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SARULLA GEOTHERMAL POWER PROJECT

Operation and Maintenance Manual Volume II – Supplier’s O&M Manual


Section 5 Instrumentation and Control Chapter 6 Temperature Element & Field Indicator

Chapter 6 Temperature Element & Field


Indicator
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Pressure Gauge & Diagram Pressrue Gauge

1. Manual Content

This manual contains installation, operation, maintenance, calieration, overhaul,


instruction and test procedures for HISCO pressure gauge. American national standard
ANSI B40.1 gauge, pressure and vacuum, contains valuable information including.
Installation, operation, calibration and safe usage. It is recommended that anyone using,
installing or calibrating pressure gauge be familiar with this industry standard.

2. Features of Pressure Gague

Pressure Gauge for industrial applications haver the following features.

1-1 With Liquid Filled case for application with high dynamic pressure pulsations or vibration
1-2 Suitable for corrosive environments and gaseous or liquid media that will not obstruct the pressure system
1-3 Process industry
Chemical/Petrochemical, power stations, mining, on and offshore, environmental technology, mechanical engineering
and plant construction

3. Selection Criteria

3.1 Operating pressure range


The instrument selected should have a full scale pressure range such that the operating pressure occurs in the middle
half (between 25% and 75%) of the scale. The full scale pressure of the gauge should be approximately two times the
intended operating pressure.

3.2 Fatigue Failure


This is caused by mechanical stress resulting from the pressure and takes the form of a small crack from the inside to
the outside, generally along an edge. Such failures are more dangerous when the measured medium is a compressed
gas rather than a liquid.
Fatigue failures release the fluid gradually, and therefore the case pressure build-up is indicated by the opening of the
relief valve. When measuring high pressures, the process operating pressure is close to the maximum permissible stress
limit, and can therefore result in an explosive failure. In this case a choke should be fiitted on the instrument's coupling,
in limit the flow of liquid.

3.3 Overpressure Failure


This is caused by application of internal pressure greater than the rated limits of the measuring element, and can occur
when a low-pressure gauge is installed on a high-pressure system. The effects of this type of failure, generally more
serious in compressed gas applications, are unpredictable and may result in instrument fragments being projected in all
directions. The opening of the safety device on the case does not always guarantee containment of the fragments. It is
generally accepted that using an instrument with a solid front and blow-out back reduces the possibility of fragments
being projected toward the front of the instrument, where the operator stops to take readings. The clear front alone does
not provide adequate proetection, and in fact is the most dangerous component in such a case. Overpressure pulses of
short duration(spikes) can occur in pneumatic or hydraulic systems, especially when valves are opened or closed. The
amplitude of such pulses can be many times the operation pressure, and the great speed at which they occur prevents
them from being read out on the instrument, amking them invisible to the operator. They can result in definitive breakage
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Pressure Gauge & Diagram Pressrue Gauge

of the instrument or a permanenet zero error. A choke reduces the amplitude of the overpressure spike that reaches the
measuring element. The use of a pressure-limiting valve protects the instrument from all pressures which exceed the
calibration limit of the valve, thereby protecting the instrument from overpressure.

3.4 Explosive Failure


This occurs as a result of the violent release of thermal energy due to a chemical reaction, such as adiabatic compression
of oxygen in the presence of hydrocarbons. It is generally accepted that the effects of this type of failure cannot be anticip-
ated. Even the use of solid-front instruments does not esclude against the projection of fragments toward the front of the
instrument. Pressure gauges suitable fot use with oxugen are marked "Use no Oil" and/ or with a crossed out oil can symbol
on the dial. The instruments are supplied already washed and degreased using appropriate products and packed in
polyethylene bags. The user must take the necessary precautions to ensure that the connection and the elastic element are
kept clean after the pressure gauge has been unpacked.

3.5 Corrosion Failure


This occurs when the material fo the measuring element is weakened through attack by the corrosive chemicals present
either in the media inside or the environment around it. Failure may occur as a pinhole leakage or early fatigue failure due
to strss cracking brought about by the chemical deterioration of the material. In such a case the use of a fluid separator
made of sutiable material must be considered. However the addition of a separator may influence the sensitivity or accuracy,
or both. As an alternative to a fluid separator, it is possible to consider choosing a measuring element made from
AISI 316 or Monel 400, rather than phosphor bronze.

