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FEMINISM: ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE THEORETICAL ISSUES

Aim of the Project Work

Within the broad given context multiple theories of feminism are advanced
in understanding the location and the status of women, causes of their
subordination or oppression and thereby providing solutions to overcome
it. No single theory is exclusive or wholesome. There is overlapping or
extension and each theory contains a partial truth. On the whole, multiple
theories enrich our understanding and provide a critical insight in order to
change the world in directions deemed more just and humane. The
discourse has gained momentum cutting across disciplines and moving a
step ahead beyond the interdisciplinary, which may be called as ‘non-
disciplinary’ where both the natural sciences and social sciences converge
together.

Feminism is diverse and it is dynamic. There is an increasing belief and


realization that when a major infusion of women's ways becomes part of
public life, the world will be a safer; more humane place for all of us. The
present work offers an analytical overview of various feminist theories and
argues that there is no unchanging feminist orthodoxy, no settled feminist
conventions, and no static feminist analyses.

Introduction

The word ‘feminism' reflects both the diversity and validation of multiplicity
of approaches, positions and strategies formulated by feminist
understanding and advancing the cause of women, feminist theories are
viewed as critical theories which radically challenge & after the
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assumptions of established system of knowledge, resting on masculinist


bias & the gender politics, by contrasting them with women-centered
understanding of reality. Feminism is therefore defined by the belief that
sexual in equality or oppression can and should be abolished.

As such, feminism has always been linked to the women’s movement, a


movement which seeks to enhance the social role of women. These
represent generalized, wide-ranging system of ideas about social life and
human experience developed from a woman-centered perspective in
three ways. These are (i) the situation or (the situations) and experience
of women in the society; (ii) women are the central 'subjects' in the whole
process; and (iii) critical advocacy on behalf or women, seeking to
produce a better world for them. Although feminism has always been
associated with the women's movement, it is clearly not a narrow
'women's issue; rather, it addresses matters of concern & significance to
both sexes.

The feminist discourse raises a few fundamental questions like, who is a


woman? Is it a social construct or inborn attribute? Does the sex affect
gender attributes? Is gender an essential feature of human personhood?
Or, are gender differences ipso facto "essentialist"? Are all women
oppressed or exploited? If patriarchy is replaced with matriarchy, can it be
free from domination or oppression? Are all men enemies (or misogynists)
of women? Are all human beings androgynous? Are women enemies of
women? Are men role models of women? Are freedom; equality, self-
actualization of women possible in non-democratic systems? Is the
feminist discourse dominantly political? Is it men versus women or men
and women in continuum? Can there be a unified or generalized
theorization on the issues of women? and so on.
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Broadly within the given context, multiple theories of feminism are


advanced in understanding the location and the status of women, causes
of their subordination or oppression .and thereby providing solutions to
overcome it. No single theory is exclusive or wholesome. There is
overlapping or extension and each theory contains a partial truth. On the
whole, multiple theories enrich our understanding and provide a critical
insight in order to change the mill in directions deemed more lust and
humane. The discourse has gained momentum cutting across disciplines
and moving a step ahead beyond the interdisciplinary, which may be
called as 'non-disciplinary' where both the natural sciences and social
sciences converge together.

Feminism's basic questions being (i) "and what about the women?' (ii)
why then is all this as it is?" (iii) "and what about the differences among
women?" and (iv) "how can we change and improve the world?" The
single most distinguishing feature of feminist scholarly work has been its
overtly political nature, and feminism's commitment to material and social
change has played a significant role. George Ritzer has presented an
overview of the varieties of feminist theory as follows:1

Basic varieties of feminist theory- Distinctions within theories - answers


answers to the descriptive to the explanatory question, "Why is
question, "What about the women's situation as it is?"
women?"

Gender difference
Women's location in, and Cultural feminism
experience of, most situations is Biological
different from that of men in the Institutional and socialization
situation Social - psychological
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Gender inequality
Women's location in most situation Liberal feminism
is not only different but also less Marxian
privileged than or unequal to that of Marx and Engel’s explanations
men. Contemporary Marxian explanation
Gender oppression
Women are oppressed, not just Psychoanalytic feminism
different from or unequal to, but Radical feminism
actively restrained, subordinated, Socialist feminism
molded, and used and abused by
men.
Third-wave feminism
Women's experience of difference, Diversity
inequality, and oppression varies Critique
by their social location Vectors

Each feminist theory tries to answer the causes of gender difference.


inequality, domination, oppression and subordination and provide
solutions to overcome these.

