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FOR RANKINE:

FOR BRAYTON:
3. DETAILEAD SCHEMATIC AND T-S DIAGRAMS

COMBINED CYCLE:
ABSTRACT
The combined gas and steam cycle is commonly used power plants around the
globe. This power plant uses both Brayton and Rankine Cycle to produce
electricity. For the top Brayton cycle, we assumed air with variable specific heat as
the working fluid. The minimum temperature is 310 K where the maximum
temperature is 1700 K. The pressure at the compressor inlet is fixed at 100 kPa.
The rate of heat added is 401,701.74 KW while the heat rejected is 173,601.74
KW. The effectiveness of heat transfer from the gas cycle to the steam cycle is
88.52%.
For the Rankine cycle, the boiler pressure was set at 18 MPa where the
condenser pressure was set at10 KPa. Steam was superheated to 600°C. The
steam cycle has two open feedwater heaters for deaeration and one closed
feedwater heater. The rate of heat added is 153,672.19 KW and the heat rejected
is 81,772.19 KW. We designed a combined gas and steam cycle power plant with
a 228,100 KW Work net output for Brayton Cycle and 71,900 KW for Rankine
Cycle that provides a combined net power output of 300 MW with an overall
thermal efficiency of 74.68%.
4. DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE COMBINED CYCLE
COMBINED CYCLE (GAS AND VAPOR CYCLE)

BRAYTON CYCLE: RANKINE CYCLE:

qaB = 1104.217109 Kj/Kg qAR = 2238.96 Kj/Kg

qrB = 477.2048284 Kj/Kg qRR = 1191.397519 Kj/Kg

wnetB = 627.012281 Kj/Kg wnetR= 1047.562481 Kj/Kg

Let WnetB = 228100 KW Let WnetR = 71900 KW

mB = WnetB / wnetB mR = WnetR / wnetR


mR = 71900 Kj/s / 1047.562481
mB = 228100 Kj/s / 627.012281 Kj/Kg
Kj/kg
mR = 68.63552419 Kg/s
mB = 363.7887278 Kg/s
QaR = mR (qaR)
QaB = mB (qaB)
QaR = 68.63552419 Kg/s
QaB = 363.7887278 Kg/s (2238.96 Kj/Kg)
(1104.217109 Kj/Kg)
QaR = 153672.1932 KW
QaB = 401701.7373 KW
QrR = mR (qrR)
QrB = mB (qrB)
QrR = 68.63552419 Kg/s
QrB = 363.7887278 Kg/s (1191.397519 Kj/Kg)
(477.2048284 Kj/Kg)
QrR = 81772.19324 KW
QrB = 173601.7374 KW
WnetCombined = WnetB + WnetR
WnetCombined = (228100 + 71900) KW
WnetCombined = 300000 KW
WnetCombined = 300MW

Effectiveness = QaR / QrB


Effectiveness = QaR = 153672.1932 KW/QrB = 173601.7374 KW
Effectiveness = 0.885199627
Effectiveness = 88.52 %

η = 1- QRB (1-Effectiveness) + QrR / QaB


η =1 – 173601.7374(1-0.885199627) + 81772.19324 / 401701.7373
η = 0.7468227593

η = 74.68 %
FOR RANKINE CYCLE:
STATE 1 @ 18 MPa; 600°C STATE 5 @ 10KPa
h1 = 3555.6 Kj/Kg s1 = sf + x (sfg)
s1 = 6.5696 Kj/Kg-K 6.5696 = .6493 + X (7.5009)
STATE 2 @ 8MPa X = 0.7992786199
s1 = s2 h5 = hf + x (hfg)
s h h5 = 2080.415882 Kj/Kg
6.5551 3272
STATE 6
6.5696 h2
6.5904 3297.7 h6 = hf @ 10KPa
h2 = 3282.556657 Kj/Kg
h6 = 191.83 Kj/Kg
STATE 3 @ 5 MPA
STATE 7 @ 1.5 MPa
s1 = s3
h7 = V6 (P7-P6) + h6
s h
h7 = 193.335198 Kj/Kg
6.5317 3120.5
6.5696 h3 STATE 8
6.5708 3145.9
h8 = hf @ 1.5 MPa
h3 = 3145.12046 Kj/Kg
h8 = 844.89 Kj/kg
STATE 4 @ 1.5 MPa
STATE 9
s1 = s4
h9 = V8 (P9-P8) + h8
s h
6.5641 2849.7 h9 = 850.2765 Kj/Kg
6.5696 h4
STATE 10
6.5897 2862.3
h4 = 2852.407031 Kj/Kg h10 = hf @ 5 MPa
h10 = 1154.23 Kj/Kg
STATE 11 qR = (1 – m1 – m2 – m3)h5 + m1 h13 – (1
– m1 – m2 – m3)h6
h11 = V10 (P11-P10) + h10
qR = 1191.397519 Kj/Kg
h11 = 1170. 9467 Kj/Kg
STATE 12 = 13 = 14
wnet = Qa - Qr
h = 1316.64 Kj/Kg
wnet = (2238.96 –1191.397519)Kj/Kg
wnet = 1047.562481 Kj/Kg
ENERGY BALANCE:

wTurbine = (h1 – h2) + m1(h2 – h3) + m2(h3


m1 (h2 – h12) = 1 (h14 – h11)
- h4) + m3(h4 - h5)
m1 = 0.7967998739
wTurbine = 486.8724937 Kj/Kg

m2 h3 + (1 - m2) h9 = h10
wPump = 1 – m2 – m3 (h7 – h6) + 1 – m2
m2 = 0.1324506177 (h9 – h8) + (h11 - h10)
wPump = 17.98911672 Kj/Kg
m3 h4 + (1 – m2 – m3) h7 = (1-m2) h8
m3 = 0.2125777598 EFFICIENCY:
qa = (h1 – h14) η = 1 –qa/qr
qa = 2238.96 Kj/Kg η = 1 – 1191.397519 / 2238.96
η = 0.5321209486
η = 53.21 %
6. TABULATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS AND ENERGY
BALANCES FOR THE COMBINED CYCLE

VALUES FOR 300 MW COMBINED GAS AND STEAM POWER CYCLE

Rated Output 300 MW


Inlet temperature to compressor of 310 K
brayton (T1)
Inlet temperature to the combustor 757.890625 K
(T2)
Inlet temperature to the turbine ( T3) 1700K
Outlet temperature of the turbine (T4) 787.4448284 K
Compressor Inlet temperature (P1) 100 KPa
Inlet pressure to the turbine (P3) 2.5 MPa
Pressure ratio of the brayton cycle (rp) 25
Inlet pressure to the turbine 18 MPa
Inlet temperature to the turbine 600°C
Pressure to the CFWH 8 MPa
Pressure to the 1st OFWH 5 MPa
Pressure to the 2nd OFWH 1.5 MPa
Condenser Pressure 10 KPa
m1 0.7967998739
m2 0.1324506177
m3 0.2125777598
METD 413
Thermodynamics 2

Cycle Design Paper:


Design of High-Efficiency, 300-MW
Combined Gas and Steam Power Cycle

Submitted by:
DULOT, JOSHUA E.
CANLAS, J-SON B.
BSME 3

Submitted to:

ENGR. JORDAN TEODORO PASCUAL,RME


Instructor, ME Department

Date:
August 1, 2018
1. INTRODUCTION

Today, there exists a call and a search for the efficient usage of currently available
energy resources due to continuously increasing population of the world and intense
industrialization rates. With a very high demand for resources and energy, in the near future
our resources may become insufficient to meet this demand.

Combined cycle power plants are considered as one of the ways for the efficient usage
of energy resources to generate electricity. In combined cycle power plants, the fuel is used for
producing electricity from two different power generation cycles that leads to better
thermodynamic efficiencies than conventional power plants using single power generation
cycle. (Ersayin and Ozgener, 2015)

Combined cycle power plants are combination of a gas turbine with steam cycle. They
are characterized by the highest efficiency in the technology of producing electricity from fossil
fuels. At the same time, these units are among to the fastest developing, currently achieved
efficiencies exceeding 60%. Combined cycle power plants distinguishes a number of
advantages, such as fast construction time, low investment costs, high reliability and flexibility
and favorable environmental characteristics. (Kotowicz and Brzeczek, 2018)
2. DESIGN PROBLEM

Design a combined cycle using simple Brayton cycle as the top cycle and Rankine cycle
with regeneration as the bottom cycle. The cycle needs to provide a combined net power
output of 300 MW with an overall thermal efficiency of at least 60%. Heat rejected from the
exhaust gases of the gas turbine is transferred to a heat-recovery steam generator that is used
as heat source of the steam cycle.

