Sie sind auf Seite 1von 328

Prof M.

Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 1

DARAMA-I
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 2
SECTION-A
CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE: Doctor Faustus
RENAISSANCE SPIRIT IN DOCTOR FAUSTUS
Renaissance means revival of learning and restoration of knowledge and rebellion
against the medieval pattern of living and thinking, dominated by religious dogmas.
Actually at the first, it started in fourteenth century from Italy. Machiavelli was the first
writer of Italy who influenced the spirit of Renaissance by writing his famous book “The
Prince”.
In Elizabethan age, Christopher Marlowe achieved global popularity by writing
tragic history of Dr. Faustus. It is historically proved that over-ambition, quest of
knowledge, humanism, individualism and craze to get material benefits were salient
features of Renaissance. Marlowe himself was the product of Renaissance. He was
saturated with the spirit of Renaissance with its great yearning for limitless knowledge with
its hankering after sensual pleasures of life with its supreme lust for power and pelf, finally
with its spirit of revolt against the medieval pattern of life.
In Tragic History of Doctor Faustus, Marlowe is projecting his mouthpiece in the
shape of Dr. Faustus. A famous critic C. S. Lewis is of the opinion that car of ambition of
Dr. Faustus has reached the point of no return.
Faustus desires to touch impalpable to see the invisible and to hear the unheard
sounds. He wants to become Lord of Lords and commander of the elements.
“All things move between the quiet poles shall be at my command emperors and
kings are but obeyed in their several provinces.”
Renaissance spirit is crystal clear when we come to know that Faustus is forgetting
his limitations. He is already expert in philosophy, law, medicine and divinity. Even then he
says that he is still a Faustus and an ordinary man. Actually, he wants to become a
superman with great powers. It indicates his over-ambition.
“Yet thou art still but Faustus, and a man.”
Renaissance spirit is also visible when we see that Faustus is discovering all
branches of knowledge. He wants to perform miraculous deeds which are not possible by
the knowledge, he already has acquired. So, he prefers knowledge of black art and wants
to become a sound magician because he thinks that a sound magician is a mighty god.
“A sound magician is a mighty god;
Here, Faustus, tire thy brain to gain a deity.”
Renaissance spirit is also transparent when Faustus conjures Mephistopheles to
get unbridled powers. Even Faustus abjures trinity and sells his soul to Devil for ordinary
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 3
voluptuousness for twenty four years.
“So he will spare him four and twenty years,
Letting him live in all voluptuousness.”
Faustus craving for knowledge his insatiable curiosity and lust for power and pelf
very clearly reflects the spirit of Renaissance. And black art fascinates him only because
he will be able to gain limitless knowledge and superhuman powers. Hence, he turns a
deaf ear to the earnest appeal of good angel. But he at once makes up his mind when evil
angel whispers to him.
“Be thou on earth as Jove in the sky,
Lord and commander of these elements.”
Renaissance spirit is also visible in Act II Scene II when Faustus wants to repent
and pray to Holy Christ for redemption, Lucifer appears to warn him because he is injured
emotionally by this act of Faustus.
It is height of Renaissance that Faustus is determined that he will never name God
Almighty. He is willing to burn scriptures and even to pull the churches down.
“Never to name God, or to pray to him,
To him his scriptures, slay his ministers’
And make my spirits to pull his churches down.”
Filmy scene of seven deadly sins is also exposure of Renaissance. It is also
exposure of Renaissance. It is historically proved that during Renaissance, people were
becoming victim of seven deadly sins. They were proud, over-ambitious, jealous, greedy
and lecherous. They were preferring world to Christianity. These seven members of vice
are absorbed in Dr. Faustus. Therefore, he is incarnation and embodiment of these evils.
For instance, Faustus is so stubborn that he is not getting lesson from Mephistopheles
who is repenting on his rebellion against God. It is also Renaissance spirit that Faustus
does not fear from damnation.
“This word damnation terrifies not him,
For he confounds hell in Elysium;”
Elizabethan trends are also visible when Faustus is exposing his desires. He wants
to fly in the air and to build a wall around Germany. He is also crazy to command each
and every element. He is also willing that his spirits should search the Ocean to get pearls.
“I’ll have them fly to India for gold’ Ransack the ocean for orient pearl,”
Faustus’ love for sensual pleasure and beauty is also symbol of Renaissance. He
requests Mephistopheles to get the most beautiful German girl as his wife. And in the last
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 4
in the last Act, Faustus is also longing to have Helen as his paramour. He wants to
immortalize himself by kissing Helen. Even, he says that heaven lies in her lips.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie is of the opinion that Christopher Marlowe’s Dr.
Faustus is much the most interesting product of Renaissance because
Renaissance’s humanism, over-ambition, arrogance, skeptical and critical spirit are
present in this morality play.
To shrink the thread of debate, it can be averred that Tragic History of Dr. Faustus
is epitome of Renaissance.
DR. FAUSTUS AS MORALITY PLAY
Tragic History of Doctor Faustus is regarded as morality play because it fulfills
various requirements of morality play. It is historically proved that in old days, miracle or
biblical plays were very dominant. In these plays, miracle of saints and scene from Bible
were presented. With the passage of time, morality play started which aim was to teach
moral and ethical lesson to the people.
Marlowe has rightly called the morning star of Elizabethan Drama. His contribution
to evolving of romantic drama was great. But romantic drama was a curious blend of
indigenous and classical traditions. So, Dr. Faustus has all the qualities of morality play.
A critic C. Gillie says that Tragic History of “Doctor Faustus” is a morality play
because most of the pre requisites of morality play are presented in this creation.
In case of morality play emphasis was laid on chorus, comic scenes, symbolism,
personification, supernatural atmosphere soliloquies. In “Doctor Faustus”, in the opening
chorus, Marlowe has summarized the story through a mythology of a magician Deadalus
and his son Acarus.
“Till swollen with cunning, of a self-conceit
His waxen wings did mount above his reach.”
In this morality play, Faustus is analyzing philosophy, law, medicine and divinity. He
is intellectual and scholar of the day, but he is so myopic that he throws away Aristotle’s
book, Analytics and says that main aim of logic is only to argue well. He is a physician but
he wants to put soul into the dead body. Although, he is very famous and honorable yet he
thinks himself an ordinary man.
“Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man.”
Doctor Faustus is a morality play because it is full of ethics. People say that
Marlowe was an atheist, but I say that Marlowe is sitting on the pulpit of Christianity and
he is delivering moral sermon.
A critic William Hudson rightly says,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 5
"No finer sermon than Marlowe’s Faustus ever came from the pulpit. What
more fearsome exposure was ever offered of the punishment man brings upon
himself by giving way to temptation of his grosser appetites”
Doctor Faustus is a morality play because Marlowe has propounded ethical
dogmas in very symbolic manner. In the last chorus, Marlowe is preaching the reader to
shun away magic, seven deadly sins and other blunders. He also teaches us not to cross
the limits that God Almighty has set.
“Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight,

And burned is apple’s laurel bough


That sometimes grew with in this learned man
Faustus is gone; regard his hellish fall
Whose fiendful fortune exhort the wise
Only to wonder at unlawful things.”
The comic scenes of Doctor Faustus also belong to the tradition of morality play. It
is a comic scene of Act I scene II that two scholars appear and ask Wagner about Doctor
Faustus. Instead of replying that Faustus is enjoying the company of Valdes and
Cornelius, he says;
“God in Heaven knows.”
Doctor Faustus is a morality play because we find a number of comic scenes in it. It
is a smile provoking scene that two horns are created by Faustus, on the head of the
knight. Another comic scene is that Faustus is sleeping after selling his magic horse, but
horse courser appears and pulls of his leg.
“O, my leg, my leg – Help Mephistopheles! Call the officers! ---- My leg, my leg!”
Another comic scene is that Faustus, being invisible, snatching dishes from the Pope.
Another tradition of morality play is allegory and personification. There are
personified abstractions in Doctor Faustus. For example, good and evil angels are
personified. Good Angel advises him to deviate from evil because evil is condemnable
and a constant danger for him. But evil angel is advising him adversely. So, Faustus is
suffering from tragic conflict. Another example of personification is seven deadly sins;
Pride, covet, wrath, sloth, envy, lechery and gluttony. Pride says,
“I am pride; I disdain to have any parents.”
It is an exposure of morality that Marlowe is advising us to shun away from seven
deadly sins because this vice pursuit may lead us to hell. It is a truth universally
acknowledged that virtue is everlasting and vice is attractive but repents ultimately.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 6
Marlowe is imparting a hidden message that religion is a binding force. Marlowe is also
aware of the fact that poetic justice prevails in the end virtue is awarded and evil punished.
Hence, Doctor Faustus is punished in the end. He is advised by old man, who is a
symbol of repentance but he remains stubborn.
“Accused Faustus, miserable man,
That from thy soul exclud’st the grace of heaven.”
Faustus goes against the code of morality when he says that heaven lies in the lips
of Helen. He also requests Helen of Troy to immortalize him by kissing.
“Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss,

Her lips such forth my soul; see where it flies!


Come, Helen, Come, give me my soul again.”
In this morality play, supernatural elements like Lucifer, Beelzebub,
Mephistopheles, Good and Evil Angels and Hell are also exposed. As in his last soliloquy,
Faustus says,
“Ugly Hell, gape not, come not Lucifer.”
In this moral play, Marlowe giver the expression to his thought that he is feeling
pang to see the people of his age, deviate from the ethical values and not leading pure
life. He not only denounces the people like Faustus but also advises us not to avoid from
the standard code of conduct.
Consequently I can say that “Doctor Faustus” is a towering and distinguishing
morality play.
DAMNATION IN DR. FAUSTUS
Christopher Marlowe is really the morning star of Elizabethan Drama and a true
representative of Renaissance spirit. It is historically proved that during that during the
period of Renaissance most of the people were over ambitious. They deserved to touch
the impalpable things, desiring to see invisible things and also to hear unheard sound. In
“Doctor Faustus”, Marlowe has shown mirror to the same behaviour of the people. As Dr.
Faustus is incarnation of Renaissance, so he is damned due to his over-ambitious nature.
A famous critic C. S. Lewis is of the opinion that car of ambition of Doctor Faustus
has reached the point of no return. So, ultimately he was damned to hell.
In the opening chorus, Marlowe has quoted the mythology of Deadalus and his son
Lcarus, who behaved over ambitious.
“Till swoln with cunning, of a self-conceit,
His waxen wings did mount above his reach.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 7
First cause of damnation is that Faustus is throwing away Aristotelian book, Analytics.
Being a self-conceited person, Doctor Faustus is rejecting a classical master-piece of
philosophy.
“Then read no more; thou hast attain’d that end.”
Second cause of decline is that Doctor Faustus desires to become Holy Christ. He wants
to resurrect the dead body. He also desires to have the ability to make a man immortal.
“Or, being dead, raise them to life again.”
Third cause of determination is that Faustus is over projecting himself. He thinks that he is
still Faustus and a man. He dreams to be a superman.
“Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man.”
Fourth reason is that Faustus is performing magic to divinity, law, medicine and
philosophy. The following statement is very blasphemous.
“What doctrine call you this, che sera, sera
what will be, shall be? Divinity adieu!”
Fifth cause of condemnation is that Faustus is turning deaf ears to the advice of Good
Angel who is advising him to read scripture in place of magic book.
“Read, read the scriptures; that is blasphemy”
Sixth reason of decline is that Faustus is under the spell of evil angel. He is alluring him to
be lord of the lords and commander of the elements.
Seventh cause of damnation is that Faustus is determined to learn the art of magic from
Valdes and Cornelius. It is fact that magic is not allowed in any religion.
Eighth cause of deterioration is that Faustus is saying that philosophy is odious and
obscure. Law and physics are for petty wits. It is really condemnable that he says that
Divinity is the basest.
“Both law and physics are for petty wits;
Divinity is the basest of the three.”
Ninth reason of condemnation is that Doctor is enjoying the company of magicians but he
is shunning away from company of scholars.
Tenth cause of decline is that Faustus is conjuring Mephistopheles after abjuring is not
allowed in Christianity but even then he is becoming obstinate and brazen faced creature.
Eleventh cause of downfall is that Faustus has become Devil disciple. He believes that he
should be epicurean in his taste. He is in search of power, delight and other aspects of
Renaissance.
“O what a world of profit and delight, of power of honour, of omnipotence.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 8
Twelfth reason of damnation is that Faustus has conjured Mephistopheles; he is crazy to
sell his soul to Devil. In this way, he is intentional in his blasphemy.
Thirteenth reason of condemnation is that Faustus is dedicating his soul to Lucifer for
ordinary voluptuousness for twenty four years.
“So he will spare him four and twenty years,
Letting him live in all voluptuousness;
Fourteenth reason of deterioration is that Doctor Faustus is not getting lesson from
Mephistopheles who is repenting at his rebellion against God. Contrary to this he says that
he does not fear from damnation.
“This word, damnation terrifies not him,”
Fifteenth cause of damnation is that Faustus is writing the bond with his own blood. Even
his blood congeals but he is stubborn.
Sixteenth cause of decline is that Faustus fears from Satan, but he does not fear for Allah
Almighty. He says,
“And Faustus vows never to look to heaven,
Never to name God, or to pray to him,”
Seventeenth cause of decline is that Faustus is enjoying the filmy scenes of seven deadly
sins: Pride, Covet, Wrath, Sloth, Envy, Gluttony and Lechery.
Eighteenth reason of downfall is that Faustus is insulting Pope. He snatches dishes from
him and thus humiliates him.
Nineteenth cause of damnation is that Doctor Faustus is curse by everyone in the church.
They prepared a dirge for him and cursed him collectively.
Twentieth cause of damnation is that Doctor Faustus is insulting the Knight in the court of
the king and creates two horns on his head.
Twenty First reason of damnation is that Faustus cheats a horse courser and sells him a
magic horse for forty dollars.
Twenty second reason of decline is that Faustus is not obeying the commandments of
old man, who is the symbol of repentance.
Twenty third reason is that Faustus says that Heaven lies in Helen’s lips and that he can
immortalize himself by kissing her.
“Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss,
Her lips such forth my soul; see where it flies!
Come, Helen, Come, give me my soul again.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 9
Twenty fourth cause of damnation of Faustus is that he is cursing his parents who
engendered him.
Core and Crux of the matter is that Doctor Faustus is damned due to so many
reasons.

