate over time, making the source

code harder to maintain and to understand.

One of the main causes of this phenomena in the INSANE comes from the project’s own nature: an

academic project, in which each developer has an individual objective and a rigid time schedule. The

rotativity of contributors is very high, so the understanding of the system as a whole and the formation of

a developing culture is not achieved. Another point is the lack of sense of community. Some people tend

to think only in its own work and do not worry about the effects of the modifications on other developers’

work.

In the INSANE source code the most commons signs of software erosion are cyclic dependencies,

dead code (unused code, large number of commented lines) and code clones (identical or near-identical

code fragments).

A sign of erosion which appeared after the adoption of Git as the version control system is the huge

number of branches that were created and that are never updated with the master branch modifications

or nerver merged into master. There are also some orphan branches which were created, modified and

abandoned.

Another problem in INSANE code, but that is not direct related to software erosion but indirectly

contributes for it, is the small quantity of implemented unit tests. To maintain a stable code and enable

refactoring, it is imperative to have tests, to ensure that the software works properly.

The first step to avoid the software erosion process is to put into the mind of all developers that the

INSANE system is bigger than their individual work and that other people will need to understand and

use their source code. By knowing this, it is expected that all contributors will create good ‘legacy’ code

for the upcoming developers.

Another step is to introduce code review process, which can be done within the adopted version

control system (Git and GitLab). This will force the code to be well written and dead code to be removed.

To reverse the software erosion, the existing source code must be refactored. This refactorization

comprises dead code removal, proper documentation of source code, numerical methods optimization

and software architecture modification. For this last change, one of the possibilities is to adopt a plug-in

based architecture, which will modularize and encapsulate even more the source code, protecting the

core classes and methods.

In order to guarantee that the code is correct and functional, unit tests must be implemented.

4. Conclusion

The INSANE source code has suffered a heavy process of software erosion and a lot of work must be

done in order to make it useful, understandable and expandable. A complete refactoring and modification

of its software architecture, adopting a plug-in based architecture, is the best option and will be done in

the next few years.

5. Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge CNPq (National Council of Scientific and Technological De-

velopment), CAPES (Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), FAPEMIG (Minas

Gerais State Research Foundation) and PROPEEs/UFMG (Structural Engineering Graduate Program of

the Federal University of Minas Gerais) for financial supports.

References

[1] F.T. Fonseca, R.L.S. Pitangueira. Um programa gráfico interativo para modelos estruturais de barras, XXV

CILAMCE - Iberian Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, 2004.

202 2

[2] R.L.S. Pitangueira, K. Caldas. Projeto de software livre para modelos do Método dos Elementos Finitos, XXVI

CILAMCE - Iberian Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, 2005.

[3] INSANE project website. http://www.insane.dees.ufmg.br [Accessed: 31/05/2018].

[4] F.T. Fonseca, R.L.S. Pitangueira. Insane: uma plataforma para computação científica, X Encontro de Mode-

lagem Computacional, 2007.

[5] P.D. Alves, F.B. Barros, R.L.S. Pitangueira. An object-oriented approach to the Generalized Finite Element

Method, Advances in Engineering Software, 1-18, 2013.

[6] A.B. Monteiro, A.R.V. Wolenski, F.B. Barros, R.L.S. Pitangueira, S.S. Penna. A computational framework for

G/XFEM material nonlinear analysis, Advances in Engineering Software, 380-393, 2017.

[7] R.G. Peixoto, F.E.S. Anacleto, G.O. Ribeiro, R.L.S. Pitangueira, S.S. Penna. A solution strategy for non-

linear implicit BEM formulation using a unified constitutive modelling framework, Engineering Analysis with

Boundary Elements, v. 64, p. 295-310, 2016.

[8] Silva, R.P. Análise Não-Linear de Estruturas de Concreto por meio do Método Element Free Galerkin, Doc-

toral dissertation, Federal University of de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2012.

[9] L. Gori, S.S. Penna, R.L.S. Pitangueira. A computational framework for constitutive modelling, Computers &

Structures, 1-23, 2017.

[10] S.S. Penna, R.L.S. Pitangueira. Projeto orientado a objetos de um pós-processador para modelos do Método

dos Elementos Finitos, XXVII CILAMCE - Iberian Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in

Engineering, 2006.

[11] M. Dalgarno. When good architecture goes bad, Methods & Tools, Editor, 27-34 , 2009.

[12] L. Silva, D. Balasubramaniam. Controlling software architecture erosion: A survey, The Journal of Systems

and Software, 132-151, 2012.

[13] R. Terra, M.T. Valente, K. Czarnecki, R.S. Bigonha. Recommending refactorings to reverse software ar-

chitecture erosion, 16th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, IEEE, 335-340,

2012.

203 3

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

Florian De Vuyst1 , Thomas Douillet-Grellier 2

2 CMLA, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 94235 Cachan, France

1. Introduction

The kinetic origin of the LB method yields the question of the compatibility of the LB method

with the H-theorem. This topic has gained attention [1, 2] because it is strongly connected to

the stability properties of the method. In particular, in order to palliate the fact that classic

LB schemes do not verify the H-theorem, new LB formulations have been introduced based

on the construction of specific equilibria equipped with an H-theorem [3] or entropy-controlled

schemes [4, 5].

In this work, we study the entropy properties of the D1Q3 LBGK scheme applied to the 1D

advection-diffusion equation. First, we introduce the considered model and its relevant proper-

ties. Then, we show how it satisfies a discrete H-theorem for a particular entropy functional.

In this process, we reinterpret the BGK operator as a gradient of a Lagrangian functional while

exhibiting the the entropy dissipation source terms and the entropy fluxes. Our observations

are validated through numerical experiments. Moreover, equilibrium distributions are obtained

from minimization principles.

Let’s consider the 1D advection-diffusion equation with a constant advection speed u ∈ R:

2

∂t ρ + ∂x (ρu) − ν ∂xx ρ = 0, x ∈ R, t > 0 (1)

with ρ = ρ(x, t) the density and ν the viscosity. The initial condition is ∀x ∈ R, ρ(x, t = 0) = ρ0 (x)

where ρ0 is the initial density distribution. Additionally, we assume ν > 0 and we only consider

positive solutions of equation (1) such that ρ(x, t) ≥ 0.

Let us consider the D1Q3 lattice with its discrete velocities v = (v− , v0 , v+ )T = (−c, 0, c)T and

its discrete distribution vector f = (f− , f0 , f+ )T . The LB equations (LBE) are given hereafter

in vector form

∂t f + Λ ∂x f = q(f ), (2)

where the source terms q is the collision term and with the diagonal and constant advection ma-

trix Λ defined by Λ = diag(−c, 0, −c) We connect the LBE (2) with the macroscopic equation (1)

by imposing the follwoing constraints

hf , ei = ρ, hq(f ), ei = 0 (3)

where h., .i denotes the standard scalar product, and e = (1, 1, 1)T , q(f ) = (qi (f ))i .

The BGK collision model is defined as a relaxation term towards a discrete equilibrium

distribution f eq , i.e.

f eq − f

q(f ) = (4)

τ0

204 1

with τ 0 > 0 a relaxation time.

It is also expected that f eq has the 0th -order moment property but also the 1st -order and

2 -order moment consistency properties. For a certain constant γ > 0, We can write

nd

3. Equilibrium distributions

In this section, we will obtain the equilibrium distributions associated with the entropy functional

defined in equation (6) from minimization principles.

As shown in the previous section, consistency is obtained under the hypothesis of small flow

velocities. Thus, it is always assumed that |u| c. In particular, the inequality 1 − 3|u|

2c < 1

holds. Therefore, the follwoing functional H(f ) is clearly strictly convex

X

H(f ) = hi (fi ), (6)

i∈{−,0,+}

fi2 1 1

with hi defined as hi (fi ) = 2 wi , i ∈ {−, 0, +} and w− =3u , w0 = 1, w+ = .

1 − 2c 1 + 3u

2c

We call H(f ) an entropy for f . The entropy functional H of equation (6) can be rewritten

1 1

H(f ) = hDf , f i = kf k2D . (7)

2 2

where D = diag( 1−13u , 1, 1+13u )

2c 2c

To begin, let us consider the constrained minimization problem

min H(f ), (8)

f =(f− ,f0 ,f+ )T

subject to

f ≥ 0,

(9)

hf , ei = ρ

The functional H is coercive, strictly convex and the admissible set is non-empty, closed and

convex. Therefore, there is a unique solution f eq to the problem (8-9). To this minimization

problem, we associate a Lagrange multiplier λ ∈ R and the Lagrangian functional L : R3 ×R → R

expressed as

L (f , λ) = H(f ) + λ ϕ(f ). (10)

The necessary 1st -order optimality conditions are given by the Euler-Lagrange equations:

∇L (f eq , λ? ) = ∇H(f eq ) + λ? e = 0, (11)

It leads to the following solution

ρ ρu ρ ρ ρu

(f− )eq = − , (f0 )eq = , (f+ )eq = + .

