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All-Terrain Vehicle For Defence

1. INTRODUCTION

A military vehicle is a type of vehicle that includes all land combat and transportation
vehicles, which are designed for or are significantly used by military forces. Many
military vehicles have vehicle armor plate or off-road capabilities or both. Under the
Geneva Conventions, all non-combatant military vehicles such as field ambulances and
mobile first aid stations must be properly and clearly marked as such. In theory under the
conventions, such vehicles are then legally immune from deliberate attack by all
combatants. A subtype that has become increasingly prominent since the late 20th
Century is the improvised fighting vehicle, and is often seen in irregular warfare.

1.1 Military trucks:

A military truck is a vehicle designed to transport troops, fuel and military supplies to the
battlefield, through asphalted roads and unpaved dirt roads. Several countries have
manufactured their own models of military trucks, each of which has its own technical
characteristics. These vehicles are adapted to the needs of the different armies on the
ground. In general, these trucks are composed of a chassis, a motor, a transmission, a
cabin, an area for the placement of the load and the equipment, axles of transmission,
suspensions, direction, tires, electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, engine cooling systems, and
brakes. They can be operated with a gasoline engine or with a diesel engine, there are
four-wheel drive (4x4) vehicles, six wheeled (6x6), eight wheeled (8x8), ten wheeled
(10x10) and even twelve wheeled vehicles (12x12).

Fig.no.1.1 Military truck

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All- terrain mobile robots are different from other ordinary mobile robots, because they
consider the effect of unstructured terrain and its environment .Therefore, these robots are
designed to operate effectively on natural terrains that may be sloped, rough, and
deformable and are used in such fields as deep space exploration , safety and rescue, and
military and civilian application. In order to ensure that the task is successfully achieved,
it is a key issue to design and optimize the suspension system of all-terrain mobile robots
to improve its mobile performance.

Because of its robust capabilities to deal with obstacles, the rocker-bogie suspension
system is successfully used in the Sojourner Mars Rover, MER (Mars Exploration
Rover), and the latest MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). However, the rocker-bogie
suspension system has still some shortcoming. First, the average speed of operation is
very slow. Second, it makes the rocker-bogie system not suitable for situations where
high-speed traversal over hard-flat surfaces is needed to cover large areas in short periods
of time. In pursuance of achieving a greater stability margin over high-speed traversal
without losing the original configuration, a new dynamic rocker-bogie suspension
system, with two modes of operation that can switch between original configuration and
high-speed traversal configuration, is introduced. For high-speed traversal mode of
rocker-bogie suspension system, it can expand the span of the rocker-bogie support
polygon to increase speed when moving on hard-flat terrain or uneven terrain with minor
obstacles. On the other hand, it can automatically switch to its original configuration to
move by low speed when it is faced with rough terrain and significant obstacles.

When the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project was first proposed, the use of a rocker-
bogie suspension was the obvious choice due to its extensive heritage. The challenge
posed by MER was to design a lightweight rocker-bogie suspension that would permit
the mobility to stow within the limited space available and deploy into a configuration
that the rover could then safely use to egress from the lander and explore the Martian
surface.

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When building a robot you'd like it to be as simple as possible. In most cases you'd never
need a suspension system, but there were several instances when a suspension system
cannot be avoided. The term “bogie” refers to the links that have a drive wheel at each
end.

Bogies were commonly used as load wheels in the tracks of army tanks as idlers
distributing the load over the terrain. Bogies were also quite commonly used on the
trailers of semi-trailer trucks. Both applications now prefer trailing arm suspensions. The
rocker-bogie design has no springs or stub axles for each wheel, allowing the rover to
climb over obstacles, such as rocks, that are up to twice the wheel's diameter in size while
keeping all six wheels on the ground. As with any suspension system, the tilt stability is
limited by the height of the center of gravity.

1.2 Definition of Mobile Robot -

Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed
to one physical location. Mobile robots can be "autonomous" (AMR - autonomous
mobile robot) which means they are capable of navigating an uncontrolled environment
without the need for physical or electro-mechanical guidance devices. Alternatively,
mobile robots can depend on guidance devices that allow them to travel a pre-defined
navigation route in relatively controlled space (AGV - autonomous guided vehicle). By
contrast, industrial robots are usually more-or-less stationary, consisting of a jointed
arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end effector), attached to a fixed
surface.

Mobile robots have become more commonplace in commercial and industrial settings.
Hospitals have been using autonomous mobile robots to move materials for many years.
Warehouses have installed mobile robotic systems to efficiently move materials from
stocking shelves to order fulfillment zones. Mobile robots are also a major focus of
current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on
mobile robot research.

