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Continues » Adhesive Materials Checklist: What to Know When Bonding Rubber Adhesives
Continues » Adhesive Materials Checklist: What to Know When Bonding Rubber Adhesives

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Adhesive Materials Checklist:

What to Know When Bonding Rubber Adhesives

Introduction

Bonding materials together can be tricky, especially because there are a considerable number of adhesives,

adhesive methods and materials from which to choose.

When you approach a manufacturer about material bonding, they’ll ask you a number of questions about the

project. Coming to the table ready with answers will help the entire process — from initial product catalog

selection to delivery — run smoothly, efficiently, and on budget.

We’ve created a checklist to help you come prepared to meet with a prospective manufacturer about your

new project.

Click on each question to find solutions and suggestions for your project.

What materials do you want to bond?Are you willing to prepare the surfaces? What types of stress will be exerted on

Are you willing to prepare the surfaces?What materials do you want to bond? What types of stress will be exerted on the

What types of stress will be exerted on the adhesive?you want to bond? Are you willing to prepare the surfaces? What environmental resistance is necessary?

What environmental resistance is necessary?What types of stress will be exerted on the adhesive? What are the dimensions of the

What are the dimensions of the bonding area?on the adhesive? What environmental resistance is necessary? What is the end use application of the

What is the end use application of the product?is necessary? What are the dimensions of the bonding area? Is the bond temporary or permanent?

area? What is the end use application of the product? Is the bond temporary or permanent?

Is the bond temporary or permanent?

Must it meet any reliability or quality requirements? What is the surface type of the
Must it meet any reliability or quality
requirements?
What is the surface type of the material to
which it’s being bonded?
Are there any appearance or aesthetic
considerations that must be taken into account?
Are there any special storage conditions?
into account? Are there any special storage conditions? www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC •

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 2

What You Should Know

The answers to these common questions will play a large role determining the adhesive, or adhesives, that will best suit your application. Being prepared with detailed information will help to ease the entire process. Here’s what you need to know:

What materials do you want to bond?

This seems simple, and it can be — but it can also be quite complex.

If you are bonding plastic, for example, it is helpful to be specific. “Plastic” or “black plastic” are not very helpful. Are you bonding acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic to ABS, or to polypropylene? Polypropylene to polyethylene? To some, plastic is plastic — but different plastics react to different adhesives on a molecular level.

Take similar care if you are bonding to metals. “Type 309 stainless steel” is a much more helpful answer than simply “stainless steel” — and don’t forget to mention any surface treatments, like plating or annealing, with which the material must be processed.

or annealing, with which the material must be processed. Does your product require rubber to metal

Does your product require rubber to metal bonding? Metals such as aluminum or stainless steel are high surface energy, but once the metal is powder coated, you will be bonding to a low surface energy “skin”. As with any other bonding scenario, the more specific you can be the more helpful it is to the manufacturer.

Specificity is key when answering this question.

Specificity is key when answering this question. www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC •

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 3

Are you willing to prepare the surface?

Few product components come off the line ready to bond. Often, some form of surface preparation is required for metal and plastic parts alike.

Degreasing is important for any component that must be bonded with another. Parts naturally pick up grease during the production process, which in turn picks up dirt, dust, and other contaminants. Both grease and particulates caught in grease are serious detriments to proper bonding.

Other surface preparation treatments include abrasion, flame treatment, plasma treatment, and a range of chemical treatments. The type of treatment or treatments your part requires depends on its material, and plays a part in dictating which adhesives or adhesive methods can be used.

“Degreasing is important for any component that must be bonded with another.”

An inability or unwillingness to perform required surface preparations can severely limit your adhesive options, require subcontracting, or add to the cost of bonding.

What types of stress will be exerted on the adhesive?

The types of stress that will be placed on your bonded product, and consequently on the adhesive itself, in an end use application plays a large role in adhesive selection — the correct adhesive must be able to withstand those stresses.

