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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature

Reading is one of the basic skills of English. It means

when people read something they will get information from it.

Nunan (2004: 68) states, reading is a fluent process combining

information from a text and own background knowledge by the

readers to construct meaning.

Day and Bamford, (2003) describes reading as a simple skill

of decoding written marks on a page to a view of reading as a

complex process of information processing. Meaning is no longer

something to be extracted from a text, but it is the result of

each reader’s interaction with the text. In other words, readers

draw on their own knowledge of the subject and knowledge on how

information in texts tends to be structured to construct

meaning.

The main purpose of reading is to get comprehension. When

learners read a passage, they decode written information and it

is combined with the learners’ background of knowledge to

produce comprehension. Anderson in McKay (2006: 224) said that

reading is both process and product. The product of reading is


called reading comprehension. It means that there has been

understanding of what has been read.

Smith and Robinson (1980:5) defined reading comprehension

as the understanding, evaluating, and utilizing of information

and ideas gained through an interaction between the reader and

the author. Furthermore, Harris and Smith (1972:243) specified

that reading is a process intimately linked to think, and their

three factors influencing comprehension, for example, background

experience, ability to use language, and intelligence.

To comprehend the written forms, there are many skills that

can be used by the learners. According to Johnson (2008:110-111)

reading comprehension skills are strategies use to retrieve

information and construct meaning from expository text by the

readers. It is the process of thinking, broken down into steps

to comprehend. These comprehension skills can be easily learned

and flexibly selected to a variety of reading situations.

Efficient reading requires a reader should connect new text

with past experiences in order to interpret, evaluate,

synthesize and consider alternative interpretations in order to

comprehend a text. (Presley and Afflerbach, 1995)

In delivering a lesson, instructional materials are one of

the standard terms used to define the resources that educators

are using nowadays. Instructional materials are essential and

significant tools needed for learning of school subjects to


promote educators’ efficiency and improve their performance. It

can make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and

appealing. It can also enable both the educators and learners to

participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions.

Instructional materials can give the learners a room for

acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self-

confidence and self- actualization. Ibeneme (2000) defined

teaching aids as those materials used for practical and

demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers.

Ikerionwu (2000) saw instructional materials as objects or

devices that assist the educators to present a lesson to the

learners in a logical and manner.

In his own perspective, Fadeiye (2005) explains that

instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids,

concrete or non-concrete, used by educators to improve the

quality of learning activities. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that

instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs

during learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional

materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to

present their lessons logically and sequentially to the

learners. Oluwagbohunmi & Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that

instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid

explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable

to students during teaching learning process.


According to Abdullahi (1982), instructional materials are

materials or tools locally made or imported that could make

tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used.

Similar to what Agun (1988) refers to them that as a

learning materials and usage can help the learners to learn

faster and better.

Johnson (1989) also believes that instructional materials

are the collections and selection of resources from available

resources which are applied and combined into a systematic

process of learning to make it effective.

Moreover, Adekola (2008) derived an instruction that is a

deliberate arrangement of experience within the learning space

aims at helping learners to achieve desirable changed in

performance. Similar to what Vilo (2008) says that

instructional materials are any devices with instructional

content or function that is used for teaching purposes including

books, supplementary reading materials, audio visual and other

sensory materials, script for audio and television instruction,

programme for computer manage sets of materials for construction

and manipulation (Gbamanja, 2001).

Instructional materials are any devices with instructional

function that is use for teaching purposes including the

conventional and unconventional instructional material.


Unconventional materials maintain flexible characteristics

as they aren’t graded for English learners’ use while

conventional materials are graded to suit the level of the

learners. Hence, when conventional materials limit the learners

within the pre-set learning outcomes, unconventional materials

can provide the learners with a wide variety of real life topics

and linguistic items promoting their independent learning and

thinking skills (Dickinson, 1995). A strategic handling of

conventional materials can really promote autonomy in the field

of English Language Learning.

Kolb (1984) suggests strongly that when critical reflection

is part of the learning process, the resultant learning is

deeper, more effective, more transferable and greater autonomy

is encouraged.