4.
4 IInstallation
t ll ti

4.1 To facilitate removeal for maintenance pirposes, a shut-off valve can be installed between the pressrue gauge and the
plant. The pressrue connection must be watertight. If the pressure connection has a cylindrical thread, the seal is
achieved using an O-ring clamped between the two flat sealing surfaces, one on the pressure connection and the other
on the instrument's process connection. If the pressure connection has a tapered therad, the seal is achieved by simply
screwing the connection onto the coupling, though the mating of the theads. It is common practice to wrap PTFE tape
around the male thread before coupling(see Fig-2).

Fig - 2

In both cases the torque must be applied using two hexagonal spanners, one on the flat faces of the instrument/ process
coupling and the other on the pressure connection.
Do not use the case as a means of tightening as this may cause damage to the instrument. When pressurising the sys-
tem for the first time, check the tightness of the connection seal. All instruments must be mounted in such a way that
thedial is vertical, unless otherwise indicated on the dial itself. When the instrument includes a safety device, this must
be at least 20 mm from any other object.
For wall or panel mount instruments, make sure that the instrument coupling without exerting torsion or force.
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Pressure Gauge & Diagram Pressrue Gauge

4.2 Effect of liquid columns


The installer must be aware that, if the instrument is subjected to the load of a liquid column, it must be calivrated to com-
pensate for this effect. In this case, the compenstion needs to be indicated on the dial, and should therefore be communi-
cated to HISCO when placing the order.

4.3 Putting into service


The instrument must always be put into service with care, to avoid pressure surges or sudden changes in temperatue
Shut-off valves must therefore be opened slowly.

5. Use

5.1 It is not advisable to use the instruments for measuring pressures near zero, as in that range the accuracy tolerance can
represent a significant percentage of the applied pressure. For this reason, these instruments should not to be used for
measuring residual pressures inside large volume containers such as tanks, surge tanks and the like.
In fact, such containers may retain pressures that are dangerous for the perator, even when the instrument indicates a
zero pressure. It is recommended to install a ventilation device on tanks in order to achieve zero pressure before removing
covers or connections, or performing similar tasks.

5.2 Ambient Temperature


It is difficult to insulater the instrument from ambient temperature that are too higt or too low. One solution is to position
it further away from the source of cold or heat, when this is possible. If an instrument of accuracy class 0.6 or higher is
used at an ambient temperature different from the reference value(20 ℃ ± 2 ℃), it si necessary to make a correction.

5.3 It si not advisable to successively install instruments on system with different operating media, to avoid initiating chemical
reactions that may cause explosions resulting from contamination of the wetted parts.

5.4 If the instriment dial indicates a fixed pressure for a prolonged time, make sure this is not due to an obstructuin of the
pressure element supply pipe. Especially in the case of a zero pressure reading, make sure that there is effectively zero
pressrue inside the instrument before removeing it, by isolating it using the shut-off valve.

6. Maintenance

6.1 The general safely of an installation often depends on the operating "conditions of the instruments which it contains. It is
essential that the measurements indicated by these instruments are reliable. Therefore, any instrment which apperars to
give an abnormal readout should be removed, checked and recalibrated if necessary.
Maintenance of accuracy should be confirmed by routine checks. Checks and recalibrations must be carried out by com-
petent personnel using suitable testing equipment.

6.2 Every 3/6 months after installation, check the accuracy and the wear on moving parts and the state of corrosion on the
measuring element. For instruments used on plant subject to demanding conditions (vibrations, pulsating pressure, corr-
osive media, sediments, etc.) replace them after the time intervals indicated in the plant procedures.

6.3 The calibration and testing fluid must be compatible with the measured media in the pressurised system. Fluids contain-
ing hydrocarbons must not be used when the measured medium is oxygen or any other oxidising substance.
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Pressure Gauge & Diagram Pressrue Gauge

6.4 Instruments kept in their original standard packing(cardboard box) must be stored in a closed area and protected from
moisture: in this case no special attention is required. If the instruments are packed in special materials(wooden crates
lined with tar paper or barrier bags) it is preferable to store them in a closed room if possible, or in any case in an area
protected from the elements; the condition of the packed materials should be checked every 3 - 4 months, especially if
the crates are exposed to the elements.
The temperature of the storage area should be between -20 and +65 ℃, except where otherwise specified on the catalogue
data sheets.

7. Mounting and Opreration

7.1 Admit pressure slowly by throttling gague cock, the maxium pressure at which at pressure gauge is continuously operated
shall not exceed 75% of full scale pressure. The gauge selected should have a full scale pressure of approximately twice
the intended operating pressure.

7.2 If it is desirable to compensate the indication for head effect in the piping it can be accomplished
by removing betel ring and crystal and resetting pointer using. The Pointer adjusting screw.