3 2c 3 3 2c

We now focus on the collision term of the LBE. Let us choose the collision term as

1

q(f ) = − 0 D−1 ∇f L (f , λ? ), (12)

τ

with τ 0 > 0 a characteristic time of collision and L defined in equation (10). We can write

1 −1 f eq − f

q(f ) = − D (∇H(f ) + λ?

e) = .

τ0 τ0

We retrieve the standard BGK collision term [6].

205 2

4. Discrete H-Theorem

The time partial derivative is now discretized by the Euler explicit scheme. The lattice relaxation

τ0

time is chosen as τ = .

∆t

We first study the entropy property of the collision step. To simplify notations, we omit the

dependency in x position, and denote f at discrete time tn = n∆t by f n . The collision step on

a time step ∆t reads

1

fˆn = f n + (f eq,n − f n ) . (13)

τ

After some algebraic manipulations, we can obtain

1 1

H(fˆn ) − H(f n ) = − (τ − ) kf eq,n − f n k2D . (14)

τ 2 2

We then get a local entropy dissipation proportional to kf eq,n −f n k2 , as soon as τ > 12 . We notice

that the numerical stability limit, τ > 1/2, is naturally recovered through entropic considerations.

Let us now consider the transport step. At a lattice node x and at instant tn+1 , this reads

Let us now consider the transport of entropy quantities. From (15), we get the conservation

scheme

∆t n

H(f n+1 (x)) = H(fˆn (x)) − [φ (x + h/2) − φn (x − h/2)] . (16)

h

where the numerical entropy flux φn (x + h/2) = φn (fˆ(x), fˆ(x + h)) is given by

By combining entropy balances for both collision (14) and transport (16) steps, we get a discrete

entropy balance for the LBGK scheme:

∆t n 1 1

H(f n+1 (x)) − H(f n (x)) + [φ (x + h/2) − φn (x − h/2)] = − 2 (τ − ) kf eq,n − f n k2D ≤ 0. (18)

h τ 2

5. Numerical experiments

As a numerical illustration of the behavior of equation (18), a couple of numerical experiments

have been undergone. The spatial domain is Ω = [0, 1] (in meters for example) and is closed with

periodic boundary conditions. Ω is discretized with 4000 lattice points, so that the space step

h = 2.5×10−4 m. Regarding the physical parameters, we have set the advection speed u = 0.1m/s

and the speed of sound c = 2m/s. Consequently, the time step is dt = h/c == 2.5 × 10−4 s. The

initial density profile to be advected is chosen as piecewise constant ρ0 (x) = 1x∈[1/3,2/3] (x).

Figure 1 shows the density profile at t = 10s and the corresponding entropy dissipation for two

different values of τ .

It is observed on both figures that the the entropy dissipation is strictly negative up to

machine precision as predicted by equation (18). Note that we have tested to compute the

entropy dissipation as H(f n+1 (x)) − H(f n (x)) + ∆t 1

h [φ (x + h/2) − φ (x − h/2)] or as − τ 2 (τ −

n n

1 eq,n − f n k2 and that it gives exaclty the same results. The entropy dissipation is a good

2 ) kf D

indicator of density changes and could eventually been used as a tool to track discontinuities in

a multi-fluid context.

206 3

2 2

Profile at t = 10s Profile at t = 10s

Profile at t = 0s 0 Profile at t = 0s 0

1 1

-1 -1

ρ

ρ

0 -2 0 -2

-3 -3

-1 -1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Figure 1: Advection of a rectangular profile for 10s and its associated entropy dissipation for

τ = 0.51 (a,b) and τ = 0.501 (c,d)

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we have shown that by considering a particular entropy functional, it is possible

to derive a discrete H-theorem for the LBGK scheme applied to the 1D advection-diffusion

equation in a non-standard way. A fine evaluation of the entropy dissipation is presented where

the dissipation source terms due to the collision step and the entropy fluxes associated with the

transport step are exhibited. The quantification of entropy dissipation is verified by numerical

experiments that confirm the theoretical results.

Through the exploration of the intrinsic entropic properties of this LBGK scheme, we have

obtained the equilibrium distribution by solving an entropic minimization problem and pro-

posed a reinterpretation of the BGK collision term as the gradient of the Lagrangian functional

associated with this minimization problem.

Future work will be focused on extending our approach to more general entropy functionals,

to 2D, to different collision operators and to non-periodic domains. We aim to improve the

understanding of the numerical stability conditions of the LBGK scheme using these entropic

considerations.

References

[1] Iliya V Karlin, Alexander N Gorban, Sauro Succi, and V Boffi. Maximum entropy principle for lattice

kinetic equations. Physical Review Letters, 81(1):6, 1998.

[2] Li-Shi Luo. Some recent results on discrete velocity models and ramifications for lattice boltzmann

equation. Computer Physics Communications, 129(1):63 – 74, 2000.

[3] Santosh Ansumali and Iliya V Karlin. Entropy function approach to the lattice boltzmann method.

Journal of Statistical Physics, 107(1-2):291–308, 2002.

[4] Santosh Ansumali and Iliya V. Karlin. Stabilization of the lattice boltzmann method by the H-

theorem: A numerical test. Phys. Rev. E, 62:7999–8003, Dec 2000.

[5] Bruce M Boghosian, Jeffrey Yepez, Peter V Coveney, and Alexander Wager. Entropic lattice boltz-

mann methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineer-

ing Sciences, 457(2007):717–766, 2001.

[6] P. L. Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, and M. Krook. A model for collision processes in gases. i. small

amplitude processes in charged and neutral one-component systems. Phys. Rev., 94:511–525, May

1954.

207 4

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

François Dubois 12

1 LMSSC, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris

2 Department of Mathematics, University Paris Sud, Orsay

francois.dubois@u-psud.fr

30 May 2018

The lattice Boltzmann scheme in his actual form has been developed with the contributions of Lallemand,

Succi, d’Humières, Luo [1, 2, 3, 4] and many others. In order to derive the equivalent partial differential

equations, a classical of the Chapman Enskog expansion is popular in the lattive Boltzmann community

(see e.g. [4]). A main drawback of this approach is the fact that multiscale expansions are used without a

clear mathematical signification of the various variables and functions. Independently of this framework,

we have proposed in [5, 6] the Taylor expansion method to obtain formally equivalent partial differential

equations. The infinitesimal variable is simply the time step (proportional to the space step with the

acoustic scaling). This approach has been experimentaly validated in various contributions [7, 8]. A

third order extension for fluid flow has been proposed in [9] and an efficient implementation up to fourth

order accuracy is presented in [10].

In this contribution, we consider a regular lattice L composed by vertices x separated by distances that

are simple expressions of the space step ∆x. A discrete time t is supposed to be an integer multiple of a

time step ∆t > 0. A very general lattice Boltzmann scheme with q discrete velocities of the form

mk = ∑ Mk` f j .

j

The d’Humières matrix [3] M is invertible and we decompose the moments in the following way:

W

m≡ .

Y

The conserved variables W are not modified after relaxation: W ∗ = W . The microscopic variables Y

are changed in a nonlinear way by the relaxationprocess:

Y ∗ = Y + S (Φ(W ) −Y ) .

The matrix S is invertible, and ofter chosen as diagonal. It is supposed to be fixed in the asymptotic

process presented hereafter. The equilibrium values Y eq = Φ(W ) are given smooth functions of the

conserved variables. When ∗∗ is evaluated, we have simply

f ∗ = M −1 m∗ .

With this general framework, we determine in this contribution an asymptotic system of partial differen-

tial equations for the conserved variables:

∂t W + Γ1 (W ) + ∆t Γ2 (W ) + ∆t 2 Γ3 (W ) = O(∆t 3 )

208 1

and an asymptotic expansion for the microscopic variables as a differential nonlinear function of the

conserved variables:

Y = Φ(W ) + ∆t Φ1 (W ) + ∆t 2 Φ2 (W ) + O(∆t 3 ) .

