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# Magnetism and matter

repulsion.

## When a paramagnetic material comes in contact with a magnet, it develops a weak

magnetic attraction.

## When a ferromagnetic material comes in contact with a magnet, it develops a

strong magnetic attraction.

## The temperature beyond which a ferromagnetic material becomes a paramagnetic

material is called Curie’s Temperature.

For a given value of magnetic intensity (H) the magnetic field (B) depends on the
previous history of the sample. This phenomenon is called hysteresis.

## Ferromagnets stay magnetized after being subjected to an external magnetic field,

and this tendency to retain magnetism even after the external magnetic field is
removed is called retentivity.
µ
According to Curie’s law, the magnetic susceptibility, χ = C
The dipole in a magnetic field

Two equal and opposite forces acting on a compass needle constitutes a couple.

τ=Fxd

τ=MxB

τ=Iα

B= 4π2I/M T2

Electric dipole and magnetic dipole in external electric and magnetic fields

quantity

1 dipole P M
moment

## 2 torque pxE MxB

3 potential -P . E -M. B
energy
Magnetic flux and Gauss’ law

Magnetic flux is defined as the number of magnetic field lines passing through a
given area in a magnetic field.

## OGS unit of magnetic field: Maxwell (Mx)

When the flux passing through a given area is maximum, the magnetic flux passing
per unit area is called ‘magnetic flux density’.

The magnetic dipoles alone exist with the poles that are opposite in nature, the net
pole strength enclosed by the closed surface is zero.

## The earth’s magnetism

The magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field strength is of the order 10-5T.

The earth’s magnetism is caused due to the electrical currents produced by the
convective motion of metallic fluids in the outer core of the earth.

The earth’s magnetic field is identical to the field of a hypothetical magnetic dipole
placed at the centre of the earth.

The angle between the axis of the hypothetical dipole and the geographic axis of
the earth is approximately 11.50.
Elements of earth’s magnetic field

The three elements of the earth’s magnetic field at any point are:

1) Declination (D)

## 3) Horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field (HE)

The acute angle between the geographical and the magnetic meridian at a point is
known as the declination of that point.

Inclination is the angle that the earth’s total magnetic field makes with its
horizontal surface at a given point.

## Magnetism and magnetic field lines

The magnetic lines of a bar magnet are directed from north to south, externally and
south to north, internally.

## The magnetic field lines are continuous closed loops.

A tangent drawn to the field line at a point represents the direction of resultant
magnetic field at that point.

The resultant magnetic field at a point has only one direction and hence, the
magnetic field lines never intersect.

## A current carrying solenoid is similar to a bar magnet.

Magnetization and magnetic intensity

per unit volume,

I= M/V

## Magnetic susceptibility measures the degree of, magnetization of a material in

response to an applied magnetic field.

## When a magnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the total

magnetic field inside the material, B =µ0 (I +H)

The relation between the magnetic field and inside a magnetic material and
magnetic intensity is B=µ H where, µ is the magnetic moment of the material.

## A magnetic compass essentially consists of a magnetic needle, which Is placed on

a pivot in the horizontal plane.

A magnetic compass placed in a horizontal plane aligns itself along the direction of
the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field.

A dip circle is effectively a magnetic needle pivoted in such a manner that it is free
to move in the vertical plane.

A dip circle allows us to measure the angle made by the magnetic field with the
horizontal plane.

The earth’s magnetism is largely attributed to iron and nickel ions present in the
hot and molten core of the earth.
The pattern of earth’s magnetic field is noticeably different at the poles than from
the rest of the earth.

## Permanent magnets and electromagnets

Materials such as steel and alnico that have high retentivity, high coercivity and
high relative magnetic permeability are used for making permanent magnets.

Permanent magnets have many applications such as in magnetic door stoppers and
magnetic screwdrivers.

Materials, such as soft iron, that have high magnetic relative permeability and low
retentivity are used for making electromagnets.

Electromagnets are used in many applications such as electric bells, loud speakers,
cranes, and telephone diaphragms.