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# FORCES AND MOTION FORCES AND PRESSURE LIGHT

m
Total distance travelled 12. a. Density , ρ = r
1. Average speed = V m 23. Focal length of curved mirror, f =
Time taken 2
b. Mass, m = ρV ρ V
s s sin i
v= s = vt t= s m 24. a. Refractive index, n =
t v v t c. Volume , V = F sin r
ρ p A 1
v −u F b. Refractive index, n =
2. Acceleration, a = 13. a. Pressure, p = b. Force, F = pA sin c
t A
14. Pressure in a liquid, p = hρg
u +v  Real depth
3. a. v = u + at b. s = t 15. Archimedes' Principle c. Refractive index, n =
Apparent depth
 2 
1 2 Buoyant force = weight of liquid displaced = ρVg
c. s = ut + at d. v 2 = u 2 + 2as d. Refractive index,
2 16. Law of flotation Speed of light in vacuum
u +v Weight of object = Buoyant force n=
e. Average speed = Speed of light in medium
2 mg = ρVg
Momentum = mv
1
4. F1 F 25. Power of a lens, P =
17. Pascal's principle: = 2 f
5. a. Change of momentum = mv − mu A1 A2
1 1 1
b. Impulse = Ft = mv − mu 26. Lens formula: = +
f u v
HEAT
mv − mu Height of object v
6. a. F = 27. Linear magnification, m = =
t  X −X  Height of image u
18. Temperature, θ =   × 100 o C
θ ais
F
b. Resultant force, F = ma m a X
 stim − X ais 
28. Astronomical telescope
Weight of object, W = mg W 19. Heat absorbed or heat released, Q = mc θ fo
7. a.
m g a. Magnifying power of telescope, M =
20. Latent heat, Q = ml fe
W
b. Gravitational field strength, g = b. Distance between lenses = f o + f e
m 21. Absolute temperature, T K =θ o C +273
W
8. Work done, W = Fs F s 22. a. Boyle's law : p1V1 = p 2V2
WAVES
W 1
9. Power, P = W p1 p
29. Frequency, f =
t b. Pressure law : = 2
P t T1 T2 T
1
10. a. Kinetic energy = mv 2 30. Wave speed, v = fλ
2 V1 V2
b. Potential energy = mgh c. Charles' law : = 31. Young's double slit experiment
F T1 T2
11. a. Hooke's law: F = kx λD ax
k x Separation of fringes, x = λ=
1 1 a D
b. Elastic potential energy = Fx = kx 2
2 2

ELECTRICITY
32. a. Charge, Q = It
Q
I t
Q V2 Momentum p kg m s–1 , N s
b. Current, I = c. Power, P = Force F N
t R
Impulse Ft Ns
W 41. For battery with internal resistance: Weight W N
33. Potential difference or voltage, V = Work done W J
Q E-V
W a. EMF, E = V + Ir Energy E J
34. Energy transferred, W = QV Q V Power P J s–1 ,W
b. E = I(R +r)
I r Density ρ kg m–3
V
35. a. Resistance, R = Volume V m3
I Extension of spring x, e cm, m
ELECTROMAGNETISM Force constant k N cm–1 , N m–1
b. Potential difference or voltage, V = IR
Pressure P Pa
42. Transformer Area A m2
V
c. Current, I = V Temperature in celsius θ o
C
R I R
VS N
a. = S b. I SVS = I PVP Heat Q J
36. Resistors in SERIES: VP NP Specific heat capacity c J kg–1 oC–1
Specific latent heat l J kg–1
a. R = R1 + R2 + R3 Output power
c. Efficiency = ×100 % Absolute temperature T K
Input power Focal length f mm, cm, m
b. same current flows in each resistor
Radius of curvature r mm, cm, m
I SVS
c. p.d. across a resistor ∝ R Efficiency = ×100 % Angle of incidence i degree ( o )
I PVP Angle of refraction r degree ( o )
Refractive index n –
37. Resistors in PARALLEL: 43. Transmission of electricity Critical angle c degree ( o )
1 1 1 1 a. Power transmitted, P = IV Power of a lens P dioptre (D)
a. = + + Object distance u cm, m
R R1 R2 R3 b. Power dissipated, P = I 2 R Image distance v cm, m
Period T s
b. same p.d. across the resistors Frequency f Hz
1 RADIOACTIVITY Wavelength λ cm, m
c. current in a resistor ∝ Electric charge Q C
R 44. Einstein's equation : E = mc 2 Current I A
38. a. Energy, W = IVt Potential difference V V
Resistance R Ω
b. Energy, W = I 2 Rt Electrical energy W J
Electrical power P W
V2 Electromotive force (emf) E V
c. Energy, W = t W
R Internal resistance r Ω
P t Peak voltage Vo V
W Charge of an electron e C
39. a. Power, P = b. Energy, W = Pt
t Speed of light c m s–1

40. a. Power, P = IV
P Physical Quantity Symbol Unit SPM Physics
b. Power, P = I 2 R I V Speed / Velocity v ms –1
2009
Distance / Displacement s, d m
Time t s
Acceleration a m s–2