The coefficients Γ1 , Φ1 , Γ2 , Φ2 and Γ3 of this expansion are recursively determined as a function of the

data v j , M, Φ(W ) and S. We compare our new result with the particular third order expansion proposed

in [9] and the linear approach presented in [10].

References

[1] FJ. Higuera, S. Succi, R. Benzi. Lattice gas dynamics with enhanced collisions, Europhysics Letters, volume 9,

issue 4, p. 345-349, 1991.

[2] YH Qian, D d’Humières, P. Lallemand. Lattice BGK models for Navier-Stokes equation, Europhysics Letters,

volume 17, issue 6, p. 479-484, 1992.

[3] D. d’Humières. Generalized Lattice-Boltzmann Equations, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics: Theory and Simula-

tions, volume 159 of AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Astronautics, p. 450-458, 1992.

[4] P. Lallemand and L.-S. Luo. Theory of the Lattice Boltzmann Method: Dispersion, Dissipation, Isotropy,

Galilean Invariance, and Stability, Physical Review E, volume 61, 6546, 2000.

c

[5] F. Dubois. Une introduction au schéma de Boltzmann sur rÃ
seau, ESAIM Proceedings, volume 18, p. 181-

215, 2007.

[6] F. Dubois. Equivalent partial differential equations of a lattice Boltzmann scheme, Computers and Mathemat-

ics with Applications, volume 55, p. 1441-1449, 2008.

[7] F. Dubois, P. Lallemand. Towards higher order lattice Boltzmann schemes, Journal of Statistical Mechanics:

Theory and Experiment, P06006, 2009.

[8] F. Dubois, P. Lallemand. Quartic Parameters for Acoustic Applications of Lattice Boltzmann Scheme, Com-

puters and Mathematics with Applications, volume 61, issue 12, p. 3404-3416, 2011.

[9] F. Dubois. Third order equivalent equation of lattice Boltzmann scheme, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical

Systems-Series A, volume 23, issue 1/2, p. 221-248, 2009.

[10] A. Augier, F. Dubois, B. Graille et P. Lallemand. On rotational invariance of Lattice Boltzmann schemes,

Computers and Mathematics with Applications, volume 67, issue 2, p. 239-255, 2014.

209 2

CILAMCE 2018 C ONGRESS

11-14 N OVEMBER 2018, PARIS /C OMPIÈGNE , F RANCE

DUTY GAS TURBINE

Paulo Guilherme Inca1 , Gabriel Maidl 2 , Eduardo Massashi Yamao 3 , Renato de Arruda Penteado Neto

4 , Leandro dos Santos Coelho 5 , Cintia de Carvalho Toledo 6

2 Lactec and Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, gabriel.maidl@lactec.org.br

3 Lactec, eduardo.yamao@lactec.org.br

4 Lactec, renato@lactec.org.br

5 Pontifical Catholic University of Parana and Federal University of Parana, leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

6 U. E. G. Araucaria, cintia@uega.com.br

1. Introduction

The usage of natural gas to generate power has been increasing over the years. This is explained by

the fact that natural gas fuel emits less pollutant when compared with coal, for instance [1]. However,

awareness with climate change has also been raising over the last decades [2]. This scenario makes

companies that produces energy seek for solutions that reduces the amount of pollutant emitted by their

power plants, while trying not to reduce the power generated.

Some researches aiming to reduce the emissions of SO2 , NOx , CO, and CO2 include the installation

of pollutant cleaning, switching to low-emission fuels, replacement of aged parts of the power plant, and

emissions dispatch [3]. This environment awareness and the legislation that regulates pollutant emissions

by power plants, enforce companies to be under a certain limit. The Brazilian legislation delimits the

level of pollutant gases emission in the environment coming from energy production in power plants. It

also applies fines and criminal penalties to companies emitting over the limit [4].

The energy consumption is also rising all over the world. If it keep the trend, energy demand is

supposed to increase 65% from 2004 to 2030. Nevertheless, most of the energy consumed worldwide

is not renewable [5]. Considering these reasons, developing new methodologies to reduce the emissions

of harmful gases that pollute the atmosphere or make the combustion of the fuel more efficient is likely

to scale down the environmental impact caused by the energy production from thermal power plants.

Therefore, this paper proposes a optimization of power generated by a combined cycle heavy-duty gas

turbine using the Self-adaptive Differential Evolution (SaDE) algorithm.

2. Combustion Chamber

The combustion chamber studied in this article is part of a heavy-duty gas turbine used for power genera-

tion in a gas power plant. The gas turbine operates using natural gas in a combined cycle, where the hot

gases generated by the combustion in the gas turbine are used to move a steam turbine. The combustion

system is composed by sixteen combustion chambers, assembled in a circular arrangement.

Each combustion chamber has a basket, where the combustion occurs, a transition piece, which

directs the hot gases produced in the combustion to the turbine, and a set of injectors, which has a

pilot injector surrounded by eight secondary injectors. These injectors conduct the gas fuel into the

combustion chamber through calibrated holes that promote a strong turbulence, favoring the mixture

between the compressed air that comes from the compressor, and the fuel.The secondary injectors are

210 1

geometrically equal and they are called stages A and B, alternately arranged around the pilot injector.

The pilot injector differs from the others by its size and presence of a complementary part used for air

injection, which characterizes the low NOx emission system.

3. Models Identification

The modeling of both power and NOx models uses the gas demand in the stages A, B, C, and pilot, and

the ambient temperature in Celsius. The NOx model also take into consideration the power generated

by the turbine in Megawatts (MW). The process of identification of these models uses neural networks,

with a variation of the standard network which is called Radial Basis Function (RBF) [6]. An RBF

neural network uses a Gaussian function as the activation function and it is used in many applications for

function approximation.

4. Optimization Procedure

Different techniques can be used to solve optimization problems, such as convex programming [7] and

metaheuristics [8]. This research is focused on metaheuristic optimization which uses stochastic methods

to search for the global minimum and maximum of the objective function, aiming to avoid local soluti-

ons. Although these methods may not always find the optimal solution, the result is often a satisfactory

solution for the problem [9], and it is restricted in the feasible region, meaning that the answer found

respects all the constraints of the problem. Furthermore, metaheuristics are a class of algorithms that can

solve the problems in a reasonable amount of time.

Differential Evolution (DE) is population-based method, stochastic function optimizer which was firstly

introduced by Storn and Price. This meta-heuristic draw attention due to its performance on the First

International Contest on Evolutionary Computation managing to finish at the third place. After that, a

detailed description of the algorithm was presented in [10]. Following the success of this algorithm many

variants derived from the original method [11], and it was applied in a variety engineering problems [12].

In the classical Differential Evolution there are three control parameters that have to be set by the user,

they are the mutation factor, the crossover rate (CR), and the population size. It is well known that there

are some specific values of CR that make the algorithm converge much faster [13]. Empirical studies

have suggested values to be used in this parameters [10] and [14].

To tackle this time consuming fine tune of the control parameters Qin, Huang, and Suganthan in-

troduced the Self-adaptive Differential Evolution (SaDE) [15]. This algorithm adapts the value of the

mutation factor and the crossover rate. The only parameter left to user is the population size. Moreover,

it has a poll of strategies in the mutation operator that is also adapted to choose the strategy that is more

likely to generate a trial chromosome that will survive to the next generation.

Using the models of power and NOx to simulate the process of power generation and NOx emissions

by the thermal power plant, the objective is to maximize the power, this means adjust the valves of the

combustion chamber to decide which gas demand produces more energy. The restriction of this problem

is the NOx emissions, that must be under a certain limit.

In this research only a specific range of generated power is optimized. In this interval, the gas

demand of the stage B is the value as the gas demand of the stage A. Hence, the optimization procedure

only manipulates the stages A, C, and pilot.

211 2

5. Results

This chapter brins the results of the power generation optimization. To run the SaDE optimization,

the parameters setup were selected empirically and the best results were with a population size of 10

chromosomes with a maximum of 1000 generations.

For the models simulation it has been defined a variation of temperature and different values to the

restriction limit of NOx emission. Each simulation setup was executed 10 times and the best fitness was

considered. The search space for the combustion chamber stages were set from 0 to 4.5 kilograms per

second of natural gas for the stages A and B, from 0 to 2.5 kilograms per second for stage C, and from

0 to 2.0 kilograms per second for the pilot stage. This is the physical limitation of gas demand in the

stages.