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet


HAMLET'S SOLILOQUIES (PART 1)
O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I!
Now I am alone. O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! (555)
Is it not monstrous that this player here,
But in a fiction, in a dream of passion,
Could force his soul so to his own conceit
That from her working all his visage wann'd,
Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect, (560)
A broken voice, and his whole function suiting
With forms to his conceit? and all for nothing!
For Hecuba!
What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba,
That he should weep for her? What would he do, (565)
Had he the motive and the cue for passion
That I have? He would drown the stage with tears
And cleave the general ear with horrid speech,
Make mad the guilty and appal the free,
Confound the ignorant, and amaze indeed (570)
The very faculties of eyes and ears. Yet I,
A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak,
Like John-a-dreams, unpregnate of my cause,
And can say nothing; no, not for a king,
Upon whose property and most dear life (575)
A damn'd defeat was made. Am I a coward?
Who calls me villain? breaks my pate across?
Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face?
Tweaks me by the nose? gives me the lie i' the throat,
As deep as to the lungs? who does me this? (580)
Ha!
'Swounds, I should take it: for it cannot be
But I am pigeon-liver'd and lack gall
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 10
To make oppression bitter, or ere this
I should have fatted all the region kites (585)
With this slave's offal: bloody, bawdy villain!
Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain!
O, vengeance!
Why, what an ass am I! This is most brave,
That I, the son of a dear father murder'd, (590)
Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell,
Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words,
And fall a-cursing, like a very drab,
A scullion!
Fie upon't! foh! About, my brain! I have heard (595)
That guilty creatures sitting at a play
Have by the very cunning of the scene
Been struck so to the soul that presently
They have proclaim'd their malefactions;
For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak (600)
With most miraculous organ. I'll have these players
Play something like the murder of my father
Before mine uncle: I'll observe his looks;
I'll tent him to the quick: if he but blench,
I know my course. The spirit that I have seen (605)
May be the devil: and the devil hath power
To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps
Out of my weakness and my melancholy,
As he is very potent with such spirits,
Abuses me to damn me: I'll have grounds (610)
More relative than this: the play 's the thing
Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king.
rogue ] Useless vagrant.
peasant ] A person of little integrity (see The Taming of the Shrew 4.1.113).
player...Hecuba ] This passage is often very difficult for students, and standard
annotations leave them wanting. So it is best paraphrased:
Is it not horribly unfair that this actor, pretending to feel great passion, could, based on
what he has conceived in his own mind, force his own soul to believe the part that he is
playing, so much so that all the powers of his body adapt themselves to suit his acting
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 11
needs, so that he grows agitated ("distraction in's aspect"), weeps, and turns pale
("wann'd")? And why does he carry on so? Why does he pretend until he truly makes
himself weep? For Hecuba! But why? What are they to each other?
Hamlet wishes he could arouse his passions so.
Hecuba ] Trojan queen and heroine of classical mythology. Earlier in 2.2 Hamlet asks the
First Player to recite a monologue retelling Hecuba's response to the death of her
husband, King Priam. The Player tells us that Hecuba's grief was profound and "Would
have made milch the burning eyes of heaven/And passion in the gods" (505-6). The
contrast between Gertrude and Hecuba should be noted. To Hamlet, Hecuba has
responded appropriately to her husband's death, while Gertrude has not.
cue for passion ] The reason for strong feelings.
Make mad the guilty ] "By his description of the crime he would drive those spectators
mad who had any such sin on their conscience and would horrify even the
innocent(Kittredge 68),
amaze ] Plunge into confusion.
muddy-mettled ] Dull-spirited.
peak ] Moping about; languishing, unable to act.
John-a-dreams ] A nickname for a dreamer.
unpregnant ] "Pregnant" here does not mean "with child", but rather, quick or ready. Thus
to be "unpregnant" is to be unable to act quickly.
pate ] Head.
swounds ] God's wounds.
pigeon-liver'd ] In the Renaissance, the gentle disposition of the Dove was explained by
the argument that it had no gall and thus no capacity to feel resentment or to seek
revenge. The liver also was seen as the body's storehouse for courage.
region kites ] The birds of prey in the region, circling in the sky, waiting to feed. If Hamlet
were not "pigeon-liver'd" (583) he would have long ago fed Claudius to the hawks.
kindless ] Unnatural.
drab ] A whore.
scullion ] A kitchen helper, either man or woman but usually a woman. It was a term used
to show contempt. One should note that in the second quarto, scullion was actually
"stallyon", which means a male whore. Scholars are still undecided on the matter, but
scullion is the more generally accepted of the two.
proclaim'd their malefactions ] Announced their evil deeds.
blench ] Flinch.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 12
COMMENTARY
In addition to revealing Hamlet's plot to catch the king in his guilt, Hamlet's second
soliloquy uncovers the very essence of Hamlet's true conflict. For he is undeniably
committed to seeking revenge for his father, yet he cannot act on behalf of his father due
to his revulsion toward extracting that cold and calculating revenge. "Hamlet's sense of
himself as a coward is derived from a crude, simplistic judgment turning on whether or not
he has yet taken any action against the man who murdered his father. His self-
condemnation takes several bizarre forms, including histrionic imaginings of a series of
demeaning insults that he absorbs like a coward because he feels he has done nothing to
take revenge on Claudius" (Newell 61). Determined to convince himself to carry out the
premeditated murder of his uncle, Hamlet works himself into a frenzy (the culmination of
which occurs at lines 394-95). He hopes that his passions will halt his better judgment and
he will then be able to charge forth and kill Claudius without hesitation. But Hamlet again
fails to quell his apprehensions of committing murder and cannot act immediately. So he
next tries to focus his attention on a plan to ensure Claudius admits his own guilt. He
returns to an idea that had crossed his mind earlier -- that of staging the play "the
Mousetrap". Hamlet is convinced that, as Claudius watches a re-enactment of his crime,
he will surely reveal his own guilt. Hamlet cannot take the word of his father's ghost, who
really might be "the devil" (606), tricking him into damning himself. Thus, he must have
more material proof before he takes Claudius's life -- he must "catch the conscience of the
king".
THIRD SOLILOQUY
To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer (65)
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks (70)
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, (75)
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 13
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, (80)
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life, (85)
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of? (90)
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry, (95)
And lose the name of action.-- Soft you now!
The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy orisons
Be all my sins remember'd.
slings ] Some argue that "slings" is a misprint of the intended word, "stings". "The stings
of fortune" was a common saying in the Renaissance. But in the context of the soliloquy,
"slings" likely means "sling-shot" or "missile". This seems in keeping with the reference to
"arrows" - both can do great harm.
outrageous fortune ] Fortune is "outrageous" in that it is brazenly defiant.
And by opposing end them ] If you cannot suffer the "slings and arrows of outrageous
fortune" then you must end your troubles with suicide.
consummation ] Final settlement of all matters.
rub ] Impediment. The term comes from bowling, where the "rub" is any obstacle the
pushes the ball off course.
shuffled off this mortal coil ] To separate from one's body (mortal coil = body).
respect ] Consideration.
of so long life ] So long-lived.
time ] Time = temporal life.
his quietus make ] Settle his own account.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 14
bare bodkin ] A "mere dagger". Bodkin was a Renaissance term used to describe many
different sharp instruments, but it makes the most sense here to assume Shakespeare
means a dagger.
fardels ] Burdens.
No traveller returns ] Since Hamlet has already encountered his father's ghost, and thus
proof of the afterlife, this line has raised much debate. There are four major current
theories regarding this line: 1) Shakespeare made an egregious error and simply failed to
reconcile the appearance of the ghost and Hamlet's belief that human beings do not
return; 2) Hamlet has earlier revealed that he doubts the authenticity of the ghost and,
therefore, he does not believe his father has truly returned; 3) Hamlet is referring only to
human beings returning in the flesh and not as mere shadows of their former selves; 4)
the entire soliloquy is misplaced and rightfully belongs before Hamlet has met his father's
ghost. In my estimation, theory #4 seems the most plausible.
bourn ] Limit or boundary.
native hue of resolution ] Natural. Here Hamlet refers to the "natural color of courage".
pale cast of thought ] Sickly tinge of contemplation.
great pitch and moment ] Of momentous significance. The "pitch" was the name given to
the highest point in a falcon's flight before it dives down to catch its prey.
With this regard their currents turn awry] A reference to the sea and its tides: "Because
of their thoughts, their currents become unstable".
Soft you now ] "But hush!". Hamlet hears Ophelia begin to pray and he must cut short his
private ponderances.
Nymph ] See commentary below.
orisons ] Prayers.
COMMENTARY
Unlike Hamlet's first two major soliloquies, the third and most famous speech seems to be
governed by reason and not frenzied emotion. Unable to do little but wait for completion of
his plan to "catch the conscience of the king", Hamlet sparks an internal philosophical
debate on the advantages and disadvantages of existence, and whether it is one's right to
end his or her own life. Some scholars limit Hamlet's discussion to a deliberation of
whether he should take his own life. "Yet nothing anywhere in the speech relates it to
Hamlet's individual case. He uses the pronouns 'we' and 'us', the indefinite 'who', the
impersonal infinitive. He speaks explicitly of 'us all', of what 'flesh' is heir to, of what 'we'
suffer at the hands of 'time' or 'fortune' - which serves incidentally to indicate what for
Hamlet is meant by 'to be'" (Jenkins 489). Hamlet asks the question for all dejected souls -
- is it nobler to live miserably or to end one's sorrows with a single stroke? He knows that
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 15
the answer would be undoubtedly "yes" if death were like a dreamless sleep. The "rub"
or obstacle Hamlet faces is the fear of "what dreams may come" (74), i.e. the "dread of
something after death" (86). Hamlet is well aware that suicide is condemned by the church
as a mortal sin.
Hamlet's soliloquy is interrupted by Ophelia who is saying her prayers. Hamlet addresses
her as "Nymph", a courtly salutation common in the Renaissance. Some critics argue that
Hamlet's greeting is strained and coolly polite, and his request that she remembers him in
her prayers is sarcastic. However, others claim that Hamlet, emerging from his moment of
intense personal reflection, genuinely implores the gentle and innocent Ophelia to pray for
him.
Hamlet's Soliloquies (Part 2)
Tis now the very witching time of night (3.2.380-391)
Tis now the very witching time of night, (380)
When churchyards yawn and hell itself breathes out
Contagion to this world: now could I drink hot blood,
And do such bitter business as the day
Would quake to look on. Soft! now to my mother.
O heart, lose not thy nature; let not ever (385)
The soul of Nero enter this firm bosom:
Let me be cruel, not unnatural:
I will speak daggers to her, but use none;
My tongue and soul in this be hypocrites;
How in my words soever she be shent, (390)
To give them seals never, my soul, consent!
witching ] The reference is to the witches' sabbath, when they perform their evil rites,
including conjuring up the devil and drinking human blood.
yawn ] Open to release the dead.
Contagion ] Fumes that carry disease.
could I drink hot blood ] Hamlet compares himself to witches accused of consuming
human blood. This is a reference to the Renaissance belief that witches killed and then
drank the blood of recently buried children. Hamlet does not truly believe that he is
capable of drinking blood, but he now feels capable of perpetrating evil of another kind --
murder.
day ] Daytime. The contrast is between bright, benevolent daytime, which would "quake" if
it saw Hamlet's evil deeds, and dark, sinister nighttime, which would delight in such deeds.
Soft ] Enough!
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 16
nature ] Natural feelings between a son and his mother.
Nero ] The infamous Nero, Roman emperor from 54 to 68 A.D., is remembered primarily
for his persecution of Christians and his involvement in the burning of Rome in 64 A.D.
Nero murdered his mother who had poisoned her husband, emperor Claudius, and
Hamlet fears that anger might compel him likewise to harm his mother.
speak daggers] Utter piercing words of contempt. Hamlet certainly does "speak daggers"
in3.4.
hypocrites ] His soul and his words must together be hypocrites, uniting to give the
illusion that he wants to harm Gertrude. For more, see the commentary below.
shent ] Violently berated or blamed.
give them seals ] Confirm the words by taking action. The seal (or stamp) of the royal
court authenticated documents and made the words therein lawful and binding. Hamlet is
here reaffirming that he will punish Gertrude only with words.
COMMENTARY
Hamlet's plan to "catch the conscience of the king" has been a success, and Claudius has
retired, distraught, to his chamber. Thrilled that his scheme worked, Hamlet experiences a
sudden surge of confidence which prompts the first half of this short soliloquy. Hamlet is
now sure that he could easily complete the "bitter business" of revenge; sure that he could
murder his uncle without hesitation. However, Claudius is out of reach for the moment,
and so Hamlet turns his attention to his mother, revealing in the second half of the
soliloquy his intentions to force Gertrude to make a full confession. Although Hamlet still
loves his mother, he must be cruel to her in order to facilitate the admission of her guilt.
Hamlet says, "My tongue and soul in this be hypocrites" (389), because he knows that he
must feign violent intentions towards his mother, and that his words must express those
false intentions. Hamlet is becoming like the players who so mystified him in 2.2:
Is it not monstrous that this player here,
But in a fiction, in a dream of passion,
Could force his soul so to his own conceit
That from her working all his visage wann'd,
Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect, (560)
A broken voice, and his whole function suiting
With forms to his conceit? and all for nothing!
For Hecuba! (556-563)
Hamlet once wished that he could manipulate his emotions and behavior like a player, and
now it seems he can.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 17
How all occasions do inform against me, (35)
And spur my dull revenge! What is a man,
If his chief good and market of his time
Be but to sleep and feed? a beast, no more.
Sure, he that made us with such large discourse,
Looking before and after, gave us not (40)
That capability and god-like reason
To fust in us unused. Now, whether it be
Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple
Of thinking too precisely on the event,
A thought which, quarter'd, hath but one part wisdom (45)
And ever three parts coward, I do not know
Why yet I live to say 'This thing's to do;'
Sith I have cause and will and strength and means
To do't. Examples gross as earth exhort me:
Witness this army of such mass and charge (50)
Led by a delicate and tender prince,
Whose spirit with divine ambition puffed
Makes mouths at the invisible event,
Exposing what is mortal and unsure
To all that fortune, death and danger dare, (55)
Even for an egg-shell. Rightly to be great
Is not to stir without great argument,
But greatly to find quarrel in a straw
When honour's at the stake. How stand I then,
That have a father kill'd, a mother stain'd, (60)
Excitements of my reason and my blood,
And let all sleep? while, to my shame, I see
The imminent death of twenty thousand men,
That, for a fantasy and trick of fame,
Go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot (65)
Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause,
Which is not tomb enough and continent
To hide the slain? O, from this time forth,
My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth!
inform against ] Accuse me.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 18
market ] Employment.
discourse ] The power of reason. God gave human beings the ability to reflect on life's
events.
Looking before and after ] Our intelligence allows us to analyze past experiences and
make rational judgments about the future.
fust ] Grow mouldy. Hamlet is saying that God did not give us the power of reason for it to
go unused.
Bestial oblivion ] The forgetfulness of an animal. Our capability to remember separates
mankind from other animals or "beasts". But Hamlet forgetting Claudius's deeds is clearly
not why he delays the murder.
craven scruple ] Cowardly feelings.
of ] From.
event ] Outcome.
quarter'd ] Meticulously analyzed (literally, divided into four).
Sith ] Since.
gross ] Obvious.
mass and charge ] Size and cost. Hamlet is referring to the army led by Fortinbras, prince
of Norway. Hamlet wishes he had Fortinbras's courage.
puff'd ] Inflated.
Makes mouths at the invisible event ] Shows contempt for (or cares not about) the
uncertain outcome of battle.
Rightly to be great...stake ] Truly great men refrain from fighting over insignificant things,
but they will fight without hesitation over something trivial when their honour is at risk.
"True nobility of soul is to restrain one's self unless there is a great cause for resentment,
but nobly to recognize even a trifle as such as cause when honour is involved" (Kittredge
121). Ironically, "Hamlet never learns from the Captain or attempts to clarify what the
specific issue of honor is that motivates the Prince of Norway. In fact, there is none, for the
play has made it clear that Fortinbras's uncle, after discovering and stopping his nephew's
secret and illegal revenge campaign against Claudius, encouraged him to use newly
levied forces to fight in Poland...Since no issue of honor is to be found in Fortinbras's
cause, Hamlet, through his excessive desire to emulate the Norwegian leader, ironically
calls into question whether there is any honour in his own cause" (Newell 143).
twenty thousand men ] In line 25, it was 20000 ducats and only 2000 men. It is
undecided whether this confusion is Hamlet's or Shakespeare's.
blood ] Passions.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 19
trick of fame ] Trifle of reputation. But is not Hamlet jealous of Fortinbras and his ability
to fight in defense of his honour? "Fortinbras is enticed by a dream, and thousands must
die for it. Hamlet's common sense about the absurdity of Fortinbras's venture shows the
pointlessness of his envy" (Edwards 193). See the commentary below for more on this
point.
Whereon...slain ] The cause is not significant enough to consume the thousands of men
fighting over it, and the tombs and coffins are not plentiful enough to hold those who are
killed (continent = container).
COMMENTARY
Hamlet's final soliloquy appears in Q2 but not in the First Folio. Some critics argue that
Shakespeare himself cut the passage from the Folio as he made revisions to his work
over the years before his death. It is possible that the editors of the Folio printed a copy
revised by Shakespeare, but it is highly unlikely that Shakespeare would mutilate his own
work by removing such an integral part of the play. Hamlet's last soliloquy is crucial to our
understanding of his character development. By the end of the soliloquy, Hamlet brings to
a halt his solemn contemplation on the immoral act of murderous revenge, and finally
accepts it as his necessary duty. It is not that Hamlet has presented a solid and
reasonable argument to convince himself of his terrible responsibility; rather he has driven
himself to the conclusion with intense and distorted thoughts. Hamlet accuses himself of
forgetting his father in that "bestial oblivion" (43), yet, he thinks his problem could be
"thinking too precisely on the event" (44). Moreover, although Hamlet has seen Fortinbras
only for a moment earlier in the play, and knows nothing of his true motives for going to
war, Hamlet convinces himself that Fortinbras is fighting to protect his honour. Part of
Hamlet relishes the idea of such conviction, however illogical and futile, and so he focuses
on the image of Fortinbras courageously leading his troupes. Hamlet's reason, the part of
him that has been dominant throughout the play; the part of him that questions the
"honour" in murder and revenge, this time cannot provide a rebuttal. So Hamlet is
overcome by his obligations to enact revenge. Hamlet was once greatly distressed over
having to exact payment for his father's murder, even though the reason for such revenge
was weighty indeed. Now, Hamlet commends idea of the "imminent death of twenty
thousand men" for a ludicrous" fantasy and trick of fame"(63-4).
DELAY OR PROCRASTINATION IN HAMLET
Delay is very controversial issue in ‘Hamlet’. Critics have different opinions about
Hamlet’s procrastination to kill his uncle King Claudius. Some of them have the opinion
that there is no delay in ‘Hamlet’. If there is any delay, it is from Shakespeare, not from
Hamlet, because Hamlet is the puppet in the hands of Shakespeare. For example a critic
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 20
Stoll is of the opinion if at all there is any delay; it is Shakespeare’s not Hamlet’s. For he
believes if Hamlet had killed Claudius instantly, there would have been no play at all, so,
the dramatist is bound to delay the hero’s revenge.
The other side of the picture is that there is delay in ‘Hamlet’ and the hero is
procrastinating to get revenge. One critic thinks that Hamlet should not delay after
capturing the conscience of his uncle.
Actually, in third soliloquy, Hamlet is reluctant to kill his uncle just for the sake of
commandment of a ghost. He thinks that the ghost seen by him may be a devil, because
devil can appear in different pleasant shapes and his purpose may be to exploit his
melancholic nature. So, he is determined to stage a play “The Murder of Gonzago” to
capture the guiltiness of his uncle and also to confirm the statement of the ghost.
“The spirit that I have seen

