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# Republic of the Philippines

## NUEVA VIZCAYA STATE UNIVERSITY

Bambang Campus
Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya

REVIEW 2 FUNDAMENTALS
Thermodynamics

ASSIGNMENT NO: __

## SUBMITTED BY: HANS CHRISTIAN C. TAPAOAN

BSME 5A

1/30/2019

SCORE
7. A gas bubble rising from the 14. Air having an initial pressure of
ASSIGNMENT ocean floor is 1 inch in diameter at a 6,516 kPa and an initial volume of
depth of 50 feet. Given that sp. gr. of 0.113 m3 is compressed
1. If a block of copper weighing 0.50 seawater is 1.03, the buoyant force adiabatically to a final volume of
lb is dropped from a height of 100 ft in the lbs being exerted on the 0.057 m3. Calculate the work done
into the tank, what is the change in bubble at this instant is nearest to: by the gas as it compresses to a final
internal energy of the water? volume of 0.057 m3. Calculate the
work done by the gas as it
compresses to a final pressure of
17,237 kPa.

## 8. Determine the change in enthalpy

per lbm of nitrogen gas as its
2. Convert water pressure of 50 temperature changes from 500 F to
kN/m2 in equivalent meter - head of 200˚F. (Cp= 0.2483 Btu/lbm- R)
water.

## 15. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with

weighted piston as the top
boundary. The gas is heated and
9. What is the resulting pressure expands from a volume of 0.04 m3 to
when one pound of air at 15 psia 0.10 m3 at a constant pressure of
3. Consider 1 kg of air at 32˚C that and 200˚F is heated at constant 200 kPa. Calculate the work done by
expended by a reversible polytropic volume to 800˚F? the system.
process with n= 1.25 until the
pressure is halved. Determine the
heat transfer. Specific heat at
constant volume for air is 0.1786
kJ/kg . K
10. What horsepower is required to
isothermally compress 800 ft3 of air
per minute from 14.7 psia to 120 16. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with
psia? a weighted piston as the top
boundary. The gas is heated and
expands from a volume of 0.04 m3 to
0.10 m3. The pressure varies such
that PV = constant, and the initial
4. The specific gas constant of pressure is 200 kPa. Calculate the
oxygen is R= 0.25983 kJ/kgK. If a 2 11. How many gallons per minute of work done by the system.
m3 tank contains 40 kg of oxygen at cooling water are required to
40˚C, what is the gage pressure in remove 100,000 kJ/hr of heat from a
the tank? diesel engine if the designed
temperature rise of the water is
20˚C?

## 17. Nitrogen is expanded

5. Convert specific heat of 0.23 isentropically. Its temperature
Btu/lb-˚F to kJ/kg-K 12. Twenty grams of oxygen gas (O2) changes from 620˚F to 60˚F. Find the
are compressed at a constant pressure ratio (p1/p2)
temperature of 30˚C to 5% of their
original volume. What work is the
done on the system?