The best result of 10 executions for each scenario is shown in the from Table 2 to Table 3, where A, B, C,

and Pilot are the turbine stages, GD is the gas demand which is the sum of gas in the four stages and AT

is the ambient temperature of the simulation parameter, and OP is the output power in MW optimized by

the optimization procedure. In Table 3 NOx is also specified since no restriction has been set.

A B C Pilot GD AT OP

3.41 3.41 0.35 0.62 7.80 18 116.81

3.31 3.31 0.34 0.65 7.61 23 113.43

A B C Pilot GD AT OP

4.36 4.36 0.19 0.45 9.36 18 152.50

4.08 4.08 0.29 0.46 8.91 23 140.09

A B C Pilot GD AT OP NOx

4.36 4.36 0 0.61 9.33 18 158.51 30.17

4.36 4.36 0 0.61 9.33 23 158.51 33.19

From the results it is possible to notice that if the NOx emissions is more restricted, meaning that

less pollutant gases should be emitted, the gas turbine will produce less power. Without any emission

restriction is where the turbine can produce more energy, as shown in Table 3, although it exceeds the

legal maximum proposed by Brazilian authorities. For a NOx restriction of 20 PPM%O2 the efficiency of

the turbine will be reduced on average 21%, Table 1. Finally, the environment temperature affects directly

the NOx emissions, thus an increase in the ambient temperature incurs a decrease on the maximum power

generated by the turbine in due to emissions constraint, as shown in 1 and 2.

6. Conclusion

The present research has provided an experimental study on the power generation of a heavy duty gas

turbine taking into account environmental restrictions. The optimization method applied in this expe-

riments has shown to be appropriate, hence the convergence to the optimal value has occurred with a

small population and few generations. Moreover, the usage of this optimization method has reduced the

amount of computer processing due to the good parameters setup. All results found for different environ-

ment temperature, desired output power, and NOx emissions limits are within the legislation restrictions

212 3

and are the optimal adjustment for the gas demand of each stage of the combustion chamber. It was

also presented an hypothetical results with NOx emissions restriction slightly below the current Brazilian

regulation to demonstrate that the simulations can cope well with different scenarios of the emissions

limits regulations.

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tion. In 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, volume 1, pages 506–513 Vol.1, Sept

2005.

[15] A. K. Qin, V. L. Huang, and P. N. Suganthan. Differential evolution algorithm with strategy

adaptation for global numerical optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation,

13(2):398–417, April 2009.

213 4

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Gabriela Bandeira de Melo Lins de Albuquerque1, Valdir Pignatta e Silva2, João Paulo

Correia Rodrigues3

1

University of São Paulo – Brazil and University of Coimbra – Portugal, gabriela.lins@usp.br.

2

University of São Paulo – Brazil, valpigss@usp.br.

3

University of Coimbra – Portugal, jpaulocr@dec.uc.pt.

This paper presents the basis for the conception of a three-dimensional finite element model capable of

simulating the flexural behavior of simply supported reinforced concrete beams. The modeling was

performed from the software DIANA [1], considering the characteristics of the full scale beams that

were submitted to four-point bending tests by the authors of this research in the Laboratory of Testing

Materials and Structures of University of Coimbra, Portugal. Besides the concrete beam itself, the

geometry of the model has the steel plates used to distribute the applied loads, the blocks of the roller

and pinned supports and the longitudinal and transverse reinforcements (Figs 1 and 2). Crack

formation and propagation was incorporated from a rotating crack model [2], that is based on smeared

cracking approach, initially proposed by [3]. The crack bandwidth was automatically determined by

the software with the use of Rots’ element based method [4]. The effects of material softening, as well

as the concrete stiffening between cracks, were other phenomena included to represent its nonlinear

behavior. Both the exponential [5] and the parabolic models [6], adopted to mimic the response of

concrete to tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, were derived from the principles of fracture

mechanics. The compressive strength and the density of the concrete were defined by experimental

tests, while its other mechanical properties were calculated from [7, 8]. The steel of the loads

distribution plates and of the support blocks was characterized from an isotropic linear-elastic

constitutive model with mechanical properties calculated from [9]. An elasto-plastic stress-strain

diagram with hardening was chosen to simulate the behavior of the reinforcements, for which some

mechanical properties were again measured by experimental tests and the others defined according to

the standard [10]. The 3D model was discretized with a mesh of a twenty-node isoparametric solid

brick elements with three degrees of freedom that are based on quadratic interpolation and Gauss

integration, applying a 3 point integration scheme to solve the stiffness matrix of the element. Those

elements are the most recommended for the analysis of concrete structures as they can describe a

greater number of deformation modes [1, 11]. The reinforcements were embedded in the mesh of the

"mother elements" and considered as uniaxial bar elements. Therefore, they didn't have degrees of

freedom of their own and their mechanical properties were calculated only in the longitudinal

direction, in a 2 point integration scheme. Perfect bond between the reinforcement and the surrounding

material was considered. An element size of 40 x 40 x 40 mm was defined after a mesh sensitivity

analysis. It was verified that this FE mesh presented a good equilibrium between accuracy and

efficiency. The behavior of the reinforced concrete beam was evaluated from a nonlinear structural

analysis, in which the equations related to the problem were iteratively solved by the Newton-Raphson

Regular method with the tangent stiffness matrix being derived for every iteration. The load increment

214

applied to the beam was performed by force control, with relatively small load steps (1 kN). Due to the

high degree of nonlinear phenomena involved and the feasible difficulty to converge some steps, the

arc length control was activated for some critical stages of the analysis, such as the beginning of the

concrete cracking. The convergence criterion was controlled by the displacement norm, assuming a

tolerance equal to 5 x 10-2. In order to increase the convergence rate and to maintain stable solutions,

the line search algorithm was also applied [12, 13]. The model was validated by comparing predicted

to experimental data. Good agreement was verified for the curves of applied loads vs deflections of the

beam (Fig 3). The crack fields, including the crack widths, also managed to be quite representative of

those measured during the experimental tests (Fig 4). The flexural failure modes were achieved by

means of the numerical model too, as can be seen in Fig 5. Thus, the consistency of the hypotheses

adopted for the numerical modeling presented in this research was demonstrated, since it was able to

represent in a satisfactory and accurate way the flexural behavior of simply supported reinforced

concrete beams.

Fig 1 Geometry of the beam, of the steel plates used to Fig 2 Detail of the longitudinal and transverse

distribute the applied loads and of the supports blocks reinforcements embedded in the geometry of the beam

45

40

35

30

P [kN]

25

20

15 A_ka0_kr0_1

10 A_ka0_kr0_2

5 A_ka0_kr0_3

DIANA

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

dv,s2 [mm]

Fig 3 Comparison between experimental and numerical curves of applied loads vs beam deflection

215

Fig 4 Crack field obtained by DIANA, with the values of crack width Ecw1, compared to the one measured during

experimental tests for 25 kN of total applied load

Fig 5 Comparison between beam deformed shapes for the maximum deflection measured during tests

References

[1] DIANA FEA. User’s manual: release 10.1. Delft: DIANA FEA BV, 2016a. 13 v.

[2] Cope R. J. et al. Modelling of reinforced concrete behaviour for finite element analysis of bridge

slabs. In: Numerical methods for nonlinear problems 1. Swansea: Pineridge Press, 1980. p. 457-470.

[3] Rashid Y. R. Ultimate strength analysis prestressed concrete pressure vessels. Nuclear

Engineering and Design, v. 7, n. 4, p. 334-344, 1968.

[4] Rots J. G. Computational modeling of concrete fracture. 1988. 132 p. PhD Thesis, Delft University

of Technology, Delft, 1988.

[5] Vecchio F. J., Collins M. P. The modified compression-field theory for reinforced concrete

elements subjected to shear. ACI Journal, v. 83, n. 22, p. 219-231, 1986.

216

[6] Feenstra P. H. Computational aspects of biaxial stress in plain and reinforced concrete. 1993. 151

p. PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 1993.

[7] European Committee for Standardization. EN 1992-1-1: Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures

- part 1.1: general rules and rules for buildings. Brussels: CEN, 2004. 225 p.

[8] Comité Euro-International du Béton. CEB-FIP MC 2010: fib Model Code for concrete structures

2010. 2011. 653 p.

[9] European Committee for Standardization. EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3: design of steel structures -

part 1.1: general rules and rules for buildings. Brussels: CEN, 2005. 91 p.

[10] European Committee for Standardization. EN 1992-1-2: Eurocode 2: design of concrete

structures - part 1.2: general rules - structural fire design. Brussels: CEN, 2004. 97 p.