May be Devil, and the Devil hath power


T’assume a pleasing shape, ------------
The play’s the thing
Wherein I’ll catch conscience of the king.”
One reason of delay is may be, that the king is not a layman. But he is a king and is
not only surrounded by courtiers but also protected by a Swiss bodyguard. Hamlet has no
apparent solid reason to kill the King publicly. There is a conflict in his mind about what to
do, so he waits. Actually Hamlet is a philosopher, intellectual and scholar of the day.
Such an erudite genius can not label himself as a murderer provided that there is no other
possibility than this totally unnatural act. It is a matter of general observation that an
intellectual can not be pocket-picker, murderer or habitual criminal. For example, Ahmad
Nadeem Qasmi, Fatima Surriya Bajia, Ishfaq Ahmed or Bano Qudsia can never be a
murderer, because of there scrupulous nature. Same is the case with Hamlet. It is also a
fact that knowledge or conscience makes us coward and reluctant.
“Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,”
Another cause of delay is an excessive tendency in ‘Hamlet’ to reflection and
speculations. He thinks much about the ins and outs of his action. For example in Act III
Scene III, Hamlet gets a chance to kill Claudius, when he is bowing in front of an altar and
there is no guard around him. But Hamlet’s believe that God Almighty loves repentance
and repentant stops him to kill his uncle at this time. So, he postpones his will to kill his
uncle and remains in search of the most suitable opportunity. He elevates his sword and
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 21
plans that he will kill his uncle at the time of his incestuous pleasure or at his drinking
time or at the time of his commitment of any other blunder.
“Up, sword, and know thou a more horrid hent;
When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage,
Or in th’ incestuous pleasure of his bed.”
It is rightly remarked that man purposes and God Almighty disposes. And there are
so many slips between cups and lips. Actually Hamlet is determined to kill his uncle, but
there are some impediments. For example, during proceedings, Polonius is killed for
nothing. Hamlet never thought to kill his expected father-in-law. But Polonius was very
officious person. He is offering his services to King Claudius as a spy. Hamlet has taken
Polonius for King Claudius, when he is spying and kills him unintentionally. This particular
act shows that there is no delay from Hamlet. Hamlet has killed the king. But it is the
matter of fate and chance that after this sudden murder shrewd King got a clue to send
Hamlet to England.
It is also main cause of delay that Hamlet has to go to the ship for England. He has
to defeat the pirates, so that he may return to his native city with new determination.
It is height of tragedy that Ophelia is drowned. Ophelia’s death is another cause of
delay because this unexpected death also prolongs the life of wicked King. Just after
listening the sobbing sound of Laertes, Hamlet rushes to the grave and both of them start
claiming their love for Ophelia. Now Hamlet yells and exposes his love by saying that forty
thousand brothers can not compete one lover.
“Hamlet: I lov’d Ophelia, forty thousand brothers could not
with all their quantity of love make up my sum.”
Another cause of procrastination is that Hamlet has to fight fencing with Laertes.
Claudius is so cunning like devil that he leaves no stone unturned to kill his nephew. He
hits upon a plan and motivates Laertes to kill Prince Hamlet with venomous sword. The
situation becomes more adverse, when Queen dies at the spot after drinking poisonous
liquid. It is fact that lion always faces from the front but the Jackal attacks from behind.
During fencing, Laertes stable Hamlet’s arm but Hamlet also injures him severely. Now,
Laertes reveals the conspiracy of the King while he was dying. It is another fact that
injured lion delays no more. So Hamlet kills his uncle immediately. No doubt, he who digs
pit for others falls in it himself.
A famous critic Deviel Bevington says, “Several limits can be placed upon the
search for an explanation of Hamlet’s apparent hesitation to avenge. He is not ineffectual
under ordinary circumstances.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 22
To shrink the thread of debate, we can say that Hamlet’s delay is very
controversial issue. Actually, Hamlet is in search of the most suitable opportunity. So,
Hamlet’s delay is dramatic requirement.
HAMLET’S ANTIC DISPOSITION
Hamlet’s madness or Antic Disposition is a very controversial phenomenon critics have
different opinions on this issue. One critic is of the opinion that Hamlet is a unique
intellectual, philosopher and rational being. He is a man of multidimensional personality.
He is a very good courtier and a man of perception. Even his qualities are admitted by his
beloved Ophelia in the following manner.
“O, what a noble mind is here o’er thrown-!
The courtier’s, soldier’s, scholar’s, eye, tongue, sword,
Th’ expectancy and rose of the fair state,
The glass of fashion and the mould of form”
The other side of the picture is that Hamlet is regarded as mad and he has lost his
reason under the pressure of circumstances, such as his mother’s hasty re-marriage and
the ghost’s revelation that Hamlet’s father was murdered by his uncle. Even one critic says
that
Hamlet’s madness is a maddening question.
Now the question arises, was Hamlet really mad or he was feigning madness?
In my opinion, Hamlet was not mad, but he was pretending to be mad. His purpose was to
confirm the truth of the statement of the ghost. In Act I Scene V, Hamlet himself says to
Horatio that he is putting an antic-disposition on his persona.
“Hamlet: As I purchase hereafter shall think meet,
to put an antic disposition on----“
Hamlet can not be regarded as mad because he is not willing to be emotional and
passionate. But before taking any action, he thinks thoroughly about the ins and outs of
the matter. For example, in order to confirm the statement of the ghost, he wants to stage
a play. He thinks that the ghost seen by him may be a Devil and his purpose may be to
allure him. So in third soliloquy Hamlet is of the opinion that he should have more relative
grounds to kill his uncle.
“Hamlet: I’ll have grounds more relative than this. The play’s the thing.
Wherein, I’ll catch the conscience of the king.”
Actually, Hamlet is a man of melancholic nature. He remains contemplating,
meditating and cogitating Hamlet’s intellect and wisdom is transparent in his soliloquies.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 23
All the soliloquies of Hamlet are not only perfectly coherent and logical but have a depth
of thought which reveal Hamlet as a profound thinker. His reasoning in these soliloquies
shows him as a marvelous scholar and philosopher. A mad person can not deliver such
speeches.
In forth soliloquy, Hamlet gives us the philosophy of unseen world fall after death.
And fear of happening something unexpected prevents the man to commit suicide. It also
shows that our conscience makes us coward and awareness makes us scrupulous.
“Thus conscience does made cowards of us all.”
Hamlet is a unique religious scholar also. He believes that God Almighty likes
repentance. So he does to kill his uncle, when he is repenting and bowing before altar. If
he had been made, he would have killed his uncle at that particular time, when there was
no security around King Claudius also. Therefore, Hamlet’s religious bent of mind is
crystal clear. It is also a unique idea that Hamlet is planning that he will kill his uncle at the
time of his blunder. For example, when he will be in his rage or will be enjoying his sexual
pleasure.
“Up, sword, and know thou a more horrid hent;

When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage,


Or in th’ incestuous pleasure of his bed,
At game a-swearing or about some act.”
Hamlet is not mad but he is so refined and perceptive analyst. He is lucky enough
to pick the point of the ghost of his father immediately. The ghost is very ambiguous in his
statement, when he is revealing the reality but Hamlet picks the point. The ghost reveals
that the whole ear of Denmark know that King Hamlet was stung by a serpent. If Kind is
really stung by a serpent, then that particular serpent is sitting on his throne and he is
wearing his crown also.
“Ghost: The serpent that did sting thy father’s life
Now wears his crown.
Hamlet: O my prophetic soul! My uncle!”
Hamlet is really intellectual and scholar. Therefore, he is making his mother realize
that she has committed blunder. It is also remarked that Hamlet desired to speak daggers
to her but he did not want to use any dagger.
Another point of Hamlet’s wisdom is that he is quoting Nero who committed
matricide. But Hamlet has no intentions to do so. Hamlet is so wise, scholastic,
appreciable and perceptive that his quotations are still quoted by educated gentry just like.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 24
Firstly, nothing is good; nothing is bad, only thinking makes it so. Secondly,
Frailty, thy name is woman. Thirdly, Devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape.
Fourthly, one may smile and smile and be a villain. Fifthly, thus our conscience does make
cowards of us all. Hamlet also says, “What is a man if his chief good and market of his
time, Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more, Hamlet can not be regarded as mad
because he is producer as well as director of a play, “ The Murder of Gonzogo or Mouse
trap”. If Nusrat Thakkur or Sayed Noor is not mad, then, why Hamlet is blamed for
nothing?
Hamlet’s remarks and observations in the grave diggers, scene are another
example of his sane thinking and sane talk. Looking at Yorick’s skull he recalls the days of
his childhood, when he used to play with Yorick. His comments upon the skull of a
politician are equally full of sense and pregnant with meanings. A mad person can never
do that.
On the other side of picture is that people regard him mad because of his
melancholic nature. He remains contemplating and cogitating one critic opines that forth
soliloquy is superfluous. Because, when in third soliloquy, he has decided to stage a play
then there should be no conflict in his mind afterward.
A famous critic T.S. Eliot is of the opinion that that Hamlet’s madness is less than
madness and more than feigned.
To complete the bead of rosary of my discussion, I can say that Hamlet was not mad but
he was melancholic.

HAMLET AS A TYPICAL REVENGE TRAGEDY/


AS AN ARISTOTELIAN THOUGHT
William Shakespeare is versatile genius of Elizabethan era. He achieved cosmopolitan
prestige by creating summum bunnum and master piece rather Monaliza of Literature,
“Hamlet”. In this unique tragedy, he has enunciated multidimensional doctrine related with
revenge, love, hatred, philosophy, rhetoric, supernatural elements, sublimity and rationa-
capax.
It is also pointed out that Shakespeare believed in Aristotelian thought that tragedy
is an imitation of an action having serious thoughts, appropriate magnitude and its basic
function is catharsis of the emotions of pity and fear. Aristotle also believed that tragedy
should have plot, character, diction, melody and spectacle. Probably, Shakespeare had
studied Greek tragedy like Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. It is also blame on Shakespeare
that he was a plagiarist because it is remarked that Thomas Kyd also wrote “Hamlet” and
Shakespeare plagiarized the thought from Kyd.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 25
A famous critic Christopher Gillie remarks that Hamlet is a tragedy by
Shakespeare written in about 1601; Shakespeare had a source; a play of the same name
already existed when he wrote and is thought to have been a lost play by Thomas Kyd.
A Shakespearean tragedy may be defined as a story of exceptional calamity,
concerning principally with the hero, occupying a high status and also a tale of suffering
and misfortune leading to his death and of some other’s also. For instance, Hamlet is
depressed right from the beginning of the play by the death of his father and hasty re-
marriage of his mother. In first soliloquy he says,
“How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable,

Seem to me all the uses of this world.”


In this typical Shakespearean tragedy, supernatural atmosphere is exposed in a
very different manner. The ghost of late King Hamlet appears and he is revealing the
whole story of his death. He narrates that his real brother Cladius has killed him by
pouring poisonous liquid in the ear and he also compels Hamlet to get his revenge at any
cost.
“In thou has nature in thee, bear it not,

Let not the royal bed of Denmark be


A couch for luxury and damned incest”
In Hamlet, it is also observed that Shakespeare is very pragmatic and analytical in
his approach. He enunciated that all Christians should follow Biblical commandments.
Hasty marriage and sudden matrimonial relation between Cladius and Gurtrude (The
Queen) are very condemnable rather damnable. That’s why in his first soliloquy, in Act I
Scene II, Hamlet says;
“Frailty thy name is woman”
Shakespeare also believes that self-slaughter is not allowed in any religion. For
instance in first soliloquy, Hamlet thinks about suicide but he does not do so.
“Or that the Everlasting had not fix’d

His canon gainst self-slaughter. O God!”


Hamlet is a typical revenge tragedy because Prince Hamlet is crazy to get revenge,
when he comes to know about his father’s murder and even he puts an antic disposition
on for this purpose and also to confine the statement of the ghost.
“As I perchance hereafter shall think meet
To put an antic disposition on-----------“
In third soliloquy, Hamlet is regarding himself as an ass, pigeon-livered, drab and
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 26
scullion because he is still unable to get revenge. But he does not want to kill his uncle
before confirming the statement of the ghost. He thinks that ghost seen by him may be
devil. He is in search of more relative grounds. Therefore, he is determined to stage a play
in order to catch the conscience of the king, his uncle.
“I shall have grounds, more relative than this. The play’s the thing
Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King”
Hamlet is a master piece of Shakespearean tragedy because Prince Hamlet is
determined to get revenge even from his mother. But he can not physically torture her. So,
he uses to speak at daggers to her.
In sixth soliloquy, Hamlet is on the horns of dilemma. Being a religious scholar, he
is well-versed with this Biblical idea that God-Almighty loves repentance. So he does not
kill his uncle, when he is praying, therefore, he says,
“Up, sword, and knows thou a more horrid hent;
When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage;”
Hamlet is revenge tragedy because Laertes gets revenge of his father’s murder.
Cladius leaves no stone unturned to get revenge from his nephew and vice versa.
Melody is another factor of Aristotelian thought. In Hamlet, we have several
melodramatic elements. For example, Hamlet is highly terrified at the appearance of the
ghost. He starts trembling, when the ghost reveals various secrets of purgatory and
mystery of his death.
Polonius’s murder is another horrible scene. Hamlet killed Polonius in the chamber
of his mother, when he has hidden himself behind an arras in order over hear the
conversation of Hamlet and his mother but Hamlet took for him as King Cladius. But the
height of melody is scene of fencing between Laertes and Hamlet, where four persons are
killed one by one including Hamlet himself.
Element of fate also plays a part in the tragic drama of Shakespeare. For instance,
Cladius sends Hamlet to England to be killed over there. But during voyage pirates attack
the ship and Hamlet is lucky enough to get back to Denmark safely.
Conflict is the essence of Shakespearean tragedy. In Hamlet, Prince Hamlet remains the
victim of conflict through out the drama. And it is clear from his soliloquies. In fourth
soliloquy, Hamlet says;
“To be, or not to be, that is the question.”
A salient feature of Shakespearean tragedy is that it provides comic relief also to
the audience and viewers. And Hamlet’s mordant wit is main example of this comic relief.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 27
A famous critic Gogging says, “It is not to be regarded as a tragedy of revenge
but a tragedy of human soul.”
Core and Crux of the matter is that Hamlet is a marvelous, blood curdling revenge
tragedy.

HAMLET AS MONALIZA OF LITERATURE


Hamlet can rightly be regarded as Monaliza of English Literature because Thomas
Stearn Eliot has also named it Monaliza. Although, he also says that Hamlet is an artistic
failure, yet, he has dedicated Shakespeare as an eminent writer of Elizabethan era. As far
as, co-relation between Hamlet and Monaliza is concerned, there are so many reasons
behind it. Firstly, as Leonardo Davinci, achieved global fame by painting Monaliza, in the
same manner William Shakespeare (1564-1616) achieved cosmopolitan fame by creating
master-piece, “Hamlet”.
Secondly, as Monaliza is summom bonnum of the painter, in the same way, Hamlet
is the best creation of the dramatist.
Thirdly, as there is mystery and suspense in the painting of Monaliza and this is
great controversy among the critics of fine-art about this particular picture, in the same
way, there is much debate among the critics about different aspects of Hamlet. For
instance, Hamlet’s delay to get revenge, his antic-disposition or madness and his
soliloquies are very thought provoking. Especially, Hamlet’s delay is very controversial
issue. Fourthly, Hamlet is so versatile, multidimensional, appreciable and unforgettable
character, like the painting of Monaliza, that his actions, versions and statements are
really quotable. For example in this marvelous Shakespearean tragedy, following
quotations have really global prestige. (Next ten quotations are v.v. important)
1. Brevity is the soul of wit.
2. Never borrow nor lender be, if lend then lose the friend.
3. Frailty thy name is woman.
4. Hamlet believes that “Thus our conscience does make cowards of us all.”
5. One may smile and smile and be a villain.
6. Hamlet believes that murder has no tongue but it speaks.
7. Devil is potent to appear in pleasing shapes.
8. Even Shakespeare also that word without thoughts never to heaven goes.
9. In seventh soliloquy, Hamlet is of the opinion: “What is a man if his chief
good and market of his time. Be but to feed and sleep? A beast, no more;”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 28
10. One should not be credulous and superstitious, rather one must use
rationality, logic and rationa-capax.
Hamlet is Monaliza of Literature because Hamlet, the hero, is a great protagonist.
He is so marvelous that he seems to be Shakespeare himself. It is really established fact
that no writer can be detached observer and isolated from the society. His liking and
disliking are necessarily to be involved in his creations. Because, being a social animal we
are bound to live in social milieu. Accordingly, in case of Monaliza, Leonardo Davinci was
also subjective as well as objective while painting his master-piece.
Hamlet is Monaliza of Literature because Shakespeare is a multidimensional writer
and Hamlet is pure reflection of his personality. In the case of the painting of Monaliza,
when people observe it, their opinion differs with one another about the theme, style and
purpose of the painting. Same is the situation with Hamlet, Hamlet is so thought provoking
and mind boggling play that it is full of philosophy, tolerance, love, revenge, teachings of
Christianity, supernatural atmosphere, fate, melody and many other aspects of life.
Shakespeare was a man of wide observation of the society. Being a man of
theatre, he also knew well that Elizabethan audience was far from being a sophisticated
audience. So, while writing Hamlet, he introduces the scenes like ghost scene, the play
with in the play, the duel between Hamlet and Laertes, tragic death of Polonius and many
other melodramatic scenes. Such indicates were highly admired by the audience and
Shakespeare gained much popularity.
Hamlet is a master piece because it deals with human feelings and thoughts. The
whole story of Hamlet moves around the aspects of love, hatred and revenge which are
with in the instinct of human being. For example, Hamlet is a particular revenge tragedy,
Hamlet’s father is killed by King Cladius and after the revelation of the reality by the ghost
the main aim of Hamlet’s life is to get revenge at any cost.
During proceeding, Polonius is killed unintentionally by Hamlet and Laertes the
Polonius’s son is also willful to get revenge.
Concept of love is also there, Hamlet love Ophelia but the height of love is that
Hamlet’s late father’s ghost, warn him not to harm his mother, although she is involved in
the murder of the king.
Hamlet is a Monaliza and master piece of Literature because the whole play falls
into three movements and abides by the rules and regulations of the dramatic form with a
beginning is the act of exposition. We come to know about a murder, villainery of murderer
and the duty of an avenger.
First movement ends with Hamlet’s, realization of his duty to avenge his father’s
death. In second movement, we find the development of the personality of Hamlet, full
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 29
exposition of the theme and Hamlet’s tragic errors. But in third movement, actions of the
play comes to an end with the fulfillment of the theme and according to the tradition of
Shakespearean tragedy, with the death of almost all the main characters except Horatio
and Fortinbras. Shortly, in Hamlet there are twenty scenes in it. They are constructed in
such a way that they perform several functions. This is another resemblance of Hamlet
with the painting of Monaliza.
A famous critic T. S. Eliot is of the opinion that more people have thought Hamlet a
work of art because they found it interesting, than have found it interesting because it is a
work of art. He even goes to the limit of calling it “Monaliza” of literature, for in several
ways the play is puzzling & disquieting as none of the others is.
Core and crux of the matter is that Hamlet can rightly be regarded as “Monaliza”.