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Mobile robots are also found in industrial, military and security settings. Domestic
robots are consumer products, including entertainment robots and those that perform
certain household tasks such as vacuuming or gardening. Mobile robots can be used in
several applications. Dangerous area operations (Nuclear plants), planetary exploration
and pipe investigation, extreme temperature and narrow field investigations (pyramid
exploration robots). Moreover, floor cleaning robots and servant robots are common
examples for indoor use. It is not a dream that, in near future robots will be a part of our
daily life.

1.3 Rocker-Bogie Mechanism-


The rocker-bogie suspension system is a passive spring less and symmetric mechanism.
Each side of the rocker-bogie has a rocker and a bogie: the rocker is connected to the rear
wheel, and the middle wheel and the front wheel are connected by the bogie.
The two sides of rocker-bogie are connected by the differential bar attached to the main
body, which ensures that the six wheels are in contact with the ground all the time
providing a stable platform for the scientific instruments and sensors.

The important factor in manufacturing of rocker bogie mechanism is to determine the


dimensions of rocker and bogie linkages and angles between them. The lengths and
angles of this mechanism can be changed as per requirement. In the work aim is to
manufacture the rocker bogie mechanism which can overcome the obstacles of 150 mm
height (like stones, wooden blocks) and can climb over stairs of height 150 mm. Also
another target is to climb any surface at an angle of 45˚. To achieve the above targets we
had design the rocker-bogie model by assuming stair height 150 mm and length 370 mm.
Using Pythagoras theorems, find the dimensions of the model. It have both angles of
linkages are 90˚.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

D. S. Chinchkar
The concept of our research work is to create a rocker bogie drive system based on those
of NASA.
NASA developed the rocker-bogie suspension system for their rovers and was
implemented in the Mars Pathfinder’s and so journer rover. The rocker-bogie suspension
system passively keeps all six wheels on the robot in contact with the ground even on
uneven surfaces. This creates for great traction and maneuverability (Harrington &
Voorhees).

The rocker-bogie suspension mechanism which was currently NASA’s approved design
for wheeled mobile robots, mainly because it had study or resilient capabilities to deal
with obstacles and because it uniformly distributes the payload over its 6 wheels at all
times. It also can be used for other purposes to operate in rough roads and to climb the
steps. It was having lots of advantages but one of the major disadvantages is the rotation
of the mechanism when and where is required. The rotation can be possible by providing
individual motors to individual wheels which causes arise in cost and complicacy in
design. Here an attempt was made to modify the existing design by incorporating a gear
type steering mechanism which will be operated by a single motor which simplifies the
design as well as the total cost and operating cost of the mechanism.

In this work the proposed steering mechanism was designed and the modeling was done
in CATIA (V-5). The researchers discuss the concept and parameter design of a Robust
Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs.
Modifying the geometry of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helps in tackling
overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, robust design parameters were set
to minimize performance variation. The Grey- based Taguchi Method was adopted for
providing an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype
was shown to have successfully scaled stairs of varying dimensions, with overhang, thus
verifying the analysis performed.

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An analysis method to make the rocker bogie mechanism can climb up a stair was
achieved in the work. The east coast of Malaysia faced a massive flood from heavy
downpour, leading to huge flood damage and caused permanent loss to life and property.
The flood carries the debris, soil and trees along their path, damaging the road and
building structure, leaving the road become uneven. This situation gives difficulty to task
force bearing aids during the post disaster management. The research paper proposed an
intelligent inclined motion control of an amphibious vehicle while moving on uneven
terrain surface.

The research paper deals with the designing and modeling of stair climbing robot based
on the well-known rocker bogie mechanism in Ansys rigid body dynamics module. The
robots often suffer from undesired phenomenon slip, sticking and floating while climbing
steps and stairs, which may cause instability of the mobile robot. The Taguchi method
was used to chosen as an optimization tool to make trajectory of center of mass close to
straight line while all wheels keep in contact with ground during climbing stairs. Taguchi
method was adopted due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness both in formulating the
objective function and satisfying multiple constraints simultaneously. In the
Optimization, Seven kinematic parameters of rocker bogie mechanism were optimized
which include four link lengths (l1, l2, l3) and three wheel radius (R1, R2, R3). The
kinematic Model of proposed mechanism was built and it was simulated in ANSYS Rigid
body dynamics. Three different shapes of typical stairs were selected as user conditions
to determine a robust optimal solution. The result obtained shows the variation of center
of mass position with time, variation of velocity of joint with time, variation of force with
time.

It was basically a suspension arrangement used in mechanical robotic vehicles used


specifically for space exploration. The rocker-bogie suspension based rovers has been
successfully introduced for the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions conducted by apex space exploration agencies
throughout the world.

