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EUL scheduler

Abstract

This document gives an overview of the functions of the Enhanced Uplink


scheduler.

The enhanced uplink scheduler is the entity that controls the E-DCH user’s
access to and usage of schedulable uplink resources in the system.

Access to non-schedulable resources for E-DCH users is primarily controlled


by the RNC. Non-schedulable resources include the minimum hardware
allocation for an E-DCH user and the non-scheduled grant to the UE. The
EUL scheduler has no control over non-schedulable resources.

The schedulable uplink resources managed for E-DCH users by the EUL
Scheduler are

 The Air-interface (Uu) interference load


 The E-DCH hardware pools
 The Iub transport capacity

The EUL scheduler is located in the RBS node for proximity to the air-
interface. This enables the scheduler to provide fast scheduling, i.e. on a
10ms basis.

Application

The RAN SW release applicable is P5.


Contents

Introduction......................................................................................................3
1.1 Revision history..................................................................................3
1.2 Scope.................................................................................................3
1.3 Vocabulary..........................................................................................3
1.4 Overview of EUL Scheduler in RBS....................................................3
1.5 Concepts and Common Terms...........................................................5
1.5.1 General Definition...............................................................................5
2 Scheduler View in RBS.......................................................................7
2.1 Logical Structure and Interface overview............................................7
2.1.1 RNC UEL Configuration......................................................................7
2.1.2 UE Status control................................................................................8
2.1.3 Downlink L1 Processing.....................................................................8
2.1.4 Uplink L1/L2 Processing.....................................................................8
2.1.5 Configuration Management................................................................9
2.1.6 Uplink Uu Load Estimator...................................................................9
2.1.7 EUL Flow Control................................................................................9
2.1.8 Enhanced Uplink Hardware Resource Handler (ERH)........................9
2.1.9 Enhanced Uplink Scheduler..............................................................10
2.2 Priority and Step Size to Grant.........................................................10
2.3 UL Scheduling Activation..................................................................11
2.4 HRT Scheduling Action.....................................................................11
2.5 Secure Retransmission Action..........................................................11
2.6 Scheduled Data Rate Measurement.................................................11
2.7 Maximum UE Rate............................................................................12
3 Scheduler Algorithm for Rate Calculation.........................................13
3.1 Overview...........................................................................................13
3.1.1 Update Resource Situation...............................................................14
3.1.2 Update UE Status Info......................................................................15
3.1.3 Preliminary Scheduling.....................................................................15
3.1.4 Overload Check................................................................................15
3.1.5 Scheduling within HW Range...........................................................16
3.1.6 Scheduling with HW Allocation.........................................................16
3.1.7 Scheduled Grant Order Execution....................................................16
4 Parameters.......................................................................................17
4.1 Operational Parameters....................................................................17
4.1.1 Scheduling Parameters....................................................................17
5 Observability.....................................................................................18
5.1 EUL Scheduler and Load Estimator Counters..................................18
5.1.1 GPEH...............................................................................................20
5.1.2 RLM..................................................................................................20
5.1.3 RDBT................................................................................................20
6 References.......................................................................................23
Introduction
1.1 Revision history

Revision Date Description

A 2007-08-31 First release

1.2 Scope

This document introduces the UTRAN Enhanced Uplink scheduler.

1.3 Vocabulary

For a list of the basic concepts and abbreviations used in the UTRAN System
Design documents see [14] and [15].

1.4 Overview of EUL Scheduler in RBS

In 3GPP release 6, the WCDMA specifications are extended with a new uplink
transport channel, the Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH). The main
target for E-DCH is interactive, background and streaming traffic. Compared
to the DCH, the E-DCH allows increased capacity and throughput and
reduced delay.

In order to improve the performance of uplink dedicated transport channels


the following techniques are or will be implemented:
 Short TTI. Reducing the TTI allows for an overall reduction in delay
and faster hybrid ARQ retransmissions. The E-DCH supports 2 ms
TTI, in addition to the 10 ms TTI supported already by the DCH.
 Fast hybrid ARQ with soft combining reduces the number of
retransmissions as well as the time between retransmissions. It also
allows for a significant increase in capacity.
 Fast scheduling allows for rapid resource reallocation between UEs,
taking advantage of the bursty nature of packet data transmissions. It
also allows the system to admit a larger number of high data rate
users and rapidly adapt to interference variations, thereby leading to
an increase in capacity as well as an increase in the likelihood that a
user will experience high data rates.
To support these features with minimum impact on the existing radio interface
protocol architecture, a new MAC entity is introduced in the RBS. To reduce
the retransmission delay for hybrid ARQ and allow fast scheduling, this
functionality is controlled by RBS (see Figure 1).

