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Trafotech-2010, January, 2010

TRANSFORMER OIL SPECIFICATIONS FOR


INDIAN TRANSFORMER INDUSTRY

P. Ramachandran
ABB Ltd, Vadodara

IS:335 was under taken in 1963 to bring the test


1. BACKGROUND methods in line with the practices in vogue.
Mineral lubricating oil was used in early Second revision was in 1972, mainly to include
transformers as an insulating medium in Europe oxidation stability test as given in IEC Pub
(1890 Brown Boveri) and in America (1892- GE 296(1969) ‘Specification for unused mineral
used Pennsylvanian Paraffinic type lubricating insulating oils for transformers and switchgear’.
oil). Its efficacy as a heat carrier and cooling Third revision in 1983 included ageing test based
agent was recognized much later and early on ASTMD: 1934-1968 ‘Standard method of test
standard specifications for transformer oil came for oxidation ageing of electrical insulating
out in 1899. Indian transformer industry was petroleum oils by open beaker method’, issued
dependent on imported oil (e.g. Shell Diala by the American Society for Testing and
Grades) till 1969 when indigenous manufacture Materials. IS 335: 1993 (Fourth Revision) lined
of transformer oil commenced at Mumbai and up to meet the requirements as per IEC Pub 296
later at Chennai. Indigenous oil manufacturers (1982) and BS148:1984. In this revision, a new
were using the TOBS (Transformer Oil Base test method was added for detection of oxidation
Stock) produced by the HPCL Refinery, Bombay inhibitors. For inhibited transformer oil, a new
and Madras Refineries, Chennai. These Indian Standard was brought out as IS
refineries were producing solvent-neutral oil with 12463:1988 “Specification for inhibited mineral
very high level of unsaturated compounds and insulating oils”. In between, IS: 12812: 1989 was
sulfur / nitrogenous impurities. issued for “Transformer Oil Feed Stock (TOFS)
and Transformer Oil Base Stock (TOBS) -
Initially the quality of locally produced oil, by acid Specification for the requirements of TOBS to be
treatment was poor, especially with regard to oil maintained by refineries”.
resistivity. Immediate impact of the indigenous oil
on transformers was a sudden drop in insulation IEC standard on transformer oil was issued as
resistance during storage/service period. Industry IEC Pub 296 in 1969 and later revised in 1982
could over come this problem and Indian and in 2003 (Third Edition) as IEC 60296:2003
Standard for oil added special requirements for ‘Fluids for Electro-technical Applications-Unused
oil resistivity, even though international standards Mineral Insulating Oils for transformers and
were not specifying this property. After the switchgear’ to reflect the progress in industry and
economic liberalization, during 1990’s imported experience gained so far. Relevant American
base oil made by hydro treating or hydro standard is ASTM D3487-08 Standard
cracking the naphthenic and paraffinic crudes, Specification for Mineral Insulating Oil Used in
was available for industry to deliver oils meeting Electrical Apparatus, issued in 2008, revising the
any international specifications. earlier 2000 and 1988 editions. Revision in 2008
was the deletion of upper limit of aniline point, so
2. EVOLUTION OF STANDARDS that iso-paraffinic oils can also meet with the
Even before the formulation of an Indian ASTM standard.
standard for transformers, Indian standard on
Transformer Oil came out in1953 as IS: 335. This 3. PROGRESS IN MANUFACTURING
was based on BS 148: 1951 ‘Insulating Oil for PROCESS OF TRANSFORMER OIL
Transformer and Switchgear’ issued by the Until the middle of 1990’s, transformer oil was
British Standards Institution. First revision to manufactured in India by using only local TOBS,

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Trafotech-2010, January, 2010