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The proposed suspension system was currently the most favored design for every space
exploration company indulges in the business of space research. The motive the research
initiation was to understand mechanical design and its advantages of Rocker- bogie
suspension system in order to find suitability to implement it in conventional loading
vehicles to enhance their efficiency and also to cut down the maintenance related
expenses of conventional suspension systems. The world market of mobile robotics was
expected to increase substantially in the next 20 year, surpassing the market of industrial
robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security,
surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture.
The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments
was generally complex, particularly when they were required to move on uneven or soft
terrains, or to climb obstacles. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled
– W, tracked – T and legged – L) and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by
combining these main locomotion systems were discussed with reference to maximum
speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing
capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains,
energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness.
The current and future trends of mobile robotics were discussed.

The optimization of a particular suspension system known as the “rocker-bogie” for our
Mars Rover. This type of mechanism has been used on most of the rovers on Mars and
has proved to be a simple and elegant design. A Genetic Algorithm was implemented and
used to optimize the geometry and kinematics of the rover’s wheel suspension system
subject to the defined performance metrics. This work shows the effectiveness of the
optimization of a rocker-bogie suspension system using a Genetic Algorithm. It also
reveals that the resulting system meets all constraints and that significantly reduces the
error of individual performance metrics and the overall system.

It was shown that the overall fitness of the rover suspension system can be increased by
an average of 28% after 100 iterations compared to an initial guess. All performance

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metrics defined were improved significantly throughout the optimization. The method
can be applied to different types of rovers in order to optimize the wheel suspension
mechanism’s geometry.

Gregory R. Wilson

 Rocker-Bogie Suspension

Fig 2.1: NASA’s Pathfinder Rover

Exploration Rovers in 2004 (images reproduced from NASA)

The three rovers that have landed on Mars to successfully explore its surface were
developed at NASA (fig.1.4). All three rovers have a six wheel rocker bogie 10
suspension system invented by Donald Bickler. The rocker bogie suspension uses the
climbing capabilities of its predecessor the Pantograph suspension but increases the
rovers’ ability to traverse bumps. As with Pantograph this suspension allows the rover to
traverse obstacles 50% greater than the diameter of a wheel.

A rover is considered to have a high degree of mobility in natural terrain if it can


surmount obstacles that are large in comparison to the size of its wheels. A rover must
have enough traction from its rear wheels to push the front wheels against an obstacle
with enough force so that they can climb up it.

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Typically a four wheeled rover cannot climb obstacles larger than a wheel radius because
the rear wheels do not have enough traction. Without traction the wheels will slip and
there will not be enough forward thrust to keep the front wheels in contact with the
obstacle.
The rocker bogie suspension can surmount obstacles head on that are larger than a wheel
diameter because it uses an extra set of wheels to provide more forward thrust. The extra
wheels also reduces the normal force on each wheel by about 1/6 the weight of the rover.
Less forward thrust is required because the front wheels only have to lift 1/3 of the
weight of the rover. Together the rear four wheels have enough traction to keep the rover
from slipping,

(a) Rocky (b) Rocky 3

(c) Rocky 4 (d) Rocky 7


Fig.2.2. Rocky Rover Series (Images Reproduced From NA

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2.1. History

In recent years the defense sector has a lot of improvements in terms of weapons and
artillery. Even though most of the vehicles have been evolved but the one problem that
still exists is climbing steep slopes along with artillery.

We are in process of developing a vehicle that would help overcome the problem majorly
of transportation. This vehicle has the capability to bring revolution in the field of
Transportation in our developing nation. We present here our concept of “All-Terrain
Vehicle”.
This project is based on the new suspension system developed which in future would be
used in most vehicles and helps bring versatility to our advanced and heavy vehicles. The
tank has been designed to carry heavy weapons and amour to protect the soldiers. It has a
lot of power to carry 68 to 130 tones and on rough terrains.

Ashok Leyland Stallion Mk III/Mk IV

BEML Tatra

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Ashok Leyland Super Stallion

Aditya

Bomb disposal robot

Arjun MBT

Table No. 2.1 Indian Military Vehicles

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3. Problem Statement-

The terrain on the Northern frontiers is glaciated, rocky, and marshy or moraine infested.
Construction of roads and tracks in these areas is time consuming and requires massive
effort in terms of reconnaissance (poke about) and surveillance, construction equipment
and subsequent maintenance efforts, mandating a complete revision of operational plans
in a specific sector. To develop viable communication network in forward areas along the
Northern frontiers, will also have huge financial implications. Therefore, there is a need
to develop an all-terrain vehicle that may assist in fast movement of stores, equipment
and transport in rugged terrain. The operational environment of this vehicle will be High
Altitude Areas, i.e. up to 19000ft along flat and rugged terrain as obtained in our
Northern and Eastern Sectors.

 Evolution of Problem.
Presently the troops operating in rugged areas of High Altitude Area (HAA) are required
to traverse vast distances on foot which imposes time penalty and exposes troops to
undue fatigue. In absence of roads in forward areas it is important that the mobility of
these troops is enhanced by providing some variant of all-terrain vehicle.

 Traditional way to Overcome


Mobility over such kind of terrain is presently overcome by use of Animal Transport to
ferry stores which have a heavy administrative requirement.