User Plane FP

EUL Scheduler MAC-e


HARQ

Associated Associated
Uplink Downlink E-DCH
Signalling Signalling

Figure 1: RBS scheduler view.

The amount of common uplink resources a terminal is using depends on the


data rate (transport format) used. Generally, the higher the data rate, the
larger the required transmission power and thus the higher the resource
consumption. Scheduling is the mechanism determining when a certain
terminal is allowed to transmit and at what maximum data rate. Packet data
applications are typically bursty in nature with large and rapid variations in
their resource requirements. Hence, the overall target of the scheduler is to
allocate a large fraction of the shared resource to users momentarily requiring
high data rates, while at the same time ensuring stable system operation by
avoiding sudden interference peaks.

With scheduling, the RBS is provided with the tools to influence the UE TFC
selection for the E-DCH. E-DCH scheduling is based on scheduling grants
sent by the RBS to the UE and setting an upper limit on the E-DCH data rate,
and scheduling requests, sent from the UE to the RBS to request permission
to transmit at a higher rate than currently allowed.

The scheduling algorithm ensures an efficient utilization of the shared


interference headroom, HW consumption and Iub utilization.
1.5 Concepts and Common Terms

This chapter defines the common terms used in the literature that are
introduced with enhanced uplink.

1.5.1 General Definition

Non-scheduled data is data which the user can always transmit without the
scheduler’s permission. A grant to transmit non-scheduled data is assigned to
the UE directly by the RNC over RRC. This can be used for SRB or a rate
request that is used by the UE asking for higher rates.

Scheduled data is the part of the transmission that is rate controlled by the
scheduler. The UE is allowed to transmit scheduled user data according to the
absolute and relative grants received from the scheduler.

Note: in the current product, scheduled data and non-scheduled data are not
allowed to be transmitted in the same TTI.

The Relative Grant is only sent from the non-serving cell1, where the
scheduler can send a DOWN command to the UE, corresponding to one
down step in the serving grant index table [19] for all users using the same
channelisation code/signature sequence pair.

The Absolute Grant is sent by the scheduler to the UE via the serving cell,
giving the user an absolute scheduled rate allocation, expressed as an E-
DPDCH/DPCCH power ratio. The scheduled grant can be updated several
times during the connection.

The Scheduled Grant is the maximum scheduled data rate that the
scheduler shall expect from the E-DCH user.

In P5, the relative grant is not used in the serving cell and hence the absolute
grant sent by the scheduler to the E-DCH user is equal to the scheduled grant
in the serving cell.

The Serving Grant is the maximum scheduled data rate that the UE may
use. The serving grant can differ from the scheduled grant since the E-DCH
user has to combine both absolute and relative grants ordered from all cells in
the active set.

The Serving E-DCH cell is always selected to be the same as the serving
HS-DSCH cell. Serving E-DCH Cell change is executed simultaneously with
Serving HS-DSCH cell change. This is the cell which transmits E-AGCH for a
specific UE.

A user is considered to be in Soft/Softer HO if the RLS has more than one


radio link. In this case the E-DCH user has one serving cell and at least one
Non-serving cell.

1
Relative Grant from the serving cell is possible according to 3GPP but not implemented in this release of the
product
A HW resource Pool is a resource that is supervised by an RBS resource
handler (enhanced uplink HW resource handler - ERH) instance. There is one
ERH instance per RAX board. Each ERH has a number of HW resource pools
(see [2]).

The ERH informs the EUL Scheduler of the schedulable hardware capacity
per affected pool. The scheduler is informed at any change in that
schedulable capacity, for example at DCH setup, reconfiguration and release;
at E-DCH initial setup or release; at E-DCH serving cell change.

The Happy bit is one bit of the E-DPCCH is used to indicate whether or not
the UE is satisfied with the current Serving Grant. This bit is always present
during EDPDCH transmission and is used only in the serving cell.

The happy bit sets to “unhappy” means the user needs higher rates for the
scheduled data transmission. The happy bit sets to “happy” means that the
user is happy with its existing serving grant.

The scheduled data rate measurements for the serving and non serving cell
E-DCH users are done in the RBS by over a time period of
eulUserDataMeasTime, averaging the rate for the transmitted blocks.

For each user, all resources (Uu, Iub and HW) are expressed in kbps for the
scheduled data.
A user can have a HW rate that differs from the Uu/Iub rate. This is due to
the HW fixed step allocation, in this way for granting a certain rate over the air
it can cost an amount of HW that can give higher rates.
For this reason in the text
Note that the Uu rate and the Iub rate are equal.

If a user requests higher rates or if a new user enters the cell when resources
are fully used up, rescheduling may take place. The user with the highest
scheduled grant gives some of its resources to the user with the lowest
scheduled grant.
2 Scheduler View in RBS

2.1 Logical Structure and Interface overview

The Figure 2 shows the scheduler logical structure and the interfaces
between EUL scheduler and the other functional blocks. Each component in
the logical structure is described briefly below.