1. Cultural Feminism

It is based on the principle 'biology is destiny'. it is also sanctioned and


enforced by religion which ultimately led to the justification ‘private
women, public men '. Accordingly there was division of labour between
men and women. Having lower physical strength, women are suited to a
domestic &household existence by the fact that they could bear & suckle
children, while the greater physical strength of men suited them to outdoor
& public world of work. This sexual division was considered natural The
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basic premise of the patriarchal discourse is that women were inferior and
subservient to men. It entered the feminist discourse in the second wave
in the 19th century as extolling the positive aspects of female character or
“feminine personality". This view was advocated by Margaret Fuller,
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Jane Addams. They argued that society
needed in the governing of the state such women's virtues as cooperation,
caring pacifism, and nonviolence in the settlement of conflicts.

Women's distinctive standards for ethical judgment about a mode of


attention in women’s consciousness developed through mothering, about
a female style of communication, about different achievement motivation
patterns, about a female style of communication, about women's capacity
for openness to emotional experience, about women's fantasies of
sexuality and intimacy and about their lower levels of aggressive behavior
and greater capacity for creating peaceful coexistence.

Cultural Feminism is typically, though not exclusively more concerned with


promoting the values of women's difference. The explanations of the
origin of gender difference offered by feminists include biology,
institutional structures and socialization experiences, interactive practices
and social-psychological process.2 (Phenomenologist & Poststructuralists)

2. Liberal Feminism

Liberal Feminism, particularly the 'first wave' of the women's movement


was deeply influenced by the ideas and values of liberalism. The
philosophical basis of liberal feminism lies in the principle of individualism,
the belief that the human individual is all important and therefore that all
individuals are of equal moral worth. Individuals are entitled to equal
treatment regardless of their sex, race, colour, creed or religion. Liberals
express this belief in the demand for equal rights: all individuals should
enjoy an equal opportunity to enter and participate in public life. Any form
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of discrimination against women in this respect should clearly be


prohibited. The first text of modern feminism is usually taken to be Mary
Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)3 written
against the backdrop of the French Revolution. It was characterized by the
demand that women should enjoy the same legal & political rights as men
on the grounds that they were 'human beings'. Female suffrage was its
principal goal because it was believed that if women could vote all other
forms of sexual discrimination or prejudice would quickly disappear.

The women's movement was strongest in those countries where political


democracy was most advanced; women demanded the rights which in
many cases their husbands and sons already enjoyed In the United
States, women's movement emerged during the 1840s, inspired in part by
the campaign to abolish slavery. The famous Seneca Falls convention,
held in 1848, marked the birth of the American Women's Rights
movement. It adopted a Declaration of Sentiments. 'First-wave' feminism
ended with the achievement of female suffrage, introduced first in New
Zealand in 1893, in America in 1920 and in U.K. 1928. Prior to that J. S.
Mill wrote a monograph on Subjection of Women in 1869. It was not until
the 1960s that the women's movement was regenerated with the
emergence of feminism's second wave'. 'Second Wave' feminism has
acknowledged that the achievement of political and legal rights has not
solved the 'women's question'. Indeed, feminist ideas and arguments
became increasingly radical, at times revolutionary. The goal of 'second-
wave' feminism was not merely political emancipation but 'women's
liberation, reflected in the ideas of the growing Women's Liberation
Movement.

Such a goal could not be achieved by political reforms or legal changes


alone, but demanded, modern feminists argued, a radical and perhaps
revolutionary process of social change. It is the most widely diffused
approach within the contemporary women's movement. Liberal feminists
propose a series of strategies for eliminating gender inequalities.
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3. Marxist Feminism

Marxist feminism offers an alternative theoretical frame by insisting that :

 Women’s subordination results not from her biology, but from social
arrangements that have a clear and traceable history, arrangements
that presumably may be changed.

 The relational basis for women’s subordination lies in the family,


overwhelmingly a system of dominant and subordinate roles
patriarchal and monogamous. Woman has no job outside the house
and no economic independence, women are, in fact the chattels or
possessions of their husbands.

 Society legitimizing family as a fundamental institution in all


societies is a false claim. Rather society was matrilineal and
matriarchal (mother rights).