WHY HAMLET DELAYS HIS REVENGE


(Quintessence of Dust: The Mystical Meaning of Hamlet)
Hamlet is finally alone, and the stage is set for the soliloquy that gave rise to one of the
most persistent mysteries in literature: Why does Hamlet delay his revenge?
Hamlet Ay, so, God buy you. Now I am alone.
Oh, what a rogue and peasant slave am I!
Is it not monstrous that this player here,
But in a fiction, in a dream of passion,
Could force his soul so to his whole conceit
That from her working all his visage wanned,
Tears in his eyes, distraction in his aspect,
A broken voice, and his whole function suiting
With forms to his conceit? And all for nothing!
For Hecuba!
What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba,
That he should weep for her? What would he do
Had he the motive and the cue for passion
That I have? He would drown the stage with tears,
And cleave the general ear with horrid speech,
Make mad the guilty and appal the free,
Confound the ignorant, and amaze indeed
The very faculties of eyes and ears.
Yet I,
A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 30
Like John-a-dreams, unpregnant of my cause,
And can say nothing--no, not for a king,
Upon whose property and most dear life
A damned defeat was made. Am I a coward?
Who calls me a villain, breaks my pate across,
Plucks off my beard and blows it in my face,
Tweaks me by the nose, gives me the lie in throat
As deep as to the lungs? Who does me this?
Ha, 'sounds, I should take it; for it cannot be
But I am pigeon-livered and lack gall
To make oppression bitter, or ere this
I should ha' fatted all the region kites
With this slave's offal. Bloody, bawdy villain!
Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain!
Oh, vengeance!
Why, what an ass am I! This is most brave,
That I, the son of a dear father murdered,
Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell,
Must like a whore unpack my heart with words
And fall a-cursing like a very drab,
A scullion! Fie upon’ t! Foh!
This is Hamlet's first long soliloquy chiding himself for his delay in wreaking
vengeance. The reason for the delay is of utmost importance because the meaning of the
play revolves around it. It is therefore crucial to study it closely.
The reason for Hamlet's delay has haunted critics for four centuries. Different
authors have presented differing reasons for the delay, which, in itself, raises another
question concerning this puzzling aspect of the play: Why does Shakespeare give so
much prominence to the delay without clearly presenting the reason for it? The answer
helps point us toward Shakespeare's own reason for Hamlet's delay.
We must keep two things in mind. First, Shakespeare makes it clear that Hamlet is
acutely aware of a delay. Second, Shakespeare also makes it clear that Hamlet himself is
not sure why he delays. There is no need for Shakespeare to emphasize these two things
unless he is making a point. What is that point? Let us first look at some of the more
prominent reasons on offer for Hamlet's delay. One solution claims that there is actually
no delay on Hamlet's part, or that any delay is due to external difficulties. The truth is that
we might not have noticed the delay if Hamlet himself had not brought it to our attention.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 31
Shakespeare stresses the point that Hamlet is delaying. Thus, it is meaningless to argue
that Hamlet is not responsible for the delay when Shakespeare clearly wants us to see
that he is.
In the eighteenth century, critics suggested that the delay is a necessary plot
device to extend the action. However, this suggestion does not fit the facts, since there
would then be no reason for Shakespeare to make the delay so conspicuous by having
Hamlet bemoan it over two long soliloquies.
At the end of the eighteenth century, Goethe proposed that Shakespeare means, in
Hamlet, to "represent the effects of a great action laid upon a soul unfit for the
performance of it." In his words, "A lovely, pure, noble and most moral nature, without the
strength of nerve which forms a hero, sinks beneath a burden which it cannot bear and
must not cast away." Thus Goethe painted the picture of a tender, sensitive youth who
could not bring himself to perform the act of vengeance upon his uncle. However, even if
Hamlet had this sweet nature before receiving the terrible mandate from the ghost, it
hardly describes the transformed Hamlet we see in the play. We find instead a Hamlet
who can be terrible and ruthless in his actions, well depicted in his callous taunting
remarks after he accidentally kills Polonius and in his offhand manner when relating how
he dispatches his former school friends to their untimely deaths. As A. C. Bradley puts it:
"If the sentimental Hamlet had crossed him, he would have hurled him from his path with
one sweep of the arm."
In the nineteenth century, the romantics A. W. Schlegel and S. T. Coleridge offered
the solution that Hamlet is rendered incapable of action because of his tendency to
philosophize too much. Taking the cue from his own words, they proposed that Hamlet's
"native hue of resolution is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought." According to
Coleridge, Hamlet had "great, enormous, intellectual activity, and a consequent
proportionate aversion to real action." Coleridge concluded that "Shakespeare wished to
impress upon us the truth that action is the chief end of existence."
The problem with this argument is that Laertes behaves in exactly the opposite way
to Hamlet, and compared to Hamlet, Laertes fares even worse. Laertes virtually acts
without forethought and becomes a naïve and willing tool of Claudius, the villain himself.
Thus, to behave in this manner can hardly be the message that Shakespeare wishes to
impart. Also, the behavior of Hamlet in rushing headlong against all restraints to follow a
beckoning ghost; in rashly running his rapier through Polonius hiding behind the arras; in
boldly boarding the pirate ship in the sea battle; and in leaping into a grave to grapple with
Laertes, hardly fits the description of one with an aversion to real action.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 32
At the beginning of the twentieth century, A. C. Bradley proposed another reason
for the delay in his Shakespearean Tragedy . Bradley argued that Hamlet's delay is the
result of a melancholic state of mind, brought on by the death of his father and the hasty
remarriage of his mother. While we may accept that a depressive state of mind causes
Hamlet's inaction, this idea becomes highly suspect when Bradley stated that Hamlet's
melancholia accounts for his energy as well.
Hamlet certainly gives much evidence of energy in his sharp and witty sallies, in his
obvious interest in the art of the traveling actors, in his dramatic recitation of the speech
on Pyrrhus, in his clever arrangement of the play scene to trap Claudius, and in the way
he engineered the demise of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. These actions are hardly
characteristic of depression. Also, most of these energetic actions are rationally motivated
and some even carefully schemed out. If Hamlet is capable of carrying out such actions,
he is certainly capable of exacting revenge on his uncle. So if Shakespeare intends
melancholy to be the reason for Hamlet's delay, he certainly does a bad job of portraying
it; furthermore, he really has no message at all to deliver in the play.
Another reason offered for Hamlet's delay was the psychoanalytical one, first
suggested by Freud, the originator of psychoanalysis. According to this theory, Hamlet is
rendered incapable of acting against Claudius because of a repressed Oedipus complex;
he restrains his actions because he has a subconscious desire to replace his father and
lie with his mother. However, a strong argument can be made against this proposal, for
such an intent on Shakespeare's part would have been totally lost on the Elizabethan
audience. They certainly did not have the benefit of Freud's theories to rely on, and it
would have required Shakespeare to make this reason for the delay a lot clearer than he
did. The fact that Shakespeare did not do so reinforces the argument against this
proposal.
In fact, it was because T. S. Eliot agreed with such a psychoanalytical reason for
Hamlet's delay that he called the play an "artistic failure," and Shakespeare would
certainly seem to have failed miserably in this sense if this was his reason for Hamlet's
delay. Given Shakespeare's artistic ability, it instead suggests that Eliot's famous remark
actually argues against such a psychoanalytical reason for the delay. Moreover, it is no
help to say that Shakespeare may have subconsciously implanted the concept into the
play, because it then becomes an invalid explanation for his clear intent to make the delay
a prominent issue.
So what was Shakespeare's reason for having Hamlet so conspicuously chide
himself for the delay and yet not understand why he was delaying? We have to come back
to the one reason that would, at least, have occurred to the Elizabethan audience: that
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 33
there was a question of immorality in seeking revenge. Herman Ulrici raised this issue in
the nineteenth century, but critics neglected it largely because A. C. Bradley had argued
so effectively against conscience being the reason for the delay.
Since Hamlet himself is not aware of the reason for the delay, it is not conscience
taken in its usual form that we are considering. It is, instead, a more deep seated inner
voice that causes him to hesitate, a voice that Hamlet fails to bring explicitly to the surface
of his consciousness. Bradley, however, also objected to this deeper conscience as the
reason for the delay. Why, he asked, if this answers to Shakespeare's meaning, did he
then conceal that meaning until the last Act? However, this objection becomes invalid
once we fully understand Shakespeare's reason for the delay and why he highlighted it.
Shakespeare gives prominence to the delay because he wants to emphasize that
Hamlet's course of action is morally dubious. Also, Shakespeare does not try to conceal
this meaning until the end; he actually took great pains to suggest it, right from the
beginning of the play. He could not, however, allow Hamlet to state it explicitly for a very
good reason. If Hamlet had recognized the cause of his delay, it would have altered the
course of the action and defeated Shakespeare's main purpose in the play.
Shakespeare's aim is not to have Hamlet intellectually argue out the question of
whether or not it is immoral to wreak vengeance. His intention is to have the audience find
the answer to this question in the experience of the entire play, in its totality. This is
Shakespeare's method of conveying his message, and it is the most effective way to do
so. Shakespeare makes us live through it so that we learn through our emotional
involvement and our experience of it.
If Hamlet had recognized intellectually that a moral issue was causing his delay, he
would certainly have argued it out with himself. It would have been completely out of
character for him not to do so. But to have him conduct an intellectual debate on the issue
would have totally defeated Shakespeare's purpose, which was to show and not merely
tell, why seeking revenge is a moral disaster.
To do that, Shakespeare needs Hamlet to follow the course of action in the play. If
Hamlet had debated the moral issue with himself, he would either conclude that it is
morally acceptable, which would contradict what Shakespeare wanted to convey, or he
would conclude that it is morally wrong and abandon his course of vengeance. Since
neither alternative is conducive to Shakespeare's plan, he allows Hamlet to delay without
explicitly debating the moral issue.
And so, Shakespeare has Hamlet make the same mistake that Brutus makes in
Julius Caesar ; this is the reason Julius Caesar is mentioned on three separate occasions
in Hamlet . Like Brutus, Hamlet fails to align himself with the divine and does not flow with
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 34
the Tao. Hamlet ignores his inner voice, his deep conscience telling him that his course
of action is wrong, that seeking vengeance amounts to taking the dark path to moral
destruction. His inner promptings do cause him to delay, but he does not recognize why,
so he tragically follows the route to spiritual desecration. Now Shakespeare is able to
achieve his purpose. By the dramatic portrayal of Hamlet's transformation along this
terrible path of vengeance, Shakespeare forces his audience to experience why revenge
is wrong.
Even at this stage of the play, Shakespeare has taken great pains to suggest that
there is something deeply wrong with revenge. He reminds us many times that the ghost
is not an enlightened being and that its counsel is suspect. He impresses upon us the
diabolical nature of the ghost's mandate through the eerie swearing ritual at the end of Act
I. He illustrates the effect of this mandate on Hamlet's mind--the transformation of his
world into a sinister and dark prison. He also creates the experience of the horror of
vengeance through the terrifying depiction of the avenger in the Trojan War speech.
Now, by placing Hamlet's self-criticism for his delay immediately after this recitation,
Shakespeare again suggests that Hamlet has good reason to hesitate. In fact, the entire
play serves to impress upon us the error of revenge. It demonstrates why revenge is
wrong and makes us experience it. Thus, Hamlet is far from being an artistic failure; it is
close to being an artistic miracle.
Let us now examine more closely Hamlet's first soliloquy on his delay. He begins by
contrasting the passion of the player in his speech with his own lack of positive action and
chides himself for it. There is much irony in this attitude. First, the performer is only acting.
His passion is conjured up without any actual cause and is merely an outer image made to
fit what is conventionally expected. Thus Hamlet is railing over mere appearance.
Also, the absence of a real motive for the actor's passion dramatically depicts that
emotional fervor can arise in the absence of rational cause. This fact reminds us that the
thirst for vengeance results mainly from passion, not reason. We know that revenge
cannot undo the harm already inflicted and is actually far more likely to aggravate it.
Hamlet himself ironically emphasizes this problem of irrational passion later: "Give me that
man that is not passion's slave, and I will wear him in my heart's core, ay, in my heart of
hearts..." It is the tragedy of Hamlet that he often does not heed his own wise words.
Another irony lies in the fact that the passion of the actor is that of compassion for
Hecuba, whose suffering has been inflicted by none other than an avenger. Hamlet's self-
reproach for his delay in seeking vengeance, therefore, is for a lack of what caused
Hecuba's anguish in the first place. Thus, Hamlet uses a totally inappropriate cue for
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 35
chiding himself over the delay. By this deep irony, Shakespeare hints at the immoral
nature of revenge.
The soliloquy then continues with Hamlet wondering whether he is a coward for
delaying his act of vengeance. From his manner of confronting the ghost and his
reputation as a model soldier, we know, however, that Hamlet does not lack courage.
Thus, Shakespeare's aim here is to show that Hamlet himself is unsure why he delays.
The soliloquy now ends with the hint that Hamlet doubts whether taking revenge on
his uncle is the proper course of action. Unfortunately and tragically, he only admits to
doubts on the ghost's honesty, not to doubts on the morality of vengeance.
Hamlet About, my brains. I have heard
That guilty creatures sitting at a play
Have, by the very cunning of the scene,
Been struck so to the soul that presently
They have proclaimed their malefactions.
For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak
With most miraculous organ. I'll have these players
Play something like the murder of my father
Before mine uncle. I'll observe his looks;
I'll tent him to the quick. If he but blench,
I know my course. The spirit that I have seen
May be a devil, and the devil hath power
T' assume a pleasing shape, yea, and perhaps,
Out of my weakness and my melancholy,
As he is very potent with such spirits,
Abuses me to damn me. I'll have grounds
More relative than this. The play's the thing
Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the King.
Hamlet thus prepares to spring his "mouse-trap" on the King. He follows the path of
vengeance with disastrous consequences. Now we can experience for ourselves why
revenge is wrong. -------
1 conceit imagination , 2 free innocent, free from guilt , 3 muddy-mettled dull-spirited
4 John-a-dreams a dreaming person , 5 unpregnant not quickened to action
6 drab prostitute 7 scullion the lowest of kitchen servants, noted for foul language
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 36
SECTION-B

W. Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice


Plot Construction of “THE MERCHANT OF VENICE”
The plot of “The Merchant of Venice” is well-knit, well fabricated and inter-woven. It is
one of the most fantastic of all the plots of the Shakespeare. The plot is made up of four
different stories. The main plot consists of firstly Bond Story and then secondly Casket
Story which is the sub-plot, thirdly Lorenzo, Jessica Episode and fourthly there is Ring
Episode. There is great balance, sequence and harmony among these four parts of the
plot.
Shakespeare has shown considerable shell in weaving these different elements
into a single compact whole.
As a critic Moulton has pointed out, “The case of all complications in the play is the
happy lover of caskets story and all complications are removed by its heroine.”
The Bond story and the Casket story form the main plot and the sub-plot of the
play. Bassanio is the connecting link between two because he is the cause of the bond, as
well as the hero of the Casket story. Portia is the heroine of Casket story & savior of
Antonio also.
The Bond story becomes possible only because Bassanio needs money to proceed
to Belmont. He is so strange person that he is penniless even then he dreams to be the
Prince of Belmont by getting Portia. Therefore, he contacts Antonio to get three thousand
ducats.
“Wherein my time, something too prodigal, Hath left me gagged. To you,
Antonio I owe the most, in money and in love;”
Now in the Bond story Bassanio approaches Shylock for a loan on Antonio’s credit
and Antonio has to put signature on the fatal bond. Although Bassanio is forbidding him to
sign such a strange bond yet he signs it for the sake of his friend. It illustrates that William
Shakespeare has created spicy aspects of human life by projecting different kinds of
characters.
In Casket story, Prince of Morocco appears at first. He is very obnoxious. Just after
seeing him, Portia starts trembling. It is really smile provoking that Prince of Morocco says
that he should not be disliked because of his dark complexion.
“Mislike me not for my complexion, The Shadow’d
Livery of the burnished sun.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 37
Prince of Aragon is an other character of Casket story. He is old, haggard but a
gallant of young heart. He is so opportunist that he wants to marry Portia without selection
of the Casket. Bassanio is the real hero of this event and he chooses the right Casket,
enables to get Portia. Co-relation between Bond and Casket story is that if Bassanio had
not gotten three thousand ducats, he would not have been able to reach Belmont and to
select the bad Casket. On the other hand Portia would not have also been able to help
Antonio. It illustrates that there is complete harmony between two stories. The Lorenzo-
Jessica Episode and the incident of the rings are also closely inter-linked with the main
plot of the play.
Lorenzo is the friend of Antonio and Bassanio, Jessica is the daughter of Shylock.
This episode makes Shylock vigorous rather tremendous. His daughter’s elopement with a
Christian makes him more determined to take revenge. It is the mother of fate and chance
that Shylock hands over all the keys of his house to Jessica on the particular day. When
she is determined to eloped with Lorenzo. All this shows that Lorenzo-Jessica episode is
conclusive to further proceedings of this comedy. This episode also throws more light on
the character of Shylock as a father and a master. He is miserly and suspicious. Jessica
and Lorenzo both are not happy with his behavior. This episode is also integrated with the
Casket story. Jessica and her husband take charge of Portia’s house, when she goes to
Venice to save the life of Antonio.
“And will acknowledge you and Jessica
In place of Lord Bassanio and myself”
It is also remarked that Shakespeare is projecting such type of scenes as are really
blend of fun and furry. In Act IV Scene1 it is tragedy for Antonio and Bassanio but comedy
for Shylock before the decision from Portia, but after the final judicial statement the tables
are turned,
“Portia: Tarry a little; there is something else. This bond do give thee here no
jot of blood; The words expressly are a pound of flesh.”
Now Shylock is at his death bed when he becomes penniless, homeless, friendless
and faithless. In the same trial scene, seeds of ring episode are also present. Bassanio
boasts that he can offer each and everything to the young lawyer, who has saved his
friend’s life. But when she demands the ring, he is under a cloud. No, Bassanio is
beseeching Portia not to get this ring.
“Bassanio: This ring, good sir, alas, it is trifle!
I will not shame myself to give you this.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 38
The ring episode is also deeply connected with the other story. It throws light on
the lighter side of Portia’s character. The giving of the rings by Portia and Nerissa to their
husbands is a sequel of the Casket story. The rings are given as token of love and the
lovers are asked never to part with them but the husbands, Bassanio and Gratiano give
them to the supposed lawyer and his clerk who has saved Antonio’s life.
At the home back, Portia apparently becomes very angry and furious when she
finds Bassanio without ring. She asks Bassanio about that particular wedding ring. Now
Bassanio‘s condition is very pitiable even he is at the edge of weeping. Same is the case
with Gratiano. But Portia is a true lover and she cannot tolerate tears oozing out of
Bassanio’s eyes. So, she reveals whole of the secret. In this way happy ending comes to
this romantic and tragic comedy.
A famous critic Dowden says,
“The stories of the rings and of love of Lorenzo and Jessica are, as it were,
decorations of the main theme, but they add much to the beauty and effect of the play as
whole.”
The nutty gritty of this discussion is that the plot construction in “The Merchant of
Venice” is very marvelous.
A Comparative Study – (PORTIA VERSUS SHYLOCK)
Portia and Shylock are two unique creations of Shakespeare and the popularity of
the play much depends to a very great extent to these splendid figures. They are among
the immortals of literature. So, it is rightly remarked that Portia is beauty of the play and
Shylock is the strength of the play, because if Portia is graceful and gay, radiant and
healthy, than Shylock is somber and gloomy, dark and vindictive.
Portia is helpful, generous, witty and intelligent while Shylock is mischief-working
and spiteful. No doubt, beauty and strength go side by side in the play, so both the
characters have equal importance. Portia is richly endowed both with physical as well as
beauty of character. A famous critic S. A. Brooks has called her, the queen of beauty.
She is physically so beautiful that suitors come to woo her from distant countries.
For the four winds blow in from every coast, renowned suitors, like so many Jason’s
in search of Golden Fleece. Portia is cultured and refined also. She is lucky enough to be
born in a rich aristocratic family. She has been given the best of education that’s why she
is noble and broad hearted. Her nobility and generosity is crystal clear at the moment
when she places all her resources at the disposed of Bassanio after their marriage. Even
she sacrifices her own married bliss when she comes to know that her husband’s friend in
danger and she gives him a lot of money to rescue of his friend. Her helpful nature is also
transparent when she herself undertakes a journey to Venice in the disguise of a lawyer to
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 39
help Antonio. She has an ability to take quick decisions. So she writes down a letter to
his cousin Dr. Bellario who is a lawyer to provide her garments of a lawyer and a letter
also in the name of Duke. So she may able to help Antonio in the court.
“And look, what notes and garments he doth give thee,
Ring them; I pray thee, with imagined speed.”
It is also pointed out that Portia is so marvelous in her perception and insight that
she is fortunate enough to carry the day in the trial scene. In Act IV Scene I, all masculine
voices cool down and feminine voice become eminent. She is so witty, tactful and lady of
legal awareness that she leaves no stone unturned to become a distinguished lawyer.
Portia is also aware of the fact that Antonio and Bassanio are congenial comrades. She is
using all her capabilities to help Antonio. She is so unique lady of policy making that she
hits upon an ingenious plan to compete Shylock in the court. First of all she is preaching
morality and ethics to Shylock. She compels him to be merciful because she knows that
the quality of mercy should not be restrained. Mercy is the mightiest in the mightiest. It is
twice blessed, it blesses him that takes and blesses him that gives.
“ It blesses him that gives and him that takes,
‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest.”
Portia is so artistic that she disguises herself as a legal expert and creates a
situation of make belief. Even her own husband is unable to reveal her.
Portia is so versatile and has a pregnant mind that she defeated Shylock by legal
quibbles. She allows Shylock to get accurate one pound of flesh neither more nor less and
also even a single drop of blood should not fall because this particular land does not
authorize anything more. All the Christians have blood related with Holy Christ and a Jew
should not be allowed to shed it.
“This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood; the words expressly are “a