Now, instructional materials as the name suggests, are

materials of audio, visual, and audio - visual category that

helps to make concepts abstracts and ideas concrete in the

learning process. Materials are also which the educator use in

supplementing the teachings. It can include materials use to

facilitate learning for better outcomes.

Teaching is a profession and a passion that requires

knowledge and skills in a subject and also involves creativity

to innovate and adapt change that will help the teaching to be


effective. Instructional material is one of the innovative ways

in teaching strategies to support an effective learning.

Different authors defined the instructional material. To

begin with Ikerionwu (2000) alleged that instructional materials

are devices that assist the teacher to present a lesson to the

learners in a logical and manner way. Agreeing to Abdullahi

(1982) instructional materials are materials or tools locally

made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of

lesson impact if intelligently used. Agun (1988) refers to them

as learning materials, and usage help learners to learn faster

and better.

Similarly to what Obanya (1989) confirms that instructional

material are didactic which main goal is to make learning and

teaching possible while according to Johnson (1989)

instructional materials are the collections and selection of

resources from available resources which are applied and

integrated into a systematic process of learning to make it

effective.

Furthermore, Ikerionwu (2000) refers to them as an objects

or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson for the

learner. Instructional materials therefore are concrete or

physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the

sense organs during teaching (Agina-Obu, 2005).


In view of the above descriptions, the deliveration of the

subject matter will be more effective and also stimulate the

learner’s reading comprehension in different areas with the

influences of instructional materials.

Instructional materials have a lot of classifications/types

and variations. They are audio or aural, visual or audio-visual

which are under the category of sensory modes.

Audio instructional materials refer to those devices that

make use of the sense of hearing only, like the radio, audio

tape recording, etc. Visual instructional materials are devices

that demand the sense of sight such as the chalkboard, chart,

slide, filmstrip, etc.

An audio-visual instructional material then is a

combination of devices computer. Among the instructional

materials the classroom teacher uses, the visuals out-number the

combination of the audio and the audio-visual.

Classifying instructional materials based on sensory modes,

there are four other ways of classification and they are printed

and non-printed, Hardware/Equipment and software/materials,

first, second and third generations and high technology/high

cost and low technology/low cost instructional materials. As


stated earlier, the sensory mode comprises of three subgroups of

(a) audio, (b) visual and (c) audio-visual.

The high cost is the combination of the second and third

generation instructional materials found in the fourth category

above while the low cost includes items in the first generation.

The list of instructional materials that a teacher can use to

improve the quality of instruction is inexhaustible. The

teacher’s level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination

is in fact, unlimited. Instructional materials will, therefore,

include all forms of information carriers that can be used to

promote and encourage effective learning activities. According

to Agun (1982) these are:

Textbooks, supplementary books, workbooks, reference books,

charts, magazines maps, journals, pamphlets, newspaper, poster,

programmed texts and non-print-materials, like film, film

strips, models mock-ups studies, pictures, audio and video

tapes, recorders, transparencies, globes, chalkboard, etc.

The usefulness of instructional materials in learning

process is to facilitate and stimulate the learning of

intellectual concepts and ideas of the learners as stated by

Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004), to keep the learners active and

increased their participation in the lesson and to save

teachers’ energy of talking too much.


Aspects of individuals are different in many ways and can

learn at different levels, provision of alternative resource

materials is very necessary. Thus, the purpose and objective of

instructional material is to create learning in very learner.

Instructional materials have significant roles in learning.

It can obviously help the learners in remembering and retaining

the learning. Described instructional materials as instruments

used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners. Also,

indicate that the role of instructional materials in learning is

one of the most important and widely discussed issues in

contemporary education policy.

Prior to the Impact of Instructional Materials in

Educator’s Performance, Ani (2006) and Orumbata (2004) showed

instructional materials support educators in presenting the

Subject matter effectively before the learners and help them to

improve skills and widen their knowledge. Also, it helps them to

study ahead of time. This help the educators memorize what is

meant to teach in the class and will prepare to entertain any

questions by the learner (Chima, 2009).

