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 Introduction
 Types of cross drainage works
 Selection of suitable type of cross drainage work
 Classification of aqueduct and syphon aqueduct
 Selection of suitable type
 Component of syphon aqueduct
 Selection of suitable site of cross drainage work
 Preliminary data to be collected
 Subsoil exploration
 Design of syphon aqueduct
 Plan and selection elevation of syphon aqueduct
 Estimation of syphon aqueduct
 Conclusion


What is cross drainage work?

Cross drainage work is a structure when constructed when there is a

crossing of canal and natural drain to prevent the drain water from mixing into

canal water. This type of structure is costlier one needs to be avoided as much

as possible.

Cross drainage work can be avoided into two ways:

 By changing the alignment of canal water way

 By mixing two or three streams into one and only one cross

drainage work to be constructed, making the structure


Types of cross drainage work:

There are three type of cross drainage work structure:

Type-1: cross drainage work carrying canal over the drain

The structure falling under this type are

 Aqueduct

 Syphon Aqueduct

Type-2: Cross drainage work carrying drainage over the canal

The structures falling under this type

 Super passage

 Canal syphon

Type-3: Cross drainage works admitting canal water into the canal
The structure falling under this type are

 Level Crossing
 Canal intel

Type-1: Canal over drainage [HFL<FSL]

In an aqueduct the canal bed level is above the drainage bed level so
canal is to be constructed above drainage.

A canal through is to be constructed in which canal water flows from

upstream to downstream. This canal through is to be rested on number of
piers. The drained water flows through these piers upstream to downstream.

The canal water level is referred as full supply level (FSL) and drainage
water level is referred as high flood level (HFL). The HFL is below the canal bed

Aqueduct is similar to bridge, instead of roadway or railway, canal water

are carried in the through and below that the drainage water flows under
gravity and possessing atmospheric pressure.

Fig (a) Aqueduct

Syphon Aqueduct:
In a syphon aqueduct, canal water is carrier above the drainage but
the high food level (HFL) of drainage is above the canal through . The drainage
water flows under symphonic action and there is no presence of atmospheric
pressure in the natural drain.

The construction of the syphon aqueduct structure is such that, the

flooring of drain is depressed downward by constructing a vertical drop weir to
discharge high flow drain water through the depressed concrete floor.

Syphonic aqueduct are more often constructed and better preferred than
simple Aqueduct, through costlier.

Type:-2: Drainage over canal (HFL>FSL)

Super Passage:
Super passage structure carries drainage above canal as the canal bed
level is below drainage bed level. The drainage through is to be constructed at
road level and drainage water flows through this from upstream to
downstream and the canal water flows through the piers which are
constructed below this drainage through as support.

The full supply level of canal is below the drainage through in this
structure . The water in canal flows under gravity and possess the atmospheric
pressure. This is simply reverse of aqueduct structure.

Fig (c) Super passage

Canal Syphon:
In a canal syphon, drainage is carried over canal similar to a super
passage but the full supply level of canal is above than the drainage through .
So the canal water flows under syphonic action and there is no presence of
atmospheric pressure in canal.

When compared, super passage is more often prefferred than canal
syphon because in a canal syphon, big disadvantages is that the canal water is
under drainage through any defective minerals or sediment deposited cannot
be removed with ease like in the case of syphon aqueduct. Flooring of canal is
depressed and ramp like structure is provided at upstream and downstream to
form syphonic action. This structure is a reverse of syphon aqueduct.

Fig (d) Canal Syphon

Type-3: Drainage admitted into canal (HFL=FSL)

In this case, the drainage water is to be mixed up canal water, here the cost of
construction is less but silt clearance and maintainance of canal water
becomes really difficult. So the structures falling u der this category are
constructed with utmost care.

Level Crossing:
When the bed level of canal is equal to the drainage bed level, then level
crossing is to be constructed. This consist of following steps:

1. Construction of weir to stop drainage water behind it
2. Construction of canal regulator across a canal
3. Construction of head regulator across a drainage

Fuctioning of a level crossing:

In peak supply time of canal water parallel to drainage, both the
regulators are opened to clear the drainage water from that of canal for
certain time interval. Once the drainage is cleared, the head regulator is close
down. Anyhow, cross regulator is always in open condition throughout year to
supply canal water continuosly.

Level crossing

Canal inlet:
In a canal inlet structure, the drainage water to be admitted into canal is
very less. The drainage is taken through the banks of a canal at inle. And the
this drainage mixed with canal travels certain lenght of the canal, after which
an outlet is provided to creat suction pressure and suck all the drainage sod,
disposing it to the watershed are nearby.

There are many disadvantages in use of canal inlet structure, because the
drainage may pollute canal water and also the bank erosion may take place
causing the canal structure deteriorate so that maintainance costs are high.
Hence this type of structureis rarely constructed.