pound of flesh” Take than thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh.”
Portia is so marvelous lady and here, in the trial scene. She is expressing all her
qualities of confidence, courage and steadfastness. She is jack of all trades and so
multidimensional lady that she knows how to tackle with every situation. She is not only a
queen of Belmont but also so versatile, those even a tremendous character like Shylock is
a trivial creature before her. Even he the strength of the play and having the qualities of a
shrewd, stubborn, venomous, treacherous, malicious, and inhuman and blood thirsty
cannibal creature is a unable to recognize her. He is also regarding her a learned judge
and Second Daniel.
“A Daniel come to judgment! Yes, a Daniel!
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 40
A wise young judge, how I do honor thee!”
But Portia’s character is highly projecting by Shakespeare that she is shown as
super normal human being. This may be drawback in her character. She is shown so
tactful and multidimensional that she is solving each and every matter successfully within
no time. She does not seem like a common princess but she is giving legal decisions like
a senior advocate or judge. This seems to be impossible in the real world. It is accurately
willing suspicion of disbelief. It is also really unbelievable that Portia is deceiving all men.
Even the strength of the play Shylock is befooled by her. Shylock is very tremendous and
vigorous creature. The creation of Shylock is one of the triumphs of Shakespeare’s art of
characterization. Shylock’s character has a highly complex nature. Shakespeare has
shown the Jew as cruel, relentless, vindictive and greedy with all the atrocity, traditionally
associated with the Jewish character. But Shakespeare has also humanized him and
given him a number of redeeming features. Shylock is the representative of an oppressed
and persecuted race. Christians have always degraded him in the race. But he always
speaks with a ring of true patriotic fervor about his “sacred nation”. His hatred of Christians
is a racial rather than a personal.
Shylock is so determined character that he leaves no stone unturned to prove his
Jewish nature, and to expose his racial prejudice. It is height of emotional nature and
stupidity that he regards Antonio as a fawning publican.
How like a fawning publican he looks: I hate him, for he is Christian. Passion for
money and passion for revenge are the two leading trades of his character. He is a miser,
who hoards and for him to spend a single penny is a torture. He lives for money; it is his
life and soul. Mercy is standard by which he judges others. Although he hates Antonio
because he is a Christian yet another cause of his hatred is that Antonio gives money to
the people without charging any interest as it. And thus, cause a financial lost to him.
“But more for that low simplicity, he lends out money gratis down, the rate of
usane here with as in Venice.”
Shylock is so condemnable that he is the least concerned with filial love and his
greed for money has even destroyed in him, his affection for his daughter. He is so
materialistic and greedy that his prefers the loss of ducats to the loss of his daughter. So
he is crazy for his money.
“My daughter! O my ducats! - O my daughter

Fled with a Christian! O my Christian ducats.


The pound of flesh, which I demand of him
Is dearly bought, it is mine and I will, have it.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 41
Shylock knows what is right and just and also strength of character enough to
assert it fearlessly. He stands up not only for his rights but also for the rights of entire
Jewish race. But his method to get those rights is not just. In the end of the trial scene he
is defeated merely by legal quibble.
But Shylock has succeeded in gaining our sympathies for Shylock. We take pity of
on Shylock when we come to know that Christians have snatched his religion, daughter,
home, peace of mind, social status rather each and everything.
A famous critic Cowden Clarke asks, “Who does not sympathies with Shylock?
Who deserves any satisfaction from the Merchant Antonio’s being brought off by a quirk of
the law and that law an unjust one which decreed the demolition of the Jew’s whole wealth
and state?”
If Shakespeare had been Jew, the consequences would have been entirely
different. So it seems to be subjective glimpse of Shakespeare himself. But his intentions
to do so are not wrong one.
Core and Crux of the matter is that Portia is the beauty of the play and Shylock is
the strength of the Play “The Merchant of Venice”.

A Romantic Comedy – (THE MERCHANT OF VENICE)


Merchant of Venice can rightly be regard as romantic comedy, because three
romantic couples are introduced. Romance between Portia and Bassanio, Gratiano and
Nerissa, Lorenzo and Jessica are shown. “The Merchant of Venice” is a romantic comedy
because so many unbelievable situations and romantic fantasies are introduced.
It is really romantic setting that Portia and Bassanio are determined to love each
other from the core of their heart. Just after seeing Bassanio, Portia is determined to marry
him. It indicates that both lover and beloved are very conscious to perpetuate their
infatuation. It illustrates that both Portia and Bassanio are very romantic in their bent of
mind. They are emotionally compatible with each other. They are also sailing in the same
boat to become love thirsty.
In the same way, Lorenzo and Jessica desire to materialize their dreams of loving
each other through thick and thin. Even they elope and they perpetuate their infatuation. In
this manner this romantic couple is really emotional one so they leave the home of their
parents. Jessica becomes vengeful against her father. She leaves her home on that
particular day when Shylock is busy in his professional liability.
Nerissa is also emotional creature. She wants to marry Gratiano at any cost. No
doubt marriages are decided in the heaven but celebrated on this earth. So when Portia
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 42
wins the hand of Bassanio, Nerissa wins the hand of Gratiano. In this way, particular
process of marriage is performed.
In this romantic comedy, a famous critic Gordon opines, “The world of
Shakespearean comedy is a world made safe for women, a world in which a girl can be
happy and come to flower, in which the masculine element drops its voice.” “The Merchant
of Venice” is a romantic comedy because there are so many unbelievable situations.
Bassanio is unable to recognize his wife.
Consequently, we can say that “The Merchant of Venice” is a unique romantic
comedy.

Anachronism, Improbabilities, Impossibilities, Incongruities, Crudities/


Willing Suspension of Disbelief in “The Merchant of Venice”
In this play “The Merchant of Venice” there are so many disbelieving situations. The
plot of the play is one of the most extravagant and ridiculous of the plots, in which
Shakespeare has ever made for his comedies. The improbabilities of the various stories
become plain at the first sight. Even a reader of common caliber is unable to believe in the
proceedings of this comedy. But when we come to know that Shakespeare, the great hero
of literature is writing it, we suspend our disbelief willingly.
A famous critic also has the opinion that there is willing suspension of disbelief in
“The Merchant of Venice”.
In the opening scene, we come to know that the royal merchant Antonio is
penniless. He has invested all his money in merchandise. Even he is unable to pay three
thousand ducats to his congenial comrade.
Secondly, it is really unbelievable that Antonio has spat on the face of Shylock and
abused him by calling him a ‘Dog’. But after few days, he is begging three thousand
ducats from the same enemy.
Thirdly it seems impossible that a business minded wise merchant in his senses
would sign such a fatal bond allowing his creditor to cut off a pound of flesh, if the money
was not paid on the fixed date.
“If you repay me not on such a day --------- Let the forfeit—
Be nominated for an equal pound
Of your fair flesh, to be cut off and taken.”
Fourthly, Portia’s father is very irrational. No father can express such type of
last will that his daughter should marry who has lucky enough to choose the right Casket.
It sounds fantastic that any father would so limit that freedom of choice of his daughter as
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 43
to make her future dependent on the mere chance of the lottery. Portia should thank her
good fortune that Bassanio has selected the right Casket. If any other ruffian, philistine or
any other appropriate person has chosen this Casket, then what would happen to her?
“I will do any thing, Nerissa, ere I will be married to a sponge.”
Fifthly, It is really incongruity that even Bassanio is saying that three thousand
ducats are not his necessity. Actually, he smells the rate that Shylock is very cunning
person and he may entrap them. So he advises Antonio not to sign the fatal bond. But
even then Antonio puts signature on it.
Another improbability is that all Antonio’s ships were wrecked at the time when he
had to pay of his debt. But at the end of the play Antonio comes to know that all of his
ships have returned back safely.
Another debatable issue is that none of his wealthy friends and rich merchants of
Venice is able to provide him only three thousand ducats, so that he may release himself
from the clutches of cruel Jew by paying of his debt. It is also unbelievable that nobody is
suspecting Portia when she is in the disguise of a lawyer, despite of the fact that duke has
sent messenger for Dr. Bellario from Padua. Even Duke is deceived, although he gets a
chance to have a hand shake with her.
“Give me your hand. Come you from old Bellario-----
You are welcome: Take your place.”
Another disbelieving situation is that even a husband is unable to recognize his
own wife. It is really bewildering on the part of a husband, Bassanio that he is not showing
any zeal to recognize his wife, even she is tapping him. But he can not feel with the help
of his tactical sense. It is also incongruous on the part of Shakespeare that he is creating
the situation of make belief. It can never happen in real life that a husband is saluting his
wife by regarding her as “Sir”.
“This ring, good sir, alas, it is a trifle.”
Another improbability is that Shylock is insulting the Duke of Venice in the court but
he is unmoved. Such type of tolerance by the duke is unreal because in real courts these
remarks are considered as insult of court.
“You have among you a many purchased slave. Let them be free, marry them to
your heirs?”
It also seems impossible to believe that a bold and blunt Shylock. Who is not even
considering the Duke in the court, is waiting outside and nobody is allowing him to enter
the court in Act IV Scene I. Then Duke orders;
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 44
“Duke: Go one and call the Jew into the court.

Salerio: He’s ready at the door: he comes, my lord.”


Another impossibility is that the Duke is showing excessive partiality in the court,
which is contradicted to his status. Even Shylock, the strength of the play is tolerating it.
It is also an improbability that a greedy and Mammon minded Shylock is not
accepting money; even he is given offer ten times more than the principal.
A famous critic Mr. Hudson says, “Criticism has only to breathe upon them and
they stand exposed in all their hold irrationality and childishness.”
Core and crux of the matter is that there are a lot of disbelieving situations in “The
Merchant of Venice” but we have to suspend our disbelief when we come to know that the
master writer, Shakespeare is writing all these things.

As A Tragic Comedy – (THE MERCHANT OF VENICE)


“The Merchant of Venice” can rightly be regarded as a tragic comedy because it is
an artistic blend of tragedy and comedy. A tragic comedy is a play with double action and
a double ending. It has the both comic and serious plots. It ends in happiness and gaiety
for some of the characters and the tragedy for others who are suffering. In the same way,
in the play “The Merchant of Venice” there is mingling of gay, serious, tragic and comic
elements. Its end is cheerful for Antonio, Bassanio, Lorenzo, Portia, Nerissa, Jessica and
Gratiano but tragic for Shylock. Accordingly, the play has a double end.
So, a critic Raleigh called it a tragic-comedy.
Another famous critic George Fletcher opines that the play is a tragedy, at least,
so far as the Jew is concerned.
In “The Merchant of Venice”, it is really thought provoking that Shakespeare has
combined the tragic and comic elements with great art and skill. Although Aristotle, a
marvelous Greek figure had forbidden such plays with double action. For he said that the
comic note weakens the tragic effect, yet, Shakespeare, being a follower of nature and
reality believed that the quantity of tears and smiles remained constant in this world. When
one body starts smiling and the other one starts weeping and vice versa.
“The Merchant of Venice” can rightly be called as tragic comedy because in the trial
scene, before the decision from Portia it is a tragedy for Antonio, Bassanio and rather all
Christians. But it is comedy for Shylock. Shylock is jumping and regarding Portia as
Daniel.
“Shylock: A Daniel come to judgment! Yea, a Daniel!
O wise young judge, how I do honour thee!”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 45
But after the decision from Portia tables are turned. We can quote the following
lines as turning point in this tragic comedy.
“Portia: Tarry a little; there is something else.
This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood;
The words expressly are “a pound of flesh.”
“The Merchant of Venice” is a tragic comedy because it is related with guffaws,
tears and so many tragic and comic elements which are artistically blended with one
another. It is also remarked that in “The Merchant of Venice” Antonio is the victim of
circumstances. He himself did not enjoy his life but he suffered because of his
philanthropic attitude. Right in the opening scene of the play, Antonio suffers from a
nameless melancholy. His sadness is just a presentiment of evil. He suffers great mental
torture throughout. First having the grievous loss of his merchandise and secondly from
his subsequent arrest at the suite of Shylock. What can be more tragic than the fate of a
merchant prince who reduced to a sudden beggary through no fault of his own and then
finds himself bound to pay a pound of his flesh to a merciless Jew.
“Portia: You must prepare your bosom for his knif”
It is really exposure of tragic comedy that Shakespeare has created an artistic
combination of tears and laughters. There is so many smile inspiring situations as well as
pathetic incidents in “The Merchant of Venice”. For instance, it is really smile provoking
that Gratiano is expressing very funny dialogues and he is cutting jokes with everybody.
“Let me play the fool; With mirth and laughters old wrinkles come”
It is also humorous on the part of Gratiano that he wants to punish Shylock at any
cost. He regards him as harsh Jew and inexorable dog and in the end of trial scene when
Shylock is asked to beg mercy, Gratiano says,
“Beg that thou mayst have leave to hang thyself.”
Another comic element is fooling of Launcelot. Especially his dialogues with his
own father are really smile-inspiring. It is also the proof of tragic comedy that one dialogue
is comic for one person but the same dialogue is irritating for another. For instance,
Gratiano is enjoying bypassing ridiculous remarks against Shylock, but Shylock is feeling
humiliation.
“O, be thou damn’d, in in-execrable dog!”
“The Merchant of Venice” is a tragic comedy because in the trial scene some
people are weeping while others are enjoying. At the end of this scene Antonio and his
friends are enjoying but during the proceeding they had to face the acutest mental torture.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 46
It is a universal fact that nobody can claim with certainty that he remained
laughing of contrary to this he remained oozing tears from his eyes throughout his life.
Sometimes we are such happy as daisy, just at the other moment we are such dejected
and frustrated as weeping clouds.
“The Merchant of Venice” is a tragic comedy because Shylock is really a tragic
character. He not only suffers individually, but also symbolizes the suffering of his race. He
has been spat upon and called a Cur. Worse still, his own daughter has rebelled against
elopes with Lorenzo, a Christian and marries him. The sentence that is pronounced upon
him in the court is a death blow to him. His wealth and even his religion are taken away
from him. Shylock is highly grieved with broken heart at the tragic situation. He says,
“Shylock: I pray you; give me leave to go from hence;