 Rise of capitalism led to the world histories defeat of the female sex.
To protect the private property requires a compliant labour force be
it of slaves, captives, women-wives, or children. Inheritance of
property is to be made on male line; hence preference for a male-
child.

 Only with the destruction of property rights through communist


revolution will women attain freedom of social, political, economic
and personal action. Contemporary Marxian feminists embed
gender relations within the more fundamental structure of the class
system and particularly within the structure of the contemporary
capitalist class system. They acknowledged that within any class,
women are less advantaged than men in their access to material
goods, power, status and possibilities for self-actualization.
The causes of this inequality lie in the organization of capitalism
itself. Class politics determines gender politics.4
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All theories of gentler oppression describe women's situation as the


consequence of a direct power relationship between men & women in
which men have fundamental & concrete Interests in controlling, using,
subjugating and oppressing women-that is. in the practice of domination.

While treating economy separate from both the state and kinship, Marxist
feminism was challenged by the feminists. The most important factor for
Marx is productive labour that is geared to create material objects bought
and sold, i.e. commodities. He counted family as a component o
economy. This creates problem in Marxist economic theory. Marx has not
included reproductive labour as productive labour. Man is also ‘made’
reproductively by the parturitive labour of women. But in so far, Marxism
as theory treats the 'economic' as autonomous. it loses sight of the ways
in which even capitalist economies grew out of and continue to be affect
the non-economic aspects of human existence.

Iris Young describes and labels it as 'double systems theory'.5To her, such
traditional women's tasks as bearing and rearing children, caring for the
sick. cleaning and cooking etc. fall under the category of labour as much
as the making of an object in the factory. Gender has been a significant
variable along with other activities concerned with the making of food and
objects.

4. Socialist Feminism

Socialist Feminism is a diverse cluster of writings unified more by a


theoretical agenda than by substantive conclusions. Three goals guide
socialist feminism's theoretical synthesis of Marxism, radical feminism and
phenomenological theory.
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The central theme of socialist feminism is that patriarchy can only be


understood in the light of social and economic factors. The classic
statement of this argument was developed in Friedrich Engels.6In the
Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), Engels
suggested that the position of women in society had fundamentally
changed with the development of capitalism and the institution of private
property. In pre-capitalist societies, family life had been communistic, and
'mother right'-the inheritance of property and social position through the
female hood-was widely observed. Capitalism, however, being based
upon the ownership of private property by men, had overthrown 'mother
right' and brought about what Engels called 'the world historical defeat of
the female sex'. Like many subsequent socialist feminists, Engels
believed that female oppression operated through the institution of the
family. The first class oppression that appears in history', Engels argued,
'coincides with the development of the antagonism between men and
women in monogamous marriage, the first class oppression coincides with
that of the female sex by the male' (p-129). The 'bourgeois family' was
patriarchal and oppressive because men wished to ensure that their
property would be passed on only to their sons. Men achieved undisputed
paternity by insisting upon monogamous marriage, a restriction which was
rigorously applied to wives, depriving them of other sexual partners, but
was, Engels noted, routinely ignored by their husbands. Women were
compensated for this repression by the development of a 'cult of
femininity', which extolled the attractions of romantic love, but was, in
reality, an organized hypocrisy designed to protect male privileges and
property. Engels did not go so far as to other a detailed description of
what family life would be like in a socialist society. However, he clearly
believed that marriage should be dissolvable, and that once private
property was abolished its patriarchal features, and perhaps also
monogamy, would disappear. Other socialist feminists have proposed that
the traditional, patriarchal family should be replaced by a system of
communal living and free love as advocated by utopian socialists such as
Fourier and Owen.
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There are two distinctive sub-varieties of socialist feminism.

 The first focuses exclusively on women's oppression and


understanding it in a way that brings together knowledge (from -
Marxism) of class oppression and of gender oppression (from
Marxism) (from radical feminism). They describe it as "capitalist
patriarchy".

 The second variant sets out to describe & explain all forms of social
oppression, using knowledge of class and gender hierarchies as a
base from which to explore systems of oppression centering not
only of class and gender but also on race, ethnicity, age, sexual
preference and location within the global hierarchy of nations. The
term they use is 'domination'. These socialist feminists are
concerned with all experiences of oppression, either by women or
by men. They even explore how some women, themselves
oppressed, and may yet actively participate in the oppression of
other women. So the strategy is to confront the prejudices and
oppressive practices within the community of women itself.