For the top Brayton cycle, assume air with variable specific heat as the working fluid.
The minimum temperature should be between 293 K and 313 K whereas the maximum
temperature should be between 700 K and 1700 K only. The pressure at the compressor inlet is
fixed at 100 kPa, and the pressure ratio ranges from 8 to 25. The exhaust gas is directed to the
heat-recovery steam generator where the delivered heat is used in producing superheated
steam for the bottom Rankine cycle. The effectiveness of heat transfer from the gas cycle to the
steam cycle is between 88% to 90%. The remaining rejected heat of the gas cycle that is not
transferred to the steam cycle is rejected to the environment.

For the Rankine cycle, the boiler pressure may be set between 6 MPa and 18 MPa
whereas the condenser pressure may be set between 10 kPa and 50 kPa. Steam may be
superheated to up to 600°C. Steam is reheated to any lower temperature and lower boiler
pressure but not less than 0.5 MPa. The steam cycle must have at least two open feedwater
heaters for deaeration and one closed feedwater heater. Extracted steam for the feedwater
heaters may be bled at any pressure values lower than the turbine inlet pressure. The extracted
steam leaving the closed feedwater heaters may be throttled and supplied back to any open
feedwater heater or to the condenser.
7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Today's energy consumption are now recognize as an international problem. Power


Plants specifically Thermal Power Plants are searching for more reliable working fluids and
energy source to answer this problem, however it is now hard to find alternative and cheap
energy sources because of huge demands of it in all countries. Coal is the most common energy
source for Thermal Power Plants. It is the cheapest source of energy, it is by far cheaper than
nuclear, natural gas and oil. Just like other energy sources, coal also had disadvantages. The
burning of coal is not environmental friendly because it emits harmful gas such as sulfur
dioxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide that can cause pollution to the air and environment.
Also coal energy is nonrenewable energy source. It is advisable to use coal while we continue to
explore new energy sources because it is easier to find. Coal preparation or cleaning is a widely
used process for removing mineral matter from mined coal to produce a higher-quality product.

Building a new Thermal Power Plant is advisable because of the new, efficient and
cheaper materials available for construction of it. Some of these new materials are capable of
making an advance Power Plants. The efficiency goals for this Power Plants are expected to be
higher than the older Thermal Power Plants. But still, the cost of constructing a more efficient
Combined Gas and Steam Cycles is more expensive that those old ones meaning that it is
difficult to reduce the electricity cost or it would be impossible to achieve.
5. DESIGN CALCULATION FOR SEPARATE GAS AND VAPOR POWER CYCLES

FOR BRAYTON CYCLE:

STATE 1 @ 310K Pr h T
T1=310 K 39.27 778.18 760
h1 = 310.24 Kj/Kg 41 h4 T2

STATE 2 43.35 800.03 780

Pr2 / Pr1 = rp T4 = 768.480322 K

Pr2 / 1.5546 = 25 h4 = 787.4448284 Kj/Kg

Pr2 = 38.865 qA = h3-h2

Pr h T qA = (1880.1-757.890625) Kj/Kg

37.35 767.29 750 qA = 1104.217109 Kj/Kg

38.865 h2 T2 qR = h4-h1
39.27 778.18 760 qR = (787.4448284-310.24) Kj/Kg
T2 = 757.890625 K qR = 477.2048284 Kj/Kg
h2 = 775.8828906 Kj/Kg
wnet = qa-qR
STATE 3 @ 1700K wnet = (1104.217109-477.2048284)
T3 = 1700K Kj/Kg
h3 = 1880.1 Kj/Kg wnet = 627.012281 Kj/Kg

STATE 4 wTurbine = h3-h4


Pr3 / Pr4 = rp wTurbine = (1880.1-787.4448284) Kj/Kg
1025 / Pr4 =25 wTurbine = 1092.655172 Kj/Kg
Pr4 = 41
wCompressor = h2-h1
wCompressor = (775.8828906-310.24)
Kj/Kg

wCompressor = 465.6428906 Kj/ Kg

EFFICIENCY
η = 1 – qR/qA
η = 1- 477.2048289 / 1104.217109
η = 0.56783423
η = 56.78 %