I am not well;”
Here Shylock is really worried and he expecting to take pity on him. “The Merchant
of Venice” is really tragic comedy because to dispel. The tragic gloom and stress of trial
scene, Act V is introduced which is light and comic. Especially a poetic beauty of Portia’s
moonlight garden and merry incident of rings enable us to get a relief.
It illustrates that William Shakespeare is very conscious to expose biodiversity of
life. No doubt, life is very spicy and sweet because of so many varieties. Therefore we
remain clinging to it.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie is of the opinion, “Like others of Shakespeare’s
earlier comedies, the play is a mixture of courtly sophistication light fantasy and moving
realism.
Consequently, we can say that “The Merchant of Venice” is very distinguished
tragic comedy.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 47
RICHARD BRINSLAY SHERIDAN: The School For Scandal
PLOT CONSTRUCTION IN “THE SCHOOL FOR SCANDAL”
The school for scandal is a typical comedy of manners, which pictures the external
details of life, the fashions and the manners of the people of 18 th century in England. In
the Restoration period the comedy of manners dominated in the field of drama. They
reflected the social life of that age. Their plots are complicated. Another feature of
Restoration comedies is their witty dialogues.
Like the other typical comedies of manners the School for Scandal also has a
complicated plot. It requires some efforts on the part of the reader or spectator to follow all
the ramifications. Matters are still more complicated by Sir Oliver Surface, uncle to Joseph
and Charles, who is keen to judge the characters of his two nephews at first hand. The
plot is an interesting one due to its highlights and dramatic moments, the most outstanding
among them being the auction scene and the episode of the screen. The later namely the
screen episode has universally been acclaimed as superb.
Though the plot of this play is complex one, yet it is skillfully constructed. There are
two main strands in the plot. One of these relates to the scandal–mongers who include
Lady Sneerwell, Joseph, Mrs. Candour, Mr. Crabtree, Mr. Snake and Sir Benjamin
Backbiter. The other relates to the two brothers, Joseph and Charles, who are rival for two
strands in the theme:
“Never believe what is said”
In this play yet there is another minor strand. It relates to the domestic life of Sir
Peter and Lady Teazle: The slanderers are always indulging in malicious gossip, and they
take pleasure in maligning all sorts of people. As Sir Peter says:
“A character dead at every word” meaning that every word spoken by scandal
mangers destroys the character of someone. Although there is a lot of miscellaneous
gossip of a scandalous nature in the play, these are the stories circulated by Lady
Sneerwell and Joseph about Charles, extravagance, the bankruptcy and liberalism that
are important from the point of view of the plot construction.
The stories circulated by the scandal mangers play an important role in this play.
They make the people to form a wrong idea about the persons. In short Lady Sneerwell
and Joseph magnify, twist, distort and even fabricate facts in order to throw dust into the
eyes of the people. There are at least three scenes in which the scandal mangers are
shown as indulging in their usual malicious gossip.
We also have a link between second strand and the third are while Joseph seeks
Maria’s hand in marriage, he becomes friendly with Lady Teazle and soon finds and is
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 48
detected by her husband, Sir Peter Charles on the other hand is genuinely in love with
Maria and he is astonished when Joseph, as desired by Sir Peter, says to him,
“To be plain with you brother, he thinks you are endeavoring to gain Lady
Teazle’s affections from him”
Lady Sneerwell and Joseph have taken care to circulate the story of love affair
between Charles and Lady Teazle. This story has reached Sir Peter’s ears also and he
believes it. Lady Teazle, on her part, feels much vexed that Sir Peter should suspect her
of having an affair with Charles when there is no basis at all for such a suspicion in Sir
Peter’s mind.
Such is the gulf between appearance and reality or between what is being said and
what is actual state of affair is Sir Peter regards Joseph as a man of noble sentiments but
his true character is known only to Lady Sneerwell. The screen scene is crucial for
bringing about an exposure of Joseph and Lady Teazle and for stabling Charles’s
innocence in Sir Peter’s eyes. In this scene a close link is established between the Lady
Teazle – Joseph affair and the domestic life of being third strand in the play.
The theme of appearance versus reality finds a comic illustration in another way
also. Sir Oliver goes in the disguise of Mr. Premium, the broker to meet his nephew
Charles and Charles sells his family portraits to him. Afterwards Sir Oliver goes in the
disguise of Mr. Stanely to meet his other nephew Joseph and Joseph get rid of him as
quickly as possible. By adopting these devices Sir Oliver has come to know the real
characters of both his nephews.
The last scene is very important in bringing together the two main strands in the
plot of this play. The two strands of the plot meet and the theme of the play is clarified.
Appearances are deceptive. The true identity of Sir Oliver is also revealed in this scene
and he in turn reveals the true character of his two nephews. Lady Teazle describes Lady
Sneerwell as the President of Scandalous College. She says to Lady Sneerwell;
“And let me also request you to make my respects to the Scandalous College of
which you are president and inform them, that Lady Teazle, licentiate, begs leave to
return the diploma they granted her, as she leaves off practice, kills character no
longer”
In short not only is the contrast between the two brothers clearly and finally
established in this scene but the truth about the scandal mangers, slanderers and
schemers is also revealed. This scene carries further the unmasking of Joseph who has
already been exposed in the screen episode this scene unmasks Lady Sneerwell
completely and thoroughly. This scene rehabilitates Charles in the estimation of Maria
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 49
whose mind had been prejudiced against him to a certain extent this scene also shows
the mischief that was done by Snake who, however, performs a good deed now thereby
clearing Charles causing the humiliation of Lady Sneerwell. Finally, this scene shows the
close inter weaving of the two main strands in the plot of this play.
The third strand of the plot that of domestic life of Sir Peter and Lady Teazle plays
an important role in this play. These two persons are closely connected with the rest of the
play. Sir Peter is necessary as an elderly husband of a young wife whom he can suspect
of developing a love affair with somebody else. A married lady preferably young in years
was necessary to the plot so that Joseph could be shown as courting Maria to get her as
his wife and flirting with married woman in order to acquire a mistress. Without Lady
Teazle, the screen episode looses its meaning. Lady Teazle plays a certain role even in
the last scene by revealing real character of Lady Sneerwell. Indeed, this married couple
is indispensable to the plot construction of this play.
In a nut shell, the School for Scandal is a masterpiece of R.B. Sheridan. It really
deals with one of the basic ingredients of comedy and that basic ingredient is the
difference between appearance and reality.
In spite of a multiple plot, the play does not become incoherent or confusing. The
plot is certainly complex but it shows a unified pattern. Even the unities of time and place
have loosely been observed.

REFLECTION OF 18th CENTURY SOCIAL LIFE


The School for Scandal is a comic master piece of R.B Sheridan. It is one of the
most amusing and entertaining satire in the entire history of English drama. It deals with
the life of upper class people. Sheridan had acquired a first hand knowledge of the life of
the English Upper Class. It truly reflects the life that the people lead various aspects of life
have been satirized in the play. It reflects hypocrisy, extravagances, scandal mongering,
love intrigues, pretentious moralizing and craze for fashion of the people of that time.
Lady Sneerwell and her circle represent the scandal mangers who give us an idea
of how ladies and gentlemen in those days used to gather and indulge in slanderous
gossip about their acquaintances and friends. Lady Sneerwell herself says;
“I confess I have since known ………..”. There is a lot of malice in the wit of these
persons when they speak about their absent friends and acquaintances. Mrs. Candour
talks about illicit love affairs, elopements and bankruptcies etc. Mr. Crabtree and Sir
Benjamin make fun of various women and assassinate their characters. The minds of
these people are very much fertile in inventing stories about people so as to discredit
them. Sir Peter rightly says; “A character dead at every word, I suppose”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 50
Sir Peter greatly amuses us when he says to Lady Sneerwell, just before leaving
the gathering at her house:-
“Your ladyship must excuse me; I m called away by particular business; but I
leave my character behind me”
One of the most important characters in this play is Joseph Surface who proves to
be an embodiment of hypocrisy and pretentious moralizing. Lady Sneerwell says about
him;
“I know him to be artful, selfish and malicious, in short, a sentimental knave.”
Sir Peter describes Joseph as “a man of sentiment”, but Sir Oliver ridicules his
sentiments by saying;
“If he salutes me with a crap of morality in his mouth, I shall be sick directly”
The exposure of the hypocrisy of Joseph takes place in the famous screen scene
and this exposure is one of the most entertaining episodes in the play of many moralistic
utterances of Joseph, we may quote just one to show his talent for preaching what he
himself does not practice:
“Certainly, Sir Peter, the heart that is conscious of its own integrity is ever
slow to credit another’s treachery”
In the “School for Scandal” Sheridan also familiarize us with the love affairs in
which most of the people of 18th century indulge. Lady Sneerwell is in love with Charles
though he is dissolute and extravagant. She says:
“Must I confess the Charles that libertine that extravagant that bankrupts in
fortune and reputation- that he it is for whom I am thus anxious and malicious and to
gain whom I would sacrifice everything”
Lady Sneerwell joins hands with Joseph to hinder the marriage of Maria with
Charles whom Maria loves, Joseph wishes to marry with Maria because of her wealth.
Joseph also develops love affair with Lady Teazle who initially wants a lover for fashion’s
sake only, I admit you as a lover no further than fashion requires. All these love intrigues
considerably reveal the habit of people of that age of indulging in love affairs.
Sheridan’s this play also tells us about the young men who used to squander
money in those days. This class of young men is well represented by Charles and his
companions. We hear of Charles heavy debts his distresses and the court issuing decrees
of execution against him. Joseph Surface tells Lady Sneerwell about his brother Charles:-
“I am told he has had another execution in his house yesterday in short his
dissipation and extravagance exceed anything I ever heard of”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 51
Charles goes so far as to sell his family portraits in order to raise money even the
servants of these sorts of young men are in habit of raising money like their masters they
too are extravagant.
The play “The School for Scandal” also depicts the fashionable life of the people.
Lady Teazle for being extravagant, she gives this reply to him:
“My extravagance I am sure I am not more extravagant than a woman of
fashion ought to be”
Lady Teazle is of the view that women of fashion are not answerable to anybody
after they are married. Her devotion to fashion causes often quarrels between her and her
husband Sir Peter Teazle.
The author of this play also mentions the situation of contemporary journalism. In
the very opening scene, we have a satirical reference to the gossip columns of a
newspaper called “The Town and Country Magazine”, which gladly published slanderous
news items pertaining to well known personalities.
In a nutshell, after discussing the above given aspects of the play, we come to the
conclusion that the School for Scandal is a comedy of manners which truly depicts the
social life of the 18th century. It deals with the various aspects of life of that age. In it
Sheridan reveals the selfishness, envy, malice, enmity and hypocrisy of the society of the
time with remarkable still and a sure knowledge of theatrical effect.
It is most entertaining play the interest of which depends mainly upon its brilliant,
witty dialogues and its funny situations. This play is Sheridan’s masterpiece and it was his
greatest contribution to the English theatre of his time.

School for Scandal -AS A COMEDY OF MANNERS


The comedy of manners is phrase often used in literary history. It is particularly
applied to the restoration dramatists in England and especially to William Congreive and
Wicherley, but it is a type of comedy which can flourish in any civilized urban society and
we see it again in Sheridan. The comedy of manners exposes the external details of life
the fashion of time, its interests, and its mode of speaking not the internal exploring of the
mind. This kind of comedy makes fun not so much of individual human beings and their
humors as of social groups and their fashionable manners. It is generally satirical and full
of verbal wit. The plots of these comedies were for the most part, love intrigues, developed
with clever dialogues. The plots were quite complicated.

Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s play, The School for Scandal is one of the most
outstanding comedies of that age. It has all the features of Restoration comedies minus
their coarseness and immortality. There is absolutely nothing indecent in the whole of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 52
this play, nothing that would make even a teenage girl blush.

Like a typical comedy of manners, the school for scandal is a satire on the upper
class social life of Sheridan’s time. It abounds in wit, its wit being indeed is most brilliant
quality and like a typical comedy of manners, it also has a complicated plot.

“The School for Scandal” is a comedy of manners in respect of its plot construction.
The play has two main strands and one minor strand – that of the rivalry of the slanderous
gossip of Lady Sneerwell and her circle, and that of domestic life of Sir Peter and Lady
Teazle. All the three strands are closely interwoven. The plat is complicated one and it
requires some effort on the part of the spectators or reader to follow all the ramifications.
Matters are still more complicated by Sir Oliver who is keen to judge the character of his
two nephews at first hand.

The scenes of the plats are lady Sneerwell is scandalous college, Charles
Surface’s pictures gallery, Joseph Surface’s House and Sir Peter’s House what connects
the plots is the theme:

“Never believe what is said”

The school for scandal deals with one of the basic ingredients of comedy, and that
basic ingredient is the difference between appearance and reality.

Humour and wit are the other features which make this play a comedy of manners.
It keeps us laughing from beginning till the end. The scandal scenes are undoubtedly very
amusing. The auction scene and the screen scene have really highlighted the humour and
made the play a pure comedy of manners.

“The School for Scandal” abundants the wit and wit is, indeed its most brilliant
quality. Almost every character creates humour by his or her wit. Charles gives evidence
of his wit in the auction scene when he pokes fun and the portraits of his ancestors. Lady
Sneerwell shows her wit in the scandal scene, but the wittiest scenes are the two quarrel
scenes. There is no character in this play that is devoid of wit. It demonstrates that this
play is really a comedy of manners.

“The School For Scandal” is a satire on the upper class social life of Sheridan’s
time. Various aspects of life have been satirized in the play. We come to know the life that
how upper class people lived. We also become aware of the money lenders of the time
and their greed. Even the servants of the aristocrat young men are ridiculed:

Sir Oliver “a footman raise money by way of amunity well done, luxury, egad”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 53
This shows extravagance of the people. Lady Sneerwell and her circle represent
then scandal mongers, they give us an idea of how ladies and gentlemen of those days
used to gather and indulge in slanderous gossips about their acquaintances and friends.
Sir Peter rightly says: “A character dead at every word”

Joseph Surface proved to be an embodiment of hypocrisy and pretentious


moralizing. He is artful, selfish and malicious in short a sentimental knave. Sir Peter
described Joseph as “a man of sentiments by saying;

“If he salutes me, with a crab of morality in his mouth, I shall be sick directly”

The school for scandal does have its share of love intrigues which were common in
the comedy of manners. Lady Sneerwell is in love with Charles. Charles loves Maria
Joseph Surface also tries to develop love with Maria as well as with Lady Teazle.

Sheridan also ridicules the young men who were in habit of squandering money.
The class of young men is well represented by Charles and his companions.

The craze for fashion is also satirized. Lady Teazle’s words show the fashionable
life of the people:

“My extravagance I am sure I am not extravagant than a women of fashion


ought to be”

To sum up, we can say that “The School for Scandal” is really a typical comedy of
manners. Lilee the other comedy of manners it has a complicated plot, a satirical
treatment of fashion and extravagance of the life the time and witty dialogues. The school
for scandal is a master piece of R.B Sheridan and it has almost all the features of a typical
comedy of manners. The plays of the other writers have immorality and coarseness, but
“the school for scandal” is free from all this. There is no obscene jest, no indirect or
oblique reference to debauchery or sexual aberrations. It is with out despite the most
brilliant comedy written in 18th century and is of the most successful plays ever produced
on the stage.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 54