7.3 Use a correctly sized spanner to tighten connections

Installation with open‐
ended spanner

8. Long-Term Storage Instructions with Standard Packaging.

If intermediate or long-term storage of equipment is required,


it is recommended that the equipment be stored in accordance with the following:

8.1 Within the original shipping container.

8.2 Stored in a sheltered area, preferably a warm, dry, heated warehouse.

8.3 Ambient temperature of 70° F (21° C) nominal, 109° F (43° C)maximum, 45° F (7° C) minimum.

8.4 Relative humidity 45% nominal, 60% maximum, 25% minimum.


Upon removal from storage a visual inspection should be conducted to verify the condition of
equipment is "as received".
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR

1. What is Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)?

Generally, electrical resistance of any metallic conductor varies


according to temperature changes. The sensor for measurement
of temperature by utilizing this phenomenon is called "Resistance
Thermometer or "RTD" and can measure temperature more
precisely than other temperature sensors.

2. Features of RTD

Resistance temperature detectors for industrial applications haver


the following features.

1-1 Good sensitivity.


1-2 Excellent stability and reproducibility
1-3 High accuracy.

3. Structure and measuring Methods.

Structure :
Metal wire that changes its electric resistance to changes in tempera-
ture are utilized is called “Resistance Wire".
This resistance wire, normally of platinum, is used to manufacture
temperature sensor called “Resistance Temperaure Detector(RTD) 2-wires (Type W)
Element Generally speaking, RTD is composed of RTD element,
lead wires, protection tube and terminals.

Measuring Methods:
2-Wires Connection: Type W
RTD element is connected to respective two wire leads.
Although it is less expensive than other types, it is not recommendable 3-wires (Type X)
for high precision measurement of temperature because it is suscepti-
ble to lead resistance and produces error.

3-Wires Connection: Type X


One end of RTD element is connected to two wire leads and the other
end connected to single lead to eliminate the effect from lead resistance.
This type is most widely used as a reliable method in industrial applica- 4-wires (Type Y)
tions.
R = RTD element. o =
4-Wires Connection : Type Y Terminal
RTD element is connected to respective two wire leads to remove the effect
from lead resistance. This connection cancels lead resistance effect and is especially recommendable for high
precision measurement of temperature but somewhat expensive than other types.
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR

4. Precautions in Practical Applications

Selection of proper RTD suitable for the application is the most important factor. For precision measurement
of temperature, consideration should be given to selection of RTD element, protection tube, structure and
ftting (location) according to the respective resistance to heat, corrosion,mechanical shock and other environ-
mental conditions.

5. Ceramic type Platium RTD Element

RESICERAM is composed of a coil-formed high purity


platinum wire inserted into bores of a fine polished
recrystallized Alumina ceramic body and fixed on its
bottom by special heat resistant frit. As approximately
80% of the resistance wire is free of heat strain from
temperature change, drift in resistivity is minimized and
its reproduability and long term stability are superior to
any of conventional core-wound elements.

6. Glass-sealed Platinum RTD Elernent

It is composed of a high purity platinum wire wound non-


inductively-around a special glass body, of which resisti-
vity at 0 ℃ is adjusted to fall within the respective stardard
ranges, inserted into another special glass tube and heat
sealed overall. Quick response and excellent in insulation,
withstand voltage, vibration, and high resistance to liquid,
chemicals and gases.

7.Temperature/Resistance Table

1) Norminal Resistance for Pt 100Ω Elernent

Std Std
℃ Pt100 JPt100 ℃ Pt100 JPt100
-200 18.49 17.14 -100 60.25 59.57
-190 22.80 21.46 -90 64.30 63.68
-180 27.08 25.80 -80 68.33 67.77
-170 31.32 30.12 -70 72.33 71.85
-160 35.53 34.42 -60 76.33 75.91
-150 39.71 38.68 -50 80.31 79.96
-140 43.87 42.91 -40 84.27 83.99
-130 48.00 47.11 -30 88.22 88.01
-120 52.11 51.20 -20 92.16 92.02
-110 56.19 55.44 -10 96.09 96.02
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR

Std Std
℃ Pt100 JPt100 ℃ Pt100 JPt100
0 100.00 100.00 350 229.67 231.89
10 103.90 103.97 360 233.17 235.45
20 107.79 107.93 370 236.65 238.99
30 111.67 111.88 380 240.13 242.53
40 115.54 115.81 390 243.59 246.05
50 119.40 119.73 400 247.04 249.56
60 123.24 127.54 410 250.48 253.06
70 127.04 127.54 420 253.90 256.55
80 130.89 131.42 430 257.32 260.02
90 134.70 135.30 440 260.72 263.49
100 138.50 139.16 450 264.11 266.94
110 142.29 143.01 460 267.49 270.38
120 146.06 146.85 470 270.86 273.80
130 149.82 150.67 480 274.22 277.22
140 153.58 154.49 490 277.56 280.63
150 157.31 158.29 500 280.90 284.02
160 161.04 162.08 510 284.22 287.40
170 164.76 165.86 520 287.53
180 168.46 169.63 530 290.83
190 172.16 173.38 540 294.11
200 175.84 177.13 550 297.39
210 179.51 180.86 560 300.65
220 183.17 184.58 570 303.91
230 186.82 188.29 580 307.15
240 190.45 191.99 590 310.38
250 194.07 195.67 600 313.59
260 197.69 199.35 610 316.80
270 201.29 203.01 620 319.99
280 204.88 206.66 630 323.18
290 208.45 210.30 640 326.35
300 212.02 213.93 650 329.51
310 215.57 217.54 660 332.66
320 219.12 221.15
330 222.65 224.74
340 226.17 228.32

Pt100 : R。=100.000 R1。。/R。=1 .3850 to dIS C 1604-1989, IEC 751, BS 1904, DIN 43760.

dPH00 : R。= 100.000 R1。。/R。= 1 .3916 t。 dIS C 1604-1981, American Curve.


INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR

2) Tolerances as a Function of Temperature /Resistance for Pt 100Ω Element


INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR

8. Mounting and Opreration

1) Installation

1-1) Use a correctly sized spanner to tighten connections

1-2) Users are advised to mount with protection tubes(thermowell)


for maintance. Never twist the case by hand !

1-3) To avoid thermal conduction errors, the immersion depth should be :


in fluids 6~8 times greater or in gases 10~15 times greater than the protective tube diameter.

1-4) Conduit connection wire of pressure switch must be use a explosion proof type cable gland.

9. Maintenance

1) The general safety of facility often depends on the reliablity of indications on the temperaure gauge
installed in the facility, thus any temperature gauge that seams to be abnormal must be removed
immediately, then tested if necessary confirmation of temperature gauge accuracy should be main-
tained by periodic testing.

2) Verification and ercalibration must be carried out by appropriate test equipment and qualified per-
sonnal.
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR
10. Long-Term Storage Instructions with Standard Packaging.

If intermediate or long-term storage of equipment is required,


it is recommended that the equipment be stored in accordance with the following:

1) Within the original shipping container.

2) Stored in a sheltered area, preferably a warm, dry, heated warehouse.

3) Ambient temperature of 70° F (21° C) nominal, 109° F (43° C)maximum, 45° F (7° C) minimum.

4) Relative humidity 45% nominal, 60% maximum, 25% minimum.


Upon removal from storage a visual inspection should be conducted to verify the condition of
equipment is "as received".
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
TEMPERATURE WELL

1. THERMOWELL & TEST WELL

Thermowell (Drilled Bar Stock Type Protection Tube) is usually being used to ensure longer service

life under critical conditions such as very corrosive gases or liguids, High temperature, High Pressure,

Vibration, Shock or high flow velocity.

1.1 Raw Material Sizes

Round Bar (O.D) : mm

24,25,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44,46,48

Hexagonal Bar : mm

26,29,32,35,38,41

1.2 Standrad Materials

304SS,316SS,316LSS,310SS,321SS,Inconel,

Hastelly B,C,X Monel and its alloys Titanium

Other special materials are also available upon request.

1.3 Test and Inspection

* Integrity Test

Eash well is tested under air Pressure of 0.5 MPa for 5 minutes.

* Hydrostatic Pressure Test

Internal pressure test up to 1.5 Rate of process max. press . Conducted upon request.

1.4 Long-Term Storage Instructions with Standard Packaging.

If intermediate or long-term storage of equipment is required,


it is recommended that the equipment be stored in accordance with the following:

1.4.1 Within the original shipping container.


1.4.2 Stored in a sheltered area, preferably a warm, dry, heated warehouse.
1.4.3 Ambient temperature of 70° F (21° C) nominal, 109° F (43° C)maximum, 45° F (7° C) minimum.
1.4.4 Relative humidity 45% nominal, 60% maximum, 25% minimum.
Upon removal from storage a visual inspection should be conducted to
verify the condition of equipment is "as received".