There are four primary stresses to consider:

Peel stress

Peel stress is encountered by an adhesive when forces pull bonded components in opposite directions at an edge in a peeling motion

Shear stress

Shear stress is stress that is placed on components parallel to the adhesive plane; for example, one component with leftward force and the second with rightward force

with leftward force and the second with rightward force Continues » www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 /
with leftward force and the second with rightward force Continues » www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 /
with leftward force and the second with rightward force Continues » www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 /

Continues »

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 4

Tensile stress

Tensile stress is caused by opposing forces applied perpendicularly to the adhesive plane, such as two components being pulled apart

Cleavage stress

Cleavage stress occurs when forces are applied at one edge of a bonded component in a prying motion

applied at one edge of a bonded component in a prying motion What environmental resistance is
applied at one edge of a bonded component in a prying motion What environmental resistance is

What environmental resistance is necessary?

While it is likely that you carefully considered the environmental forces that are expected to act on your product, it is not uncommon to neglect the same consideration in regards to adhesives.

UV rays from sunlight, moisture and water, chemicals, extreme temperatures and temperature fluctuations, vibrations, and other environmental factors can all have the same kinds of degenerative effects on adhesive as they can on your product as a whole. It’s important to provide these factors to your adhesive manufacturer — but don’t overstate them, as this can lead to longer lead times and higher costs.

What are the dimensions of the bonding area?

Bonding area dimensions are another consideration that seems simple at first glance but can be quite complex. There are far more factors than simple X and Y dimensions.

First, there is the Z dimension, the thickness of the bonding agent — can your overall part design accommodate a thicker layer of adhesive, or must it be as thin as possible? Is the bonding surface simple, or does it have geometrical complexities such as a unique shape or a varied surface? Are there areas that absolutely must or must not have adhesive?

there areas that absolutely must or must not have adhesive? “Determine the dimensions of the bonding
there areas that absolutely must or must not have adhesive? “Determine the dimensions of the bonding

“Determine the dimensions of the bonding area. Are there areas where the adhesive should not be applied?”

Are there areas where the adhesive should not be applied?” www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC
Are there areas where the adhesive should not be applied?” www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 5

What is the end use application of the product? The intended end use of your

What is the end use application of the product?

The intended end use of your product can help to determine which adhesive is best in a number of ways, including regarding environmental considerations, as discussed above. It can also help by determining which secondary function or functions the adhesive would be required to perform.

While some adhesives are suitable for attachment and bonding purposes only, many can serve a number of purposes: thermal or electrical insulation, thermal or electrical conduction, gap filling, cushion for percussive impacts, as a seal, as a barrier, and so on. Even design, process, and packing considerations can be met by multifunctional adhesives.

Is the bond temporary or permanent?

Few people make a notable distinction between low-tack temporary adhesive and high-tack permanent adhesive, viewing temporary adhesive as a temporary solution to a permanent problem. Low-tack temporary adhesives can be quite versatile and actually outperform high-tack permanent adhesives in a number of scenarios, including as the attachment mechanism for changeable gaskets or the seal of resealable packaging.

for changeable gaskets or the seal of resealable packaging. Before you specify low-tack temporary adhesive, be

Before you specify low-tack temporary adhesive, be sure to consider environmental factors like exposure and temperature, which can reduce the anticipated lifespan of temporary adhesive.

can reduce the anticipated lifespan of temporary adhesive. www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC •

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 6

Are there any reliability or quality requirements that must be met?

Is your part destined for a market that is subjected to rigorous quality and reliability standards, such as the medical equipment industry? These regulations are often expansive and include guidelines for bonds and adhesives — be sure to tell your adhesive manufacturer about all reliability and quality requirements your product must meet so that they can select a suitable adhesive and provide test result documentation when required.

and provide test result documentation when required. What is the surface type of the material it’s

What is the surface type of the material it’s bonding to?

