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ASSIGNMENT 1

WEB TECHNOLOGY IT 6005(II)


Submitted by: Himanshi Jain
0802IT151036

1. Discus the history of Internet and Web.

Ans. The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the
1950s. Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science
laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France.[1] The US Department of
Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s, including for the development of
the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts.
The first message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969 from computer science
Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los
Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

In the 1980s, research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-
Lee resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information
system, accessible from any node on the network. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a
revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant
communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussio
forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education
community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as JANET in the United
Kingdom and Internet2 in the United States. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at
higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more.
The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in
historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-
way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than
97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow,
driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social
networking.

The real vision and execution for the World Wide Web didn't come about until around 40
years later in 1980 when an English chap by the name of Tim Berners Lee was working on a
project known as 'Enquire'. Despite little interest, Berners Lee continued to develop three
major components for the web; HTTP, HTML and the world first web browser. Funnily
enough, this browser was also called "the World Wide Web" and it also doubled as an editor.

When the World Wide Web first started, web pages were simply text documents. Nowadays
web pages are much more than documents; they now have the ability to be full blown
applications. Part of this ability is due to the additions of JavaScript and CSS.

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2. What do you mean by Computer network? Explain LAN, MAN and WAN

Ans A computer network is a system in which multiple computers are connected to each
other to share information and resources.

Local Area Network

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a
limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office buildings.
Many LANs use wireless technologies that are built into Smartphones, tablet
computers and laptops. In a wireless local area network, users may move unrestricted in the
coverage area. Wireless networks have become popular in residences and small businesses,
because of their ease of installation. Guests are often offered Internet access via a hotspot
service.
Ethernet and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies in use for local area networks.
Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token ring, and AppleTalk.
Metropolitan Area Network

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with
computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a
large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network
(WAN). The term MAN is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single
larger network which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network. It is
also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks in a metropolitan area
through the use of point-to-point connections between them. The latter usage is also
sometimes referred to as a campus network.

Wide Area Network

A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that


extends over a large geographical distance. Wide area networks are often established
with leased telecommunication circuits.
Business, education and government entities use wide area networks to relay data to staff,
students, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various locations across the world. In essence,
this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function
regardless of location. The Internet may be considered a WAN.
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3. Explain the different topology in computer network.

Ans. The term topology in the context of communication network refers to the way the
computers or workstations in the network are linked together. According to the physical
arrangements of workstations and nature of work, there are three major types of network
topology. They are star
topology, bus topology and ring topology.
1. Star topology:
In star topology a number of workstations (or nodes) are directly linked to a central node.
Any communication between stations on a star LAN must pass through the central
node. There is bidirectional communication between various nodes. The central node controls
all the activities of the nodes.
The advantages of the star topology are:
1. It offers flexibility of adding or deleting of workstations from the network.
Breakdown of one station does not affect any other device on the network.
2. The major disadvantage of star topology is that failure of the central node
disables communication throughout the whole network.
2. Mesh topology:
The mesh topology is the least-used network topology and the most expensive to implement
in a mesh environment, a cable runs from every computer to every other computer. If you
have 4 computers, you must have six cables— three coming from each computer to the other
computers. The big advantage to this arrangement is that data can never fail to be delivered;
if one connection goes down, there are other ways to route.

3. Bus Topology:
In bus topology all workstations are connected to a single communication line called bus. In
this type of network topology there is no central node as in star topology. Transmission from
any station travels the length of the bus in both directions and can be received by all
workstations.
The advantage of the bus topology is that it is quite easy to set up. If one station of the
topology fails it does not affect the entire system. The disadvantage of bus topology is that
any break in the bus is difficult to identify.
4. Ring topology:
In ring topology each station is attached nearby stations on a point to point basis so that the
entire system is in the form of a ring. In this topology data is transmitted in one direction
only. Thus the data packets circulate along the ring in either clockwise or
anticlockwise direction.The advantage of this topology is that any signal transmitted on
the network passes through all the LAN stations.The disadvantage of ring network is that
the breakdown of any one station on the ring can disable the entire system.
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4. Explain the network device Hub, switch, gateway and router.