POETRY-I
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 55
SECTION - A

GEOFFREY CHAUCER: The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales


CHAUCER’S ART OF CHARACTERIZATION
 Here is God’s plenty in “The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales”
 Do you agree that Chaucerian characters are types as well as individuals?
 Can we say that Chaucerian Palmers or Pilgrims are portrayed in Kaleidoscopic
Geoffrey Chaucer (1342 or 1343-1400) got cosmopolitan fame by writing. The
Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Canterbury Tales, Roman de la Rose (The Romance of
the Rose), The Book of the Duchess, The Parliament of Foules (Fowls) and Epilogue to
Canterbury Tales. Here are few unimportant poems are The Complaint unto Pity, The
Complaint of Mars, Queen Anelida and the ABC. Chaucer’s characterization is life-like and
kaleidoscopic. Some characters are round and some are flat. It is also propounded by
Chaucer that one must be keen observer of the society because literature is reflection of
life with the help of words. It is also observed that in “The Prologue to The Canterbury
Tales” Chaucer has not introduced any genii, elf, fairy and supernatural elements. All
characters are life-like and of blood and flesh.
In “The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales”, Chaucer has reflected three categories
of characterization. First one is chivalric order, second is ecclesiastical order and third one
is social order.
A famous critic William Blake says that Chaucer’s characters are universal. They
are found in each and every society. Their names are changed but their nature is not
changed. They are just like vegetables.
In case of chivalric order, first character is “The Knight”. He is man of
multidimensional personality. It also shows that “The Knight” is very laudable and
distinguished person of medieval literature. He is very worthy man, humble, meek and the
man of chivalric “chyvachyie” as well as military techniques. He has fought fifteen battles
because he is a man of devotion, self-sacrifice and exposure.
“And though that he were worthy, he was wys,
And of his port as meeke as is a mayde.”
The Squire is very nymphomaniac because he was a boy of lady grace. His hair
seemed to be pressed and he was very wondrously active lad of 20 years old. He was
fond of fluting and merry-making. He used to sleep like nightingale. He was man of so
called chivalric order.
“Al ful of fresshe flowers, white and rede.
Syngyne he was, or floytynge, al the day:”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 56
The Yeoman is also man of chivalric order. He is well-equipped with sword,
buckler, knife and so many other war related weapons. Chaucer says that he was the man
of the forest.
“A forester was he, smoothly, as I gesse.”
Second order of characterization is ecclesiastical stratum. The Prioress, The Monk,
The Summoner, The Pardoner, The Clerk, The Friar and The Parson are typical religious
character. It is very perplexing idea that out of seven religious characters only two are
appreciable but remaining five are scoundrel, rascal, ruffian and thugs. They loot innocent
people like mercenary drudges.
The Prioress is very beautiful character. She is dodger of the first rank. She
wastes her time in keeping pets especially hounds. She feeds them with roasted meat and
fine bread. She is wearing a brooch, on which is written that “AMOR VINCIT OMNIA”.
“On which ther was first written a crowned
And after, Amor vincit Omnia.”
The Summoner is very cunning and materialistic character. He is fond of eating,
onion, garlics and “eek leke”. He is as lecherous as sparrow. There are acnes, pimples
and knobs on his face. It is also humorous narration that no ointment of this world made of
antimony, borax and other chemicals can cure his skin problem because he is condemned
by God Almighty. He drinks blood color wine. He is really passionate and emotional figure.
“Wel loved he garleek, oynons, and eek lekes,
And for to drynken strong wyn, reed as blood;”
The Monk was a well-fed, well-clad, fond of hunting and riding. He is one of those
lords whose bridle’s profane sound rivals the chapel bell. His pride in horses and dogs
was against monastic rule. The secular minded Monk’s opinion was that his vocation was
to serve God Almighty not to serve man. He neither labours nor studies. He freely rides
and hunts abroad. He wastes his energies in sensual pleasure and continual sport. Even
then he is regarded as respectable ecclesiastical figure in the society. He is treated as a
“Lord” “Fair for the mastry” a “manly man” and a “Fair prelate”. His costumes, his habits,
his vanity and his fondness for dainty dishes, are all inappropriate to his vocation. They
make him look more a finer gentleman of the court than a poor and studious ascetic.
“And I seyde his opinioun was good:
What sholde he studie and make hymselven wood,
Upon a book in cloystre alwey to poure,
Or swynken with his handes, and laboure.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 57
The Friar, a typical as well as an individualized figure, is a rogue and a thorough
scoundrel. He thrives on the sins of humanity. Although he himself is a sinner yet he
pretends to absolve other of sin. He is a great hypocrite and a flatterer. He exploits the
situation to his own advantage. He wears a rich and gaudy dress. His robust physique, his
charming personality, his merry songs, his mannerisms, his sweet voice, his wantonness,
his white neck and his twinkling eyes, all make him an actual friar of 14 century England.
The character sketch of the Friar has touches of only mild satire.
“Somewhat he lipsed for his wantonnesse
To make his Englissh sweete upon his tonge;”
The Clerk, religious scholar, is one of the idealized characters. He is well-versed in
logic. He was not yet blended with any benefice from the church. There lie 20 books or so
about Aristotle near his pillow on his bed. If some friends give him some money, he
spends it on books alone. He spoke no unwanted words. His short talk was always full of
moral sense. He used to learn gladly and teach gladly.
“For hym was levere have ah his beddes heed
Twenty bookes, clad in blank or reed,
Of Aristotle and his philosphie.”
Chaucer’s Parson is the best character because of his qualities of head and heart.
He has set before himself the ideal of Evangelical poverty and he tries to imitate Holy
Christ (May God Be Pleased with him) and his teaching. This character shows Chaucer’s
objectivity, impartiality in his treatment of the church. Even in this phase of wide-spread
corruption in the church, some ecclesiastical figure like Parson, though in minority, are still
free from these vices. Being a perceptive analyst, Chaucer says that Parson was not
hatching difference between action and version. He has compared religious people with
gold and shepherd while common man is compared with iron and sheep.
“That if gold ruste, what shal iren doo?
For if a preest be foul, on whom we truste,”
The Pardoner is very condemnable figure. He was looting innocent people by
selling relics like pillowcase, Holy Mary’s veil, piece of sail associated with Saint Peter’s
boat and pig bones. He knew how to read Biblical lesson or story so that his eloquent
sermons could motivate his fascinated audience to open their purse for him.
“Upon a day he gat hym more moneye
Than that the person gat in monthes tweye.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 58
The Wife of Bath is a polyandrous character. She is manly woman. She has
robust physique, vigorous and rigorous personality. She has five husbands at Church
door. She had enjoyed lot of company in her youth. Her physical vitality is best
represented by her various amorous adventures.
“Housbondes at chirche dore she hadde five,

Withouten oother conpaignye in youthe.”


Chaucer painted the character of The Wife of Bath with full zeal, zest, enthusiasm
and keen observation. Chaucer’s art of characterization is free from personal bias. He
portrays his characters objectivity, impartiality and disinterestedly. He is akin to
Shakespeare and Fielding in this respect. He is highly interested in physiology,
physiognomy, anatomy and morphology of the character.
A famous critic Ward says, “ Chaucer’s characters are individuals as well as types
not mere phantoms of the brain but real human beings, and types true to the likeness of
whole classes of men and women.”
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Chaucer’s technique of characterization is original
and unique. His characters are individual as well as types.

CHAUCER’S HUMOR & IRONY


Laughter inspiring situations in “The Prologue to Canterbury Tales”
It is unique idea that humour is thinking in jest while feeling in earnest. It is also
remarked that a good humorist is a good humanist. John Dryden was right to remark that
main end of satire is an amendment of vices by correction. It is also pointed out that the
writer should be humorist to expose his points of view.
The Friar’s character is portrayed humorously. He has arranged marriages of so
many girls at his own cost. He was the best beggar of parish. He did not allow anyone to
be repentant. Although he knows that God Almighty loves repentance and repentant yet
he does not allow any sinner to repent. Religious characters of Chaucer are ridiculed in
very light and polite manner. It is satire on Medieval church. It is very smile-provoking that
the Friar was sugar daddy and old haggard. He used to give knives and hair pins to fair
wives, just to facilitate his emotional nature.
“His typet was ay farsed ful of knyves

And pynnes, for to yeven faire wyves.”


The Prioress is also narrated and painted humorously. She is very fastidious and
delicate lass. She does not allow any morsel drop from her mouth to her bosom. The
Prioress is fond of keeping hounds; she feeds them with roasted meat, nice bread and
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 59
milk. She becomes angry with the man who injures her hounds. She is hyper-sensitive.
She starts weeping on seeing a bleeding mouse or trapped mouse. She uses a brooch on
which the following wording is written Amor Vincit Omnia (Love conquers all). The Prioress
is very beautiful; she is girl of grey eyes, straight nose and well shaped forehead.
“Hire nose tretys, hir eyen greye as glas,

Hir mouth ful small, and therto softe and reed,”


The Cook is portrayed humorously by Chaucer. He has a running sore on his shin
or calf and he is not conscious about cleanliness and hygiene.
“That on his shyne a mormal hadde he.
For blancmanger, that made he with the beste.”
The Summoner was very dimple creative character. He has acnes, pimples and
knobs on his face and no ointment of this world is made of antimony, Borax and other
chemicals can cure his skin problem. His face is condemned by Allah Almighty. He was
fond of onions, garlics and eek lekes. Whenever he is out of senses he speaks Latin. It
indicates that Chaucer is very humorous in his exposure.
“Wel loved he garleek, oynons, and eek lekes,

And for to drynken strong wyn, reed as blood;”


The Sergeant at Law was doing nothing but looking very busy. He seemed busier
than he was. He was hatching difference between his appearance and reality. He was so
snobbish and foppish in his behaviour.
“Nowher so bisy a man as he ther nas,
And yet he semed bisier than he was,”
The Yeoman is also portrayed on humorous grounds. He had a cropped head.
He had sun-burnt visage. It is a guess of Chaucer that he was a forester.
“A not-heed hadde he, with a broun visage.”
The Squire is also described humorously. His curly lock seems to be pressed. He
used to sleep like a nightingale. He was a boy of lady grace. The Squire was very
courteous, humble and serviceable.
“Curties he was, lowely, and servysable,”
The Wife of Bath was a challenge for men. She was polyandrous, she was
negating male chauvinism. She had five legal husbands at church door. She had enjoyed
lot of company in her youth. Even she used to sit on the ambler. She was manly woman.
Her face was bold and red colored. She was gate toothed. It shows that she was fond of
traveling.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 60
“Housbondes at chirche dore she hadde five,
Withouten oother compaignye in youthe,”
According to a critic of cosmopolitan prestige Mr. John Speirs, “The irony is as
much in what is left unsaid as in what is said.”
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Chaucer’s humour is all pervasive. His
kaleidoscopic characters are portrayed in smiling provoking humorous vein Actually
Chaucer does not laugh at the character rather he laughs with the character.

GEOFFREY CHAUCER’S REALISM


1. Chaucer’s Keen Observation
2. Chaucer’s Perception about his surroundings
Chaucer is a marvellous realist of medieval literature. He achieved cosmopolitan
fame and metropolitan name by using his realistic exposure. It seems that he is observing
each and every character minutely. He thinks that basic purpose of literature is reflection
of life with the help of words.
According to a famous and prestigious critic Hadow “Chaucer is no visionary,
afraid to face the facts of life, dwelling in a world of beauty and delight which has no
counterpart on earth, but a poet who takes no shame in human nature, whose eyes see
so clearly that they are not blinded by evil, who dares to say, with his creator, that the
world
is good.”
Realism is evident, when he gazes “The Squire” and guesses that he is a boy of 20
years. He is a man of lady grace and military “chyvachyie”
“Of twenty yeer of age he was, I gesse.
Another realistic exposure is that the head of the procession ---“The Knight” is as
meek as a maid. He has fought 15 battles, even then he is meek. He is even gazing his
gypon and habergeon.
“Of fustian he wered a gypoun

Al bismotered with his habergeoun”


The Yeoman is also portrayed on realistic grounds. The Yeoman is carrying all
equipments like sword, shield, dagger and other weapons of war.
An ecclesiastical figure “The Prioress” is also portrayed on realistic grounds. Even
Chaucer has listened her accent that she had nasal sound. Her accent was not up to the
mark. She was called Madam Eglantine. It is also Chaucer’s realism that Prioress’s
smiling manner is very laudable. She was well-taught in the art of eating food. Her
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 61
wimple was pleated neatly.
“She leet no morsel from hir sauce depe;
Wel koude she carie a morsel, and wel kepe”
Chaucerian realism is crystal clear in his character “The Friar”. He is realistic to
remark that “The Friar” does not allow the sinner to repent because, in this way, his clients
will be reduced. Actually he is the dodger of first rank. Therefore, he remains practicing
such type of vicious tactics. No doubt, virtue is everlasting and evil is condemnable, even
then, some people remain in search of vicious circles. It shows that Chaucer is a unique
realist. Chaucerian Friar is portrayed realistically. Even Chaucer is aware of Friar’s white
colored neck surprisingly. All this shows that “The Friar” is very disgusting character.
“He wiste that a man was repentaunt;
For many a man so hard is of his herte”
“The Summoner” is also portrayed realistically. He has acnes, pimples, knobs on
his face. Even Chaucer is so realistic that no ointment of this world made of antimony,
Borax and other chemicals can cure his skin problem because his face is condemned by
God Almighty. Even Chaucer narrates that The Summoner loves to eat “eek leke”.
“Wel loved he garleek, oynons, and eek lekes,
And for to drynken strong wyn, reed as blood;”
“Wife of Bath” is based on realism. She is gate toothed. She is wife of five
husbands at church door. The Wife of Bath is carrying handkerchief of red color and their
weight is ten pound. The other side of picture is that it seems to be improbable that she is
carrying handkerchief whose weight is ten pounds.
A famous and unique critic Lawrence remarks, “ It is a familiar generalization that
medieval narrative is seldom realistic, that writers were little concerned to set down what
they saw with their own eyes, but rather what was proper according to convention, that
they should see.”
The epitome of the matter is that Chaucer’s realism is exemplary, unprecedented
and fabulous.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 62
EDMUND SPENSER: The Faerie Queene
SPENSERIAN STANZA
Rhyme Scheme in Spenser’s Poetry
Spenserian stanza is a long stanza consisting of nine lines. The first eight lines are
iambic pentametre i.e. ten syllabic lines, in the metre known as iambic. The ninth line is a
longer one. It consists of twelve syllables or in other words, it is an Alexandrine. The
rhyme scheme of Spenser’s stanza is a, b, a , b,b,c,b,c,c. Spenserian stanza is salient
feature of the Spenser’s poetry. There are nine lines and its rhyme scheme is elaborated
in the following manner.
“Lo! I, the man whose Muse whylome did maske, a
As time her taught, in lowly Shepherds weeds, b
Am now enfrost, a farre unfitter taske, a
For trumpet sterne to change mine Oaten reeds, b
And sing of Knights and Ladies gentle deeds; b
Whose praises having slept in silence long, c
Me, all too meane, the sacred Muse areeds b
To blazon broade emongst her learned through: c
Fierce warres and faithful loves hsall moralize my song. c
Edmund Spenser is the pioneer of this rhyme scheme because he wanted to
individualize himself by writing “Faerie Queene”. Spenser’s stanza has come in for a great
deal of criticism.
A famous critic Warton criticized the use of the Spenserian stanza for a long
narrative poem like the Faerie Queene. His objections are
(1) The excessive recurrence of the second and third rhymes led the poet to
dilate what he had to express with tedious and trifling circumlocutions.
(2) Often there is ridiculous repetition of words, when matter fails him at the end
of a stanza.
(3) Often there is an introduction of some irrelevant idea to fill out the rhymes.
(4) The stanza is responsible for many omissions. Upton agrees with Warton
and writes, “Many a bad spelling, many a lame thought and expression is he
forced to introduce, merely for the sake of a jingling termination.”
Spenser uses the stanza to create illusion, that suspension of disbelief, which is
necessary for the acceptance of the many strange things that happen in the remote fairly
world to which the poet transports us. Its music lulls the intellect of the readers and little by
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 63
little leads them away from the real world into another. It keeps time in Fairyland. “It has
a hypnotic effect, induces a slumber to which the things of life are remote, and we are
communion only with the poet’s pictures (Legouis). Its easy, sonorous music creates that
sense of endless leisure which is one of the chief merits of the epic. “The music of the
stanza, says J.R. Lowell, “puts the readers in the condition of reverie, a state of mind in
which our thoughts and feelings float motionless, as one sees fish do in a gentle stream.”
Spenserian stanza is also transparent in all cantos of “Faerie Queene”. With the
help of this Spenserian stanza, the poet is projecting theme and thought of adventurous
journey of Red Cross Knight who is the symbol of holiness. Spenser narrates through this
Spenserian stanza that Lady Una is the symbol of truth, Sansloy is the symbol of lack of
loyalty, and Sansfoy is the symbol of infidelity. Dragon is also symbol of evil. In one of
Spenserian stanza, Spenser narrates this lady was as pure and innocent in her life as the
lamb that she led by her sight. She was also versed in the teachings of virtue. She
descended from royal line of kings and queens, who had in the past, extended their
sovereign rule far east to the western shore.
“So pure and innocent, as that same lambe,

She was in life and every vertuus lore ;”


The other side of picture is that the stanza is not suitable for purposes of narration,
as the long Alexandrine causes a break in continuity, can also be disposed of with a few
words. Spenser has skillfully avoided this fault and has shown that the stanza is suitable
for the purposes of narration also. The devices he uses for the purpose are;
(1) He carries over the “c” rhyme of one stanza to ‘a’ or ‘b’ rhyme of the next.
(2) Alexandrine in successive stanzas are often identical.
(3) Sometimes he begins a stanza with some relative or conjunction which
closely binds it to the previous one.
(4) Important words from the Alexandrine are frequently carried over to the first
line of the next. Its suitability for the purposes of narration is demonstrated
by the fact that important poets, like Thomson, Keats, Shelley, Byron etc,
have used it for their best narrative poems.
With the help of Spenserian stanza, Edmund Spenser has pointed out that Lady
Una was bone of contention as she was captured and ensnared by a Dragon. The parents
were highly mournful therefore they contacted Queen Elizabeth, where the Knight Red
Cross volunteers. He offered his services voluntarily but he had to venture for adventure.
Red Cross Knight had to face lot of problems.
Some critics have raised certain objections against Spenserian stanza. Soilus,
Momus and other disputants in Harrington’s Metamorphoses of Ajax (1956) complained,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 64
“That the last verse discarded their mouths and was like a trick of seventeen in a
sinkpace.”
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Spenserian Stanza consist of eight deca
syllabic, iambic lines, rhyming a,b,a,b,b,c,b,c,c, followed by an Alexandrian rhyming sea.
SPENSER AS A PICTORIAL POET
Spenser as Elizabethan Poet
Edmund Spenser got cosmopolitan fame and prestigious name by writing “Faerie
Queene”. He knows how to create a pen-picture and panoramic views. Even a reader of
common caliber can perceive various pictorial qualities of Edmund Spenser while reading
various cantos of this moral, political and religious allegory “Faerie Queene”.
As an Elizabethan poet, Edmund Spenser has used his pen to create kaleidoscopic
view of Red Cross knight, Lady Una and Queen Elizabeth. In “Faerie Queene” there is
description of lulling songs, leaping waves, sky-scrapping mountains, high hills, refreshing
rills, melodious voices, chirping birds, lush green trees, hallow caves, dangerous and
horrible snakes, Cobra’s dragons, pythons, royal courts, decorum of the court and uniform
of the courtiers. Pictorial quality is crystal clear in description of pines, Cedar, vine-prop
Elme, Poplar, Aspine and Cypresse and other beautiful and fragrant blooming blossoms.
“The sayling Pine; the Cedar proud and tall;

The vine-propp Elme; the Poplar vever dry;


The builder Oake, sole king of forests all;
The Aspine good for staves; the Cypresse
Funerall.”
Edmund Spenser’s image making technique is really laudable. There is a great
variety in Spenser’s imagery in “The Faerie Queene”. He has drawn pictures of
landscapes, palaces, courts and caves and he has very nicely embellished those pictures
with the wealth of colour and decorative richness. The pictures of nature and landscapes
are exquisitely beautiful and charming. In the conventional style he has drawn the picture
of the sun-rise in the second stanza of Canto 5 in Book I.
“At last, the golden Orientell gate

Of greatest heaven gan to open fire;