 Innovations to locally overcome the Problem.


There are innovative measures like rope ways and modified load carriers being used.
However, these methods are partially successful. The move of troops is restricted to
existing foot tracks and carriage of war like stores is by means of Animal Transport.
It will successfully climbing at 60-70 degree easily with its nominal speed and that is
because of using the Rocker Bogie Mechanism.

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 Who has the Problem?


All troops in High Altitude Areas.
In army there are so many problems to drive the vehicle in all monsoons.

Fig 3.1.1 In Ice Areas Fig 3.1.2 In Marshy area

Fig. 3.1.3 In Rainy Area Fig 3.1.4 In Muddy area

Fig.3.1. Problems of Vehicle with Amour’s

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3.1. Objective
 India’s large and fast growing economy drives the expansion of its middle class,
which looks for more sources of security and technical advancement in its defense
system.
 To design and fabrication of a safe Rocker Bogie.
 The Bogie ensures safety during collision and roll-overs.
 This suspension system ensures stability, endurance, and performance.
 To Minimizing the problems occurred in Army vehicles.

3.2. Scope

 Load Analysis, will increase the performance of the suspension system, ensuring
durability, and safety.

 Dynamic Simulation, vibration dampening for the users and engine mounts is
necessary to ensure safety and performance.

 Material Analysis, the materials to be utilized for this design must be cost
efficient, easy-to-work on, adaptable, easy-to-procure, and performance-
achieving.

 Independent front and rear suspension.

 Front suspension, non-parallel non-equal double wishbone.

 Rear suspension, semi-trailing arms, transmitted to each wheel by external drive


shafts. Suspension through coil springs. Each wheel located by a combination of
lateral and longitudinal control arms or semi trailing arms to the frame

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3.3 Methodology

The Process followed for design and fabrication of Steering system involves following
steps.

Analysis of Previous year’s Vehicle

Defining the Objective for New vehicle

Market Survey for the Components used

Geometry Iterations

Design Validation

System parts fabrication

System Assembly

Testing

Flow chart 3.1 Methodology

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3.4. PROJECT PLAN

 Objectives and referring previous design


 Selection of material and appropriate equipment and proposal assembly
 Analysis of various types of process deciding

3.5. SOFTWARE REQUIRED

 CATIA
 AUTO-CAD

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4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

4.1. Components

 Power and electronic system

DC Brushed Motor
Motor used – 60 RPM Brushed Motor

Rated Voltage: 12V

 Arduino UNO –
Micro-controller
 Acrylic sheet
 PVC Pipe
 DC driver And Bluetooth controller
 Wires
 Wheels

Tire 50 mm Diameter
Tire 75 mm Diameter

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4.1.1. Arduino-UNO

Fig. 4.1 Arduino UNO

Arduino is a single-board microcontroller to make using electronics in multidisciplinary


projects more accessible. The hardware consists of a simple open source hardware board
designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM
The software consists of a standard programming language compiler and a boot loader
that executes on the microcontroller. Arduino board designs use a variety of
microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog
input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and
other circuits.
The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus
(USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal
computers. In addition to using traditional compiler tool chains, the Arduino project
provides an integrated development environment (IDE) based on the Processing language
project.

It helps to provide a low-cost and easy way for novices and professionals to create
devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators.

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Common examples of such devices intended for beginner hobbyists include simple
robots, thermostats, and motion detectors.

 Steering
 Compression Springs
 SNPS- For AC to DC Convertor
 Transmitter
 Screw, Nuts, Bolts and Washers.

Hardware

 Most Arduino boards consist of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller (ATmega8,


ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, ATmega2560) with varying amounts of
flash memory, pins, and features. The 32-bit Arduino Due, based on the Atmel
SAM3X8E was introduced in 2012. The boards use single or double-row pins or
female headers that facilitate connections for programming and incorporation into
other circuits. These may connect with add-on modules termed shields. Multiple,
and possibly stacked shields may be individually addressable via an I²C serial bus.
Most boards include a 5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator or
ceramic resonator. Some designs, such as the Lily Pad, run at 8 MHz and dispense
with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions.
 Arduino microcontrollers are pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies
uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory. The default boot loader of the
Arduino UNO is the opti and boot loader. Boards are loaded with program code via
a serial connection to another computer.
 Some serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-
232 logic levels and transistor–transistor logic level signals.

Current Arduino boards are programmed via Universal Serial Bus (USB),
implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips.

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4.1.2 DC Brushed motor

Fig. 4.3 Brushed DC motors

A brushed DC motor is an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from


a direct current power source. Brushed motors were the first commercially important
application of electric power to driving mechanical energy, and DC distribution systems
were used for more than 100 years to operate motors in commercial and industrial
buildings. Brushed DC motors can be varied in speed by changing the operating voltage
or the strength of the magnetic field. Depending on the connections of the field to the
power supply, the speed and torque characteristics of a brushed motor can be altered to
provide steady speed or speed inversely proportional to the mechanical load. Brushed
motors continue to be used for electrical propulsion, cranes, paper machines and steel
rolling mills. Since the brushes wear down and require replacement, brushless DC motors
using power electronic devices have displaced brushed motors from many applications.

