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what makes a composites? !

0 both amount sholf=d be significanty present but the one

inlower propotions
should be lower than5% the critical limit 2)both the elemtns are insoluble and
there is an interface seperating the two mediums> NO continuity in the material

synthetic fibres types:

4.Kevlar/Carbon hybrid

geometry of the fibres, the way they've been added, EX:the orientation (fibres
running longitudnal direction) matters a lot because the load bearing strength will
excellent in th elongitudnal direction but will be poor in the transversal
direction where the matrix will be taling up the load.

chakkenges in the context of material

challenge from the technical innovqtions in metals
misconception about the durability of plastic products
combustion and smoke liberations characteristics
long term durability and fatigye characteristsics when exposed to load or operating
failure mechanisms of lamintes and composites structural systems
not very well understood

challenges in primary processing

tailor made?.. YES advt that we can mix everything but that mixing in itself is a
huge challenge, but a challenge to combine these together
How to blend 2 different material, having substantial different
mechanical and chemical properties?
Non uniformity in the bulk (composites are anisotropic)
Adhesion efficiency is usually poor (bonding is usually poor. THe fibre and matrix
binding is poor. There are tecjniques to imporve it. if bonding is poor, the
interfacial area,the inner a=zoneis prone to failure. As soon as the load is
applied, the composite will break down at the interface despite havinig ecxcelent
matrix and fibres. The bonding zone may fail)

2 types of processes
1. near net shape manufacturing (primary manufacturing)basic shape goven
2. secodary proceesing (nut bolt fasteng, joining, heat processing)

primary manufacturing
Hand layup technique
primitive. Used for continuously laid fibres
Thermoset polymers used

Processing of PMCs
1) Open mould process- hand lay up, spray layup tape layup autoclavle method
2) closed mold process- compression moulding, injection molding, transfer molding
3) others - pultrusion, filament winding

Manual composite layup and spray up

release agent (silicone, Polyvinyl alcohol flurocarbons, water based solvents)
applied to aid release of the composites
after the coating of the release agent, a layer of catalysed resin is often applied
to the release coated mould and allowed
to cure to the gel or tacky state beforethe reinforcement is applied. This so-
called gel coat is a protective surface layer through
which reinforcement fibres do not penetrate. Special gel coat resins can improve
flexibility, blister and stain resistance, toughness and
weatherability. As the gel coat cures, the reinforecement material, typically in
the form of cloth or mat is prepared for application by
impregnation with liquid resin. This is reffered to as pre wetting. This pre-wetted
reinforcement material is then carefully placed on the
coated mold surface to minimise distortion during transfer.More reinforcement
material and resin are applied as needed in this manner till the requires
thickness is built up. Typically, the pre-wetted material is hand rolled to remove
air bubbles

A feature of polymer composites is the formation on
the surface of the filler particles of an interphase layer
,which comprises part of the volume of the matrix, the
properties in which change considerably under the
influence of physical and chemical interaction with the
surface of the filler. The interphase layer has a considerable
influence on cohesive and adhesive failure of polymer
composites within the volume and at the interface, and on
the nature and magnitude of the stresses arising in the
matrix; it has a significant influence on the resistance of
polymer composites to the action of service factors
(temperature, moisture content, chemical resistance, etc.).
Formation of the interphase layer occurs at the contact
of the binder with the filler, and the key role in this case
is played by the wettability of the binder, which is
determined by the surface energy ratio of the components.
Quantitative assessment of the properties of the interphase
layer is difficult and is normally carried out from indirect
indices. Taking into account the influence of the interphase
layer on the combination of properties of polymer
composites, numerous methods have been developed to
promote its formation.