Figure (f) Canal inlet plan and cross sectional view(a) pipe type

(b) open cut type

Selection of suitable type of cross drainage work:
The following point should be considered while selecting the site of a
cross drainage work :- At the site, the drainage should cross the canal
alignment at right angle. Such a site provides good flows conditions and also
the cost of the structure is usually a minimum.

 The stream at the site should be stable and should have stable
 For economical design and construction of foundation, a firm and
strong sub stratum should exist below the bed of the drainage at
a reasonable depth.
 The site should be such that long and high approaches of the
canal are not required.-The length and height of the merginal
banks and guide banks for the drainage should be small.
 In the case of an aqueduct, sufficient headway should be available
between the canal through and the high flood level of the
 The water table at the site should not be high, because it will
creat de-watering problem for lying foundation.
 As far as possible, the site should be selected d/s of the
confluence of two stream, thereby avoiding the necessity of
construction of two cross drainage work.
 The possibility of diverting one stream into another stream
upstream of the canal crossing should also be considered and
adopted, if found feasible and economical.
 A cross drainage work should be combined with a bridge, if
required if necessary , the bridge site can be shifted to the cross
drainage work or vice versa. The cost of the combined structure is
usually less. Moreover, the meginal banks and guid banks
required for the river training can be used as the approaches for
the village road.

Fig (g) Canal syphon

Cross drainage work

1.Relative levels and discharges:

The relative levels and discharges of the canal and of the drainage mainly
affected type of

Cross drainage work required. The following are the broad outlines
 If the canal bed level is sufficiently above the HFL of the drainage,
an aqueduct is selected.
 If the FSL of the canal is sufficiently below the bed level of the
drainage, a super passage is provided.
 If the canal bed level is only slightly below the HFL of the drainage,
and the drainage is small, a syphon aqueduct is provided. If
necessary, the drainage bed is depressed below the canal.
 If the FSL of the canal is slightly above the bed level of the drainage
and the canal is small size, a canal syphon is provided.
 If the canal bed and the drainage bed are almost at the same level,
a level crossing is provided when the discharge in the drainage is
large, and an inlet-outlet structure is provided when the discharge

in the drainage is small. However, the relative level of the canal and
drainage can be altered to some extent by changing the canal
alignment to have another crossing. In that case, the most suitable
type of the cross drainage work will be selected depending upon
the levels at the changed crossing.

As far as possible, the having an open channel flow should be prefferred
to the structure having a pipe flow. Therefore, an aqueduct should be
prefferred to a syphon aqueduct. Likewise, a super passage should be
preffered to a canal syohon. In the case of a syphon aqueduct and a canal
syphon, silting problems usually occur at the crossing. Moreover in case of a
canal syohon, there is considerable loss of command due to loss of head in the
canal. The performance of inlet-outlet structure is not good and should be

3.Provision of road:
An aqueduct is better than a super passage because in the former, a
road bridge can easily be provided along with the canal through at the small
extra cost, whereas in the latter, a separate road bridge is required. 2/4section
of a suitable site and type of cross drainage work.

4.Size of drainage:
When the drainage is of small size, a syphon aqueduct wii be prefferred
to be an aqueduct as the latter involve high banks and long approaches.
However, if the drainage is of large size, an aqueduct is prefferred.

5.Cost of earthwork:
The type of cross drainage work which does not involve a large quantity
of earthwork of the canal should be prefferred.

The type of cross drainage work should be selected depending upon the
foundation available at the site of work.

7.Material of construction:
Suitable type of material of construction in sufficient quantity should be
available near the site for the type of cross drainage work selected. Moreover,
the soil in sufficient quantity should be available for constructing canal banks if
the structure requires long and high canal banks.

8.Cost of construction:
The cost of construction of cross drainage work should not be excessive.
The overall cost of the canal banks and cross drainage work, including
maintainance cost, should be a minimum.

9.Permissible loss of head:

Sometimes, the types of the cross drainage is selected considering the
permissible loss of head. For example, if the head loss cannot be permitted in a
canal at the site of cross drainage, a canal is ruled out.

10.Subsoil water table:

If the subsoil water table is high, the type of cross drainage which
requires excessive excavation should be avoided, as it would involve De-
watering problems. Selection of a suitable site and type of cross drainage work.

11.Canal alignment:
The canal alignment is sometimes changed to achieve a better type of
cross drainage work. By changing the alignment, the type of cross drainage can
be altered. The canal alignment is generally finalised after fixing the sites of the
major cross drainage works.

Component of syphon:

It refers to the substructure at the end of a bridge span or dam where on
the superstructure rest or contacts. Single-span bridge have abutments at each
end which provided vertical and lateral support of bridge, as well as acting as
retaining walls to resist lateral movement of the earthen fill of the bridge

Cut off wall:

A wall of impervious material (e.g., concrete, asphaltic concrete, timber,
steel sheet piling, or impervious grout curtain) located in the foundation
beneath a dam and which forms a water barrier and reduces seepage under a
dam or spillway.