RNC RBS UE
CM
DL L1
Processing

Iub Flow Control


E-RGCH/E-AGCH/E-HICH

UE Status
Control

RNC EUL EUL Scheduler


Configuration

UL L1/L2
Processing
E-DPDCH
ERH (HW
Resources E-DPCCH
Handler)

UL Uu Load
Estimator

Figure 2: The scheduler structure showing logical entities and interfaces

2.1.1 RNC UEL Configuration

Initializes the scheduler at EUL activation in a cell, this includes configuration


of the E-AGCH, E-RGCH and the E-HICH channels in downlink, and stops
the scheduler at EUL deactivation in all cells in the RBS.
The enhanced uplink scheduler function in the RBS is activated at the
reception of the NBAP message Physical Shared Channel Reconfiguration
Request that contains: At least one channelisation code is defined for each
enhanced uplink control channel in at least one cell at uplink baseband
scheduled pool.

The enhanced uplink scheduler function in the RBS shall be deactivated at


the reception of the NBAP message Physical Shared Channel
Reconfiguration Request that contains: No channelisation code is defined for
at least one enhanced uplink control channel in all cells at uplink baseband
scheduled pool.

A pre-requisite for successful activation of Enhanced Uplink support in a


UTRAN cell in the network is that support for HSDPA must exist in downlink in
that cell.

The RNC configures the radio connection in both UE and RBS with
information sending the e-TFCI allowed table to be used.

2.1.2 UE Status control

UE status control receives input from the uplink layer1 processing every 10ms
with information received from the decoding of E-DPDCH and E-DPCCH for
each E-DCH user. This includes for example the measured decoded
scheduled rate, happy bits received, RSN etc. The main functions of UE
status Control are:

 To inform the scheduler of uplink rate requests from the UE

 To keep track of when the scheduled grant is changed.

 To keep track of an E-DCH users uplink activity (active, inactive or out-


of-sync) and inform the scheduler.

 To check for rate violations, when an E-DCH user transmitting at a


higher rate than their scheduled grant allows.

The UE Status Control sends to the EUL Scheduler the information on the
state of E-DCH users (see Error: Reference source not found) and the
measured decoded scheduled rate.

2.1.3 Downlink L1 Processing

The scheduler communicates with the UE by sending absolute grants on E-


AGCH and relative grants on E-RGCH via the downlink L1 processing entity.
2.1.4 Uplink L1/L2 Processing

Decodes the UL E-DPCCH and E-DPDCH, and provides info to UE status


control.

2.1.5 Configuration Management

This block contains the logical interface for configuration of scheduler


parameters.

2.1.6 Uplink Uu Load Estimator

The uplink Uu Load Estimator estimates the Uu interference load and informs
the scheduler of the maximum schedulable Uu load. Both the maximum
allowed Noise Rise over Thermal (RoT) estimate, and the maximum allowed
intra-cell interference (Own Uu load) estimate are taken into account when
providing the scheduler with the maximum schedulable Uu load.

The Uu load estimator also informs the scheduler of the uplink Uu cost per E-
TFCI for each E-DCH user.

2.1.7 EUL Flow Control

The available uplink Iub bandwidth is a limited resource, and it is necessary to


be able to manage congestion on Iub caused by DCH and/or E-DCH users.

When congestion is detected for a specific flow, the EUL Flow Control in the
RBS forwards bit rate reduction requests to the EUL Scheduler. For further
details, see [6].

2.1.8 Enhanced Uplink Hardware Resource Handler (ERH)

The RAX board hardware needed to demodulate and decode the uplink E-
DCH is a limiting resource. The hardware is a shared resource that can be
used by both E-DCH users and release 99 DCH users. As DCH traffic is given
priority over E-DCH traffic, the amount of available HW for E-DCH is not
constant.
There is one ERH entity per RAX board that manages the HW pools on that
RAX board. The ERH informs the scheduler of the schedulable hardware
capacity per affected HW pool2. The scheduler is informed at any change in
that schedulable capacity, for example at DCH setup, reconfiguration and
release, or at E-DCH initial setup or release, or at E-DCH serving cell change.

The HW cost tables, giving the HW cost per E-TFCI are per E-DCH user are
also sent to the scheduler from ERH.

The scheduler must request allocation and de-allocation of hardware for E-


DCH users to the ERH.