made mainly from local and imported Paraffinic hydrogen. By controlled hydrotreating the
crudes by solvent extraction process, the aromatics are saturated directly to naphthenic
technology available since 1930. With the compounds. The advantages of such oils are the
refining technology available at that time in the higher oxidation stability due to availability of
country, very low pour point was not achievable optimum aromatics which act as natural
and hence IS 335 stipulated a minimum pour inhibitors, lower pour points and lower gassing
point of -6oC against the prevailing IEC tendencies but there can be some disadvantage
stipulation of -30oC for class I and -45oC for class with respect to corrosive sulphur if the hydro-
II oils. treating is not done to retain the right levels of
aromatics. Naphthenic oil producers basically
In this process of making TOBS, base oil is use this refining technique to date. Severe hydro-
treated with an extraction solvent (furfural / treating is becoming essential to meet the
phenol) to selectively remove aromatics. After recently introduced stringent tests for corrosive
this process, de-waxing solvent (methyl– sulphur and total sulphur content. (<0.15 % W/W)
ethylketone/ Toluene / Propane) is mixed with oil
3.2. Hydro-cracking and severe Hydro-
and chilled to a low temperature to precipitate out
cracking – It is a severe form of hydro-treating,
waxes. This step is necessary for Paraffinic base
available from 1970, where base oil flows over a
oils which has higher wax content and is not
high activity catalyst bed at temperatures above
necessary for Naphthenic base oils which contain
350oC and pressures above 70 bar. Almost all of
very little wax content. Another process used for
the sulphur and nitrogen compounds in oil are
getting still lower pour point is catalytic de-waxing
removed and many aromatics are saturated with
or hydro- dewaxing. Waxy oil is mixed with
hydrogen. All unsaturates are converted in to
hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures and
smaller, saturated paraffinic molecules. The
pressure and allowed to flow over catalyst bed.
advantages of such oils are their higher electrical
Wax is converted in to lighter hydrocarbons by
properties and highly non corrosive nature but
this process.
the disadvantages can be due to their higher
pour points, relatively lower oxidation stability
Transformer Oil was made from TOBS using the
(unless inhibited) and higher gassing tendencies.
Acid and Clay treatment process. In this process
concentrated sulphuric acid is mixed with base oil 3.3. Hydro-isomerisation – This process came
to react with the polar and unsaturated in to use from 1990, for improving the properties
compounds in it to form sludge that is then of hydro-cracked paraffinic crude base oils. This
removed. Later, oil is neutralized with alkalies, is a process after hydro - cracking and similar to
extracted with solvent iso-propyl alcohol and then catalytic dewaxing. During this process, wax is
water washed and filtered through clay (Fullers selectively converted (isomerised) in to branched
earth), thereby removing aromatic and highly chain iso-paraffinic molecules. Paraffinic
polar compounds to achieve the required molecules are isomerised in to iso-paraffinic
electrical properties. Further filtering is done molecules, resulting in water-white, corrosive
under vacuum to bring down the moisture level. sulphur and aromatic free iso-paraffinic
The disadvantage with this process, apart from transformer oil, with pour point comparable to
economic considerations is the environmental naphthenic oils, thus resulting in very high quality
concerns about sludge and acids resulting from base oil. The advantages of such oils are their
the process. Certain alternate transformer oil higher electrical properties and extremely non
refining methods were tried abroad and became corrosive nature with lower pour points but the
popular over the above conventional processes. disadvantages can be due to relatively lower
These can be summarized as below: oxidation stability (unless inhibited) and higher
gassing tendencies.
3.1. Hydro-treating – This was first used in
1960’s. Base oil is treated with hydrogen at a
pressure above 35 bar and temperature above The manufacturing of inhibited oils and high
315oC in the presence of a catalyst. Impurities grade non-inhibited oils is quite different.
are removed by the reaction of harmful sulphur Oxidation stability in non–inhibited oils is
and nitrogen hetero cyclic polar compounds with achieved by the presence of natural oxidation

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stabilizers available in the oil. In case of non- gas absorbing oils, but may be advantageous in
inhibited oils, when refining is carried out, various special applications like EHV instrument
compounds of nitrogen and sulphur are left in oil transformers and bushings with thick paper
and these contribute to oxidation stability. The insulation and also certain special EHV, HVDC
non-corrosive sulphur compounds left in oil for transformers. Another option followed by some
natural oxidation stability can some times turn in manufacturers is mixing iso-paraffinic oils with
to corrosive compounds. These corrosive naphthenic oils to get optimum characteristics. It
compounds can subsequently cause conductive is recommended that oil manufacturers along
coatings on insulating paper provided as inter with transformer manufacturers and utilities
turn conductor insulation, which can lead to inter should monitor the field service experience of
turn fault from insulation breakdown. It is these iso-paraffinic oils that are now in service for
believed that certain compounds like DBDS more than a decade.
(Dibenzyl Disulphide-antioxidant and antiwear
additive) added to the oil for improving oxidation The hydro treated, fully inhibited Naphthenic oils
stability can also contribute to this corrosive were used in all UHV (800 KV) transformers,
sulphur property by cracking at higher operating commissioned so far in the country. Based on
temperatures forming reactive sulphur service experience, iso- paraffinic oils can be
compounds. This corrosive property can be tried for such applications too.
suppressed by adding copper passivators in oil.
Passivating compounds used are benzotriazole 4. NEW IEC STANDARD ON TRANSFORMER
based ones, in small concentrations e.g.: Irgamet OIL
39 (0.01-0.03%) or benzotriazole amine (BTA- The major changes in the latest IEC 60296
0.003 – 0.01 %). Specifications are the following:

From 1997 onwards, Indian transformer oil Instead of class I & II grades in earlier version,
manufacturers are increasingly using imported there is only one class of oil for transformer
hydro-cracked, hydro-isomerised paraffinic oils application, with maximum viscosity of 12 mm²/s
as base oils. Such highly refined oils will not have at 40°C. A new parameter LCSET (Lowest Cold
any polar compounds, resulting in high resistivity Start Energizing Temperature) has been
but relatively poor oxidation stability. Synthetic introduced. It is the permissible lowest ambient
antioxidants like 2,6 di-tert-butyl-p-cresol or 2,6 temperature, at which the transformer can be
di-tert-butyl-p-phenol are added (0.08-0.4% by energized safely from cold condition. As per new
weight) to oil to give good oxidation stability. standard, this is -30°C, 5 degrees lower than the
Normally oil ageing in inhibited oil will be slower minimum service ambient temperature for power
than in uninhibited oil. Since some inhibitor transformers stipulated in IEC 60076-2. LCSETs
depletion will definitely be there during service, it of 0°C, -20°C and -40°C are also specified in the
is required to monitor inhibitor content standard as alternate options.
periodically and to replenish the inhibitor when it
reaches half of its original level. But in normal Three optional standard grades are introduced
situations, the added oxidation inhibitors will be depending on the quantity of oxidation inhibitors
sufficient to last long periods during the life of present in oil.
transformer. Another characteristic of such iso- U – Uninhibited Oil-No detectable Antioxidant
paraffinic oil is complete lack of aromatic content additive
as all aromatics are converted in to stable T – Trace inhibited Oil-Max 0.08% Antioxidant
molecules. This results in oil with positive additive
gassing tendency, which can be a disadvantage I – Inhibited Oil-0.08 to 0.4 % Antioxidant additive
in certain cases. So when negative gassing
tendency (i.e. gas adsorbing property) is required In addition, special grade inhibited oil with higher
or to reduce the positive gassing values, then oxidation stability and low sulphur content
aromatic additives like alkylbenzenes, benzyle characteristics is introduced in standard for use
toluenes or 1,2,3,4 Tetrahydronaphthalene in transformers with higher operating
(Tetralin) (3-8% by weight) are added to oil. Most temperatures or designed for extended service
of the transformer manufacturers do not demand life.

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Trafotech-2010, January, 2010

Acidity limit is reduced to < 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil 1) Standard Grade (ST) –Trace inhibited - For
with measuring method as per IEC 62021-1 General use in Power and Distribution
(Earlier requirement was <0.03 mg). Transformers
2) High Grade (HI) – Inhibited - For Use in
Total sulphur content of 0.15% is specified for Generator, Industrial, HVDC transformers
high grade oil. For all standard grade oils, a 3) High Grade (HIG) – Inhibited, with negative
corrosive sulphur test using silver strips is gassing tendency - For EHV Instrument
introduced (DIN 51353) instead of using copper transformers, bushings and other special
strips. applications.