Dc brush motors are one of the simplest types of motors. Sans the dc supply or battery
required for operation, a typical brush dc motor consists of an armature (a.k.a., rotor), a
commutator, brushes, an axle, and a field magnet. Brush motors are generally
inexpensive and reliable. They also offer simple two-wire control and require fairly
simple control or no control at all in fixed-speed designs. If the brushes are replaceable,

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these motors also boast a somewhat extended operational life. And because they need few
external components or no external components at all, brush motors tend to handle rough
environments reliably.

The brushes charge the commutator inversely in polarity to the permanent magnet, in turn
causing the armature to rotate. The rotation’s direction, clockwise and/or
counterclockwise, can be reversed easily by reversing the polarity of the brushes, i.e.,
reversing the leads on the battery.

Fig. 4.4. Principle of DC Brushed motor

Fig. 4.5 DC Brushed Design

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4.1.3 DC Motor Drives

Fig. 4.6 DC Motor Drives

DC motor drives are defined as amplifiers or power modules that interface between a
controller and a DC motor. They convert step and direction input from the controller to
currents and voltages compatible with the motor. These units are sometimes called
variable speed drives, referring to a majority of DC motor drives which adjust shaft
speed. In industry, a 'drive controller' is a motor drive which incorporates functions of a
programmable logic controller (PLC) and drive interface to regulate the speed, torque,
horsepower, and direction of a DC motor.

DC motors tend to be less complex than AC motors and are normally less expensive for
most horsepower ratings. They are capable of providing large startup torques exceeding
400% of the rated continuous torque. They have a long history of use in variable speed
applications with a wide range of options available for this purpose.

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 Types of DC Drives
DC motor drives are classified based on the type of DC motor being used. These types
include brushed, brushless, servo, linear, and voice coil motors.

1. Brushed motors commutate via physical contacts, often spring-loaded


graphite brushes biased against the commutation bar.

2. Brushless motors commutate electronically with no physical brush contact.


One common technique for positional feedback to control commutation is the
use of Hall effect sensors to detect rotor position. Commutation options
include trapezoidal and sinusoidal drive signals to the motor.

3. Servomotors can be of brush or brushless design, and include an internal


sensor for position control and other industrial automation applications. If
brushless, the commutation of the three phases will typically be either
trapezoidal or sinusoidal; the term "DC brushless" often connotes trapezoidal
commutation of a brushless motor with Hall Effect sensor feedback for
commutation control.

4. Linear motors generate force only in the direction of travel. The motor
technology resembles rotary motor technologies simply oriented in a linear
fashion. Linear motors are capable of extremely high speeds, quick
acceleration, and accurate positioning. Linear motor technologies include
moving coil, moving magnet, AC switched reluctance design, AC
synchronous design, AC induction or traction design, linear stepping design,
DC brushed design, and DC brushless design.

DC motor drives can also be classified based on types of control functions (e.g. integral
motion controllers, variable speed drives, motor speed controllers, etc.).

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4.1.4. Bluetooth

Fig. 4.7 Bluetooth Driver

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances
(using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GH) from
fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by
telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994 ,it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to
RS-232 data cables.
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more
than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing,
networking, and consumer electronics. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE
802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development
of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. A
manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device .A
network of patents apply to the technology, which are licensed to individual qualifying
devices.

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4.1.5. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)

 POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PROPERTIES

1. PVC is the most widely used member of the vinyl family. It is most commonly
used in pipe and fittings. PVC offers excellent corrosion and weather resistance. It
has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is a good electrical and thermal insulator.
2. PVC is also self-extinguishing per UL flammability tests. PVC may be used to
temperatures of 140°F (60°C) and is readily available in sheets, rods, and tubing.
PVC may be cemented, welded, machined, bent and shaped readily.

 CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (CPVC) PROPERTIES

CPVC shares most of the features and properties of its close relative, PVC. It is also
readily workable, including machining, welding, and forming. Because of its excellent
corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures, CPVC is ideally suited for self-supporting
constructions where temperatures up to 200°F (93°C) are present.

The ability to bend, shapes, and weld CPVC enables its use in a wide variety of process
applications including tanks, scrubbers, and ventilation systems. It exhibits excellent fire
resistance, chemical resistance, and is readily available in sheets, rods, and tubing.