The hardware is a shared resource that can be used by both E-DCH users
and release 99 DCH users. The DCH users always get priority over E-DCH
users for access to schedulable resources. At any time, a release 99 DCH
user requests resources in the RBS, for example at speech RAB
establishment, the EUL scheduler is informed of the impact on the resource
pools that it manages. If there are sufficient resources available then no
action is required. However if there are no spare resources, then the EUL
scheduler must release schedulable resources used by E-DCH users to
accommodate the DCH user.

2.1.9 Enhanced Uplink Scheduler

The uplink Iub and HW resources are managed by the scheduler per Uplink
Baseband Scheduled Pool. There is one uplink baseband scheduled pool per
RBS in the current product

The scheduler manages the UL Uu load at cell level since the Uu load varies
from cell to cell.

2.2 Priority and Step Size to Grant

The scheduler, for each E-DCH users, priorities the users that need a rate
increase, allocates resources and sends grants to those users. If the
scheduler at some point is not able to increase a user’s grant, the scheduler
downsizes other users.

The E-DCH users are handled in priority order.

User priority is given by the following criteria:

1. –grantedRate

2. Number of TTI the user has been unhappy

2
Affected Hardware pools are those that have E-DCH users allocated. The decision of which HW pools an E-DCH
user is allocated to is made at the initial radio link setup for the E-DCH user in the RBS
3. –(Number of TTI the user has been granted the Uu/Iub/Hw rate)

where a minus sign in front indicates a negative value. A larger value (i.e.,
less negative for negative values) always means higher priority. Criterion 1 is
the main criterion; 2 and 3 are used (in that order) only if the other criteria
result in the same priority. If all three criteria end in ties, an internal user ID is
used as a final tie-breaker.

The scheduler assigns resources according to priority where a user with


higher scheduled grant has lower priority than a user with lower scheduled
grant. For users with equal scheduled grant the user that has been requesting
higher rate the longest time has higher priority. If still more than one user has
the same priority the user that has been granted the current scheduled grant
the longest time has lower priority. If still two or more users have the same
priority the scheduler shall choose one of them.

The scheduler increases or decreases the UE scheduled grant in predefined


steps in order to minimize the impact of the inner loop power control for other
users. Note that during overload, there is no limit of how much the scheduled
rate that can be reduced.

2.3 UL Scheduling Activation

A Uu and Iub scheduling evaluation are performed for those UEs that do not
need any new HW (evaluation is done in regard to Uu, Iub and already
allocated HW). UEs that need new HW are postponed to an HRT Scheduling
Action. Execution of scheduled grant orders for those UEs that were
scheduled is also done at this point.

2.4 HRT Scheduling Action

HW, Rescheduling and Time scheduling evaluation is done for all UEs that
requests for higher rate, including those who need more HW. If no re-
scheduling of HW dependent UEs is required, then a HW execution (HW
request to ERH) is performed, else the HW scheduling execution is
postponed to the Secure Retransmission Action. When these UEs have got
their HW they will be included in the next Scheduling Action. When the EUL
scheduling cannot reschedule, there is no change. In P5 no Time Scheduling
is performed.

2.5 Secure Retransmission Action

To secure retransmission for downsized UEs, HW resource de-


allocation/allocation is postponed to a Secure Retransmission Action.
Furthermore the same actions as defined in UI Scheduling Action are
performed here.
2.6 Scheduled Data Rate Measurement

The scheduled data rate measurements for the serving and non serving cell
E-DCH users are done in the RBS by over a time period of
eulUserDataMeasTime, averaging the rate for the transmitted blocks.

For each user, all resources (Uu, Iub and HW) are expressed in kbps for the
scheduled data.
A user can have a HW rate that differs from the Uu/Iub rate. This is due to the
HW fixed step allocation, in this way for granting a certain rate over the air it
can cost an amount of HW that can give higher rates.
Note that the Uu rate and the Iub rate are equal.

2.7 Maximum UE Rate

There are two maximum limits which sets the maximum rate a UE can be
granted. The “hard” limit is eulUeMaxRatek defined below. This limit is never
overridden and if it temporary happens due to e.g. a soft(er) HO transition the
grant is as soon as possible reduced to the limit or lower. The “increase” limit
is eulUeMaxIncreaseRatek which prevents a UE to get an increased grant
above this limit, but it will not cause any reductions even if the current grant is
higher than the limit.

eulUeMaxIncreaseRatek = tnCongAllowedRatek

eulUeMaxRate = min(eulMaxAllowedSchRate, , Maximum rate (UE


Capability)*, eulMaxShoRate if the user is in soft(er) HO**)

* Maximum rate due to UE capability, 25.306.


For 10 ms TTI and if “Maximum Set of E-DPDCHs” =
1*SF4 then Max TB Size = 7110 bits
2*SF4 then Max TB Size = 14484 bits
The rate is calculated as, (Max TB Size –18)*100 [bps].