IEC 60296 is now under revision again, with the Even though in our country, un-inhibited oil was
intention of introducing more stringent the standard in line with the practice in UK
requirements for corrosive sulphur. IEC 62535 (except Indian Railways – Track side feeder
Ed 1.0 Test method for detection of potentially transformers are specified with fully inhibited oil
corrosive sulphur in used and unused insulating as per IS: 12463 for more than two decades). But
oil was issued in 2008, for detecting corrosive in Europe inhibited oil is widely specified and
sulphur, together with the DIN silver strip test. ASTM standard specifies only trace inhibited or
inhibited oils.
5. OIL STANDARD FOR INDIAN INDUSTRY
Consequent to globalization, transformer industry The following additional requirements may be
has become truly an international one and the added to existing IEC standard reflecting
national standards are disappearing in favour of progress during past 5 years.
International Standards i.e. those of IEC.
American Standards do rule over certain regions, -Oil shall pass corrosive sulphur test as per IEC
but may line up with IEC in due course of time. 62535 Ed1.0 (2008-10) Test method for detection
Under such a scenario, it may no longer be of potentially corrosive sulphur in used and
necessary or desirable to have a separate Indian unused insulating oil.
Standard for transformer oil. It will be prudent to
adopt latest IEC standard with certain grades -Composition of oil in terms of percentage of
selected as preferred ones to reduce variety and aromatic content, hydrocarbon composition and
to meet the requirements of industry. Like in proportions, used additives and inhibitors are to
many other countries (e.g. UK), in India too, base be furnished as a fingerprint for the reference of
transformer oil is imported and only finishing is users.
done locally to meet the plethora of local
specifications with minor variations demanded by 6. SUPERFLUOUS REQUIREMENTS
users. It will be appropriate to review these Oil specifications currently followed by users and
variations in specifications which defeat the manufacturers call for several additional
whole purpose of standardization, and to suggest requirements and tests over and above IEC
appropriate IEC grades to replace these standard. The following sections explain why
specifications. It has become urgent as IEC was these are not essential in the changed
revised nearly 6 years back and we have still not environment of imported oils made through
fully incorporated these advances in technology improved manufacturing processes.
in our oil specifications. (Table 1 Comparison of
6.1. PONA Analysis / maximum aromatic
Transformer Oil Specifications).
content
Some typical PONA requirements as per
Based on the IEC standard, the following grades
individual specifications, followed in India are
can be standardized for meeting the entire
a. Paraffinic - 48-52 %
requirements of utilities in the country. Mineral
Oliffinic - Nil
Insulating Oil as per IEC 60296-2003 with
Naphthenic - 38-42 %
maximum pour point of -400C (LCSET= -
Aromatic - 8 % Max
300C)
b. Paraffinic - 46 % (Max)

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Naphthenic - 46 % (Min) route. Oil is no longer manufactured by this


Aromatic - 8 % (Max) method and hence there is no more relevance for
S K value and this test has been removed from
c. Aromatic - 7% (Max) IS:335-1993 in April, 2006 vide its Amendment
as per ASTM D 2140 No 2.
- 13% (Max)
6.3. Oxidation Stability Test
as per IEC 60590
Major differences between national standards in
the limiting values for oxidation stability test are
d. Aromatic Content - 4~8 %
listed in Table 2-Comparison of Oxidation
Stability Tests for oil.
e. Oil of Naphthenic type (made from
Naphthenic Crude)
1) IS:335 requirements for oxidation stability test
are as given below:
f. Paraffins - 50 % Max
(a)Oxidation stability (testing as per Annexure C
Aromatics - 4-12 %
to IS:335 at 100oC for 164 hours with oxygen).
Naphthenic - Balance
Neutralisation value after oxidation (Max)-0.4 mg
KOH/g
Aromatic content in new transformer oils made
Total sludge after oxidation (Max)-0.1% by
through hydrogenation or hydro-cracking
Weight.
manufacturing route is very low so that there is
(b)Ageing characteristics after accelerated
no need for specifying a maximum limit for it.
ageing (open beaker method with copper
Good quality oils are made from both naphthenic
catalyst)
and paraffinic crudes. Oil made from iso-praffinic
-Testing as per IS 12177: 1987 Method A
base oils can match the characteristics such as
Specific resistance at 27°C - Min 2.5 X 10¹² ohm
oxidation stability, heat transfer and bio-
cm
degradability as compared to common
Specific resistance at 90°C - Min 0.2 X 10¹² ohm
naphthenic mineral oils. With the advent of
cm
severe hydrocracking technology, oil should not
Dielectric Dissipation Factor at 90°C - Max 0.2
be chosen on grounds of classification in to
Total acidity - Max 0.05 KOH/g
“naphthenic” or “paraffinic”. What matters is
Total sludge - Max 0.05 percent by weight
whether it fulfills the functional requirements of
2) IEC 60296 requirements for oxidation stability
oil. There are more and more different ways of
are more stringent as mentioned below:
achieving this, making the former classifications
less and less relevant.
Oxidation stability testing as per IEC 61125
6.2. S K Value – 4 to 8%: Is it necessary to Method C-at 120oC with Air, representing real
specify this? service life situation
S K Value is an index of degree of refining of oil Neutralization value after oxidation (Max)-1.2 mg
measured by the reaction of oil sample with a KOH/g
volume of concentrated sulphuric acid. S K value Total sludge after oxidation (Max)-0.8 % by
measurement method was covered in Annexure Weight
D to IS:335 ‘Method of Determination of SK
Value’. This was originally introduced in Germany As per latest IEC norms, transformer oil
and measurement was as per DIN 51533:1955 conforming to IS: 335, is a trace inhibited oil
‘Behavior of Insulating Oils in the Presence of because as per IS, oxidation inhibitor up to 0.05
Concentrated Sulphuric Acid’. The acronym S K % is to be considered as absence of DBPC while
came from German word Konzentriorter as per IEC 60296 clause 3.6, such an oil is
Schwefelsäure-sk-Zahl (Concentrated sulphuric treated as trace inhibited. Oxidation stability
acid). S K value was lower for oil made by high requirements of oil in such a case shall be as for
level of refining. In Europe this test is no longer T grade as given in Table 1 i.e. oxidation stability
used and new DIN standard on oil does not test shall be for 332 hours instead of 164 hours.
specify this requirement. This test is significant
only in case of oil manufactured by acid refining