Inspection Road:
Inspection road provided above the canal to inspect the syphon aqueduct
at the time of checking the condition of aqueduct and also use for
transportation of light vehicle and pedestrian.

A piers, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure or
superstructure such as an arch and bridge. Section of structural walls between
openings (bays)can function as piers.

Concrete floor:
It is provided to reduce the scouring of bed and to give smooth and high
velocity of water flow under the barrel. It also gives support to the super

Brick pitching:
Brick pitching is provided of U/S side and D/S side of the syphon aqueduct
to reduce the scouring effect the bed. It also give smooth running of water.

Subsoil Exploration
The soil mechanics course reviewed the fundamental properties of soils
and their behaviour under stress and strain is idealised conditions. In practice,
natural soil deposits are not homogeneous, elastic, or isotropic. In some
places, the statification of soil deposits even may change greatly within a
horizontal distance of 15 ta 30 m. For foundation design and construction
work, one must know the actual soil stratification at give site, the laboratry
test result of the soil sample obtained from various depth, and the observation
made during the construction of other structure built under similar condition.
For most major structure, adequate soil exploration of the construction site
must be conducted.

The process of deremining the layers of natural soil deposits that will
underlie a proposed structure and their physical properties is generally
prefferred ta as subsurface exploration.

Purpose of subsurface exploration:

The purpose of subsurface exploration is to obtain information that will
aid the geotechnical engineer in:

Determining the natural of soil at the site and its stratification. Selecting
type of depth of foundation suitable for given structure. Evaluating the load
bearing capacity of the foundation. Estimating the probable settlement of
structure . Determinig potential foundation problems (e.g expansive soil,
collapsible, sanitary landfill, etc...). Determining the location of water table.
Determining the depth and nature of bed rock, if and when encountered.
Performing some in situ field tests. Predicting the lateral earth pressure for
structure such as retaining wall, sheet pile, and braced cuts.

Subsurface Exploration Programe :

A soil exploration program for a given structure can be divided broadly
into three phases:

1.Collection of preliminary information:
This step includes obtaining information regarding the type of structure
to be built and its general use. The followings are examples explain the needed
information about different type of structure:

For the construction of building:

The approximate column load and their spacing.

Local building codes.

Basement requirement.
For the construction of bridge.
The length of their spans.
The loading on their piers and abutments.

The engineer should always make a visual inspection (field trip) of the
site to obtain information about:

The general topography of the site, the possible existence of drainage ditches,
and other materials present at the site. Evidence of creep of slope and deep,
wide shrinkage cracks at regular spaced interval may be indicative of expansive
soil. Soil stratification from deep cuts, such as those made for the construction
of nearby highway and railroad. The type vegetation of the site, which may
indicate the nature of the soil. Ground water level, which can be determined
by checking nearby wells. The type of construction nearby and the existence of
any cracks in walls (indication for settlement) or other problems. The nature of
the stratification and physical properties of the soil nearby also can be
obtained from any available soil exploration repoet on existing structures.

3.Site investigation:This phase consists of:

Planning (adopting steps for site investigation, and future vision for
site) Making test borehole. Collecting soil sample at desired interval for visual
observation and laboratry tests.

Determining the number of boring:
There is no hard and fast rule exists for determining the number of borings are
to be advanced. For most buildings, at least one boring at each corner and one
at the center should provided a start. Spacing can be increased or decreased,
depending on the condition of the subsoil. If various soil strata are more or less
uniform and predictable, fewer boreholes are needed than in
nonhomogeneous soil strata. The following table gives some guideline for
borehole spacing between for different type of structure:

Determining the depth of boring:

The approximate required minimum depth of the boring should be
predetermined. The estimated depth can be changed during the drilling
operation, depending on the subsoil encountered.

To determine the approximate required minimum depth of boring.

Engineer may use the rules established by the American society Of Civil
Engineers (ASCE 1972):

 Determine the net increase in effective stress under a foundation

with depth as shown in figure below.
 Estimate the variation of the vertical effective stress with depth.
 Determine the depthn (D=D1) at which the effective stress increase
is equal to (1/10)q.
 Determine the depth (D=D2) which is the distance from the lower
face of the foundation to bedrock.
 Choose the smaller of the three depth, (D1, D2 and D3), just
determined is the approximate required minimum depth of boring.

 The comparative study for the project reveals that not only the selection
of the type of CDs for a particular crossing plays a vital decisive
discriminatory role, but also the design for the structural with various
alternatives with respective to:-
 Suitability of various foundation strata
 Transitions
 u/s and d/s projection work
 Post construction operation and maintainance etc.
does equally challenge the hydraulic enginneers exposure to the veracity
of the job’s complex nature.
 The aqueduct which we have design is found to be most stable and
economical structure as compare to the any other cross drainage work
and also provided inspection road.