Historical Materialism led to the development of capitalist patriarchy and


domination. Socialist feminism differs from Marxist feminism in three
crucial ways:

i. Their redefinition of material conditions, by including other


conditions that create and sustain human life: the human body,
its sexuality and involvement in procreation and child rearing;
home maintenance, with its unpaid, invisible round of domestic
tasks; emotional sustenance; and the production of knowledge
itself. In all these life sustaining activities, exploitative
arrangements profit some and impoverish others and this leads
to domination.
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ii. Their re-evaluation of the significance of ideology. The historical


materialism as it is developed in socialist feminism emphasizes
on mental or ideational phenomena: consciousness, motivation,
ideas, social definitions of the situation, knowledge, ideology, the
will to act in one's interests or acquiesce to the interests of others
which deeply affect human personality, human action, and
structures of domination that are realized through that action.
Moreover, these aspects of human subjectivity are produced by
social structures that are inextricably intertwined with, and as
elaborate and powerful as, those that produce economic goods.
Within all these structures, too, exploitative arrangements enrich
and empower some while impoverishing and immobilizing others.

iii. The focus of domination of socialist feminism is not primarily


class inequality but the complex intertwining of a wide range of
social.

Inequalities. Socialist Feminism develops a portrait of social


organization in which the public structures of economy, polity, and
ideology interact with the intimate, private processes of human
reproduction, domesticity, sexuality, and subjectivity to sustain a
multifaceted system of domination. 7

One of the important criticisms of all varieties of feminism is that despite


their emancipatory claims they tend to be located in the aspirations of the
middle class women.
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5. Psychoanalytical Feminism

Freud has acknowledged gender differences and gender inequality but not
gender oppression.

Psychoanalytical feminism attempts to explain patriarchy by using the


theories of Freud and his intellectual heirs.8 They have identified two
possible explanation for male domination of women:

(i) The fear of death - Feminist theorists argue that women, because
of their intimate and protracted involvement with bearing and
rearing new life, are typically far less oppressed than men by the
realization of their own mortality. But men, however, respond with
deep dread to the prospect of their individual extinction and adopt
a series of defenses. Men are driven to produce things that will
outlast them art, architecture, wealth, weapons science, religion.
Men also are driven - partly by envy of women's reproductive
role, partly by their own passionate desire for immortality through
offspring-to seek to control the reproductive process itself.

(ii) Socio-emotional environment in which the personality of the


young child takes form.

 Male child values maleness and devalues femaleness.

 Female child discovers her own female identity in a culture


that devalues women.

So psychoanalytical feminists, then, explain women's oppression in terms


of men’s deep emotional need to control women, a drive arising from
near-universal male neurosis centering on the fear of death and on
ambivalence toward the mothers who reared them.
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6. Radical Feminism

Radical Feminism is based on two emotionally charged central


beliefs (1) that women are of absolute positive values as
women, a belief asserted against the universal devaluing of women;
and (2) that women are everywhere oppressed-violently oppressed-by the
system of patriarchy. It resembles the more militant mode of racial &
ethnic groups, the “black is beautiful” claims of the African
Americans. So they elaborate a theory of social organization, gender
oppression, and strategies for change creates guilt & repression.
Patriarchy creates guilt & repression, sadism and manipulation and
deception.9

The central feature of radical feminism is the belief that sexual oppression
is the most fundamental feature of society and that other forms of injustice
class exploitation, racial hatred and so on-are merely secondary. Gender
is thought to be the deepest social cleavage and the most politically
significant more important for example, than social class, race or nation.
Radical feminists have therefore insisted that society be understood and
described as 'patriarchal' to highlight the central role of sex oppression,
just as socialists use the term 'capitalist' to draw attention to the
significance of economic. exploitation. In Sexual Politicos, Millet described
patriarchy as a ‘social constant' running through all political, social and
economic structures and found in every historical and contemporary
society, as well as in all major religions. The different roles of men and
women have their origin in a process of 'conditioning': from a very early
age boys and girls are encouraged to conform to very specific gender
identities. This process takes place largely within the family, 'patriarchy's
chief institution', but it is also evident in literature, art public life and the
economy. Millet proposed that patriarchy, be challenged through a
process of 'consciousness raising', but it is also evident in literature, art,
public life and the economy. Millet proposed that patriarchy be challenged
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through a process of 'consciousness raising', an idea clearly influenced by