Furthermore, Oluwate (2010) maintains that instructional

materials aid educators’ creativeness. As educators studies

according to instruction it assimilates easily what knowledge

impact to learners. This will definitely improve the


creativeness and may lead them to another level greater than by

the teacher expectation.

Related Studies

This presents the local and foreign related studies of this

study. The collected information aided as a guide to the

researchers for supplementary understanding and explanation of

the desired output of this investigation. This also exposes

spiral and connected ideas from positive and negative sides of

using the extent of instructional materials for teaching reading

comprehension.

In accordance to Ifeoma (2013) in a study to determine the

Use of Instructional Materials and Educational Performance of

Students (A Case Study of Unity Schools in Jalingo, Taraba

state, Nigeria), the study findings of this study is statistical

significant difference in the educational performance of

students when they are taught with instructional materials than

when they are not taught with them. Correspondingly, Adekola

(2008) also agreed that the effect of instructional material on

the academic performance of students the result prove that there

is a significant difference between the academic performance of

students taught with instructional material and those taught

without instructional material.


In the present study, it investigates the impacts of

instructional materials in improving reading comprehension on

the academic performance of the students.

There is an interaction between teaching materials and

learning interest stated by USMAN (2016) on the research The

Effectiveness of Authentic Material in Teaching Reading viewed

from Students’ English learning interest, the findings from this

study proposed that there is a significant difference between

teaching reading using authentic materials and using textbook.

Meanwhile, the current study pointed out that teachers should

use accurate and valid materials in teaching reading

comprehension.

In the study, Development of instructional material to

improve middle school ruler reading, the results gave direction

to the type of teaching aids needed to improve ruler-reading

skills in middle school. The teaching aids were developed. The

difference between the pre-test and the post-test indicated the

amount of skills learned with ruler reading (Schrage, 2005). On

the other side, the recent research provides course of different

teaching aids for enriching levels of reading comprehension.

Omuna, Onchera and Kimutai (2016) carried out a study on to

examine the Availability and Use of Instructional Resources for

teaching and learning of English reading skills in secondary


schools in Teso North Sub County, Kenya, researchers determine

that textbooks were the most used instructional resources and

instructional resources positively correlated with the learning

of English reading comprehension. It was concluded that teachers

do not use a variety of instructional resources when teaching

English reading comprehension. The present paper emphasizes the

vast of audio-visual instructional resources use in teaching and

learning.

Based on research, the educator is considered an important

factor for success when using and integrating technology. In

lined with this, Gorder (2008) conducted a study about Teacher

Perceptions of Instructional Technology Integration in the

Classroom, findings indicated that educators are able to use

technology for professional productivity and to facilitate and

deliver instruction better than they are able to use technology

for integration into teaching and learning. The current paper

investigates the role of audio-visual materials to integrate the

lessons for learning attainment.

Based on the present study, it specifies that by means of

using the teaching strategies along with the materials, teachers

increase students’ interests and motivations to the subjects and

lessons. So the students listen to the teacher more carefully

and don’t forget whatever their teachers teach them. In this way
the teachers can create desire of learning and all the students

participate in the lesson vividly and voluntarily. The same with

(Seven & Engin n.d) which examined The Importance and Effect of

using Aid Materials in Foreign Language Teaching. In this

research, it has been found out according to the students’

answers for the questionnaire and point of views that language

teaching materials are having a very important effect and role

in language learning and teaching activities.

Citing the work of Rahman (2007) entitled An evaluation of

the teaching of reading skills of English in Bangladesh. The

findings show that students’ present level of reading is not up

to the mark; the reading pedagogy used in the country is also

largely backdated. On the other hand, the current research

attempt to expand the learners’ comprehension level as long as

there is a great chance of development.

In the study the Effect of use of instructional materials

on learner participation in English classroom in preschool in

Kiine zone Kirinyaga county Kenya the results revealed that lack

of learners confidence was a reason leading to lack of effective

use of instructional materials during participation in a

language class (Wambuia, 2013). The present study investigates

if there is an achievement of learning happens while handling

Instructional Materials alone during participation.


