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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

Chapter 1 Homework
Due: 11:59am on Monday, January 7, 2019
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Visualize It! Chapter 1 Figure 2

You will identify where microbes ended up in Pasteur’s experiment.

Part A
Label the figure to identify where microbes ended up in Pasteur’s experiment.
Drag the microbe label to its appropriate position in the swan-necked flask. Labels may be used more than once.

ANSWER:

Reset Help

Incorrect
location

Correct
location

Incorrect
location

Correct
location
Incorrect
location

Correct

Video Tutor: The Scientific Method

Watch the video tutor on The Scientific Method and then answer the questions below.
https://session.masteringmicrobiology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=1843323 1/7
3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

Part A
What is spontaneous generation?

Hint 1. Dry Lakebed


Spontaneous generation provides a possible explanation for how a dry, lifeless, lakebed may spring to life after a
rain.

ANSWER:

the theory that living organisms produce nonliving proteins, such as enzymes

the theory that new genes are produced through mutations in genetic material over generations

the ability of an organism to reproduce by either sexual or asexual means

the theory that living organisms may arise from nonliving matter

Correct
Yes. The theory of spontaneous generation was developed to explain how life seems to come from nonliving
matter. An example would be the production of maggots from decaying meat.

Part B
How did Francesco Redi attempt to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation?

Hint 1. Leeuwenhoek’s Microbes


Redi’s experiments predated the use of Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes in the laboratory.

ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

He performed a series of experiments involving decaying meat and maggots.

He boiled vials of beef gravy and infusions of plant material for almost an hour and then tightly sealed them by
melting the necks of the vials.

He boiled vials of beef gravy and infusions of plant material, and then tightly sealed them with a cork.

He boiled vials of beef gravy and infusions of plant material for almost an hour and bent the necks of the vials
into an S-shape, allowing the entrance of air.

Correct
Yes. Redi showed that maggots do not spontaneously arise from nonliving meat, but instead come from flies
depositing eggs.

Part C
Which scientist definitively ended the debate over spontaneous generation?

Hint 1. Airborne
The debate continued until a scientist developed a way to allow air into the vials without allowing dust particles.

ANSWER:

John T. Needham

Francesco Redi

Louis Pasteur

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Correct
Yes. Through the use of vials with S-shaped necks, Pasteur was finally able to disprove the theory of spontaneous
generation.

Part D
Which of the following steps is NOT included in the scientific method?

Hint 1. Answer the Question

The scientific method is designed to answer scientific questions through observations, experimental data, and
analysis, even if the results are unexpected.

ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

Conduct an experiment.

Analyze the results of the experiment.

Repeat experiment until desired result is achieved.

Generate a hypothesis.

Correct
Yes. If an experiment yields results contradictory to the hypothesis, it is then necessary to reject or modify the
hypothesis rather than repeat the experiment.

Part E
When conducting an experiment, it is generally necessary to include __________ groups that are treated exactly the same
as treatment groups except for the condition being tested.

Hint 1. Comparison
An experiment should always be designed to express an expected result against which unexpected results may be
contrasted.

ANSWER:

experimental

control

variable

a maximum of five

Correct
Yes. Typically, control groups serve to eliminate all other conditions in an experiment, besides the ones being
tested.

Part F
If the results from an experiment contradict the hypothesis, what should be a scientist’s next step?

Hint 1. Drawing Board


The scientist should go back to the beginning.

ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

The scientist should reject or modify the hypothesis.

Design another experiment for the same hypothesis.

Do the experiment again until the results confirm the hypothesis.

Publish the results.

Correct
Yes. If the results of the experiment do not align with the hypothesis, it is necessary to either reject the hypothesis
or change the hypothesis and retest it.

Part G
Some critics of Spallanzani’s experiments thought that the reason sealed flasks were unable to spontaneously generate
microorganisms was that there was not enough air present to support life. How did Louis Pasteur respond to this claim?

Hint 1. Critics
The critics were correct in their assertion that the lack of air may prevent the growth of microorganisms. Pasteur
needed to address this concern to fully reject the hypothesis of spontaneous generation.

ANSWER:

He modified the original hypothesis.

He accepted the hypothesis.

He modified the experiment to include air as treatment.

He rejected the original hypothesis.

Correct
Yes. When an experiment does not take into account all variables, it may be necessary to include more treatments
within the experiment.

Part H
What is a hypothesis?

Hint 1. Before and After


A hypothesis is formed before an experiment is performed, but after an observation.

ANSWER:

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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

A hypothesis is a proven explanation for an observed phenomenon.

The hypothesis is the subject of an experiment in which a treatment is withheld.

A hypothesis is a variable being tested for within an experimental design.

A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question.

Correct
Yes. A hypothesis is an informed explanation for an observed phenomenon.

Chapter 1 Pre-Lecture Quiz Question 4

Part A
You have isolated a microorganism that is green, photosynthetic, has a cell wall, and does NOT possess a nucleus. This
organism is a(n) __________.

Hint 1.

Recall that there are many types of organisms studied within the field of microbiology.

ANSWER:

archaeon

bacterium

fungus

alga

Correct

Chapter 1 Post-Lecture Quiz Question 8

Part A
What did the work of Lister and Ehrlich have in common?

Hint 1.
Recall that Lister was working to decrease the number of infections after surgery; Ehrlich was looking for the "magic
bullet."

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3/31/2019 Chapter 1 Homework

ANSWER:

They both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

They both discovered the bacterial causes of important infectious diseases.

They both examined the role of microbes in fermentation.

They both demonstrated the importance of cleanliness in the prevention of disease.

Correct

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