Ans.

1. Hub – A hub is basically a multiport repeater. A hub connects multiple wires coming
from different branches, for example, the connector in star topology which connects different
stations. Hubs cannot filter data, so data packets are sent to all connected devices. In other
words, collision domain of all hosts connected through Hub remains one. Also, they do not
have intelligence to find out best path for data packets which leads to inefficiencies and
wastage.

2. Switch – A switch is a multi port bridge with a buffer and a design that can boost its
efficiency(large number of ports imply less traffic) and performance. Switch is data link
layer device. Switch can perform error checking before forwarding data, that makes it very
efficient as it does not forward packets that have errors and forward good packets selectively
to correct port only. In other words, switch divides collision domain of hosts, but broadcast
domain remains same.
3. Gateway - The term gateway refers to a piece of networking hardware that has the
following meaning:

 In a communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with another


network that uses different protocols.
 A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance
matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as necessary to
provide system interoperability. It also requires the establishment of mutually
acceptable administrative procedures between both networks.
 A protocol translation/mapping gateway interconnects networks with different
network protocol technologies by performing the required protocol conversions.
 Loosely, a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway.
For a specific case, see default gateway.
Gateways, also called protocol converters, can operate at any network layer. The activities of
a gateway are more complex than that of the router or switch as it communicates using more
than one protocol.

4. Routers – A router is a device like a switch that routes data packets based on their IP
addresses. Router is mainly a Network Layer device. Routers normally connect LANs and
WANs together and have a dynamically updating routing table based on which they make
decisions on routing the data packets. Router divide broadcast domains of hosts connected
through it.
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5. Explain DNS.

Ans. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for
computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network. It
associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating
entities. Most prominently, it translates more readily memorized domain names to the
numerical IP addresses needed for locating and identifying computer services and devices
with the underlying network protocols. By providing a worldwide, distributed director
service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality on the
Internet, that has been in use since 1985.
The Domain Name System delegates the responsibility of assigning domain names and
mapping those names to Internet resources by designating authoritative name servers for each
domain. Network administrators may delegate authority over sub-domains of their allocated
name space to other name servers. This mechanism provides distributed and fault tolerant
service and was designed to avoid a single large central database.
The Domain Name System also specifies the technical functionality of the database service
that is at its core. It defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures
and data communication exchanges used in the DNS, as part of the Internet Protocol Suite.
Historically, other directory services preceding DNS were not scalable to large or global
directories as they were originally based on text files, prominently the hosts file.
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6. What do you meant by SGML?

Ans The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a standard for defining
generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 defines generalized
markup:
Generalized markup is based on two postulates:

 Markup should be declarative: it should describe a document's structure and other


attributes, rather than specify the processing to be performed on it. Declarative markup is
less likely to conflict with unforeseen future processing needs and techniques.
 Markup should be rigorous so that the techniques available for processing rigorously-
defined objects like programs and databases can be used for processing documents as
well.
HTML was theoretically an example of an SGML-based language until HTML 5, which
admits that browsers cannot parse it as SGML (for compatibility reasons) and codifies
exactly what they must do instead.
DocBook SGML and LinuxDoc are better examples, as they were used almost exclusively
with actual SGML tools.

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7. What are URL and URI? Discuss in details.

Ans.

URL:-

URL standards for Uniform resource locator and it is a subset of URI or Uniform Resource
Identifier. URL includes location as well as the protocol to retrieve the resource e.g.
in http://java67.blogspot.sg/2012/09/what-is-new-in-java-7-top-5-jdk-7.html, HTTP is a
protocol which can be used to retrieve resource what-is-new-in-java-7-top-5-jdk-
7.html available in location http://java67.blogspot.com directory. It's not necessary that URL
always include HTTP as protocol, it can use any protocol e.g. ftp://, https:// or ldap://.