the Black Power movement; through discussion and education women
would become increasingly aware of the sexism which pervades society
and better able to challenge it. Women's liberation therefore required a
revolutionary change, the institution of the family would have to be
destroyed and the psychological and sexual oppression of women which
operates at all levels of society would have to be overthrown. Firestone
did not believe that sex differences merely arose from social conditioning,
but from biology. In bearing children, women were constantly at the mercy
of biology, and therefore, like children, were dependent upon men for their
physical survival. Women, however, can only achieve emancipation if they
transcend their biological nature and escape from 'curse of Eve’.10

Firestone believed that modern technology opened up the prospect of


genuine sexual by relieving women of the burden of pregnancy and
childbirth. Pregnancy could be avoided by contraception or terminated by
abortion, but new technology also created the possibility of avoiding
pregnancy by artificial reproduction in test tubes and the transfer of child-
rearing responsibilities to social institutions. In other words, the biological
process of reproduction could be carried out in laboratories by
cybernetics, allowing women; for the first time in history to escape from
the biological family and enter society as the true equals of men.

Violence practiced by patriarchy (men) has two forms (i) overt physical
cruelty and (ii) covert hidden form in the standards of fashion & beauty
motherhood monogamy, chastity, and heterosexuality, in sexual
harassment in the work place, in the practices of gynecology, in unpaid
household drudgery and underpaid wage work.
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Overt Physical Cruelty-rape, sexual abuse, sexual slavery in enforced


prostitution, spouse abuse, incest, sexual molestation of children,
hysterectomies, radical form of surgery and the explicit sadism in
pornography are all linked to cross cultural practices of which burning, the
stoning to death adulteresses, the persecution of lesbians, female
infanticide, Chinese foot binding, the forced suicide of Hindu widows and
the savage practice of circumcision etc.

How is patriarchy to be defeated? Radicals hold that the defeat must


begin with a basic reworking of women's consciousness so that each
woman recognizes her own value and strength; reject patriarchal
pressures to see herself as weak, dependent and second-class; and
works in unity with other women, regardless of differences among them, to
establish a broad-based sisterhood of trust support appreciation, and
mutual defense Separatism and Lesbianism are the practice and belief
that "erotic and/or emotional commitment to women is part of resistance to
patriarchal domination.11 " Radical feminism incorporates arguments
made by the both Marxian and psychoanalytical feminists about the
reasons for women's subordination. They argue that patriarchy ultimately
rests on the practice of violence against women. But they have been
faulted in their exclusive focus on patriarchy.

7. Third Wave/ Post-Modern Feminism

The term "third-wave feminism" is used to identify a new stage in the


history of feminist theorization. "First wave" of feminist writing
concentrated on mobilization for women's suffrage from the mid 19th
century through the early 20th century. Second wave feminism began in
the late 1960s and continues to the present.
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The significance of all-wave of feminist theory became apparent in the


1980s and presently constitutes one of the most dynamic and central
areas of intellectual growth within feminism. Its focal concern is
"differences among women". It looks critically at the tendency to use a
generalized, monolithic concept of 'women' as a generic category in
stratification; and focuses instead on the factual and theoretical
implications of differences among women. The differences result from an
unequal distribution of unequal produced goods & services on the basis of
position in the global system, class, race, ethnicity, age & affectional
preferences as these factors interact with gender stratification.

Differences are on three areas (i) depiction of the diversity of women's


experiences; (ii) critique of many of the most basic categories common to
both modern feminists and social analyses; (iii) attempt to map the world
is terms of how the vectors of subordination and privilege - gender, class,
race, age, ethnicity, global location, and affectional preferences interact
structurally and intersect dynamically in people’s lives to create
oppression and inequality.

They question all systems of domination and the particular false


consciousness that let middle-class white heterosexual women use the
term their own acts of domination towards women who do not share their
class, race and affectional preference. Postmodernism leads to a
relativizing of all positions so that no knowledge is privileged, no values
are absolute, thus, postmodernism in its most extreme from leaves no
‘standpoint’
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8. Ecofeminism

Ecofeminism, a new term for ancient wisdom 'grew out of various social
movements in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This term was first used by
Francoise D' Eaubonne. The first eco-feminist conference-‘Women’ and
Life on Earth': A Conference on Eco-feminism in the Eighties' was held in
March 1980, at Amherst.