[11] Belletti B. et al. Guidelines for nonlinear finite analysis of concrete structures. Utrecht:

Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure, 2016. 66 p. (Rijkswaterstaat Technical Document RTD:

1016-1:2016).

[12] Crisfield M. A. Accelerated solution techniques and concrete cracking. Computer Methods in

Applied Mechanics and Engineering, v. 33, n. 1-3, p. 585-607, 1982.

[13] Schweizerhof K. Consistent concept for line search algorithms in combination with arclength

constraints. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, v. 9, n. 9, p.

773-784, 1993.

217

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

University of Brasilia

1

eng.thiagoarnaud@gmail.com

2

ggomes@unb.br

3

fejr.unb@gmail.com

4

alvaro_fausto@hotmail.com

1. Introduction

This paper shows an analysis of multiple cracks in an aircraft fuselage through the automation in

software specialized to evaluate the cracks propagation - BemCracker2D [1, 2]. The first analysis

refers to the macro element in which is performed a rivet modeling at the software BemLab2D [3] and

analyzed via Dual Boundary Element Method the SIF at BemCracker2D. With the SIF, the stresses in

a micro element are then calculated. This micro element is composed by two pre-established initial

cracks and a circular hole. As a result, there is relationship between fatigue life (number of load

cycles) and compliance of the edges of this micro element at each crack increment. The main objective

is evaluating the compliance of micro elements under several levels of loads, cracks, and holes. And as

specific objectives: obtaining edge displacements at each crack propagation and the number of loading

cycles for each increment.

The methodology of this paper consists of the analysis via Dual Boundary Elements Method of fatigue

life of aircraft fuselage with two cracks pre-established and a circular hole. For this, an aircraft

fuselage panel model, representing the macro analysis, was automated in order to obtain elastic

stresses in the regions of these voids.

BemLab2D was used to create the boundary element mesh to represent the numerical model (see

Figure 1), and the BemCracker2D to compute the SIF.

218

SIF values are listed in Table 1.

Analytical Numerical

Tip 1 Tip 2 Tip 3 Tip 4 Tip 5 Tip 6

0.07092803 0.07155231 0.07155169 0.07156367 0.07156367 0.07155169 0.07155231

Table 1: Analytical and numerical SIF results.

These results therefore present the purpose of corroborating the model and the subsequent analysis to

be performed.

2.2. Micro model analysis

With the SIF computed, the stress field at the crack tip is calculated through the Eqs. (1), (2) and (3)

according to [4]. To the tip 1 in Figure 1 (KI=0.07155231).

𝐾𝐾𝐼𝐼 𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 3𝜃𝜃

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = cos �1 − sin sin � (1)

√2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 2 2 2

𝐾𝐾𝐼𝐼 𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 3𝜃𝜃

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = cos �1 + sin sin � (2)

√2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 2 2 2

𝐾𝐾𝐼𝐼 𝜃𝜃 𝜃𝜃 3𝜃𝜃

𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = sin �cos cos � (3)

√2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 2 2 2

where KI is the SIF, r the distance to the tip and θ the angle.

Figure 2 shows the stress field near the crack tip for three different angles used to the analysis in the

micro element.

Figure 2: Stress field for different angles θ

a) θ=0° b) θ=45° c) θ=90°

As near the crack in the case of the LEFM the stresses tend to infinity near the crack tip, in order to

calculate the maximum ones in the elastic stage it was used r as the distance of the Irwin’s plastic zone

(2𝑟𝑟𝑝𝑝 ).

The stresses field values are listed in Table 2.

Angle σx σy τ

θ=0° 239.00 239.00 0.00

θ=45° 142.74 298.88 32.34

θ=90° 84.50 253.50 -84.50

Table 2: Stresses Fields

219

The micro model is highlighted in Figure 3, which shows two pre-established cracks and a central

circular hole. For the analysis, a BemLab2D model of a 1 cm square side element was adopted with

the stresses calculated in Eqs. (2) to (4) and displacement constraint on the left and lower sides, with a

central hole of radius 0.1 cm and two 0.1 cm cracks inclined 45°.

3. Results

According to each increment there are the points for the construction of the fatigue life curve (N) x

Compliance in (m/N) of both the right and upper edge, shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6 for θ=0°, 45° and

90°, respectively. It can be seen that as the crack propagates (number of cycles) compliance increases.

This is due to the fact that the edge displacement rates increase gradually due to the loss of rigidity of

the plate with the crack increments, so that when the number of cycles reaches about 106, the edge

displacements are already quite amplified, resulting in high compliance. It is also seen Figure 4 that

due to the symmetry of the plate layout, the graph of Crack 1 Tip 1 is equal to that of Crack 2 Tip 2

and that of Crack 1 Tip 2 is equal to that of Crack 2 Tip 1.

4. Conclusions

Regarding the use of software (BemLab2D and BemCracker2D), the results found for SIF validation

were very close to the analytical ones with identical values up to the second decimal place. Therefore,

it can be concluded that the use of these were satisfactory resulting in output data as expected.

220

Figure 5: Load cycles x Compliance for θ=45°

5. Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), to the Brazilian

Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education (CAPES) for the supporting funds for this

research and to Federal District Research Support Foundation (FAP-DF).

6. References

[1] Gomes, G. "Data Structure for Representing Bidimensional Models of Boundary Elements". MSc.

Thesis, Brazilia University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brazilia, 2000.

[2] Gomes, G. "Aplication of BEM and DRM in in Object Oriented 2D Plasticity Problems". DSc.

Thesis, Brazilia Univeristy. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brazilia, 2006.

[3] Delgado Neto, A. "BEMLBA2D: Graphical Interface for Modeling, Visualization and Analysis

with Boundary Elements - An Application in Elastomeric Problems". MSc. Thesis, Brazilia University,

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brazilia, 2017.

[4] Anderson, T. L., 2005. Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. CRC Press. Boca.

221

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

1

CEFET-MG, jetherog@gmail.com

1

CEFET-MG, thiago@div.cefetmg.br

1

CEFET-MG, gray@dppg.cefetmg.br

¹CEFET-MG - Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais Av. Amazonas, 7675,

Nova Gameleira, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Abstract

The publication of scientific papers has increased significantly in recent years. Consequently, several

studies on scientific production data have been carried out in order to analyze what has been

researched. Since the understanding of how research has evolved can, for example, serve as a basis for

the construction of scientific policies. Thus, the objective of this work is to identify and analyze the

main topics of research published between 1962 and 2016 in congress annals and journals by Brazilian

PhD researchers who work in engineering.

Introduction

The internet and its services have been instrumental in the impressive growth in the number of

publications of scientific articles in recent decades. According to Dias [9], the great ease of accessing

the articles made available on the Internet contributes directly to the expansion of knowledge. On the

other hand, according to Yi and Choi [8], understanding about the evolution of scientific production

can promote new advances in science. In Brito et. al. [1], the authors point out that works of this

nature are considered urgent in Brazil and can portray what is developed and published in science,

technology and innovation, making it possible to generate parameters to guide efforts and investments

in order to boost research results.

As a consequence of this, there is a global growth in the number of researchers from all areas to

extract knowledge about what has been developed in science ([9]; [6]; [5]; [10]; [11]). At this point, it

is important to emphasize that the work can be carried out under different perspectives, such as:

productivity indicators, scientific collaboration and analysis of research topics. In the latter case, a

topic can be understood as a term (or descriptor) that represents one of the subjects associated with a

particular document.

At the national level, however, very few studies are doing research topics, and when they do, they

usually use a restricted amount of data that comes from specific international repositories, and

therefore can not represent what is produced in the Brazil. Thus, analyzing data from repositories that

encompasses several types of publications, especially in national vehicles and in several areas of

knowledge, becomes a relevant task for understanding the evolution of Brazilian science. In this

context, Ferraz et. al. [7] points out that the large volume of data in the curriculum repository of the

Lattes Platform represents the most important instrument for studies on Brazilian scientific production.

222

One of the most interesting approaches for studies of research topics is the analysis of the

keywords of a set of scientific publications, since they are carefully inserted by their respective authors

and provide a possibility to describe the main subjects that permeate the work ([8]; [3]). Thus, in the

current work, keywords of scientific articles are also referred to as research topics.