 Physical And Mechanical Properties:

PVC is an atactic polymer and therefore essentially uncrystallized. However, it


sometimes happens that, locally, over short chain segments, PVC is syndiotactic and can
assume the crystalline phase, but the percent shear fracture never exceeds 10 to 15 %.
The density of PVC is 1.38 g/cm3. Uncrystallized PVC is transparent and relatively
permeable for steam. PVC offers excellent rigidity up to the vicinity of its vitreous
transition temperature. PVC offers excellent resistance to abrasion. PVCs are fragile with
respect to shocks at low temperatures. The addition of plasticizers reduces the vitreous
transition temperature, which makes it possible to provide flexible PVC at ambient
temperature.

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4.1.6. Acrylic sheet

 Characteristics

ACRYLITE FF sheet is a lightweight, rigid and weather-resistant thermoplastic.


ACRYLITE FF sheet is dimensionally stable and resistant to breakage, and can be
easily sawed, machined, heat-formed and cemented.
Because of its virtually distortion-free clarity, it is well suited for use in a variety of
application like Skylights Window Glazing, Store or P-O-P Displays, Window Frames,
Optical Displays.

 Properties Of Acrylics
1. Availability

ACRYLITE FF sheet is available in thicknesses from 0.060” (1.5 mm) to 0.944” (24
mm) and actual sheet sizes from 48” x 96” (1.22 m x 2.44 m) to
100” x 150” (2.54 m x 3.81 m). Custom sizes are also available. All sheets are protected
with polyethylene film or paper masking.
2. Safety
ACRYLITE FF sheet is more impact resistant than glass. If subjected to impact beyond
the limit of its resistance, it does not shatter into small slivers, but breaks into
comparatively large pieces. ACRYLITE FF sheet meets the requirements of ANSI Z97.1
for use as a Safety Glazing Material in Buildings (for thicknesses 0.080” to 0.500” [2.0
mm - 12.0 mm]).
3. Weather Resistance
ACRYLITE FF sheet will withstand exposure to blazing sun, extreme cold, sudden
temperature changes, salt water spray, etc. It will not deteriorate after many years of
service because of the inherent stability of acrylic resins. ACRYLITE FF sheet has been
widely accepted for use in school buildings, industrial plants and outdoor signs.

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4. Dimensional Stability
Although ACRYLITE FF sheet will expand and contract due to changes in temperature
and humidity, it will not shrink with age. Some shrinkage occurs when ACRYLITE FF
sheet is heated to forming temperature, but post-forming stability is excellent.

5. Light Weight

ACRYLITE FF sheet is only half the weight of glass and 43% the weight of aluminum.

6. Rigidity

ACRYLITE FF sheet is not as rigid as glass or metals. However, it is more rigid than
many other plastics such as acetates, polycarbonates or vinyls. Under wind load an
acrylic sheet will bow and foreshorten as a result of deflection. For glazing installations
the maximum wind load and the size of the window must be considered when the
thickness of a panel is to be determined. If ACRYLITE FF sheet is formed into
corrugated or domed shapes, rigidity will be increased and deflection minimized.

7. Strength and Stresses

Localized, concentrated stresses must be avoided. For this reason, and because of thermal
expansion and contraction, large sheets should never be fastened with bolts, but should
always be installed in frames. All thermoplastic materials, including ACRYLITE FF
sheet, will gradually lose tensile strength as the temperature approaches the maximum
recommended for continuous service–160°F (71°C).

8. Chemical Resistance

ACRYLITE FF sheet has excellent resistance to many chemicals including:


• Solutions of inorganic alkalis such as ammonia
• dilute acids such as sulfuric acid up to a concentration of 30%

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• Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as hexane and VM&P naphtha


ACRYLITE FF sheet is not attacked by most foods, and foods are not affected by it.
It is attacked, in varying degrees, by:
• Aromatic solvents such as benzene and toluene
• chlorinated hydrocarbons such as methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride
• Ethyl and methyl alcohols.
• Some organic acids such as acetic acid.
• Lacquer thinners, esters, ketones and ethers.

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4.3. Layout And Block Diagram

4.3.1. Block Diagram:

Wheel Free
Obstacles Of Moving
terrain Lever

Motor Chassis

Fig.4.11 Block Diagram of ATV

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4.3.2. 2D CADD Model

Fig. 4.12 Front and Top View of ATV

Fig. No. 4.14 Assembly of All-terrain vehicle

4.4. Design

The vehicle is a six-wheeled, with each wheel being individually powered. Controlled by
a micro controller which helps transmit power to the wheels and fulfill requirements for
each wheel independently.

 Force Evaluation, the design must withstand minimum impact specifications due
to the utilization of this product in rough terrain environments.
 Ergonomics, previous designs proved ergonomic-challenging. It is one of the
main focuses of this product to be comfortable and safe to the user.

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 Material Analysis, the materials to be utilized for this design must be cost
efficient, easy-to-work on, adaptable, easy-to-procure, and performance-
achieving.
 Weight and Performance Analysis, the relationship weight versus performance is
important for competition purposes. The vehicle needs to be competitive and
attractive to this type of market.