## 6. One kilogram of water (Cp= 4.2

kJ/kg.K) is heated by 300 Btu of
energy Btu of energy. What is the 18. An engine takes in 11,000
change in temperature, in K? 13. A certain mass of gas having an Btu/min of heat from a hot body
initial pressure of 17,237 kPa and an while giving an output of 110 hp.
initial volume of 0.057 m3 is What is the thermal efficiency of this
expanded isothermally to volume engine?
0.113 m3. What is the work done by
the gas in kJ?
19. Air expanded adiabatically from 24. How much work is necessary to 30. A steam condenser receives 10
an initial absolute pressure of 31026 compress air in an insulated cylinder kg per second of steam with an
kPa to a final absolute pressure of from 0.20 m3 to 0.01 m3. Use T1= enthalpy of 2,570 kJ/kg. Steam
1705 psi. If the initial temperature of 20˚C and P1 = 100 kPa condenses into liquid and leaves
the air is 600 R, calculate its final with an enthalpy of 160 kJ/kg.
temperature. Cooling water passes through the
condenser with temperature
increases from 13˚C to 24˚C.
Calculate the cooling water flow
rate in kg/s.
25. A heat engine is operated
between temperature limits of
1370˚C and 260˚C. Engine is
20. With three different quantities x, supplied with 14,142 kJ/kwh. Find
y, and z of the same =kind of liquid the Carnot cycle efficiency in
of temperatures 9, 21 and 38˚C percent.
respectively, it is found that when x
and y are mixed together the
resultant temperature is 17˚C and 31. A Steam expands adiabatically in
when y and z are mixed together the a turbine from 2000 kPa, 400˚C to
resultant temperature is 28˚C. Find 400 kPa, 250˚C. What is the
the resultant temperature if x and z effectiveness of the process in
were mixed. 26. A closed vessel contains air at a percent assuming an atmospheric
pressure of 160 kN/m2 gauge and temperature of 15˚C. Neglect
temperature of 30˚C. The air is changes in kinetic and potential
heated at constant volume to 60˚C energy.
with the atmospheric pressure of Properties of steam:
759 mm Hg. What is the final gauge At 2000 kPa and 400˚C (h = 3247.6
pressure? kJ/kg, S = 7.1271 kJ/kg-K) and at 400
kPa and 250˚C (h = 27.1271 kJ/kg-K,
21. An air bubble rises from the S = 7.3789 kJ/kg-K)
bottom of the well where the
temperature is 25˚C, to the surface
where the temperature is 27˚C. Find
the percent increase in the volume
of the bubble if the depth of the well 27. What is the temperature in ˚C of
is 5 m. Atmospheric pressure is 101, 2 liters of water at 30˚C after 500
528 Pascals. Calories of heat have been added?

## 32. Steam enters the super heaters

of a boiler at a pressure of 25 bar
and dryness 0f 0.98 and leaves at
the same pressure of at a
temperature of 370˚C. Calculate the
heat energy supplied in the super
22. An ideal gas 45 psia and 80˚F is 28. A volume of 450 cm3 of air is heaters.
heated in a closed container to measured at a pressure of 740 Properties of steam:
130˚F. what is the final pressure? mmhg absolute at a temperature of At 25 bar and 370˚C (h = 3171.8
20˚C. What is the volume in cm3 at kJ/kg) and at 25 bar and 0.98
760 mm Hg absolute and 0˚C? dryness (hf = 962.11 kJ/kg, hfg =
1841.01 kJ/kg).

## 23. A large mining company was

provided with a 3000 cm3 of
compressed air tank. Air pressure in
the tank drops from 700 kPa to 180 29. Assuming compression is
kPa while the temperature remains according to the law PV = constant. 33. The thermal efficiency of a
unchanged at 28˚C. what Calculate the initial volume of gas at particular engine operating on an
percentage has the mass of air in the a pressure of 2 bar which will occupy ideal cycle is 35%. Calculate the heat
tank been reduced? a volume of 6 m3 when it is supplied per 1200 watt-hr of work
compressed to a pressure of 42 bar. developed in kJ.
34. Determine the average Cp value 39. If the given specific heat at 46. If the atmospheric air 14.7 psia
in kJ/kg-K of a gas if 522 kJ of heat is constant temperature of CO2 is and 60 ˚F at sea level, what is the
necessary to raise the temperature given as 0.201 Btu/lb-R, what is the pressure at 12000 ft altitude if air is
from 300 K to 800 K making the value of the specific heat at constant compressible. Note: @ 60 ˚F; the
pressure constant. volume? density of air is 0.0763 lbm/ft3; P1=
14.7 psia

