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142 CHAPTER 3 Linear and Quadratic Functions

3 . 3 A s se s s Your Unde r s t a n d ]

'Are You Prepared?'

Answers

are given at the end of these exercises. If you get a wrong answer, read the pages listed in red.

1. List the intercepts

2. Find the real solutions (pp, A4~-;\) 1)

of the equation

y = x2 - 9. (pp, 11-12)

2x2 + 7x - 4 = 0.

of the equation

3. To complete

the square

. (pp. A47-A4~)

of

X2 - 5x, you add the number

4. To graph y = (x - 4)2, you shift the graph of y = x2 to the

a distance

of

units. (pp.Y2-IOO)

Concepts and Vocabulary

5. graph of a quadratic

The

function is called a(n)

.

6. vertical line passing through the vertex of a parabola

The

called the

is

7. The x-coordinate

.

True or False

8.

of the vertex

of f(x)

= ax' + b x + c,

a v: O,is

The graph of f (x) = 2x2 + 3x - 4 opens up.

9. True or False

The y-coordinate

10.

-x 2

True or False

+ 4x + 5 is f(2).

If the

discriminant

of the vertex

of f(x)

=

b 2 - 4ac = 0, the graph of

f(x)

= ax: + b x + c, a -:/-0, will touch

the x-axis

at its

vertex.

Skill Building

In Problems 11-18, match each graph to one the following functions.

11.

f ( x)

= x2 -

 

1

12. f ( x) = - X2 - 1

15.

f(x)

=

x2 - 2x + 2

16. f(x)

= x2 + 2x

A

y

Bye

32

2

 

2 x

 

-2 !

 

2 x

(-1,0)

-1

(-1, -1)

I -2

 

E

y

F

y

1

 

-2

 

-1

(1,0)

3 x

 

-2

13.

17. f(x)

f ( x) = x2 - 2x + 1

= x2 - 2x

 

y

 

-2

2 x

 

(0, -1)

 

-2

G

y

 

-1

3 x

 

-1

14. f(x)

= x2 + 2x + 1

18.

f ( x) = x2 + 2x + 2

D

y

3

(-1,1)

 

-2

2 x

 

-1

H

y

2

 

-2

x

 

(1, -1)

 

-2

In Problems 19-34, graph the function f by starting with the graph of y = x2 and using transformations and/or reflection).

(shifting, compressing, stretching,

[Hint: H necessary,

write

fin the formf(x)

= a(x - h)2 + k.]

 
 

1

19.

f(x)

= "4X2

20.

f(x)

= 2x2

21.

 

1

23.

f(x)

= "4x2 + 2

24.

f(x)

=

2x2 + 4

 

25.

2

7 . f(x)

= x2 + 4x + 2

28.

f(x)

= x2 -

6x -

1

29.

31.

f(x)

= -x 2

- 2x

32. f(x)

= _2x2 + 6x + 2

33.

1

f (x) = "4 X2 - 2

f(x)

1

= "4x2 + 1

f(x)

= 2x2 - 4x + 1

f

1

( x) = 2 x2 + x-I

22.

f(x)

= 2X2 - 3

 

26.

f(x)

= -2x 2

-

2

30.

f(x)

= 3x 2 + 6x

34 f(x)=-x

·33

2

2

+-x-l 4

its vertex, axis

of symmetry, y-intercept, and x-intercepts, if any. (b) Determine the domain and the range of the function. (c) Determine where the function is increasing and where it is decreasing.