** This parameter is only valid in case the RLS is in soft(er) HO.


3 Scheduler Algorithm for Rate Calculation
3.1 Overview

The EUL scheduler is targeting to allocate all available uplink resources not
allocated by DCH users to the E-DCH users, when they have data to send.

The uplink resources controlled by the EUL Scheduler are:


 The Air-interface (Uu) interference load
 The E-DCH hardware pools
 The Iub transport congestion

The EUL Scheduler is responsible for determining which E-DCH users get
what rate. To support the scheduling decision input concerning Uu load, the
bit rate reduction for a specific flow according the section Figure 3 and HW
load is provided.

This section describes the algorithm that scheduler uses to decide the amount
of absolute and relative grant sent to the UE.

At each Scheduling Action, the EUL Scheduler is estimating the total


configured maximum load, for respective resource. The EUL Scheduler
evaluates the conditions and allocates the resources to the E-DCH users that
are requesting a higher rate. At resource shortage the EUL Scheduler aims to
evenly distribute the available resources between the E-DCH users that are
transmitting.

The phases for the evaluation of the rate algorithm are shown in the following
figure:
1. Update Resource Situation

2. Update UE Status Info

3. Preliminary Scheduling

4. Overload Check

5. Is HW
NO YES
scheduling
possible?

6a. Scheduling within HW Range 6b. Scheduling with HW Allocation

7. Scheduled Grant Order Execution

Figure 3: Scheduler algorithm.

3.1.1 Update Resource Situation

Every scheduling period the enhanced uplink scheduler estimates how much
of the total configured maximum load for each resources is unused.

The scheduler checks the uplink resources load (Uu and HW) by comparing
the total allocated load with the maximum allowed for each resource.

The Iub and HW resources are handled by the scheduler at Uplink Baseband
Scheduled Pool, which is at RBS level. The scheduler handles the UL Uu load
at cell level due to the fact that the Uu load varies from cell to cell.

The scheduler checks the E-AGCH load by checking the amount of free
positions in each E-ACGH queue.

The scheduler checks the E-HICH load by checking how many simultaneous
scheduled granted rates are allowed. The maximum value
(eulMaxNoSchEdch) is a Configuration Parameter.
3.1.2 Update UE Status Info

The purpose of this phase is to keep the UE status updated for all terminals in
the cell. In order to perform this, the scheduler interprets the UE information
received on E-DPCCH (Happy Bit, E-TFCI, RSN and CFN) and E-DPDCH at
each10 ms for each serving E-DCH user.

The following states are permitted for every UE (see Error: Reference source
not found):
 Active
 Inactive (high and low)
 Happy
 Not Happy
 Violating Rate
 Prepare change
 Changing Rate

3.1.3 Preliminary Scheduling

In this phase the following occurs:

 Users without any grant get the minimum grant;

 Users in rate violation have their grant repeated;

 Release resources from inactive users.

 The resources are updated for the new soft(er) handover users.

 Resources are updated for users that performed serving cell change.

 For the serving radio link is also handled the transport network
congestion each in case of rate reduction ordered by Iub Flow Control
and in case of subsequent update of linear increase.

The total scheduling estimate in the cell is updated, at this stage it is unknown
whether it matches with the actual available resources.

3.1.4 Overload Check

Overload may of course occur in any of the resource pools, and whenever
this happens some or all scheduled grants in this pool must be reduced. In
principle E-DCH user(s) with the lowest priority in the overloaded pool are
selected, and their scheduled grants are reduced to a sufficiently low rate to
resolve the overload situation.
This phase evaluates the overload and determines data rate modification
action in the overloaded resource (Uu and HW) to decrease the load.

Note that due to the use of the granted rate in load estimation, an overload
detected by the scheduler may not correspond to an actual overload on the
Uu interface.

3.1.5 Scheduling within HW Range

A Uu scheduling evaluation are performed for those UEs that do not need any
new HW (evaluation is done in regard to Uu and already allocated HW). UEs
that need new HW are postponed to scheduling with HW allocation action.

3.1.6 Scheduling with HW Allocation

Evaluation is done for all UEs that requests for higher rate, including those
who need more HW. If no re-scheduling of HW dependent UEs is required,
then a HW execution (HW request to ERH) is performed, else the HW
scheduling execution is postponed to the Secure Retransmission Action.
When these UEs have got their HW they will be included in the next
Scheduling Action. When the EUL scheduling cannot reschedule, there is no
change.

3.1.7 Scheduled Grant Order Execution

New scheduled Absolute Grants for E-DCH users in a serving cell are sent by
the scheduler to the UEs giving the user an absolute scheduled rate
allocation, expressed as an E-DPDCH/DPCCH power ratio. The scheduled
grant can be updated several times during the connection.