URI:-

URI stands for Uniform Resource Identifier. URI is a text which is used to identify any
resource or name on Internet. URI has two specializations in the form of URL (Uniform
Resource Locator) and URN (Uniform Resource Name) to identify resource and name. We
mostly see examples of URL and URN in the real word. If you are working on JSP and
familiar with using tag library e.g. display tag and JSTL core tag library, then you may
remember the use of URI to locate binary corresponding to a tag library.
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8. What do you mean by Text, Hyper Text, and Language & Mark-Up Language?

Ans. A markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically
distinguishable from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of
paper manuscripts, i.e., the revision instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue
pencil on authors' manuscripts. In digital media this "blue pencil instruction text" was
replaced by tags, that is, instructions are expressed directly by tags or "instruction text
encapsulated by tags." Examples include typesetting instructions such as those found in troff,
TeX and LaTeX, or structural markers such as XML tags. Markup instructs the software that
displays the text to carry out appropriate actions, but is omitted from the version of the text
that users see. Some markup languages, such as the widely used HTML, have pre-defined
presentation semantics— meaning that their specification prescribes how to present the
structured data. Others, such as XML, do not have them and are general purpose. WEB
TECHNOLOGY THEORY ASSIGNMENT Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), one of
the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an instance of Standard Generalized
Markup Language or SGML, and follows many of the markup conventions used in the
publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and
printers.

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9. What do you mean by HTML? Why it is used?

Ans. HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages.

 HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language


 HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup
 HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages
 HTML elements are represented by tags
 HTML tags label pieces of content such as "heading", "paragraph", "table", and so on
 Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to render the content of the
page

HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is
generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's
Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of
HTML is HTML 4.0. However, both Internet Explorer and Netscape implement some
features differently and provide nonstandard extensions. Web developers using the more
advanced features of HTML 4 may have to design pages for both browsers and send out the
appropriate version to a user. Significant features in HTML 4 are sometimes described in
general as dynamic HTML. What is sometimes referred to as HTML 5 is an extensible form
of HTML called Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML). First developed by Tim
Berners-Lee in 1990, HTML is short for Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML is used to
create electronic documents (called pages) that are displayed on the World Wide Web.
Without HTML, a browser would not know how to display text as elements or load images
or other elements.

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10. Describe the HTML evolution.

Ans. HTML is an evolving language. It doesn’t stay the same for long before a revised set of
standards and specifications are brought in to allow easier creation of prettier and more
efficient sites. HTML has evolved from HTML1.0 to HTML5. In 1980, physicist Tim
Berners-Lee, a contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN
researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an
Internet-based hypertext system. Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote the browser and
server software in late 1990. That year, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert
Cailliau collaborated on a joint request for funding, but the project was not formally adopted
by CERN. In his personal notes from 1990 he listed "some of the many areas in which
hypertext is used" and put in an encyclopaedia first. The first publicly available description
of HTML was a document called "HTML Tags", first mentioned on the Internet by Tim
Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 18 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple
design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were strongly influenced by SGML
guide, an in-house Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML)-based documentation
format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4.

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11. What do you mean by Web or WWW?

Ans. The World Wide Web (known as "WWW', "Web" or "W3") is the universe of
networkaccessible information, the embodiment of human knowledge. The World Wide Web
began as a networked information project at CERN, where Tim Berners-Lee, now Director of
the World Wide Web Consortium [W3C], developed a vision of the project. WEB
TECHNOLOGY THEORY ASSIGNMENT The Web has a body of software, and a set of
protocols and conventions. Through the use hypertext and multimedia techniques, the web is
easy for anyone to roam, browse, and contribute to. An early talk about the Web gives some
more background on how the Web was originally conceived. In other words, The Web, or
World Wide Web (W3), is basically a system of Internet servers that support specially
formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a mark-up language called HTML
(Hyper Text Mark-up Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics,
audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by
clicking on hot spots. Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.

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12. Describe HTTP header format. How HTTP is related to web development?

Ans. HTTP headers allow the client and the server to pass additional information with the
request or the response. A request header consists of its case-insensitive name followed by a
colon ':', then by its value (without line breaks). Leading white space before the value is
ignored. Headers can be grouped according to their contexts:

 General header: Headers applying to both requests and responses but with no relation to the
data eventually transmitted in the body.
 Request header: Headers containing more information about the resource to be fetched or
about the client itself.
 Response header: Headers with additional information about the response, like its location or
about the server itself (name and version etc.).
 Entity header: Headers containing more information about the body of the entity, like its
content length or its MIME-type.
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13. Difference between HTTP and HTTPS.