“Surface type” refers to the surface energy of a material; surface energy is a measurement of the ease with which an adhesive spreads, or wets out, over the surface. Metals — particularly lead, tin, zinc, aluminum, and copper — have high surface energies, meaning adhesive wets out easily when applied. Many plastics also have high surface energies, such as polyimides, nylon, polyurethane, and ABS. Other plastics, including polystyrene, acetal, polyethylene, polypropylene, and PTFE, as well as most powder coating materials, have low surface energies.

The surface energy of your components dictate not only which types of adhesives are used — generally speaking, acrylic-based adhesives for high surface energy materials and rubber-based adhesives for low surface energy materials — but how much will be required.

High Surface Energy

• Easy to Adhere

• Good Adhesive “wet out”

Energy • Easy to Adhere • Good Adhesive “wet out” Metal, Kapton, Polyester, Polyurethane, ABS, Polycarbonate,

Metal, Kapton, Polyester, Polyurethane, ABS, Polycarbonate, Rigid PVC, Acrylic

Low Surface Energy

• Hard to Adhere

• Poor Adhesive “wet out”

Energy • Hard to Adhere • Poor Adhesive “wet out” Flexible PVC, Polystyrene, Acetal, EVA, Polyethylene

Flexible PVC, Polystyrene, Acetal, EVA, Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Tedlar (PVF), Power Coated Paints, Teflon, EPDM Foam

Easy

To Bond to:

Difficult

Coated Paints, Teflon, EPDM Foam Easy To Bond to: Difficult www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC
Coated Paints, Teflon, EPDM Foam Easy To Bond to: Difficult www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC
Coated Paints, Teflon, EPDM Foam Easy To Bond to: Difficult www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 7

Are there any appearance or aesthetic considerations that must be taken into account?

What optic and aesthetic requirements do you need an adhesive to meet? If it is a product intended for use by another business as a component in a larger product, brand color might not be as important as it would be for a direct to consumer product. Does something in the product’s use require the adhesive to have a particular translucency or opacity?

Are there any special storage conditions?

Of particular import in this regard is heat — do you expect your product to be stored for any notable length of time in an environment that is not climate controlled?

Longer-term storage in a hot environment can be problematic for many adhesives, particularly pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs):

PSAs are prone to cockling, or developing wrinkles and puckers, when in a hot environment for a prolonged amount of time.

when in a hot environment for a prolonged amount of time. Cockling can cause performance issues,

Cockling can cause performance issues, or even complete failure, in your product and can lead to fabrication issues if prefabricated PSA strips or sheets are stored prior to use. This is in addition to potential cost increases that you can incur due to cockling-related issues.

increases that you can incur due to cockling-related issues. www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC •

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 8

Working with a Manufacturer

Continues »

Understanding the basics of what you require from an adhesive material can go a long way toward improving your interactions with an adhesive manufacturer. When working with a high quality adhesives manufacturer, one with years of proven experience and expertise, they can help guide you to the best adhesives expediently.

With both you and your adhesives manufacturer on the same page, your project will run much more smoothly — it will get off the ground more quickly, have an overall accelerated turnaround time, and, ultimately, lower costs for you.

Ready to request your next adhesives project, or want to learn more about the intricacies of adhesive selection? Contact CGR Products today.

CGR Products

Greensboro, NC

Decatur, AL

Waukesha, WI

4655 US Highway 29 North Greensboro, NC 27405

1025 Brooks St SE Decatur, AL 35601-6564

1011 Sentry Drive Waukesha, WI 53186

Toll Free: 877.313.6785 Fax: 336.375.5324

Toll Free: 877.313.6785 Fax: 256.355.6884

Tel: 262.549.8300 Fax: 262.549.8305

Fax: 256.355.6884 Tel: 262.549.8300 Fax: 262.549.8305 www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC •

www.cgrproducts.com / 877-313-6785 / Greensboro, NC • Decatur, AL • Waukesha, WI

eBook: Adhesive Materials Checklist / Pg 9