Further research conclude that there are deficiency in

instructional materials, this is why Abdi(2011)investigated the

Availability And Utilization Of Instructional Resources used for

teaching, the study findings revealed that a limited number of

teachers attended seminars on utilization of learning resources

in teaching.

It also showed that most of the instructional resources

were not available in the schools except the chalkboard,

textbooks, charts and maps. Lack of funds and lack of book

centers were the major limiting factors in acquisition of

resources. The current study researchers examine if the teaching

materials are available and adequate in a certain school that

will identify the influences of teaching materials in OLSHCO.

Agreeing to Sporer et.al., (2009) “Improving Students’

Reading Comprehension Skills: Effects of Strategy Instruction

and Reciprocal Teaching”, the results indicated that explicit

instruction of multiple reading strategies is a feasible tool to

enhance students’ reading comprehension and that third- to

sixth-graders benefited most from explicit reading instruction

supplemented with practice in small groups’ reciprocal teaching

activities

Furthermore, O’Hara (2007) “The influence of

supplemental instructional approaches upon the


awareness and motivation of struggling third-and fourth-grade

readers “The result of whole-class instruction; however, this

measure may not have been sensitive enough to detect

differences in students’ reading motivation as a result of this

intervention since the students participated in many reading

activities within their classrooms each day that were in

addition to supplementary instruction.

It was found out from the results of the research English

Proficiency and their Feedback on Instructional Materials that

agreed on the importance of the improvement of students’ English

language skills as one of the requirements in getting a job

(Navarro et al. 2015). Therefore, this study explores the

importance of teachers’ strategies to have an effect on the

reading comprehension that relevant in future profession of

individual.

The quantity of instructional materials should match or

equal to the number of learners. The study investigated the

Adequacy of Instructional Materials used by teachers. The

findings also imply that there is an inadequacy in the number of

instructional resources in relation to the number of students

enrolled. And for this reason teachers experienced buying their

own materials which is supposedly provided by the school,


Ramayan etc. (2014). Furthermore, the current research examines

if there is adequacy or inadequacy of learning materials.

Ocbian et al. (2015) carried a study on Big Books as Mother

Tongue-Based Instructional Materials in Bicol for Grade One

Pupils, results of the evaluation revealed that they belong to

the frustration and instructional levels in the literal skill;

mostly are frustration readers along interpretative and

evaluative skills; but are independent readers along applied

skills; hence, they have low level of reading comprehension.

Moreover, the current study investigates both the conventional

and unconventional materials of teaching reading hence those

frustrations can be resolved.

The aim of this paper is to identify if there is really an

influences of the utilized audio-visual materials in the reading

comprehension of the students. This paper is considered

significant for it serves as evidence that those instructional

materials are helpful in the learning process of the learners

and also serves as a tool and strategy for an effective teaching

by the language educators as well.

The aim of this paper is to identify if there is really an

influences of the utilized audio-visual materials in the reading

comprehension of the students. This paper is considered

significant for it serves as evidence that those instructional


materials are helpful in the learning process of the learners

and also serves as a tool and strategy for an effective teaching

by the language educators as well.

To conclude, reading is by far the most important of the

four macro skills. The development of English reading skills

depends on many factors and among learners is the availability

and use of instructional materials. Okwara et al. (2009)

observed that availability of essential instructional resources

is a condition ideal for effective teaching of reading skills.

Thus it is the right of the educators of English language

to make instructional resources an integral part of their

instructional process (Minae, 2004; N’Namdi 2005; Lindsay &

Knight, 2007).

Similarly, Mberia (2002) and Wangui (2012) found out that

instructional resources for English reading skills are

inadequate both in terms of quantity and variety. They observed

that in most schools basal and supplementary readers are not

used; not to mention the libraries.

Therefore, this present study wants to establish the impact

of audio-visual instructional resources for the attainment of

reading comprehension in OLSHCO.