Ans
Key Difference: HTTP, an acronym for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a system that is used
to transmit and receive information from a server. HTTPS is a secure transfer system that
encrypts the data before the connection is formed for sending or retrieving the data from the
server.
payment .

HTTP is responsible for the back and forth transmitting of data between the server and client.
The first HTTP had only one method called as GET, which would request a page from server
and the response was a HTML page. The latest version of HTTP defines nine request
methods. However, the data that is sent across is not at all secure. This meant that the data
was accessible by anyone on that network, making it useless for sending confidential
information. To solve this shortcoming, Netscape Corporation developed the HTTP secure
that allowed authorization and secured transactions.

Comparison between HTTP and HTTPS:

HTTP HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol


(HTTP) with SSL/TLS
Full form Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
protocol, informally known as
HTTP secure

A system for transmitting and A system for transmitting and


Purpose receiving information from a receiving information in a
server secure format from a server

Default port 80 443

Is more secure as the data is


Is less secure as the data is
Security encrypted before it is sent
vulnerable to hackers
across a network

Requires SSL Digital


Certificates No certificates are required
Certificate
URL begins with HTTP:// HTTPS://

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14. Difference between Client side and Server side scripting.

Ans Client-side

The client is the system on which the Web browser is running. JavaScript is the main client-
side scripting language for the Web. Client-side scripts are interpreted by the browser. The
process with client-side scripting is:

the user requests a Web page from the server

the server finds the page and sends it to the user

the page is displayed on the browser with any scripts running during or after display

So client-side scripting is used to make Web pages change after they arrive at the browser. It
is useful for making pages a bit more interesting and user-friendly. It can also provide useful
gadgets such as calculators, clocks etc. but on the whole is used for appearance and
interaction.

Client-side scripts rely on the user's computer. If that computer is slow they may run slowly.
They may not run at all if the browser does not understand the scripting language. As they
have to run on the user's system the code which makes up the script is there in the HTML for
the user to look at (and copy or change).

Server-side

The server is where the Web page and other content lives. The server sends pages to the
user/client on request. The process is:

the user requests a Web page from the server

the script in the page is interpreted by the server creating or changing the page content to suit
the user and the occasion and/or passing data around

the page in its final form is sent to the user and then cannot be changed using server-side
scripting

The use of HTML forms or clever links allow data to be sent to the server and processed. The
results may come back as a second Web page.

Server-side scripting tends to be used for allowing users to have individual accounts and
providing data from databases. It allows a level of privacy, personalisation and provision of
information that is very powerful. E-commerce, MMORPGsand social networking sites all
rely heavily on server-side scripting.

PHP and ASP.net are the two main technologies for server-side scripting.
The script is interpreted by the server meaning that it will always work the same way. Server-
side scripts are never seen by the user (so they can't copy your code). They run on the server
and generate results which are sent to the user. Running all these scripts puts a lot of load
onto a server but none on the user's system.

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15. Difference between Desktop application and Web application.

Ans. Desktop applications are installed on a personal or work computer desktop. Web
applications can be accessed through the Internet (or through an Intranet). While both types
of applications are software-based, there are fundamental difference between desktop and
web applications.

Parameters Desktop Apps vs Web Apps

Maintenance Web based applications need to be installed only once whereas


desktop applications are to be installed separately on each computer.
Also updating the applications is cumbersome with desktop
applications as it needs to be done on every single computer which is
not the case with web applications.

Usage Scale Desktop applications are confined to a physical location and hence
have usability constraint. Web applications development on the other
hand makes it convenient for the users to access the application from
any location using the Internet.

Speed and Web application development relies significantly on Internet


performance connectivity and speed. Absence of Internet or its poor connectivity
can cause performance issues with web applications. Desktop
applications are standalone in nature and hence do not face any
hindrances resulting from Internet connectivity.