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Test methods for detection and quantitative distribution and power transformers), Inhibited
determination of the inhibitor are different as per High Grade( for generator and HV DC
IEC 60666 Ed1.0 (1979-01) ’Detection and transformers) and Inhibited High Grade with
determination of specified anti-oxidant additives negative gassing tendency((for instrument
in insulating oils’. For detecting small amounts of transformers and bushings), all with a pour point
inhibitor (i.e. for U grade) thin layer of - 40oC.
chromatography (HPLC) is recommended
(clause 5.2 of IEC 60666) and infra-red spectro- It is hoped that such a measure will bring
photometry method is specified for determination uniformity in specifications, resulting in savings to
of higher quantity of inhibitor (clause 5.1 of IEC manufacturers and users.
60666).
8. REFERENCES
6.4. Resistivity (Specific Resistance)
[1] J R Nanda, Insulating Oils for
As per IS:335, resistivity requirements are clearly
Transformers and switch gear, Chary
stipulated and limiting values after ageing are
Publications, Bombay, 1971.
also specified at 27oC and 90oC. IEC and other
[2] Lim Eng Seng, “Mineral Insulating Oil
national standards are no longer specifying
Manufacture and safe keeping”, Insulec
resistivity requirements, as new oils, made
93, Session 1 Paper5, pages 41-49,
through modern manufacturing processes,
IEEMA 1993.
inherently have very high resistivity due to the
[3] Andrzej Sierota and Juris Rungis,
removal of all polar compounds by high degree of
“Electrical Insulating oils Part-1:
refining.
Characterisation and pre treatment of
New Transformer oils”, IEEE Electrical
IEC 60422:2005 on Oil Maintenance (clause 6.6)
Insulation Magazine Vol11 No1, 1995
states: “There is generally a relation ship
Pages 8- 20.
between DDF (Dielectric dissipation factor) and
[4] Paul W H Taylor, “The manufacture of
resistivity, with resistivity decreasing as DDF
transformer oils for the Power Industry” -
increases. It is normally not necessary to conduct
64th Doble International Conference,
both tests on the same oil and generally DDF is
Boston, MA 1997 Sec5-2.
found to be the more common test. The
[5] T O Rouse, “Mineral Insulating Oil in
measurement of resistivity is also considered to
Transformers”, IEEE Electrical Insulation
be of value for monitoring oils in service as it has
Magazine, Vol. 14 No3, 1998 Page 6-14.
been shown to be reasonably proportional to
[6] Kjell Sundkvist, “How to make a good
oxidation acids and to be affected by undesirable
transformer oil”, Nynas naphthenics,
contaminants such as metal salts and water”.
2.1999.
Hence resistivity values may be sometimes
[7] B.Pahlavanpour, M.Eklund and
significant during maintenance of oil, but not
KSundkvist, “International Specification
much relevant for new oil as power factor test
for supply of unused oil, Revised IEC
covers this requirement.
60296”, 71st Doble International
Conference, Boston, MA 2004 Sec IM-10.
7. CONCLUSIONS
[8] H. Carl Manger and R. Reynolds,
It is necessary to standardize the specifications
“Insulating Oil”- 101 Doble International
of Transformer oil used in the country, in line with
Conference, 2005.
the latest IEC Standard on transformer oil.
[9] Jimmy M Rasco, “Petroleum Refining
production of Naphthenic Transformer oil
Utilities and manufacturers may come to an
Control of Corrosive Sulphur”, 74th Doble
understanding regarding the preferred grades to
International Conference, Boston, MA,
be selected as per latest IEC standard,
2007.
considering also the availability in the country.
[10] Steve Krawiec, “Production of Corrosive
Sulphur Free Transformer Fluids”,
Superfluous properties and test requirements
Weidmann 7Th Annual Technical
may be avoided. Three grades of oil are
Conference, 2008.
proposed-Trace inhibited Standard Grade(for