Material Selection-

Why Acrylic instead of steel-

We select to use the MS material and we cut the material with the help of Laser cutting
machine. Why Laser cut because it has good accuracy and less time required to cut the
material. Our project is mainly based on that linkage.
Then we found the problem-
There is no proper accuracy of Linkage dimensions and not in proper shape which we
required, also that link has not good finishing. Also we try to drill but the sheet has tear
out.
That’s why we cancel use of material MS.
Therefore we search the Acrylic material which gives good accuracy and proper cutting
dimensioning which we are required. Main purpose to use the material because of which
is LIGHT in Weight.
Also it has good strength. So we decided to use the Acrylic material.

4.4.1 Drive system


Each wheels mounted on a new type of suspension system that ensures wheels remain on
the ground while driving over rough terrain. The design reduces the range of motion of
the vehicle body by half, and allows the vehicle to go over obstacles or through holes that
are more than a wheel diameter (250 millimeters (9.8 in)) in size. The vehicle wheels are
designed with integral compliant flexures which provide shock absorption during
movement. Additionally, the wheels have cleats which provide grip for climbing in soft
sand and scrambling over rocks.

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Each wheel has its own drive motor. The two front and two rear wheels each have
individual steering motors. This allows the vehicle to turn in place, a full revolution, and
to swerve and curve, making arching turns. The vehicle is designed to withstand a tilt of
45 degrees in any direction without overturning.

This mobility system requires that each wheel be driven by a separate motor and steering
mechanism, increasing the overall complexity. Rovers that use the rocker bogie
suspension can have 10 or 12 motors just for mobility all of which are exposed to the
environment including the drive train. Harmonic drives coupled to the motors are used to
increase torque rather than planetary or spur gear boxes because they save space and
weight. During operation they have high static friction and can lock up in cold
temperatures which will overload the motors causing them to fail prematurely.
Sojourner had heating units on each motor to keep them within the operating limits in
fear that the extreme cold of the Martian atmosphere might damage them.

4.4.2 Working Principle-


The front wheels are forced against the obstacle by the rear wheels. The rotation of the
front wheel then lifts the front of the vehicle up and over the obstacle.

The middle wheel is the pressed against the obstacle by the rear wheel and pulled against
the obstacle by the front, until it is lifted up and over. Finally, the rear wheel is pulled
over the obstacle by the front two wheels. During each wheel’s traversal of the obstacle,
forward progress of the vehicle is slowed or completely halted. These rovers move slowly
and climb over the obstacles by having wheels lift each piece of the suspension over the
obstacle one portion at a time.

4.4.3 Construction-
In this model we have used PVC pipes, acrylic sheet links, wheels, nut bolts, battery,
microcontroller, dc motor drives, Bluetooth-driver, dc motors and power bank.

PVC pipes: - By using PVC pipes we designed the frame of our model which is
rectangular in shape. 4 Bent pipes are used to connect the 4pipes to make a rectangular
frame of 320*250mm. These cutted pipes are joined by elbow type connector pipe.

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PVC pipe has 2cm diameter.

Links- 2half cut sections of pipe are used as links which connects the rocker mechanism
and the frame at front side. These cutted pipes are joined to the frame with help of nut
and bolts. In front side at the end of cutted section of pipe, a threaded bar (31cm and
Diameter is 0.5cm) mounted on which the rocker mechanism is attached with nut and
bolts.

Acrylic links: - There are 4 links in which 2 are bell crank shaped (13cm and thickness
0.5cm) and rest two are straight links (20cm, width 2.5cm). The wheels and motors are
mounted at end of these acrylic links.

Motor: - we had used 6 motors of having 60rpm capacity. Which are connected to every
wheel separately. We had given separate motors because we wanted to give equal speed
to each and every wheel in order to control vehicle in off road conditions.

Micro-controller: - The microcontroller has its program according to that it receives


commands and performs the task. In this the dc driver is connected to its A1, A2 and B1,
B2 code also Rx, TX and 5V, GND connections are connected to the Bluetooth
controller. 8th 9th 10th 11th No. on Arduino UNO connected to DC driver controller which
controls wheel speed.

Bluetooth driver: - It is used to connect the mobile phone with the model in order to
give the commands like forward, reverse, right turn, left turn. This connects to the
Arduino UNO controller. Port Rx, Tx and 5V, GND are connected to the driver.

Wire: - These wires are connected to the wheel connections and also total system is
connected like that motor to the Driver controller to Arduino UNO to Bluetooth
controller also driver has two wires connected i.e. positive and negative supply are
connected to the Battery connections.