Bandwidth cost As web applications are internet dependent, they cost more bandwidth
usage than desktop applications do.

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16. Difference between Desktop web browser and Mobile web application.

Ans. The intended purpose is obvious - they can be used to add a mobile browser web page
and a desktop browser web page respectivelyAs mobile use continues to grow worldwide, the
“app vs web” question will remain a very real consideration for organizations seeking to
establish a mobile presence. If your mobile goals are primarily marketing-driven, or if your
aim is to deliver content and establish a broad mobile presence that can be easily maintained,
shared between users, and found on search engines, then the a mobile-friendly responsive
website is the logical choice.
On the other hand, if your goal is to provide a user experience that feels more like a gaming
interface or a computer program than a website, or if you need access to a user's phone
storage and native functions, then an app is probably going to be required.

It's also important to remember that a mobile/responsive website and a native app are not
necessarily mutually exclusive. Plenty of organizations have both a mobile-friendly public
website for their general web presence, as well as a downloadable native app to accommodate
more specific requirements. In the end, it's all about choosing the right tool for the job.

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17. What do you mean by usability?

Ans. ‘Usability’ is an umbrella term that encompasses two related concepts: Usability is an
attribute of the quality of a system: “We need to create a usable intranet” Usability is a
process or set of techniques used during a design and development project: “We need to
include usability activities in this project” This second aspect is sometimes described as
usability engineering, and is more accurately described as user-centered design. There are a
number of definitions for the quality aspect of usability, including this one from ISO 9241-
11: “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals
with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” This definition
includes four elements that are necessary to create a usable system: 1. There are specified
users of the system. 2. The users have a set of specified goals. 3. The system should allow
user goals to be met (effectively) in an efficient manner and the users will be satisfied with
the process or outcome. 4. The system will be used in a particular context (e.g. within a
physical location, a business process). A usable system is one that is designed to consider all
of these aspects.

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18. What do you mean by Client Server Architecture? Is it used in web development?
Why?

Ans Client/server architecture is a producer-consumer computing architecture where the


server acts as the producer and the client as a consumer.

1. Client/server architecture is a computing model in which the server hosts, delivers and
manages most of the resources and services to be consumed by the client. This type of
architecture has one or more client computers connected to a central server over a
network or Internet connection. This system shares computing resources.
2. This computing model is especially effective when clients and the server each have
distinct tasks that they routinely perform. For example : In hospital data processing, a
client computer can be running an application program for entering patient
information while the server computer is running another program that manages
the database in which the information is permanently stored.

Clients and servers exchange messages in a request - response messaging pattern. The client
sends a request, and the server returns a response. This exchange of messages is an example
of inter-process communication. To communicate, the computers must have a common
language, and they must follow rules so that both the client and the server know what to
expect. The language and rules of communication are defined in a communication
protocols. All client-server protocols operate in the application layer. The application layer
protocol defines the basic patterns of the dialogue.

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19. What do you mean by open source? Write its characteristics.

Ans. 1.) In general, open source refers to any program whose source code is made available
for use or modification as users or other developers see fit. Open source software is usually
developed as a public collaboration and made freely available.

2.) Open Source is a certification mark owned by the Open Source Initiative (OSI).
Developers of software that is intended to be freely shared and possibly improved and
redistributed by others can use the Open Source trademark if their distribution terms conform
to the OSI's Open Source Definition. To summarize, the Definition model of distribution
terms require that:

 The software being distributed must be redistributed to anyone else without any restriction.

 The source code must be made available (so that the receiving party will be able to
improve or modify it).

 The license can require improved versions of the software to carry a different name or
version from the original software. Common characteristics of successful open source
programs:  Marketing is important. Never underestimate the power of a solid marketing
plan and branding strategy.

 Strategically invest in open source communities and ecosystems. Some communities are
more in keeping with your technology goals than others.

 Get strong legal counsel. Without the right legal counsel, an open source program office
can end up placing undue risk on company management. They can also stifle innovation, so
strike the right balance.

 Align with product strategy. If your open source program office is not helping your
product strategy, then it's probably a wasted effort.