## 35. Ammonia weighing 22 kg is 40. An amount of 4000 Btu of heat

confined inside a cylinder equipped has transferred from a reservoir at 47. If air is at a pressure of 3200
with a piston has an initial pressure 800 deg. F to a reservoir at 200 deg. lb/ft2 and at a temperature of 800 ˚R,
of 413 kPa at 38˚C. If 2900 kJ of heat F. Find the entropy change of the what is the specific volume?
is added to the ammonia until its system.
pressure and temperature are 413
kPa and 100˚C, respectively. What is
the amount of work done by the
fluid in kJ?
48. Given 280 liters of a gas at a 63.5
cm Hg. The gas has a specific heat at
41. Find the mass of carbon dioxide constant pressure of 0.847 kJ/kg K
having a pressure of 20 psia at 200˚F and a specific heat at constant
with 10 ft3 volume. volume of 0.659 kJ/kg K. Which of
the following most nearly equals the
volume of the gas would occupy at a
36. What is the total required final pressure of 5atm if the process
heating energy in raising the is adiabatic?
temperature of a given amount of
water when the energy supplied is
1000 kWh with heat losses of 25 %? 42. What is the approximate value
of the temperature of water having
enthalpy of 208 Btu/lb?

## 49. If 0.5 kg of nitrogen with an

initial volume of 170 liters and a
37. A vessel of 0.058 m3 capacity is pressure of 2,070 kPa expand in an
well insulated and is divided equally accordance with the law PVn =
by rigid conducting diaphragm. 43. An ideal gas at 0.80 atmospheres constant to a final volume of 850
Initially both halves contain air at and 87 ˚C, 0.450 liter. How many liters and a pressure of 275 kPa,
pressure of 137.8 kPa and 413.4 kPa moles are in the sample? (R =0.0821 which of the following most nearly
and a temperature of 27˚C and liter-atm/mole-K) equals the work done by the gas?
177˚C respectively. What is the
increase of entropy of the system in
kJ/˚C.

44. Two kilogram of air in a rigid tank 50. Air is flowing through a 100 mm
change its temperature from 32˚C to I.D. pipe at the rate of 6 kg/min. the
150 ˚C. Find the work done during air pressure and temperature are
38. A certain gas at 101.325 kPa and the process. 500 kPa and 30˚C respectively. Find
16˚C whose volume is 2.83 m3 are the velocity of the air in m/s.
compressed into a storage vessel of
the storage vessel contained the gas
at a pressure and temperature of
137.8 kPa and 24˚C. After admission,
the pressure has increased of 1171.8 45. A perfect gas has value of R =
kPa. What should be the final 58.8 ft-lb/lb-˚R and k = 1.26. If 20 Btu 51. A quantity of 55 m3 of water
temperature of the gas in the vessel were added to 10 lbs of the gas at passes through a heat exchanger
in Kelvin? constant volume when initial and absorbs 2,800,000 kJ. The exit
temperature 90˚F, find the final temperature is 95˚C. The entrance
temperature. water temperature in ˚C is nearest
to.
52. A gas company buys gas ta 630 58. A condenser vacuum gauge 64. If 10 lbs of water evaporated at
kPa gauge and 24˚C and sells it at reads 715 mm Hg when the atmospheric pressure until a volume
9.65 cm of water pressure and -2˚C. barometer stands 757 mm Hg. What of 288.5 ft3 is occupied, how much
Disregarding the losses in the is the absolute pressure in the work is done?
distribution, which of the following condenser in kPa.
most nearly equals the number of
cubic meters sold for each cubic
meter purchased?