In the non-serving cell, the relative grant order for each E-RGCH group is set
to “don’t care” or “down” for all E-DCH users in that group. A “down” order
means down one step in the serving grant index table [24].
4 Parameters
All parameters named in this function specification are listed in the following
sections. The effect of change of all parameters is ongoing connection.

4.1 Operational Parameters

All these parameters are operator controlled.

4.1.1 Scheduling Parameters

Parameter Description

eulMaxNoSchEdch Defines the maximum number of simultaneous scheduled serving E-DCH users
having a scheduled data rate > 0, for a specific cell. Set per cell.

maxEdchRate Absolute max bit rate the scheduled E-DCH data frames can occupy (this is the
scheduled MAC-d flow rate).

From P6 shipment 7: the value is ignored, internally this is set to “infinity”.

eulMaxShoRate Defines the maximum allowed scheduled data rate per E-DCH user in soft(er) HO.

Multiply the value (in kbps) by 33.6/32. This will convert the value from RLC payload
rate to MAC-d payload rate.

eulReservedHwBandwidth In soft handover, the non-serving cell shall reserve the hardware resources needed
SchedDataNonServCell for this rate as well as non-scheduled data.

eulNoReschUsers Defines the number of simultaneous users per cell allowed to perform rescheduling.
Both the rescheduling candidate(s) and the requesting user shall be counted.

eulTargetRate Defines the target scheduled grant, i.e. the scheduler will aim to give all users at
least eulTargetRate kbps.

Multiply the value (in kbps) by 33.6/32. This will convert the value from RLC payload
rate to MAC-d payload rate.
5 Observability
Different levels of observability for the scheduler can be used for different
purposes. Counters and GPEH events are used for the operator to observe
the performance, while Radio Layer Management (RLM) and Radio Data Bulk
Tracing (RDBT) are used for more advanced aspects such as tuning the
scheduler parameters and for verification and debugging of the scheduler
function.

5.1 EUL Scheduler and Load Estimator Counters

More info regards EUL statistics can be found in [29].

Observability Data Name Description Trigger

pmSumNackedBitsCellEul Recording of the total amount of This counter is a PEG counter that is
nacked data received in kbits after stepped every 10 ms TTI when data
HARQ process on MAC-e level for all that is received is nacked after HARQ
users in a cell. Note that k = 1000. process.

pmSumAckedBitsCellEul Recording of the total amount of This counter is a PEG counter that is
acknowledged data received in kbits stepped every 10 ms TTI when data
after HARQ process on MAC-e level that is received is acknowledged after
for all users in a cell. Note that k = HARQ process.
1000.

pmNoActive10msFramesEul Recording of the sum of used 10 ms This counter is a PEG counter that is
frames (TTI) that receive E-DCH data stepped every 10 ms TTI and counts
in a cell during a ROP period for all E- the number of 10 ms frames that
DCH users. Note that if e.g. 3 users receive E-DCH data i.e. that is active.
transmit during a specific 10 ms
period, the counter shall be
incremented by 3.

pmTotRateGrantedEul Counter for the total granted Uu rate The counter is a PDF counter that is
for all EDCH users including stepped every 100 ms.
soft/softer handover by the Scheduler
per cell.

pmWaitingTimeEul Counter for the waiting time in ms for This counter is a PDF counter that is
an E-DCH user from when a rate stepped when a scheduled grant > 0
increase request is received when is sent to an E-DCH user after it had
the scheduled grant = 0 to when a a scheduled grant = 0. Measured
scheduled grant > 0 is sent to the UE from the first rate increase request
with an absolute grant. Note that this that was received.
should be valid for all possible cases.

pmTotalRotCoverage Counter per cellf for the total Rise This counter is a PDF counter that is
over Thermal (RoT) (including all stepped every 100ms. No averaging.
uplink traffic and external Any value during the 100 ms can be
interference) that affects the used.
coverage.

pmOwnUuLoad Counter per cell for the power- This counter is a PDF counter that is
controlled noise rise caused by the stepped every 100ms. No averaging.
intra-cell interference that affects the Any value during the 100 ms can be
Uu load. used.

pmHwCePoolEul Counter for the total sum of CEs This counter is a PDF counter that is
allocated on the UL hardware by the stepped every 200 ms
EUL scheduler.

pmNoUlUuLoadLimitEul Counter for the number of times a This counter is a PEG counter that is
scheduling decision is taken to stepped when a scheduling decision
increase the Uu rate of an E-DCH is taken to increase the Uu rate for an
user and there is a need to decrease EDCH user and there is a need to
the Uu rate for another EDCH user decrease the Uu rate for another
due to UL Uu load limitations. EDCH user due to UL Uu load
limitations.