 Formulate—and communicate—your end-user and developer community support


strategies and guidelines. Anyone in your company who wants to start or participate in an
existing project should understand what a well-run community looks like.

 Hire a believer. Open source pragmatists are everywhere, but your innovative,
forwardthinking, ambitious open source advocate is an extremely valuable rarity. Hire them
to run your open source programs if you want to make a difference.

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20. What is a standard for W3C?

Ans. W3C standards define an Open Web Platform for application development that has the
unprecedented potential to enable developers to build rich interactive experiences, powered
by vast data stores, that are available on any device.
 Web Design and Applications
Web Design and Applications involve the standards for building and Rendering Web pages,
including HTML, CSS, SVG, Ajax, and other technologies for Web Applications
(“WebApps”). This section also includes information on how to make pages accessible to
people with disabilities (WCAG), to internationalize them, and make them work on mobile
devices.
 Web of Devices
W3C is focusing on technologies to enable Web access anywhere, anytime, using any device.
This includes Web access from mobile phones and other mobile devices as well as use of
Web technology in consumer electronics, printers, interactive television, and even
automobiles.
 Web Architecture
Web Architecture focuses on the foundation technologies and principles which sustain the
Web, including URIs and HTTP.
 Semantic Web
In addition to the classic “Web of documents” W3C is helping to build a technology stack to
support a “Web of data,” the sort of data you find in databases. The ultimate goal of the Web
of data is to enable computers to do more useful work and to develop systems that can
support trusted interactions over the network. The term “Semantic Web” refers to W3C’s
vision of the Web of linked data. Semantic Web technologies enable people to create data
stores on the Web, build vocabularies, and write rules for handling data. Linked data are
empowered by technologies such as RDF, SPARQL, OWL, and SKOS.
 XML Technology
XML Technologies including XML, XML Namespaces, XML Schema, XSLT, Efficient
XML Interchange (EXI), and other related standards.
 Web of Services
Web of Services refers to message-based design frequently found on the Web and in
enterprise software. The Web of Services is based on technologies such as HTTP, XML,
SOAP, WSDL, SPARQL, and others.
 Browsers and Authoring Tools
The web's usefulness and growth depends on its universality. We should be able to publish
regardless of the software we use, the computer we have, the language we speak, whether we
are wired or wireless, regardless of our sensory or interaction modes. We should be able to
access the web from any kind of hardware that can connect to the Internet – stationary or
mobile, small or large. W3C facilitates this listening and blending via international web
standards. These standards ensure that all the crazy brilliance continues to improve a web that
is open to us all.
These standards ensure that all the crazy brilliance continues to improve a web that is open to
us all.

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21. Which technologies are supported by W3C?

Ans. The technologies supported by W3C are as follows:

make them work on mobile devices.


HTML & CSS
HTML and CSS are the fundamental technologies for building Web pages: HTML (html and
xhtml) for structure, CSS for style and layout, including WebFonts. Find resources for good
Web page design as well as helpful tools.
JavaScript Web APIs
Standard APIs for client-side Web Application development include those for Geolocation,
XMLHttpRequest, and mobile widgets. W3C standards for document models (the “DOM”)
and technologies such as XBL allow content providers to create interactive documents
through scripting.
Graphics
W3C is the home of the widely deployed PNG raster format, SVG vector format, and the
Canvas API. WebCGM is a more specialized format used, for example, in the fields of
automotive engineering, aeronautics.
Audio and Video
Some of the W3C formats that enable authoring audio and video presentations include
HTML, SVG, and SMIL (for synchronization). W3C is also working on a timed text format
for captioning and other applications.
Accessibility
W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has published Web Content Accessibility
Guidelines (WCAG) to help authors create content that is accessible to people with
disabilities. WAI-ARIA gives authors more tools to create accessible Web Applications by
providing additional semantics about widgets and behaviors.
Internationalization
W3C has a mission to design technology that works across cultures and languages. W3C
standards such as HTML and XML are built on Unicode, for instance. In addition, W3C has
published guidance for authors related to language tags bi-directional (bidi) text, and more.
Mobile Web
W3C promotes “One Web” that is available on any device. W3C’s Mobile Web Best
Practices help authors understand how to create content that provides a reasonable experience
on a wide variety of devices, contexts, and locations.
Privacy
The Web is a powerful tool for communications and transactions of all sorts. It is important
to consider privacy and security implications of the Web as part of technology design. Learn
more about tracking and Web App security.
Math on the Web
Mathematics and formula are used on the Web for business reports, education materials and
scientific research. W3C’s MathML enables mathematics to be served, received, and
processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for other
types of content.
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22. What do you mean by DOM? Write its advantages and characteristics.