## 65. What pressure is column of

59. An oxygen cylinder of volume 2.3 water 100 cm high equivalent to
ft3 has a pressure of 2200 psig and is
at 70˚F. Determine the mass of
53. A closed container of helium oxygen in the cylinder.
dropped from a balloon 4 km above.
Find the temperature difference
when the container hits the ground. 66. Work done by a substance in
reversible nonflow manner in
accordance with V = 100/P ft3,
where P is in psia. Evaluate the work
done on or by the substance as the
60. A closed vessel contains air at a pressure increases from 10 psia to
pressure to 140 kg Kpag and 100 psia.
54. In a particular cycle, 350 MJ of temperature of 20˚C. Find the final
heat are transferred into the system gauge pressure if the air is heated at
each cycle. The heat transferred out constant volume to 40˚C. Take the
the system is 297.5 MJ per cycle. atmospheric pressure as 759 mm Hg.
What is the thermal efficiency of the
cycle?
67. Assume 8 lb of a substance
receive 240 Btu of heat at constant
volume and undergo a temperature
change of 150˚F. Determine the
61. Water substances at 70 bar and average specific heat for the
65˚C enters a boiler tube constant substance during the process.
55. Steam flows into a turbine at the inside diameter of 25 mm. The
rate of 10 kg/s and 10 kW of heat are water leaves the boiler tube at 50
lost from the turbine. Ignoring bar and 700K at velocity of 100m/s.
elevation and kinetic energy effects, Calculate the inlet volume flow in
calculate the power output from the li./sec. At 70 bar & 65˚C, v1 =
turbine. 0.06081 m3/kg.
Note: h1 = 2739.0 kJ/kg and h2 = 68. Determine the specific weight of
2300.5 kJ/kg air at 760 mmHg absolute and 22˚C.

## 62. Determine the average constant

pressure specific heat of steam at 10 69. A one cubic container contains a
56. The enthalpy of air is increased kPa and 45.8˚C. Note: From steam mixture of gases composed of 0.02
by 139.586 kJ/kg in a compressor. table, at 47.7˚C, h = 2588.1 kJ/kg and kg-mol of oxygen and 0.04 kg-mol of
The rate of air flow is 16.42 kg/min. at 43.8˚C, h = 2581.1 kJ/kg. helium at a pressure of 220 kPa.
the power output is 48.2 kW. Which What is the temperature of this
of the following values most nearly ideal gas mixture in degrees Kelvin?
equals the heat loss from the
compressor in kW?

## 63. If 6 liters of a gas at a pressure of

100 kPaa are compressed reversibly
according to PV2 = C, until the 70. A pressure gage registers 50 psig
volume becomes 2 liters. Find the in a region where the barometer
57. A pressure gage registers 50 psig final pressure. reads 14.8 psia. Find the absolute
in a region where the barometer is pressure in kPa.
14.25 psia. Find the absolute
pressure in psia.
71. A new temperature scale is to be 83. In an isentropic process, P1 = 200
used where freezing and boiling 77. After series of state changes, the psi, P2 = 300 psi and T1 = 700˚R. Find
temperature of water is at 100 deg. pressure and volume of 2.286 kg of the T2 = using k = 1.4.
N and 100 deg. N respectively. Nitrogen (Cp = 1.0414 kJ/kg-K and Cv
Calculate the absolute zero in =0.7442 kJ/kg-K) are each doubled.
degree N. What is ∆ S?

## 84. Nitrogen (k = 1.4) is expanded

isentropically. Its temperature
72. Find the change in internal 78. Helium (R = 0.4968 Btu/lbm˚R) is changes from 620˚F to 60˚F. Find the
energy of 5 lb of oxygen gas when compressed isothermally 14.7 psia pressure ratio (P1/P2).
the temperature changes from and 68˚F. The compression ratio is 4.
100˚F to 120 ˚F. Use Cv = 0.157 Caculate the work done by the gas.
Btu/lb˚R.

## 79. Twenty grams of oxygen gas (O2) 85. Nitrogen is expanded

are compressed at a constant isentropically. Its temperature
73. The following expressions relate temperature of 30˚C to 5 % of their changes from 620˚F to 60˚F. The
to a particular gaseous mass: PV = original volume. What work is the volumetric ratio is (V2/V1) = 6.22 and
95T, h= 120 = 0.60T where these done on the system? the value of R for nitrogen is 0.0787
units obtain in psf, V in ft3/lb, t in ˚R Btu/lbm˚R. What is the work done by
and h in Btu/lb. If the specific heats the gas?
are temperature dependent only,
find Cp and Cv.