pmNoUlIubLimitEul Counter for the number of times a This counter is a PEG counter that is
scheduling decision is taken to stepped when a scheduling decision
increase the Iub rate of an E-DCH is taken to increase the Iub rate for an
user and there is a need to decrease EDCH user and there is a need to
the Iub rate for another EDCH user decrease the Iub rate for another
due to UL Iub resource limitations. EDCH user due to UL Iub resource
limitations.

pmNoUlHwLimitEul Counter for the number of times a This counter is a PEG counter that is
scheduling decision is taken to stepped when a scheduling decision
increase the hardware rate of an E- is taken to increase the hardware rate
DCH user and there is a need to for an E-DCH user and there is a
decrease the hardware rate for need to decrease the hardware rate
another E-DCH user due to UL for another E-DCH user due to UL Iub
hardware resource limitations. resource limitations.

pmNoAllowedEul Counter used to measure number of This counter is a PEG counter that is
times that no EDCH traffic is allowed stepped every 100 ms whenever the
due to uplink interference. uplink load estimator finds that there
is no allowed E-DCH traffic due to
uplink interference i.e. when the
reported LmaxEDCH ≤ 0 from the Uu
load estimator.

pmNoiseFloor This counter is used to show the This counter is a PDF counter that is
used thermal noise level value in the triggered every 1 minute.
RoT measurement.

pmCommonChPowerEul This counter is used to observe the This counter is a PDF counter that is
total DL power used for the E-AGCH, triggered every 100 ms
ERGCH and E-HICH in the cell.

pmNoSchEdchEul This counter is used to observe the This counter is a PDF counter that is
total number of simultaneous triggered every 1s.
scheduled EDCH users with a rate >
0 kbps.

5.1.1 GPEH

No new GPEH events are identified.

5.1.2 RLM

The purpose of this observability function is for tuning the scheduler


parameters in order to optimize the performance. To manage that, it is
important to be able to monitor information of the characteristic that the
scheduler is supposed to effect and steer. It is important to be able to see how
much a parameter change improved one aspect while another is worsened.
This information shall only be available for Ericsson engineers.

Observability Data Name Description Trigger

rmEdchRateEul This is a measurement of the rate per This is a measurement is a sample


E-DCH user per cell based on the that is triggered every 10ms
ETFCI. If more than one ETFCI table
is used in the RBS it needs to be
possible to connect which table the
UE is using. The E-DCH users are
identified with the E-RNTI. This
measurement shall be supported for
at least 60 E-DCH users per RBS

rmRelGrantTransmittedEul Measurement of the number of This measurement is an ACC that is


Relative Grants (RGs) indicating stepped every TTI when at least one
down transmitted. RG on an E-RGCH has been
transmitted.

rmGrantedEdchUuRate This is a measurement of the granted This measurement is a sample


Uu rate per E-DCH per cell triggered every 10 ms
expressed in Scheduled Grant Index.
This measurement shall be supported
for at least 4 E-DCH users per cell
and TTI

rmE-TfciTooHigh This is a measurement of when a too This measurement is a PEG that is


high E-TFCI is transmitted per E- stepped every 10 ms if a too high
DCH user compared the absolute ETFCI is transmitted per E-DCH user
grant sent. This measurement shall compared to the absolute grant sent.
be supported for at least 150 E-DCH
users per RBS
rmAvailableHwRes This is a measurement of the UL HW This measurement is a sample
load check performed by the stepped every 200 ms.
scheduler, i.e the available hardware
resources per uplink baseband
scheduled pool that can be used for
scheduling per pool. This is given by
reporting eulAvailableHwResi and
eulMaxAllowedHwResi.

rmUeRateIncreaseRequest This is a measurement of the UE rate This measurement is a sample


increase requests received per stepped every 10 ms. This
EDCH to the scheduler. This measurement is used to observe the
measurement shall be supported for behavior of the UE rate increase
at least 10 E-DCH users per cell requests to be able to follow a certain
UE during trouble shooting. This is
done by monitoring the E-DCH user’s
received unhappy bits, i.e. raw data

rmInputLinksEul A measurement of the input links, SIR This measurement is a PDF that is
per radio link of all the links that are stepped every 1 second with the
present at the snapshot time, to the values for all the current links input to
load estimator. the load estimator, see scheduler
NDS (Uu load estimator part) for
description of the input links. The
different links need not be
simultaneous. No filtering. No
averaging. Any value during the 1
second can be used.

rmLmaxedchEul Measurement of LmaxEDCH, output This measurement is a PDF that is


from Uu load estimator. stepped every 100 ms. Any value can
be used. LmaxEDCH in Uu load
estimator.

rmLotherEul This is an measurement of an internal This measurement is a DDM that is


variable in the load estimator, stepped every 100 ms.
Lother(t), which is roughly an
estimate of the load caused by other
cells.