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4.4.4. Working-

In this project the working as follows-


As we known Mobile Robot used-
When we command in Mobile app which is known as Arduino Bluetooth Controller
Following Processes are the workings of the whole project -
1. We command to go in way but there is 4 directions to set the App
 Forward - 1
 Reverse - 2
 Left Turn - 3
 Right Turn – 4
These have separate numbering given in App to move the vehicle
2. These all directions have code in App are connected to Bluetooth Device
3. This device is connected to Arduino UNO to give the all information to Driver
Controller which controls the wheels rpm by using DC motors.
4. Micro controller it has separate power input which is Power Bank or Our Laptop
Driver pin connections which has 5.1 V
5. Also we use the 12 volt battery to give the separate power to each wheel
6. Also in this the wheel arrangement in this way
For Left turn
 1-2-3 no, wheels are in forward way and 4-5-6 no. wheels are to be in
reversed way
For Right turn it takes opposite way or vice versa.

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Wheel Directions

For Normal Vehicle For Our Model


Figure 4.15: Changing direction of Wheels

7. About the mob app whenever we give the command of START then the machine
is to be in START condition otherwise it does not.
Also to start the whole operation we connect Arduino micro controller to the separate
power supply of Power bank which has 5.1 V Port
It has only connect to 5.1 V port power supply because it has input standard of this
Arduino UNO. Then connections of wheels are to the Battery which has power of
12V and it gives separate power to each wheel when require and this control is
controlled by the Arduino UNO.
From this Arduino UNO connect to DC Driver to Convert the Speed of the Wheel.

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Fig. 4.16 Actual Model Diagram-

4.4.5. Specification

Bluetooth Driver – HCO5

Dc Driver – L293D

DC Motor – 12 Volt, 60 RPM

Arduino- UNO

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4.5.ARDUINO-UNO Coding Program

int first_motor_pin2 = 10;

int second_motor_pin1 = 9;

int second_motor_pin2 = 8;

char state;

int flag = 0;

void setup ( ) {

Serial.begin (9600);

PinMode (first_motor_pin1, OUTPUT);

pinMode (first_motor_pin2, OUTPUT);

pinMode (second_motor_pin1, OUTPUT);

pinMode (second_motor_pin2, OUTPUT);}

void loop ( ) {

if(Serial.available( ))

{state = Serial.read( );

4.6. Testing Of ATV Model-

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(a) Testing On (b) Testing on inclined surface

(c) Testing on Plane Road With Obstacles

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(d) Testing On Obstacle (e) Testing On Rocks

(f) Testing on small hill of soil (g) Testing on Rocks & Bricks

Fig.4.17 Testing Of ATV

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5.APPROXIMATE COST AND ESTIMATION

• Applicable Materials

Non-metal materials, such as acrylic, plastic, rubber, glass, etc.

• Costing-

Components Quantity Cost


Dc motor 6 500 each
Arduino UNO 1 1500
Wires 3m 450
Dc driver 1 600
Bluetooth driver 1 1200
Pvc pipes 10feet 200
Stud 5feet 750
Wheels 6 100 each
Acrylic Sheet 1 3000
Total Components Cost 11300

Table No. 6.1 Material Costing

• Material costing

Total Cost = Total components Cost + Cost of Laser Cutting + Other


Manufacturing Cost

+ Transportation cost

= 11300+1000+500+1000 = 13800

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6. CONCLUSION
1. The design of model found safe and reliable for various working conditions.

2. All the parameters like Safety, Cost, Reliability, Performance, Durability, aesthetics,
Standard dimensions & material are satisfactorily fulfilled.

3. The designed vehicle is able to stand against any road with any difficulty.

4. From Results we conclude that the design and manufactured model can climb the angle
up to 60-70˚. During stair climbing test for 50mm and 70 mm wheel Diameter, It is
possible to climb the stair at height of 15 % of height of the vehicle. At 70 degree
inclination, vehicle is travel easily in forward and reverse conditions with carrying the
load of its own.

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7. Future scope

1) Transport of soldiers to places where trucks cannot go , with minimal engine


noise as its run by electric motors.
2) Remote driven vehicle can be made using this vehicle structure that can help
transport material to remote areas .
3) With the development in technology the rover can be used for investigation
purpose with the cameras installed on the rover and minimizing the size of
rover.
4) Can be modified to large scale for military use.

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8. REFERENCES

1. G.R. Wilson, J.M. Andringa, L.W. Beegle, J.F. Jordan, G.S. Mungus, D.A.
Muliere, J. Vozoff, and T.J. Wilson. Mars surface mobility: Comparison of
past, present and future rover systems. In Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI,
pages 2219–2220. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2015.

2. Alois Winterholler. Development, design and verification of different wheel


concepts for NASA’s field integrated design and operations rover. Master’s thesis,
Fachhochschule Augsburg, Hochschule f¨ur Technik Wirtschaft Gestaltung,
University of Applied Sciences, November 2005.

3.Harrington, B.D. and Voorhees, C., “The challenges of designing the rocker-bogie
suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover”, 37th Aerospace Mechanisms 2009.

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