In addition, for Pritchard [2], bibliometrics stands out as one of the main metric sciences of

content analysis and can be applied to scientific data repositories in order to obtain quantitative

information about publications. While in Dias [9], the author emphasizes that with the use of

bibliometrics it is possible to identify the trends and growth of scientific knowledge in several areas,

observe the dispersion of scientific knowledge, support investment policies and understand how

scientific developments occur.

Therefore, this study aims to analyze all keywords of scientific articles referring to large area

engineering, published in congress annals and journals between 1962 and 2016 by the Brazilian PhD

researchers who have curricula registered in the Lattes Platform. The study contemplates bibliometric

analyzes of the keywords in order to identify and map the main research topics in engineering by

Brazilian researchers.

Development

The motivation of choosing the Lattes Platform as a source of information is basically related to

four factors: (1) data are available on the internet and not widely analyzed ([6]); (2) to deal with the

integration of scientific production data of all the areas of S & T that exist in Brazilian science along

the whole trajectory; (3) for not neglecting articles published in national journals that are often not

indexed, as well as articles in congress annals ([9]); and, (4) as a powerful source for providing high

quality data to measure and measure national academic performance.

The acquisition of the PhD's curricula in the XML version was done through the use of

LattesDataXplorer, developed by Dias [9] to collect the scientific data contained in the curricula

registered in the Lattes Platform. Subsequently, a framework of components was developed

responsible for processing the data of the curricula in order to support the desired analyzes (Figure 1).

In it, the components "data filtering" and "data treatment" are responsible for the entire process of

selecting, treating and modeling information from the curricula that actually need to be processed to

achieve the proposed objectives, and, at the same time, computational processing.

223

The "filtering" component performs the mining step in the curricula to extract information from

the articles, storing them separately in a scientific publications archive, thereby defining the core data

set to be studied. Information from the articles include: curriculum identifier; large area of publication;

year of publication; type of publication; title and keywords. For this work, it was considered all the

publications in congress annals and in journals that have as great area, the engineering. On the other

hand, the "treatment" component processes data from the archive of scientific publications to treat and

characterize them and builds from them a set of standard results files to facilitate analysis. This

component basically performs three steps, namely: cleaning and grouping the data, normalizing the

data and building the files.

The cleaning and grouping the data step is for processing the keywords in such a way as to

exclude terms that do not represent study topics. It also groups distinct keywords that have the same

semantic value. For this, initially, the developed method obtains the keywords of each article analyzed.

Then, each of the keywords are associated with the language registered for the article, serving as

reference in the process of radicalization. The lowercase process converts all words to lowercase in

order to standardize the set. In the process of stopWords are removed the terms that do not have

semantic values. Subsequently, in the normalization process all accents and scores are taken from the

keywords. Finally, the process of radicalization is responsible for reducing the keyword to its radical.

However, in the case of composite keywords, this process is executed on each term individually, and,

concatenated in a single word.

At the normalizing the data stage, all the articles in the scientific publications archive are

processed to identify and process the collaborative works. This procedure is performed for data from

the same scientific article not being considered more than once during the analyzes. In order to do so,

it was necessary to adapt the ISCooll method proposed by Dias and Moita [11] to identify high-

volume scientific collaborations with linear cost data. Thus, while the original ISCooll method uses a

dictionary to link articles (keys of a dictionary) to their authors (curriculum identifiers), the adapted

ISCooll method adopts a dictionary to link the titles of articles to the union set of their keywords.

Finally, the building the files is intended to facilitate the analyzes and contribute to the reduction

of the data to be processed. For more comprehensive analyzes, the standard results files were divided

into: files that consider works done in co-authoring (processed through cleaning and normalization

steps) and those containing the entire set of articles (processed only by the cleaning step). Therefore,

three files of the following formats were constructed: (1) Individuals file by keywords (Curriculum

identifier, keyword1, ... keywordN); (2) Keyword archive by year and large area (Keyword, year,

frequency and large area) and (3) Keyword frequency file by year and publication quantity (Year,

keyword frequency, amount of publication and large area).

Data were collected in April 2017, totaling 265,170 PhD's curricula, where 23.437 of these

curricula have engineering as their main area of expertise. For the analyzes were considered all the

unique articles (collaboration) published by the doctors in congress annals and in journals between

1962 and 2016 referring to the large area of engineering, totaling 906.775 articles and 2.626.707

keywords. In addition, it should be noted that most of the curricula were recently updated, with 47%

having a date last updated in 2017 and 72% updated in the last two years. In spite of this, it is worth

mentioning that, according to Dias [9], the non-updating of the rest of the curricula may have varied

and difficult to recognize reasons.

In continuation, to know the topics that are the main research topics in the last 55 years of

engineering research in Brazil, all the keywords processed were ranked according to the importance of

a topic based on frequency. Table 1 presents the top 15 research topics studied in engineering in

Brazil.

224

Table 1: Main topics of study used by individuals who work in Engineering.

Rank 1962-2016 Frequency

1 Composites 6.088

2 Optimization 5.535

3 Concrete 5.300

4 Simulation 4.994

5 Corrosion 4.937

6 Recycling 4.388

7 Biodiesel 4.360

8 Modeling 4.155

9 Ergonomics 3.977

10 Biomaterial 3.958

11 Ceramics 3.852

12 Mechanical Property 3.755

13 Finite elements 3.715

14 Solid Waste 3.611

15 Adsorption 3.579

since it makes it possible to identify the most impacting topics within a research community in each

epoch. When analyzing the keywords of the curricula registered in the Lattes Platform it is possible to

consider publications made in congresses annals, which is not feasible when verifying international

data repository or in non-indexed journals. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a more precise view of

the topics most investigated over time by the Brazilian researchers in the areas of engineering and,

from this, to perform analyzes about phenomena and tendencies to extract knowledge to be used in the

most varied types of decision in the scientific field. However, despite the validity of the results, it is

noticed that the analysis of the keywords using only measure of popularity importance based on

frequency is influenced quantitatively, which, in the case of the Lattes Platform that has articles

published in the most varied conferences and periodicals with different levels of qualities, only

quantitative analyzes can lead to misperceptions. Thus, as future studies, it is expected that analyzes

will be performed considering temporal factors to determine the relevance of a topic in each epoch,

analyzes based on social network techniques to determine the most central keywords, and qualitative

characteristics appropriate to the context of the Lattes Platform.

Referências

[1] A. G. C. de Brito, L. Quoniam, and J. P. Mena-Chalco, “Exploração da plataforma lattes por assunto:

proposta de metodologia,” Transinformação-ISSN 2318-0889, vol. 28, no. 1, 2016.

[2] A. Pritchard, “Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics,” Journal of documentation, vol. 25, pp. 348, 1969.

[3] G. F. Khan and J. Wood, “Information technology management domain: Emerging themes and keyword

analysis,” Scientometrics, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 959–972, 2015.

[4] J. Choi, S. Yi, and K. C. Lee, “Analysis of keyword networks in mis research and implications for predicting

knowledge evolution,” Information & Management, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 371–381, 2011.

[5] J. P. Mena-Chalco, L. A. Digiampietri, F. M. Lopes, and R. M. Cesar, “Brazilian bibliometric coauthorship

networks,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 65, no. 7, 2014.

[6] L. Digiampietri, “Análise da rede social brasileira,” Ph.D. dissertation, School of Arts, Sciences and

Humanity, University of São Paulo (USP), 2015.

[7] R. R. N. Ferraz, L. M. Quoniam, and E. A. Maccari, “The use of scriptlattes tool for extraction and on-line

availability of academic production from a department in management,” in CONTECSI, vol. 17, 2014.

[8] S. Yi and J. Choi, “The organization of scientific knowledge: the structural characteristics of keyword

networks,” Scientometrics, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 1015–1026, 2012.

[9] T. M. R. Dias, “Um estudo da produção científica brasileira a partir de dados da plataforma lattes,” Ph.D.

dissertation, CEFET-MG, 2016.

[10] T. M. R. Dias, G. F. Moita, P. M. Dias, and T. H. J. Moreira, “Caracterização de redes científicas de dados

curriculares,” iSys-Revista Brasileira de Sistemas de Informação, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 5–18, 2014.

[11] T. M. R. Dias and G. F. Moita, P. M. Dias, “A method for the identification of collaboration in large

scientific databases,” Em Questão, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 140–161, 2015.