Ans. The Document Object Model (DOM) is an application programming interface (API) for
HTML and XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a
document is accessed and manipulated.

DOM defines the objects and properties and methods (interface) to access all XML
elements. It is separated into 3 different parts / levels −
 Core DOM − standard model for any structured document

 XML DOM − standard model for XML documents

 HTML DOM − standard model for HTML documents


Advantages of DOM
The DOM provides us lot of advantages. The benefits of DOM are given bellow.
o XML DOM provides platform and language independency.
o XML DOM is traversable. Information in the XML DOM is organized in a hierarchy
that allows developer to navigate around the hierarchy looking for specific information.
o XML DOM is editable and dynamic. It allows developers to add, update, delete or move
nodes at any point on the tree.
Disadvantages of-DOM
The DOM has some disadvantages also. Some drawbacks of DOM are given bellow
o It consumes more memory when the XML structure becomes large
o Its operational speed is slower compared to SAX due to larger usage of memory
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23. How web browsers are required for web? Which technology is mandatory
supported for any web browser?

Ans. Computers connected to the web are called clients and servers. A simplified diagram of
how they interact might look like this:

 Clients are the typical web user's internet-connected devices (for example, your computer
connected to your Wi-Fi, or your phone connected to your mobile network) and
webaccessing software available on those devices (usually a web browser like Firefox or
Chrome).

 Servers are computers that store webpages, sites, or apps. When a client device wants to
access a webpage, a copy of the webpage is downloaded from the server onto the client
machine to be displayed in the user's web browser. Mandatory Technology supported for any
web browser.

 HTML

 CSS

 JavaScript

 XML

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24. Case Study on Chrome Web Browser.

Ans. Google Chrome is one of the famous web browsers. It has many extensions in the
Chrome Web Store [3]. Let us consider a Google Chrome extension as an example because
of its largest share of the browser. Google Chrome extensions are classified into several types
of extensions. The description of these types are given further.
Google Chrome – Light, Fast and Secure Google Chrome is a light, fast, secure and
convenient freeware web browser. Former versions of Google Chrome utilized the Webkit
Layout Engine. The recent versions of Google Chrome use a fork of Webkit, Blink with an
exception on iOS.

Google released this speedy web browser in 2nd September, 2008 for Windows. Chrome
was publicly released on 11th September, 2008. WEB TECHNOLOGY THEORY
ASSIGNMENT StatCounter reports that Google Chrome tops the list of contemporary web
browsers according to usage rate in 2013 based on the fact that Chrome has a 37 percent
worldwide ‘usage share of web browsers’. However, Net Applications accounts that Google
Chrome ranks third, IE being the first, followed by Firefox. In 2008, Google announced
mainstream of Chrome’s source code as Chromium that is an open source project. Chrome
releases are now focused on Chromium.

About Google Chrome:

Features of Google Chrome Google chrome aspires to be safe, speedy and convenient. It is a
stabilized browser with multiple customizable features. There reside widespread
dissimilarities when it comes to peers in Chrome’s confined user interface. This feature is
unalike contemporary freeware web browsers. Google chrome offers no RRS feeds.
However, JavaScript processing rate and application presentations are sturdy traits of Google
Chrome. This is why Google Chrome is re-graded as one of the fastest browsers on earth
with comparison to other modern web browsers. Some noticeable aspects about Google
Chrome makes it well adored among net surfers.