5.1.3 RDBT

With the RDBT observability function, it should be possible to verify if the


scheduling function is working according to the specification and as support
for advanced initial optimization of the algorithm. This function shall be
possible to use during verification and on site for advance debugging purpose
in real systems.

Observability Data Name Description Trigger


dtE-Tfci This is a measurement of the E-TFCI This measurement is performed
per E-DCH user sent on the E- every 10 ms
DPCCH

dtRsn This is a measurement of the RSN This measurement is performed


per E-DCH user sent on the E- every 10 ms
DPCCH

edchUserId It shall be possible to identify an E- This measurement is performed


DCH user to be reported in a every 10 ms. Note that this
measurement report. measurement is neither a RDBT nor
RLM.

dtLmaxEdch This is a measurement of the This measurement is performed


reported load factor from the Uu load every 10 ms
estimator to the scheduler.

dtLdch This is a measurement of the load This measurement is performed


from all the DCH links including an every 10 ms
estimation of the nonscheduled E-
DCH load in the cell.

dtAvailableUuResCell This is a measurement of the This measurement is performed


available UL Uu resources for every 10 ms
scheduling that the scheduler can
use. This is given by
eulAvailableUuResy.

dtAvailableHwRes This is a measurement of the UL HW This measurement is performed


load check performed by the every 10 ms
scheduler, i.e the available hardware
resources per uplink baseband
schedule pool that can be used for
scheduling per pool. This is given by
reporting eulAvailableHwResi and
eulMaxAllowedHwResi

dtUeRateIncreaseRequest This is a measurement of the UE rate This measurement is performed


increase requests received per every 10 ms. This measurement is
EDCH to the scheduler. used to observe the behavior of the
UE rate increase requests to be able
to follow a certain UE during trouble
shooting. This is done by monitoring
the E-DCH user’s received happy and
unhappy bits, i.e. raw data

dtGrantedEdchUuRate This is a measurement of the granted This measurement is performed


Uu rate per EDCH expressed in every 10 ms
Scheduled Grant Index. This
measurement shall be supported for
at least 4 E-DCH users per cell and
TTI.

dtGrantedEdchHwRate This is a measurement of the granted This measurement is performed


Hardware rate per E-DCH in E-TFCI. every 10 ms
6 References

[1] UTRAN NDS: Eul Scheduler, 58/10268-FCP1035302 Uen


[2] RBS FD Enhanced Uplink, 49/15516-HRB105102/1 Uen
[3] UTRAN NDS: Eul M&A, Power Control and Capacity Management,
91/10268-FCP1035302 Uen
[4] UTRAN NDS: Eul RAB/RB, 81/10268-FCP1035302 Uen
[5] UTRAN NDS: Eul HARQ and user plane, 77/102 68-FCP 103 5302
Uen
[6] UTRAN NDS: Eul flow control, 24/10268-FCP103 5302 Uen
[7] UTRAN NDS: Eul Mobility, 70/10268-FCP 1035302 Uen
[8] UTRAN FS: Function Specification, L2 391/155 17-HSD 101 02/4 Uen
[9] UTRAN IWD: Uu L2 parameters for RBS and RNC, 177/15519-
HSD10102/5 Uen
[10] UTRAN IWD: Uu L2 parameters for UE;
[11] UTRAN IWD: Uu Bearer Parameters, 4/155 19-FCP 103 6011
[12] 25.321 Ericsson Protocol Specification
[13] 25.322 Ericsson Protocol Specification
[14] UTRAN Terms: UTRAN Vocabulary
[15] UTRAN CPI: Glossary of Terms
[16] 3GPP TS 25.321 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification
[17] 3GPP TS 25.322 Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification.
[18] 3GPP TS 25.306, UE capabilities
[19] 3GPP TS 25.214, Physical layer procedures (FDD)
[20] 3GPP TS 25.427, UTRAN Iub/Iur interface user plane protocol for
DCH data streams
[21] 3GPP TS 25.309, FDD Enhanced Uplink Overall Description
[22] FS HS-DSCH Scheduler and downlink layer 2 and layer 1 algorithms,
402/15517-HSD10102/5 Uen
[23] FS Capacity Management Algorithms, 30/15517-HSD10102/5 Uen
[24] 3GPP TS 25.212, Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)
[25] H. Holma and A. Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS. Radio Access for Third
Generation Mobile Communications. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2000.
[26] Load Estimation Constraints for Enhanced Uplink, 13/0363-FCP
1035302 Uen
[27] Complexity reduced load estimation algorithms for enhanced uplink,
27/0363-FCP1035302 Uen
[28] Update to EUL MAC, R2-051675
[29] Performance Statistics, RBS 3000, 112/1551-HRB 105 102/1 Uen