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A SYNOPSIS REPORT ON

“FAULT LOCATION METHOD BASED ON SINGLE-END


MEASUREMENTS FOR UNDERGROUND CABLE”
Submitted in partial fulfilment award of
Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering
Session 2018-19

Under the guidance of


Project Supervisor
Mr.KuldeepVishwakarma
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
UCEM, Allahabad

Submitted by:
Rudresh pati Tiwari (1534220015)
Shantanu Dwivedi (1534220019)
Vivek Kumar Bind (1534220024)

UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT


Naini, Allahabad (U.P.)-211010
(Affiliated to Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University)
August 2018
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 OBJECTIVE AND BLOCK DIAGRAM
 METHODOLOGY
 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
 TOOLS / EQUIPMENTS USED
 ADVANTAGE
 DISADVANTAGE
 REFERENCES

 INTRODUCTION

Till last decades cables were made to lay overhead & currently it is lay to underground cable
which is superior to earlier method. Because the underground cable are not affected by any
adverse weather condition such as storm, snow, heavy rainfall as well as pollution. But when
any fault occur in cable, then it is difficult to locate fault. So we will move to find the exact
location of fault. Now the world is become digitalized so the project is intended to detect the
location of fault in digital way. The underground cable system is more common practice
followed in many urban areas. While fault occurs for some reason, at that time the repairing
process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of
cable fault.

While a fault occurs for some reason, at that time the repairing process related to that
particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault. The
proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault.

The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KM’s and fault
creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the
same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is displayed on a
LCD interfaced to the microcontroller.

Fault in cable can be classified in two groups as like open circuit fault and short circuit fault.
Short circuit fault also divided in two groups as like symmetrical fault and unsymmetrical
fault.
 OBJECTIVE AND BLOCK DIAGRAM
The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from
base station in kilometres.

REGULATOR DISPLAY

RECTIFIER

8051 ADC 0804


TRANSFORMER SERIES
CURRENT
SENSING
MC CIRCUIT
IN THE
RELAY DRIVER
CABLE

AC SUPPLY

ASM/C PROGRAM MULTIPLEXED FAULT


RELAYS
SWITCHE
S

 METHODOLGY

Here we use online method to determine the fault location in underground cable.

Online method utilize & process the sampled voltage & current to determine the faults
points. Online method for underground cable are less than overhead lines.

Here fault location method can be divided in two parts.

1. Online method

2. Offline method

 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a low DC voltage is applied at
the feeder end through a series resistor. The current would vary depending upon the
length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG etc. The
series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC to develop
precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller would display the same in
Kilometers. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in
KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check
the accuracy of the same.

 TOOLS/EQUIPMENTS USED

Hardware Requirement

1. 8051 series Microcontroller

2. LCD

3. Crystal

4. ADC

5. Relay Driver IC

6. Relay

7. Transformer

8. Diodes

9. Voltage Regulator

10. Resistors

11. Capacitors

12. LEDs

13. Slide Switches

 Software Requirement
1. Kell Compiler

2. Language: Embedded C or Assembly.

 ADVANTAGE
The proposed system has following advantages given below

1. Less maintenance .

2. It has higher efficiency.

3. Less fault occur in underground cable.

4. Underground cable fault location model are applicable to all types of cable
ranging from 1kv to 500kv&other types of cable fault such as-Short circuit fault,
cable cuts, Resistive fault, Sheath faults, Water trees, Partial discharges.

5. Improved public safety.

 DISADVANTAGE
In this project we detect only the location of short circuit fault in underground cable line,
but we can not detect location of open circuit fault easily.

 REFERENCES
[1] J.Densley,“Ageing mechanisms and diagnostics for power cables—an overview,
”IEEE Electr.Insul.Mag.,vol.17,no.1,pp.14–22,Jan./Feb. 2001.

[2] T. S. Sidhu and Z. Xu, “Detection of incipient faults in distribution underground


cables,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1363–1371, Jul. 2010.
[3] IEEE Guide for Fault-Locating Techniques on Shielded Power Cable Systems, ,
May 2007, IEEE Standard 1234–2007.

[4] H. Diaz and M. López, “Fault location techniques for electrical networks: A
literature survey,” in Proc. 5th IASTED Int. Conf., Jun. 15–17, 2005, pp. 311–
318.

[5] J. Sadeh and H. Afradi, “A new and accurate fault location algorithm for
combined transmission lines using adaptive network-based fuzzy inference
system,” Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 79, pp. 1538–1545, 2009.

[6] E. C. Bascom, D. W. Von Dollen, and H. W. Ng, “Computerized underground


cable fault location expertise,” in Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society
Transmission and Distribution Conf., Apr. 10–15, 1994, pp. 376–382.

[7] J.Moshtagh and R.K.Aggarwal,“A new approach to ungrounded tion in a three-


phase underground distribution system using combined neural networks &
wavelet analysis,” in Proc. Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer
Engineering, May 2006, pp. 376–381.

[8] L. V. Bewley, “Traveling waves on transmission systems,” Trans. Amer. Inst.


Elect. Eng., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 532–550, 1931.

[9] H. Hizam, P. A. Crossley, P. F. Gale, and G. Bryson, “Fault section identification


and location on a distribution feeder using travelling waves,” in Proc. IEEE
Power Eng. Soc. Summer Meeting, Jul. 25, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1107–1112.

[10] M. Gilany, D. Ibrahim, and E. S. Tag Eldin, “Traveling-wave-based fault-location


scheme for multiend-aged underground cable system,” IEEE Trans. Power Del.,
vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 82–89, Jan. 2007.

[11] Z.Q.Bo,R.K.Aggarwal,A.T.Johns,andP.J.Moore,“Accuratefault location and


protection scheme for power cable using fault generated high frequency voltage
transients,”inProc.8th Mediterranean Electro Technical Conf., Industrial
Applications in Power Systems, May 1996, pp. 777–780.

[12] W.Zhao,Y.H.Song,andW.R.Chen,“Improved GPS travelling wave fault locator for


power cables by using wavelet analysis,” Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 23, pp.
403–411, 2001.

[13] A. D. Filomena, M. Resen er, R. H. Salim, and A. S. Bretas, “Fault location for
underground distribution feeders: An extended impedance based for mulation
with capacitive current compensation,”Elect.Power and Energy Syst., vol. 31, pp.
489–496, 2009.

[14] M. M. Saha, F. Provoost, and E. Rosolowski, “Fault location method for MV


cable network,”in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Developments in Power System Protection,
Apr. 9–12, 2001, pp. 323–326.