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[11] IEC 296:1982 Specification for unused [15] IEC 60422:2005(Ed3.0) Mineral Insulating
mineral insulating oils for transformers oils in electrical equipment –Supervision
and switchgear- IEC Geneva, and Maintenance guidance, IEC Geneva,
Switzerland, 2003. Switzerland, 2005.
[12] IS: 12463 -1988, Specification for [16] IEC 62535: 2008(Ed1.0) Test Method for
inhibited Mineral insulating oil, Bureau of detection of potentially corrosive sulphur
Indian Standards New Delhi, 1988. in used or unused insulating oil, IEC
[13] IS 335:1993, New Insulating oils- Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
Specification (Fourth Revision) Bureau of [17] ASTM D 3487-08 Standard Specifications
Indian Standards New Delhi, 1993. for Mineral Insulating Oil Used in
[14] IEC 60296 :2003 (Ed 3.0) Fluids for Electrical Apparatus.
Electrotechnical Applications –Unused
Mineral Insulating Oils for Transformers
and switchgear, IEC, Geneva,
Switzerland 2003.

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TABLE 1

COMPARISON OF TRANSFORMER OIL SPECIFICATIONS

IS:335-1993 IEC 296:1982 IEC 60296:2003


New Insulating Unused Mineral Insulating Oils Unused Mineral
Oils – Insulating Oils
Specification
1 Grades IS:335 Grade Class I, Class II, Class III U-Uninhibited
(Uninhibited ) Uninhibited and inhibited grades in T-Trace inhibited
each class I- Inhibited (0.08-0.4%)
HI – High grade
inhibited (0.08-0.4%)
I II III
2 Kinematic 27 cst at 27°C 16.5(40°C) 11(40°C) 3.5(40°C) 12mm²/s at 40°C
Viscosity (Max)
800(- 1800(- 150(- 1800mm²/s at -30°C
15°C) 30°C) 40°C)
3 Flash Point 140 140 130 95 135
(Min) oC
4 Pour Point -6 -30 -45 -60 -40
(Max) oC
5 Acidity (Max) 0.03 0.03 0.01
mg KOH/g
6 IFT (Min) mN/m 40 40 -
7 Dissipation 0.002 0.005 0.005
factor at 90oC
(Max)
8 PAC (Polycyclic - - 3
Aromatics
(max) %
content)

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TABLE 2

COMPARISON OF OXIDATION STABILITY TESTS FOR OIL

Standard Oil IEC 60296 : 2003 IEC 296 -1982 IS 335 : 1993
Grade
Grade Standard High U I U I
U,T,I Grade I (IS :12463-
1988)
Test Method IEC 61125 Method IEC IEC Annexure IS:12177- IS:12422-
C (1992) (Earlier 61125 61125 C to 1987Method A 1988
IEC 813-1985) Method Method IS:335 (Same as (IEC474-
A B ASTMD 1974,Same
(Earlier (Earlier 1934:1968.Op as IEC
IEC 74 - IEC 474- en Beaker with 61125
1963) 1974)) copper catalyst Method B)
Limiting
Values
Total acidity 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.05 0.4
mg KOH/g,
Max
Sludge % 0.8 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1
Max
Duration of U (uninhibited oil ) - 164 Min 120 164 96 Min 120 hrs
Test hrs 164 hrs and limit of
T(Trace inhibited oil) Induction Min 195
- 332 Period minutes by
I ( Inhibited oil ) -500 Rotating
Bomb Test
Method

Temp of oil 120°C in Air 100°C in 120°C in 100°C in 115o C in Air 120°C in
during test Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen

Note: Oil Grade U = Uninhibited Oil


T = Trace Inhibited Oil
I = Inhibited Oil

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