A majority of Google Chrome’s implements were previously proclaimed by other modern


browser developers of its time. However, Google publicly released and implemented them
for the first time. Chrome’s GUI (Graphical User Interface) modernism, combination of
search bars and address bars was formerly publicized by Mozilla in the month of May, 2008
as a plotted module of Mozilla Firefox. Version 6 of Safari and IE 9 have also utilized this
emerging technique of search bars and address bars since then. Safe browsing experience
with Google Chrome Google Chrome continuously updates two major blacklists. One of this
blacklist update is for phishing and the other one is for malware. Users are facilitated with a
warning before visiting infected sites. This updated blacklist directory of Chrome is quite
strong. This security service is offered by Google Safe Browsing which is a freeware public
API. Chrome also utilized a complicated procedure-allotment framework to handle various
tabs which ensures further security.

Google Doodle Extension lets users change the Google logo on tab pages into the Google
doodle of his/her choice. In fine, Google Chrome offers a simple, user-friendly, customizable
browsing experience supported by advanced security gateway.

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25. Case Study on Template.

Ans. The Template Toolkit is a template language and processing engine written in the Perl
programming language. This is the development site for version 3, aka TT3. Both the code
and site are under construction so don't expect anything too polished right now. If you're not
an existing user of TT2 then this site will probably be of little interest to you at this time. Run
along now. WEB TECHNOLOGY THEORY ASSIGNMENT TT3 is a major new version of
the Template Toolkit. It's just about at the stage where you can build static web sites with it
(like this one), but it's not quite ready for production time yet. Template Toolkit is a free
template engine written in Perl , developed since 1996 mainly by Andy Wardley. This CPAN
module is one of Perl's most widely used and versatile libraries of applications for outputting
customizable text modules (often HTML templates). Programmers are usually not good
designers and vice versa. Therefore, design and program should be separated so that both
development areas can work independently. This can be done with the help of the CPAN
module "Template Toolkit". The toolkit is a Perl library collection with a template interpreter
written in C. A template in this context is an HTML template designed by a designer. The
Perl programmer creates the application logic and data structures in a separate script and
calls the template from it. The designer designs the HTML files as usual, supplementing
them with special directives. These directives are variables, IF-ELSE statements, and loops.
The directives give the designer possibilities to process the content dynamically. The
programmer calls this template in the script via the template interpreter and transfers data
that should be displayed in the web page. The data replace the template variables.

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26. Case Study on Apache Web Server.

Ans. Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which
extend the core functionality. These can range from server-side programming language
support to authentication schemes. Some common language interfaces
support Perl, Python, Tcl and PHP.
Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension module, mod_gzip,
implemented to help with reduction of the size (weight) of Web pages served
over HTTP. ModSecurity is an open source intrusion detection and prevention engine for
Web applications. Apache logs can be analyzed through a Web browser using free scripts,
such as Wasters/W3Perl or Visitors.
Virtual hosting allows one Apache installation to serve many different Web sites. For
example, one machine with one Apache installation could simultaneously serve
www.example.com, www.example.org, test47.test-server.example.edu, etc.
Apache features configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases,
and content negotiation. It is also supported by several graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
It supports password authentication and digital certificate authentication. Because the source
code is freely available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is a large
public library of Apache add-ons.
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27. What is DTD? Why it is used.

Ans. A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define
a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML).
A Document Type Definition (DTD) defines the legal building blocks of an XML document.
It defines the document structure with a list of legal elements and attributes. A DTD can be
declared inline inside an XML document, or as an external reference.
XML uses a subset of SGML DTD.
As of 2009, newer XML namespace-aware schema languages (such as W3C XML
Schema and ISO RELAX NG) have largely superseded DTDs. A namespace-aware version
of DTDs is being developed as Part 9 of ISO DSDL. DTDs persist in applications that need
special publishing characters, such as the XML and HTML Character Entity References,
which derive from larger sets defined as part of the ISO SGML standard effort.
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28. What do you mean by rendering?

Ans. Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating


a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what
collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs. Also, the results of
displaying such a model can be called a render. A scene file contains objects in a strictly
defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting,
and shading information as a description of the virtual scene. The data contained in the scene
file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital
image or raster graphics image file. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's
rendering" of a scene.

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