Ecofeminism is about connectedness aggression and wholeness of theory


and practice. Ecological destruction or/the threat of atomic annihilation
was perceived almost physically as an aggression against the female
body. There is a connection between patriarchal violence against women.
In defying this patriarchy, women are loyal to future generations and to
life and this planet itself. Women have a deep and particular
understanding of both through our nature and experience as women.

The ecological relevance of this emphasis on “spirituality” lies in the


rediscovery of the sacredness of life, according to which life on earth can
be preserved only if people against begin to perceive all life forms as
sacred and respect them as such. This quality is located in everyday life,
in our work, the things that surround us in our immanence; hence, the
celebration of our dependence to the mother earth. In Germany there is
emergence of Greens, who participated in parliamentary politics since
1978 in the name of Green Party
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9. Cyber-Feminism

Cyber-feminism adjudges information technology as a fluid attack, an


onslaught on human agency and the solidity of identity. Cyber-feminism is
simply the acknowledgement that patriarch is doomed. The connection
between women & technology has been regimented in patriarchal myth:
machines were female because they always had an element of
unpredictability and tended to go wrong, break down, no matter how
sophisticated; women, nature and machines existed for the benefit of
man.

There is a theory which propounds that there is only one human species,
and it is male homo-sapiens. There are no other sapiens. Woman is a
virtual reality (VR: the simulation of space, the pixelled manifestation of
another zone). Sold in the streets, VR is still crude: cyberspace is too jerky
and as yet, the programmes are self-contained and over determined.
Even within these limits, the VR machine begins to allow its user to
choose their disguises and assume alternative identities, Imitation and
artifice, make up and pretense: they have been role-playing for millennia:
always exhorted, to act like a women, to be lady like: always to be like
something, but never to be anything in particular, least of all herself. There
is as yet no such thing as being a real woman. To be truly human is to be
a real man. Woman does not yet exist, except as she appears on the set:
wife & mother, sister & daughter; always performing duties, keeping up
appearance, the acting head of the house-hold.
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Cyber-femininity is not a subject lacking an identity, but a virtual reality.


whose identity is a mere tactic of infiltration. VR is a disturbance of human
identity. One of the great contradictions of VR Images is that they titillate
our imagination, promising the marvels & wonders of a gender-free world
while simultaneously reproducing not only some of the banal. flat images
of gender identity but also of class and race relations that you can think of
VR images titillate our imagination in the same way that pornographic
representation does.

Conclusion

However, there is no unchanging feminist orthodoxy, no settled feminist


conventions, no static feminist analyses. Feminism is diverse and it is
ynamic. There is an increasing belief and realization that when a major
infusion of women's ways becomes part of public life, the world will be a
safer, more humane place for all of us.
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Notes

1. George Ritzer, Sociological Theory, M. C. Graw Hill International


Edition, 1996.

2. Alice Rossi. “A Blosocial Perspective on Parenting", Daedalus 106-9-


31, 1977 Parenting "Gender and Parenthood", American Sociological
Ruled 1983, 49:1-9.

3. M. Wollstonerraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women, ed. C.W,


Hagelman, New York 1967.

4. Patricia M. Lengermann& Jill Niebrugge, “Contemporary Feminist


Theory” in book G. ritur, Sociological Theory 1996-pp. 454-S6.

5. Young Iris, "The Ideal of impartiality and the Civic Public", in Justice
and the Politics of difference (Princeton University Press, Princeton.
1990).

6. Friedrich Engels, The origins of the Family, Private Property and S.


1984.

7. Patricia M. Lengermann & others, op. cit. pp-464-67.

8. Jessica Benjamin, The Bonds of Love; Psychoanalysis, Feminism


and the problem of Domination, New York, 1988.

9. S. Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex, 1970.

10. Maria Mies & Vandana Shiva, Ecofeminism in the book W. Ritzer
Sociological Theory, 1996, pp-497-499.

11. Sadie Plant, Beyond the Screens: Folm, Cyberpunk & Cyber
Feminism in the book W Ritzer, Sociological Theory, 1996, pp-503-507.
21

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