In Problems 35-52, (a) graph each quadratic function by determining

whether its graph opens up or

down and by finding

J5 . f(x)

=

X2 + 2x

36. f(x)

= x2 - 4x

 

37.

f(x)

= -x 2

- 6x

38.

f(x)

=

-x 2

+ 4x

39. f(x)

= 2x2 - 8x

40.

f(x)

= 3x 2 + 18x

41.

f(x)

=

x2 + 2x

-

8

42. f(x)

= x2 -

2x -

3

43

. f(x)

=

X2 + 2x + 1

44.

f (x) = X2 + 6x + 9

45. f (x) = 2X2 - X + 2

46.

f(x)

= 4x2 - 2x + 1

.,

.,

SECTION 3.3 Quadratic Functions and Their Properties

143

47. f(x)

50. f(x)

=

-2x 2

+ 2x -

3

= 2x2 + 5x + 3

48.

f(x)

=

-3x 2

+ 3x

-

2

51.

f(x)

= _4x2 - 6x + 2

In Problems 53-58,

53.

determine the quadratic function

y

54.

whose graph is given .

y

56.

-1

5 x

In Problems 59-66, determine, without then find the value.

57.

-1

234

5 x

x

-4 Vertex: (1, -3)

graphing, whether the given quadratic function

 

49.

f(x)

=

3x 2 + 6x

+ 2

52.

f(x)

= 3x 2 - 8x + 2

 

55.

 

Vertex: (-3, 5)

 
 

1

x

 

58.

y

 

Vertex: (-2, 6) 6

has

a maximum value or a minimum

value

and

59.

f(x)

= 2x2

+ 12x

62.

f(x)

= 4x2 - 8x + 3

65.

f(x)

= -3x2

+ 12x + 1

60.

f(x)

=

_2x2 + 12x

.,

61. f(x)

= 2X2 + 12x - 3

63.

f(x)

=

-x 2

+ lOx - 4

64.

f(x)

= _2x2 + 8x + 3

66.

f(x)

= 4X2 - 4x

 

Applications and Extensions

67. The graph of the function

f(x)

tex at (0,2) and passes through

and c.

= ax' + bx + c has ver- the point (1,8). Find a, b,

In Problems

69-74, for the given functions

f and g,

68. The graph of the function

f(x)

tex at (1,4) and passes through the point (-1, -8). Find a, b, and c.

= ax: + bx + c has ver-

(a)

Graph f and g on the same Cartesian plane.

 

(b)

Solve f(x)

= g(x).

(c)

Use the result of part (b) to label the points of intersection

of the graphs off and g.

(d)

Shade the region for which f( x) > g( x), that is, the region below f and above g.

69.

f(x)

= 2x -

1;

g(x)

= X2 - 4

70. f(x)

= -2x

-

1;

g(x)

= x2 -

9

71.

f(x)

=

-x 2

+ 4;

g(x)

= -2x

+ 1

72. f(x)

=

-x 2

+ 9;

g(x)

= 2x + 1

73.

f(x)

= -x 2

+ 5x;

g(x)

= x2 + 3x - 4

74. f(x)

= -x 2

+ 7x - 6;

g(x)

= x2 + X - 6

Answer Problems

be written in the form f(x)

75 and 76 using the following: A quadratic function

of the form f(x)

= a(x - r1) (x - "2), where r1 and t : are the x-intercepts

= ax 2 + bx + c with b 2 - 4ac > 0 may also of the graph of the quadratic function.

75.

(a)

Find a quadratic function whose x-intcrcepts are - 3 and

76. (a)

Find a quadratic function whose x-intercepts are -5 and

 

I with a = l;a = 2;a = -2;a

= 5.

3 with a = l;a = 2;a = -2;a

= 5.

 

(b)

How does the value of a affect the intercepts?

(b)

How does the value of a affect the intercepts?

(c)

How

does

the value

of a affect

the axis of sym-

(c) How

does

the value

of a affect

the

axis of sym-

 

metry?

metry?

 

(d)

How does the value of a affect the vertex?

(d) How does the value of a affect the vertex?

 

(e)

Compare the x-coordinate of the vertex with the mid-

(c) Compare the x-coordinate

of the vertex with the mid-

 

point of the x-intercepts. What might you conclude?

 

point of the x-intercepts. What might you conclude?