225

CILAMCE 2018 CONGRESS

11 – 14 NOVEMBER 2018, PARIS/COMPIÈGNE, FRANCE

Process during Human Movement Simulation

1

CEFET-MG, henriquecbragaseg@gmail.com

2

CEFET-MG, gray@dppg.cefetmg.br

3

CEFET-MG, pema@lsi.cefetmg.br

Abstract. Not rarely the movement of people is linked to the flow behaviour of particles, or even to a

behaviour similar to that found in fluid dynamics. Thus, the modelling of the movement can benefit

from the knowledge already established for the flow of particles and fluids. However, in addition to the

dynamic aspects already established, there are, concurrently in moving people, human factors, such as

cognitive and social phenomena. Thus, for most adequate models, is necessary consider these human

aspects. In previous work was used the model Fuga to simulate the evacuation process of some

environments. This model uses the Fuzzy Logic for emulation of decision-make human process. With

the fuzzy logic, it is possible work with qualitative and quantitative variables within the same process,

which is very useful to work with ergonomics aspects. However there are no commercial software

using fuzzy logic for simulate human movement, and even in academic contest there are very few.

Why? In this work will be detailed described how the Logic Fuzzy can be used in the context of human

movement simulation. The mainly advantages are specified, and examples will be showed. However

the disadvantages will be commented too. The mainly is probably the required time for a complete

fuzzy processing. In the simulation, each agent will pass for a complete fuzzy process several times

each second. The fuzzy logic is a process relatively sophisticated, and considering that in simulations

can participate hundreds, or until thousands, of agents, the processing time is an important factor to be

considered. However was developed a technique capable of improve the processing time for fuzzy logic

named Fuzzy Matrix. An example will be showed where the use of Fuzzy Matrix became the system

about 140 times faster. Thus the fuzzy logic appears a very promiser instrument to be used in pedestrian

dynamic.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Human movement; Decision-make process; Multi-agent simulation.

1. Introduction

The movement of people sometimes is linked to the flow behaviour of particles, or even to a behaviour

similar to that found in fluid dynamics. Thus, the modelling of the movement can benefit from the

knowledge already established for the flow of particles and fluids. However, in addition to the dynamic

aspects already established, there are, concurrently in moving people, human factors, such as cognitive

and social phenomena. Thus, for most adequate models, is necessary consider these human aspects.

In previous works the model Fuga, developed to simulate the human movement in some environments,

both in situation of evacuation during an emergency [1, 2] and in bidirectional flows [3], was used. This

model uses Fuzzy Logic for the emulation of human decision-making process. With fuzzy logic, it is

possible to work with qualitative and quantitative variables within the same process, which is very

useful to deal with ergonomics aspects. However, there are no commercial software using fuzzy logic to

simulate human movement, and even in the academic context there are very few available. Thus, this

work describes how fuzzy logic can be efficiently used in the context of human movement simulation.

2. Fuzzy Decision-Making Process

226

One person located at any position of a given environment needs to take a decision in order to choose

the best route to a target (usually the nearest exit). Several variables are taken into account in this

process and different route options are available. For each route option, each person will calculate its

“quality”, named route quality (RQ). The higher the RQ value for a certain route, the more appropriate

is the choice of that route. Hence:

RQk = ƒFuzzy (inputsk) (1)

RQke = max (RQk) (2)

ke k RQke RQk (3)

Where:

inputs = input variables;

ƒFuzzy = fuzzy system function response;

k = movement options;

ke = the option of movement effectively chosen;

RQk = each of the RQs for each of the k move options calculated by the fuzzy system; and

RQke = RQ of the effectively chosen route.

In Fuga v. 1.0, the input variables were AD, WE, PR, SL, IE and AE. Figure 1 shows the representation

of this adopted fuzzy system.

Figure 1: Representation of a fuzzy system for emulating human decision-making process [2].

Hence:

- AD (Apparent Distance): AD is related to the distance of the agent to the exit or target obtained by

comparing the value of the distance map [4] of the location of the agent with the value of the distance

map of the neighbouring cell under analysis. The AD values will then be:

AD = 0, if in the comparison the apparent distance increases;

AD = 0.5, if it remains the same apparent distance; and

AD = 1, if the direction checked indicates a cell with less apparent distance than the current occupied.

- WE (Wall Effect): it is related to the search for the comfort zone [5]. Associated with the model,

there is an algorithm that verifies if there is a wall around the cell occupied by the agent. Thus, the WE

values will be:

WE = 0, if the neighbouring cell of the agent in question is also immediate neighbour to a wall (great

repulsive effect);

WE = 0.5, if the distance from any wall is of two matrix elements (each matrix element have 9 cm by

9 cm); and

WE = 1, if position is three or more matrix elements away from any wall (no repulsive effect).

- PR (Preferential Route): PR is obtained by comparing the direction of movement indicated by the

value of the escape route matrix of the cell of agent, with the effective direction of movement that the

agent would do to this neighbouring cell in verification. The PR values will then be:

PR = 0, if direction of movement of the agent to neighbouring cell in analysis is opposite to the

direction indicated by the cell of the matrix route of escape occupied by the agent;

PR = 0.5, if direction indicated is orthogonal; and

PR = 1, if the direction checked coincides with the indicated direction.

227

- SL (Stress Level): before each simulation (input parameter) the level of stress of the each agent (low,

medium, high or very high) was determine. Thus, based on the U-inverted hypothesis [6] and

depending on this previously defined stress level, the SL values will be:

SL = 0, for medium stress situations;

SL = AD, for situations of low or high stress; and

SL = rand (1), for situations of very high stress.

Additionally, SL also, regardless of its initial value, will have a random component. Thus, at each

iteration, the SL will have a probability (usually 5%) of having a random value.

- IE (Inertia Effect): IE is obtained by comparing the direction of movement that the agent would make

if it moved to this neighbouring cell with the last direction of movement. The IE values will then be:

IE = 0, if the direction is opposite to last performed;

IE = 0.5, if it is orthogonal to the last performed; and

IE = 1, if movement maintains the same direction of the last performed.

- Automata Effect (AE): there is an algorithm that verifies if there is another agent around the cell

occupied by the automaton associated with the model. Thus, the AE values will be:

AE = 0, if there is a neighbouring agent up to a distance of six matrix elements in the considered

direction; and

AE = 1, if the direction is not obstructed by agents.

For example, Figure 2 shows a sequence of images of an evacuation simulation with 400 persons in a

square environment of 200 m2 with two exits using this fuzzy system to choice the best route until the

nearest exit.

As showed, the fuzzy system can be used in order to emulate the decision-make process in a human

movement simulation. However, one of the factors that may be contributing to the difficulty of

applying fuzzy logic is its processing time. A fuzzy system encompasses a series of operations, such as

scalar to fuzzy conversion, all inference machine processing and its association to the rule bank, as

well as the final fuzzy conversion to scalar.

This whole process has some sophistication, therefore a high computational cost. Considering an

application in a process control, for example, the computational time spent for a complete cycle of a

fuzzy decision making technique may, in practice, be considered negligible, so it is not a limitation to

its use. However, multi-agent modelling can involve thousands of agents - or even more, where each

agent, individually, may need to perform several complete fuzzy processing cycles every second. In

this case, the processing time becomes a negative point to the use of this tool out of the academic

context.

A possibility would be the direct use of fuzzy data, for example, in the form of a table (FT). Ideally this

FT should stay in the computer's dynamic memory, for the reduction in the search time, which will be a

great advantage. One issue is that input quantities may have continuous variations, that is, some criteria

should be adopted for the generation of FT. This TF would have as many columns as the input and

output quantities. An alternative to simplify this table, and also greatly facilitate the research on, is to

use the Fuzzy Matrix (FM) concept.

228

The FM is an array that has only the values of the output. Each of the input quantities is treated as one

different dimension. Knowing the values in each dimension (input quantities), the output value is

directly obtained. It will be necessary to convert the values of each input quantity of the FT into its

matrix equivalent index.

Table 1. Example of PR conversion from FT to FM.

Fuzzy Table Fuzzy Matrix

Input variable Input value Respective dimension Dimension index

0 1

PR 0.5 PRd 2

1 3

Thus, the RQ for each possible movement option can now be simply obtained reading the desired value

on the FM:

RQk = FM [PRd; ADd; WEd; SLd; IEd; AEd]k (4)

6

To verify the reduction of the processing time, a set of 10 complete fuzzy system by Fuga (random

values of the inputs) were carried out on an ASUS Notebook computer, Intel Core i5 2.53 GHz, 64 bits,

Windows 7, using the program Matlab 7.9.0 (R2009b) in its own programming environment and its

Fuzzy Toolbox package (FIS Editor).