## 80. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with

weighted piston as the top
boundary. The gas is heated and 86. If the ˚F scale is twice the ˚C scale,
expands from a volume of 0.04 m3 to what is the reading in Fahrenheit?
0.10 m3 at a constant pressure of
74. Calculate the change in enthalpy 200 kPa. Calculate the work done by
as 1 kg of nitrogen is heated from the system.
1000 K to 1500 K, assuming the
nitrogen is an ideal gas at a constant
pressure. The temperature
dependent specific heat of nitrogen 87. Water enters the condenser at
is Cp = 39.06 – 512.79 T-1.5 + 1072.7 30˚C and leaves at 60˚C. What is the
T-2 – 820.4T-3 wher Cp is in kJ/kg-mol, temperature difference in ˚F?
and T is in K. 81. A piston-cylinder system
contains a gas which expands under
a constant pressure of 1200 lb/ft2. If
the piston is displaced 1 ft during the
process, and the piston diameter is
2 ft. What is the work done by the 88. A cylinder piston arrangement
gas on the piston? contains saturated water vapor at
110˚C. The vapor is compressed in a
75. For a certain ideal gas, r = 0.277 reversible adiabatic process until
kj/kg-k and k = 1.384. What are the the pressure is 1.6 Mpa. Determine
values of Cp and Cv? the work done by the system per kg
of water. At 110˚C, S1 = 7.2387 kJ/kg-
K, U1 = 2518.1 kJ/kg and at 1.6 Mpa,
82. Gas is enclosed in a cylinder with S2 = 7.2374 kJ/kg-K, U2 = 3950.1 kJ/k,
a weighted piston as the top T2 = 400˚C.
boundary. The gas is heated and
76. An air with mass of 0.454 kg and expands from a volume of 0.04 m3 to
an unknown mass of CO2 occupy an 0.10 m3. The pressure varies such
85 liters tank at 2068.44 Kpaa. If the that PV = constant, and the initial
partial pressure of the CO2 is 344.74 pressure is 200 kPa. Calculate the
kPaa, determine its mass. work done by the system.
89. Helium is compressed isothermally 14.7 psia and 68˚F. 95. An ideal gas mixture consists of 2 kmol of N2 and 6
The compression ratio is 4. Calculate the change in Kmol of CO2. The apparent gas constant is:
entropy of the gas given that RHelium = 0.4961 Btu/lbm˚R.

## 96. An elastic sphere containing gas at 120 kPa has a

90. Steam at the rate of 500 kg/hr is produced by a steady diameter of 1.0. Heating the sphere causes it to expand to
flow system boiler from feedwater entering at 40˚C. Find a diameter of 1.3 m. During the process the pressure is
the rate at which heat is transformed in kCal/hr if the proportional to the sphere diameter. Calculate the work
enthalpy of steam is 600 kCal/kg and of steam 50 kCal/kg. done by the gas in kJ.

91. During the polytropic process of an ideal gas, the state 97. An ideal gas with molecular weight of 7.1 kg/kg mol is
changes from 138 kPa and 5˚C to 827 kPa and 171˚C. Find compressed from 600 kPa and 280 deg K to a final specific
the value of n. volume of 0.5 m3/kg. Calculate the work of compression in
kJ/kg?

## 92. For an ideal gas, what is the specific molar entropy

change during an isothermal process in which the pressure 98. An air compressed adiabatically from 30˚C to 100˚C. If
changes from 200 kPa to 150 kPa? mass of air being compressed in 5 kg. Find the change in
entropy.

## 99. Find the enthalpy of Helium if its internal energy is 200

93. Water enters the heater at 25˚C and leaves at 80˚C. kJ/kg.
What is the temperature change in˚F?

## 94. An ideal gas mixture consists of 2 kmol of N2 and 6

Kmol of CO2. The mass fraction of CO2 is: 100. What is the lifting force in kN for a 10 m diameter
spherical balloon with helium inside at 101 kPa and 320 K
surrounded by air at 101 kPa and 298.15 K?