Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

c  

c
 
  
c   

c    


    c 

c    


c    c  

c    


c  
!c  

"#$%
  & '  ( 

@

@@ 
  @  @ @ @@

 @ @ @@  @
 
 @
  @
@
  @ @@@@  @

@ @
@

@   @ @ @
@
@ 
@! @@  @@ 
@

"@ @ @ @  
@ @

@
 
@ @
@ 
#  @@


 @   "@$ @ @ @
@   @
 @@ @
@@
 
@@ @ @  @ "@% @  @ @ @ @   @
@
 @&@
@ @  @ @@  @  @  @ 
 @@
@

@  @@
@
@@@
"@'@@
@
@ @@ @ @
 @ @ @ @ @@  @
"@( @
@ @
 @#  @ @ @ @@
 @ @ @
@ @@ @ "@% @@ @  @ 
@@
@
@ @@@  @
@  @ @  
@
"@@@@

% @  @&@
@ @ @ 
@ 
 
 "@)
@&@
 @@@  @@ @@
  @@@ 
@@  "@)
@*@ @@@  @   @
@
@ "@@@

@ @  
@ @ @@
@ @ @  @ @ @@  @  @ @
+@
@

@
@&@,@-@.@@ 
@
@
@@*@/@"@% @
@
@ @ @  @ @
@  @  @ @@
@
@ @ @ @ 
"@% @  @
@
 @  @
@ @  @ @ @@
"@% @ 
@
@ @ @  @ @ @@


@ "@% @  @
@@ @@ @
@
@ @ @ 

@@
 
"@% @ @
@ @  @
@ @  @ @ @  @
@ @ @

@
@0@@ @
  @
@ @@ @ @ "@@

)c%
  
1@.@/222@#@3@$ @' @@
@
*
$ 



+@

@
,-(./%0'1@
@&@ @ 
 @
@
  @  @
@@@ @   @ @

@
@
 
@
@   @   
@ "@% @
 @ @ @
 @@ @
@ @ @ @  
@ @ @ @@@ @@
 @@

@ @0 @ 
 "@

@@ @  @
@@
  @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@

  @  @4
 @$ "@% @@
 @ @ @ @
@@
@
@@ @
@
 "@

% @ @ @ @@ @@ @ @@ @ @


@
 @
"@
5
@ @
@
 @@ @ @   @ @ @  @ "@ @
 @@

 @ @ @
@ 

@@ 
@
@  
@ @@
@ @ @@
  @  "@ @ @ @  @
  @@
  @@
@ @

 @
 @
@ @  @
@ @ @  "@

-#-23%31-%(4)3()0%3@

% @  @ @ @@
 
@ @  @
@   @  @@
"@( @

@ 
@ 
@
@    @! @
@
 "@% @
@
@@  +@@

)
@  @ 
@  @@
 @@ 
@"@( @  @
@ @#
 @
 @  @@ @  @ @ @
@  @@
@  @ @
  @ @ @
@  @ @@ @ "@( @
@
 @ @
 @
@
  @ @

@ @@
@ 
@ 
@ @
@ @  
@ 
"@% @
@
@

@
@ @  
@@ 
@ @ 
 "@

@
@

)(555%)(#
0)3 @@

The layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not


exactly match those in the OSI model. The
original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as
having four layers: host-to-network, internet,
transport, and application. However, when
TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that
the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five
layers: physical, data link, network, transport,
and application.@@
5c$  
1 #
#$
'  #$
)
  #$@
- 
#$@@
Topics discussed in this section:@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& 6TCP/IP and OSI model@@


  rotocol Suite@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ysical and Data Link Layers@@


=@ At te pysical and data link layers,
  does not define any specific
protocol.@
=@ t supports all te standard and
proprietary protocols.@
=@ A network in a   internetwork
can be a local-area network or a
wide-area network.@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

Network Layer@@
=@   supports te nternetworking
rotocol.@
=@  uses four supporting protocols :
AR, RAR,  , and .@
›@  (nternetworking rotocol)@

›@ AR (Address Resolution

rotocol)@
›@ RAR (Reverse Address

Resolution rotocol)@
›@   (nternet ontrol essage
rotocol)@
›@  (nternet roup essage
rotocol)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ransport Layer@@
=@ e transport layer was represented
in   by two protocols :   and
UD.@
›@  is a ost-to-ost protocol@