As a result, the effective processing time of obtaining the output fuzzy value was reduced by about 140

times, which is very expressive and no doubt facilitates the expansion of the field of application of the

fuzzy logic. Regarding the quality of the result, the only expected difference is associated to the

rounding of the SL values to a multiple number of 0.1; since the other input quantities did not change.

4. Conclusions

The fuzzy logic technique can be considered a promising alternative tool to be used in human

movement simulation software in order to emulate the decision-make process. To enhance its results,

the use of fuzzy matrix concept can reduced very expressively the processing time without loss in the

quality of the information accurate. This is a valuable finding that contributes for a more efficient use of

the fuzzy logic in multi-agent simulations of complex systems.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thanks CEFET-MG, CNPq and CAPES for the financial support received

during this work.

References

[1] H.C. Braga, G.F. Moita, and P.E.M Almeida. Simulation of People Flow by a New Fuzzy Discrete

Automata Model and an Ergonomic Approach, Traffic and Granular Flow 2015, pp. 137-144,

2016.

[2] H.C. Braga, and G.F. Moita. Modeling with Fuzzy Logic the dynamic of people flow during the

evacuation of constructed environments dimensioned according to the Brazilian legislation. In:

11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2014, Barcelona. Proceedings ..., Barcelona:

CIMNE. v. V., p. 6458-6467, 2014.

[3] H.C. Braga, G.F. Moita, and P.E.M Almeida. Simulation with Fuzzy Logic of Human Movement

in Bidirectional Flows with the formation of Lane Formation and Jamming, Abakós, v. 6, n. 1, pp.

19-34, 2017.

[4] P.A. Thompson, and E.W. Marchant. Testing and application of the computer model SIMULEX,

Fire Safety Journal, n. 24, pp. 149-166, 1995.

[5] X. Pan, et al. A multi-agent based framework for the simulation of human and social behaviors

during emergency evacuations, AI and Society, n. 2, v. 22, pp. 113-132, 2007.

[6] M.A. Staal. Stress, cognition and human performance: a literature review and conceptual

framework, NASA, 171 p. TM 212824, 2004.

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STRUCTURES IN SUPERCOMPUTERS .

1 Barcelona Supercomputing Center, guido.giuntoli@bsc.es

2 Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, sergio.oller@upc.edu

3 Barcelona Supercomputing Center, mariano.vazquez@bsc.es

4 Barcelona Supercomputing Center, guillaume.houzeaux@bsc.es

There is no doubt that composite materials are widely used nowadays in different industries. One of

the main areas of applicability is in the aircraft industry, a clear evidence is the A350 from Airbus which

has more than 50% of its weight in composite materials. These materials allow to build lighter aircrafts

that save fuel and reduce emissions while at the same time has enough strength.

One way of designing composite material structures can be done by simulating the behavior of a

prototype under different working loads, by this way several computational methods can be used (see

Ref. [1]). In this case we focus particularly on the FE2 multi-scale method (FE2) 1 . The main idea

is to create a coarse grid at the macroscopic scale that is solved by FEM and the constitutive average

properties of this macroscopic problem are calculated with a micro-model by FEM calculations too. In

Fig. 1 we represent a basic idea of the FE2 algorithm where the structure is composed of two different

micro-structures and at the time it needs a property (the stress σ) it asks to the micro-models to calculate

it using the strain ε. This last process is called localization of the strain and it is reached through the

imposition of specific boundary conditions at the micro-structure.

ε

h h h

h

h h

h

h h

σ

h h h h h h h

h h

h

h h

h

h h h

ε h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

σ

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

Figure 1: Scheme of the FE2 multi-scale method process. In this 2D representation the structure is

composed of two different micro-structures: layers of matrix and circular fibers with different orientation

angles.

This work is divided in two main parts, in the first one we analyze a non-linear composite material

problem using the FE2 method and we compare the solution with other one but applying FEM directly

as a single micro-structure, we consider this last one an exact solution. Once we show that both solutions

are coherent we measure the computational cost and we compare them, we expect the cost of the FE2

to be significantly less than the other. The particular problem that we solve consists on a beam like the

one shown on Fig. 2. For simulating the non-linear behavior, the micro-structure is made of two layers

of different materials, one of them is linear and the other has a plastic behavior.

The main challenges on this problem is that for each integration point at the micro-structure a certain

amount of internal variables should be stored in order to compute the plastic response or non-linear

1 The name FE2 is because the finite element method is applied at two scales: microscopic and macroscopic.

230 1

response. For the case of the linear materials the solution is much more easy to obtain because only one

calculation should be done at the microscopic scale and then the result is reused in all the integration

points of the macroscopic scale. We compare also this last linear case in order to see the accuracy and

the efficiency.

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h

Macro-problem Micro-problem

F

Figure 2: Problem that we are going to solve to test the accuracy and efficiency of the FE2 multi-scale

method.

The code that we prepared for applying the FE2 method consist in a coupling between two codes. For

solving the macroscopic problem we use Alya, a parallel multi-physics code capable of being executed

in distributed architectures which has a solid mechanics module. For the microscopic problem we use

MicroPP, which is able to localize the strains from the macroscopic code and to homogenized stress and

return them to the macro-scale.

The second part of this work is devoted to explain the main design details of the codes and to measure

the performance and trying to figure out the maximum computational problem size that we can solve

using this strategy.

The main bottleneck of the algorithm resides on the microscopic calculations because all the integra-

tions points in the macro-structure should get the average properties to assemble the matrix and the RHS

of the macro-problem. By this way the macroscopic problem cannot calculate until all the microscopic

problems would have being solved and that is why we designed the microscopic code from scratch in

order to fulfill some requirements and reach good efficiency.

The main characteristic of MicroPP that we discuss in detail are:

Figure 3: Coupling scheme of codes to solve the FE2 problem. Alya is used to calculate over the

macroscopic scale and MicroPP over the microscopic one.

References

[1] S. Oller. Numerical Simulation of Mechanical Behavior of Composite Materials, Springer, 2014.

231 2

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FORMATION C ONSTRAINTS INTO M ATRIX S TRUCTURAL A NALYSIS

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, gbarros@tecgraf.puc-rio.br

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, lfm@tecgraf.puc-rio.br

3 Department of Structural Engineering and Civil Construction, Federal University of Ceara, evandro@ufc.br

This paper is concerned with the analysis of framed structures with inextensible and rigid members, i.e.

members without axial and bending strains. Rigid and inextensible members may be useful in educa-

tional software because they capture the essence of the structural behavior with a reduced the number of

variables. In addition, they allow a comparison with results obtained by hand calculation using classical

structural analysis methods. There are three main approaches to constraint handling: transformation,

penalty function and Lagrange multiplier methods [1,2,3]. The transformation methods, also known as

master-slave elimination, use each constraint to eliminate one equilibrium equation, reducing the num-

ber of degrees of freedom. However, this approach does not allow the determination of axial forces in

inextensible member or bending moments in rigid members. The implementation of the penalty func-

tion method is trivial, since physically it corresponds to assign a very large number to the axial stiffness

(EA) of inextensible members and a very large number to the bending stiffness (EI) of rigid members.

However, as the penalty factor increases, the stiffness matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned, lead-

ing to large solutions errors. This paper presents a methodology for considering structural member

deformation constraints using Lagrange multipliers. It consists of adding strain constraints into the total

potential energy minimization, leading to a quadratic programming problem. In addition, this approach

is very suitable for computational implementation because it does not affect the generic characteristic of

a matrix structural analysis. The solution gives rise to one Lagrange multiplier per constraint, which is

essential for computing member internal forces. However, there are situations in which inextensible and

rigid member constrains may be redundant, which prevents the determination of dependent Lagrange

multipliers. In these cases, it is not possible to determine internal forces in the members with redundant

constraints. Although not implemented, a special treatment is indicated for determining member internal

forces in these situations.

References

[1] O.C. Zienkiewicz, R.L. Taylor, J.Z. Zhu. The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, 2013.

[2] R.D. Cook, D.S. Malkus, M.E. Plesha, R.J.W. Witt. Concept and Applications of Finite Element Analysis,

2002.

[3] C.A. Felippa, Introduction to Finite Element Methods, 2017.

232 1

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G. G. Botelho 1 , H. A. S. Monteiro 2 , R. G. Peixoto 3 , R. L. S. Pitangueira 4

1 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, guilhermebotelho@ufmg.br

2 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, hmonteiro@ufmg.br

3 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, rodrigo.peixoto@dees.ufmg.br

4 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, roque@dees.ufmg.br

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