›@   and UD are transport level


protocols responsible for delivery
of a message from a process to
anoter process.@
=@ UD (User Datagram rotocol)@
=@   (ransmission ontrol rotocol)@
=@ S  (Stream ontrol ransmission
rotocol)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

Application Layer@@
=@ e application layer in   is
equivalent to te combined session,
presentation, and application layers
in te OS model.@
=@ any protocols are defined at tis
layer.@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

 -11%3'/ @@

ïour levels of addresses are used in an inter


net employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical,
logical, port, and specific.@@
5c$  -
#   -
5  -
  -@@
Topics discussed in this section:@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& 6"'ddresses in TCP/IP@@


Addresses@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& 67°elationship of layers and


addresses in TCP/IP@@
ysical Addresses@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ysical Addresses@@
=@ e pysical address, also known
as te link address, is te address of
a node as defined by its LAN or WAN.@
=@ t is included in te frame used by te
data link layer.@
›@ e pysical addresses ave

autority over te network (LAN


or WAN).@
›@ e size and format of tese

addresses vary depending on te


network.@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

In ïigure 2.19 a node with physical address


10 sends a frame to a node with physical addr
ess 87. The two nodes are connected by a link

(bus topology L' . 's the figure shows, the


computer with physical address 10 is the
sender, and the computer with physical address
87 is the receiver.@@
±xample 2.1 @@

ysical Addresses (cont¶d)@


@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& 68Physical addresses@@


ysical Addresses (cont¶d)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

's we will see in Chapter 13, most local-


area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte physical
address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every
byte (2 hexadecimal digits is separated by a
colon, as shown below:@@

±xample 2.2 @@

"66(, @
-
9$ *6c!    +c$  
@@
ysical Addresses (cont¶d)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

Logical Addresses@@
=@ Logical addresses are necessary for
universal communications tat are
independent of underlying pysical
networks.@
›@ ysical addresses are not

adequate in an internetwork
environment were different
networks can ave different
address formats.@
›@ A universal addressing system is

needed in wic ost can be


identified uniquely, regardless of
te underlying pysical network.@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ïigure 2.20 shows a part of an internet with t


wo routers connecting three L' s. ±ach devic
e (computer or router has a pair of addresses
(logical and physical for each connection. I
n this case, each computer is connected to onl
y one link and therefore has only one pair of
addresses. ±ach router, however, is connected
to three networks (only two are shown in the
figure. So each router has three pairs of addr
esses, one for each connection. @@

±xample 2.3 @@

Logical Addresses (cont¶d)@


@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& IP addresses@@


)cc$    c
 c
 c :@
9  c    $
 c
@@
Logical Addresses (cont¶d)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ort Addresses@@
=@ e  and te pysical address are
necessary for a quantity of data to
travel from a source to te
destination ost.@
=@ e end object of nternet
communication is a process
communicating wit anoter
process.@
=@ ïor tese processes to receive data
simultaneously, we need a metod to
label assigned to a process is called
a port address.@
=@ A port address in   is 16 bits in
lengt.@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

ïigure 2.21 shows two computers communica


ting via the Internet. The sending computer is
running three processes at this time with port
addresses a, b, and c. The receiving computer
is running two processes at this time with po
rt addresses j and k. Process a in the sending
computer needs to communicate with process j
in the receiving computer. ote that although
physical addresses change from hop to hop,
logical and port addresses remain the same
from the source to destination. @@

±xample 2.4 @@

ort Addresses (cont¶d)@


@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

& 6Port addresses@@


)cc$    c
 c
 c :@
9  c   
   $

 c@@
ort Addresses (cont¶d)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

±xample 2.5 @@

's we will see in Chapter 23, a port address i


s a 16-
bit address represented by one decimal numbe
r as shown.@@
" ;
-69   



 
9@@
ort Addresses (cont¶d)@
@@
@@
@@
@@

Kyung Hee University@@

Specific Addresses@@
=@ Some applications ave user-
friendly addresses tat are designed
for tat specific address.@
›@ ±-mail address@

›@ URL (Universal Resource Locator)@

@@