And Phoebus, fresh as brydegrome to his mate
Came dancing forth, shaking his deawie hayre
And hurled his glistering beams through gloomy ayre.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 65
In “Faerie Queene” human images are transparent. A perceptive reader can
understand various ins and outs, pros and cons and whole paraphernalia. Spenser shows
a great skill in drawing pictures of human beings drawn from various ranks and classes of
people. Pictures of old men, dwarf, knights, beautiful ladies, handsome people, efficient
children, brilliant gentry are described on realistic grounds. First of all we have two
pictures of old age in first book. The first is of Archimago and the second is that of old man
in the castle of Orgoglio. The following lines represent the old man in Canto VIII.
“At last, with creeping crooked pace forth came
An old man, with bread as white as snow,
That on a staffe his feeble steps did frame,
And guyde his wearie gate both too and fro,
For his eye sight him failed long ago.”
In “Faerie Queene” human images are very praise-worthy. The picture of ‘Queen in
glory’ rich in all jewels and pearls is presented in eighth stanza of Canto IV of book I.
“Yet her bright blazing beautie did assay.”
The pictures of Red Cross Knight, Sansjoy, sansloy and sansfoy are as vivid as
those of Tennison’s knight at a later stage. The picture of Una’s purity, innocence and
piety has been deftly drawn. Edmund Spenser has created true pen-picture of Lady Una
who stands for truth. She is so chaste and virtuous lady that she is compared with lamb.
“So pure and innocent, as that same lambe,
She was in life and every virtuous lore.”
A famous and prestigious critic Hazlitt says, “Nobody but Rubens could have
painted the fancy of Spenser, though he could not have given the sentiment, the airy
dream that hovers over it.”
To put it in nutshell, we can say that “The Faerie Queene” is very dazzling and
panoramic picture gallery. No doubt Spenser is supreme pictorial artist; he is the poet-
painter.
“THE FAERIE QUEENE” AS AN ALLEGORY
1. “The Faerie Queene” as Religious Allegory
2. Political Allegory
3. Personal & Historical Allegory
4. Moral and Spiritual Allegory
Allegory is literary device which narrates the story with a hidden moral teaching.
Basic purpose of allegory is to convey moral and religious truth in delightful manner. In
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 66
“The Faerie Queene” three kinds of allegory are blended. Firstly, a moral and spiritual
allegory dealing with actions and inter-actions of virtue and vice, secondly a religious
allegory which deals with significant religious events and thirdly a personal and historical
allegory.
“The Faerie Queene” is moral and spiritual allegory because the good characters
of this allegory stand for various virtues while bad characters stand for different vice. For
example, Red cross Knight stands for holiness. Lady Una stands for truth, goodness and
wisdom. Her parents symbolize the human race. Dragon stands for evil. The mission of
holiness is to help truth to fight evil and to regain its rightful place. Red cross Knight
comes across various dangerous adventures in order to win Lady Una. She encourages
him and he kills Dragon who is the symbol of evil. Holiness and truth may defeat error.
The symbol of hypocrisy Arch imago succeeds in separating holiness from truth. When
holiness is separated from truth, he becomes a plaything or puppet in Duessa. Truth also
becomes weak. Lady Una is as white as snow.
“A lovely ladie rode him faire beside,
Upon a lowly Asse more more white than snow”
In “The Faerie Queene” moral and spiritual allegory is blended with religious
allegory. For example, different characters stand for religion events and distinguished
dignitaries of the world. The reformation was very significant religious movement of
Spenser’s time. So it is represented allegorically. The Red Cross Knight represents
manhood of England or the reformed church, fighting the corruption, pride and evils of
Papacy, Paganism and Catholicism. The papers and books which monster Error has
swallowed signify the false teaching of Catholic Church and Duessa its essential
Falsehood, Orgaglio Philip II of Spain, who befriended the Pope and did his best to
weaken and harm England. To accomplish his mission i.e. to restore the parents of Lady
Una to freedom and to their former status, the Red cross Knight has to encounter many
difficulties, dangers and fight many wicked characters and monsters.
“The Knight of the Redcrosse, when him he spide
Spurring so hote with rage dispiteous”
“The Faerie Queene” can rightly be entitled as political and personal allegory
because Spenser wrote this epic especially for glory of Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers.
In “The Faerie Queene” she is Gloriana who sets various adventures to her knights
symbolizing the courtiers of the queen of England. Lord Leicester is Arthur, Mary Stuart,
Duessa, Lord of Grey of Wilton, Governor of Ireland, who delivers, Ireland from the rebels,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 67
is Artegal delivering Irena from Grantorto. These are so many personal and historical
references in this allegory.
There are some objections also against “The Faerie Queene”. One critic says that a
number of objections have been raised to Spenser’s use of allegory. The device is
essentially a technique of vision but Spenser’s use of it instead of imparting clarity
confuses the story and perplexes the readers. All is confused and obscure, nothing is
clear and comprehensible. There are many digressions. So the reader of common caliber
is confused.
To conclude, we can say that “The Faerie Queene” can be regarded as a wonderful
allegory and unique epic. The allegory is clear only in the first book but it grows weaker by
book V. Anyhow, “The Faerie Queene” is political, moral, religious and historical allegory.

JOHN DONNE: Selection from Metaphysical Poetry


JOHN DONNE AS A METAPHYSICAL POET
Discuss Metaphysical School of Thought with special reference to John Donne?
What is Metaphysical conceit? Discuss with reference to Donne’s love poetry?
Conceit is a far-fetched image. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals
with facts which are lying beyond physical vision. The term metaphysical can be
interpreted as beyond (Meta) and physical nature (Physical).John Donne can rightly be
regarded as metaphysical poet because his poetry fulfills various requirements of
metaphysical school of thought.
A famous and venerable critic Mr. Drinkwater says that Donne is the best
metaphysical poet of the whole world because of his metaphysical conceits, images,
unique similes and metaphors. For example, in his poem “Valediction Forbidding
Mourning”, he has compared the lover and beloved with two ends of the compasses. It is
geometrical fact that circle is completed at the moment when one leg of the compasses is
static while the other is rotating around the first one. In the same way, circle of love is
completed if the beloved is firm and the lover is rotating around her.
“Thy firmnes makes my circle just,

And makes me end, where I begunne.”


Another metaphysical conceit used by Donne in his love poem “Sunne Rising” is
that the lover regards himself as half of the world and his paramour is equal to the other
half of the world. When they unite, whole world is contracted in one bed-room. He is
ordering the sun to shine on them and it will be equal to rotation around the whole world.
“Thine age askes ease, and since thy duties bee
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 68
To warme the world, that’s done in warming us.
Shine here to us, and thou art every where;
This bed thy center is, these walls, thy spheare.”
In the same poem, John Donne is upbraiding the sun that he can eclipse the sun
with a wink of an eye, but he can not do so because he can not think to miss a single
glimpse of his paramour. In the poem “Sunne Rising” Donne is castigating and upbraiding
the sun in the following manner.
“Thy beames, so reverend, and strong
Why shouldst thou thinke?
I could eclipse and cloud them with a winke,
But that I would not lose her sight so long:”
In his master-piece “Extasie” metaphysical conceit is that he has compared the
body with the prison while the soul is compared with the prince. It is fact that soul is more
important than body because soul ascends and body descends. Human being is an
artistic blend of body and soul. Human Being = Body + Soul
Death = Body – Soul
“Else a great Prince in prison lies.”
Donne as a metaphysical poet is highly lauded by Grierson, who says that Donne
was not born to decay. He was lucky enough to carry the day by quoting so many
metaphysical conceits, images, and similes.
In his poem “Good Morrow”, Donne is using historical image of seven sleeper’s
den. It is an illusion to the seven Christian young men of Euphesus because of fear of
punishment at the hands of Emperor Decius, took refuge in a cave where they slept for
many years.
“But suck’d on countrey pleasures, childishly?

Or snorted we in the seaven sleepers den?”


As a metaphysical poet, Divine poems are also related with metaphysical thoughts.
For example, he has requested Allah Almighty to be magnet and to tempt his iron heart.
“Thy Grace may wing me to prevent his art.

And thou like Adamant draw mine iron heart.”


John Donne can rightly be regarded as metaphysical poet because he fulfills
various standards and prerequisites of metaphysical poetry.
Grierson laid stress on archetypal images, metaphysical conceit far-fetched
thoughts, different views, startled ideas and thought-provoking innovations and so many
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 69
cultured speculations. For example, in his poem “The Extasie” there is typical ecstatic
union in this poem. The lover and his paramour are sitting side by side. Their souls, eyes
and hearts are negotiating with each other, but their tongues are silent because real love
does not need communication. Therefore, Donne is laying stress on following ecstatic
rapture.
“Our soules, (which to advance their state,
were gone out,) hung’ twixt her, and mee.
And whil’st our soules negotiate there.”
In his Holy Sonnets, Donne is communicating with Allah Almighty directly. He is
conscious to get redemption. In this holy sonnet, John Donne mentions creator as well as
creature. It is fact that Allah Almighty is the best creator and human beings are unique
creatures.
“Thou has made me, and shall thy work decay?
Repaire me now, for now mine end doth haste,”
He is really aware of this divine dictum that life after death is ultimate end of every
human being. Mortal human being has mortal coil and it will be shuffled because we are
chained with mortality only Allah is immortal. No doubt death is pinching reality and
pricking factor but good deeds immortalize us.
“And gluttoness death, will instantly unjoynt
My body, and soule, and I shall sleepe a space,”
To epitomize the matter, we can say that metaphysical conceit distinguishes John
Donne from others. He has surpassed Vaughan, Cowley, Crashaw and Herbert.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 70
JOHN DONNE AS A LOVE POET
1. Passionate attachments and emotional links in Donne’s poetry
2. The Nature of love in Donne’s poetry
3. The Constituents Elements of Donne’s Poetry
It is an undeniable fact that love is a natural passion which is present in the
delightful sensation of our heart and soul. John Donne can rightly be regarded as love
poet because his love poems are replete with emotions, passions, feelings related with
love. No doubt, everybody is dreaming and desiring to enjoy love, so love is natural
passion which is ever- cherished by everybody. Nobody wants to be hated but everybody
wants to be loved. Donne is also sailing in the same boat. He is expecting his wife and
paramour should love him, because without love, Donne believes that one remains
immature. He also believes in seven dimensions of love, Divine love, Anthropology,
Philanthropism, Patriotism, Libido, Narcissism, Platonic love and filial love.
A renowned and prestigious critic John Eayward says “Donne’s poems indeed are
largely un-inhabited and curiously annotated record--- passionate or ironical, tender or
teasing as the case may be--- of many love affairs before marriage and many life long
friendships.”
In his poems like ‘Good Morrow’, Sunne Rising, Valediction Forbidding Mourning,
The Relique, The Extasie, ‘The Anniversarie’ and ‘Air and Angel’, he painted the theme of
love. In his poem Good Morrow, John Donne is very conscious about expression of love in
metaphysical manner. For example, John Donne is mentioning a historical image of seven
sleepers Den.
“Or snorted we in the seven sleepers den?

T’ was so; but this, all pleasures fancies bee.”


It is very astonishing metaphysical conceit that Donne is expecting that his face will
be reflected in his paramour’s eyes and vice versa. Perhaps, he believes that face is the
index of mind and eyes are the gateway to heart. Actually, he has a firm belief that eyes
are the most delightful and sensitive part of human body. It shows that deep-rooted
love between husband and wife is real source of happiness in domestic life.
“My face in thine eyes, thine in mine appears,
And true plaine hearts doe in the faces rest,”
As a metaphysical love poet, John Donne is entirely different from the love poets
like Vaughan, Cowley, Crashaw and Herbert.
In his famous love poem “Valediction Forbidding Mourning” Donne says that the
husband and wife should have mutual co-ordination and co-operation. They should not be
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 71
snobbish, foppish and artificial in their behaviours. It also illustrates that John Donne is
very conscious about sacrificing attitude of the wife and husband. Therefore he is
requesting his wife to melt due to warmth of love but they should not make a noise.
“So let us melt, and make no noise,”
In this poem, marvelous metaphysical conceits are used. For example, he requests
his wife not to make flood of tears and in the same manner she should not sigh so much
that there may be tempest.
“No teare-floods, nor sigh tempests move,”
In the same love poem, there is very individual conceit of golden bar. It is fact of
jewelry that the thinner gold is, the shiner it is. He is consoling his spouse in very polite
and humble manner. It is geometrical concept of love that the wife should be static and
husband should rotate around her. In this way circle of love will be completed perfectly.
“Thy firmnes makes my circle just,
And makes me end, where I begunne.
In the poem “Sunne Rising”, Donne is so metaphysical that he is castigating even
heavenly body the sun because he regards the sun as villain. He is upbraiding the sun in
very horrible manner. He is regarding the sun as old busy fool and unruly.
In his poem “The Extasie”, it is typical concept of ecstatic union that the lover and
beloved are sitting side by side and their souls are negotiating with each other. Such type
of chatting of the souls is impossible phenomenon. In normal routine life, dead body
means soulless body but Donne says that first of all soul came out of the body and then it
re-entered the body.
In his poem “Aire and Angels”, John Donne is every inch right to remark that love
can not exist in a vacuum. It should have a concrete expression. It indicates steadiness of
love.
A renowned and laudable critic George Williamson says, “Donne like Herbert is
interested less in the moral casuistry of love than in the philosophical questions provoked
by it.”
To put it in nutshell, we can say that John Donne is marvelous love poet. He is the
jewel of heart and soul of blue stocking (literary woman) and literati (literary man).
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 72
JOHN DONNE AS RELIGIOUS POET
1. Christian Thoughts and Biblical Facts in Donne’s Poetry
2. “Religious Zeal and Enthusiasm of Donne is exemplary”, do you agree with
the statement?
3. Ecclesiastical bent of mind of Donne
4. There is a soul dissection in Donne’s Holy Sonnets and Hymns.
John Donne can rightly be regarded as religious poet because he believed that
religion is a binding force and without religion we are nothing. In his Holy Sonnets, Hymns,
Good Friday 1613 Riding Westward, Hymn to God the Father and a Hymne to Christ, he
has depicted very unique thoughts. Actually he believed that God, Son and Holy Ghost
are really eminent pillars of the world and the world Hereafter (Day of Judgment or Day of
Resurrection and Day of Rejuvenation).
In the first Holy Sonnet, he is pleading fervently God Almighty that He has made
him; therefore he should not decay in the graves. Even he is requesting Allah Almighty to
rejuvenate him. It illustrates that John Donne is enjoying spiritual communication with
Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Benevolent Allah Almighty.
“Thou haste made me, And shall thy worke decay?
Repaire me now, for now mine and doth haste,”
As a religious poet, he is beseeching Allah Almighty to be magnet in order to draw
his iron heart. It shows his conflict because evil is very attractive but virtue demands
conscious efforts for its performance. It also indicates Donne’s deep-rooted interest in the
Biblical commandments. This thought reveals Donne’s ecclesiastical bent of mind and
humble submission before his Creator.
“And thou like Adamant draw mine iron heart.”
In another Holy Sonnet, Donne describes the different causes of death. For
example, some people die of age, fever, war, chance, law, accident, dearth and ague.
“All whom the flood did, and fire shall o’rthrow,
All whom warre, dearth age, agues, tyrannies,
Despaire, law chance hath slaine, and you whose eyes,”
John Donne is very individual religious poet. He achieved global fame by thinking
about Holy Christ, Allah Almighty and Holy Son. He is requesting Holy Christ to pardon his
sins by his holy blood. It is a typical Biblical thought that a single drop of Holy Christ’s
blood can save whole human race. Even a half drop of blood is sufficient for his salvation.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 73
“Teach me how to repent; for that’s as good
As if thou ‘hadst seal’d my pardon, with thy blood.”
John Donne is also aware of this fact that human being is an artistic blend of body and
soul.
Body + Soul = Human Being
Body – Soul = Death
He also says that earthborne body shall dwell on earth. But eternal soul will bubble
up to purgatory. In another Holy Sonnet, Donne is threatening death; he says that death
should not be proud because death will also die on the Day of Judgment.
“Death be not proud, though some have called thee

Mighty and dreadfull, for, thou art not so,”


It is height of Donne’s religious zeal and zest that he is thinking about Trinity ---
God, Son and Holy Ghost.
“Batter my heart, three person’d God; for, you

As yet but knocke, breathe, shine, and seeke to mend;”


He believes this thought that Devil is condemnable therefore he should not be
under the spell of evil. He also requests Holy Christ to show him, his wife (The Church)
who is bright and clear.
In his divine poem “Good Friday” he says that man’s soul should be guided by
devotion to God Almighty. Donne is conscious about his sinful life. In Hymne to Christ,
Donne says that he wishes to divorce everything that he has loved in his life.
A famous Poet and Critic William Wordsworth is of the opinion, “The tenth sonnet
of Donne, beginning “Death, be not proud” is so eminently characteristic of his manner,
and at the same time so weighty in the thought, and vigorous in the expression, that I
would entreat you to insert it, though to modern taste it may be repulsive, quaint, and
laboured.”
To epitomize the matter, we can say that Donne is very enchanting, captivating and
religious minded divine poet.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 74
SECTION - B

John Milton: paradise Lost


“PARADISE LOST” AS A CLASSICAL EPIC
Epic is a long narrative poem in which there is description of adventurous hero who
is venturing for adventure. Ultimately virtue succeeds and vice is defeated. The pages of
history reveal that Homer was first Greek poet who created two classical epics namely
Illiad and Odyssey. A Roman poet Virgil wrote Aeniad. Dante wrote “Divinia Comedia” and
Neistzche wrote THUS SPOKE ZARTHASHTRA. John Milton is really individual and
archetypal epic writer who got global fame and name by writing unique classical epic
“Paradise Lost”.
A famous critic W.W. Graham says “Milton is grandiloquent, eloquent and mighty
mouthed poet. Therefore he selected classical epic to project his input.
John Milton was an individual epic writer who followed the following trends of classical
epic.
1. Invocation to Muse of Poetry
2. Description of Virtue
3. Description of Vice
4. Combat between Virtue and Vice
5. Defeat of Vice and Victory of Virtue
6. Consolation to the defeated party.
John Milton has requested Heavenly Muse to inspire and motivate his imagination.
He quoted so many historical references to illustrate his point of view. For example he
mentions Holy Moses who taught the chosen seed (Israelites).
“Sing, heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shaphered, who first taught the Chosen seed.”
Milton has used satan’s character as embodiment of evil. Satan is over-confident,
over-clever, over-courageous and herald of messianic revolt. He has tried to challenge
Allah Almighty. He motivates his powerful comrades to be revengeful in the following
manner;
“And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost----the unconquerable will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 75
In his second speech, Satan is consoling his followers and fallen angels. He says
that to be weak is miserable. While describing vicious circle, Satan is over-projected by
Milton. Satan advises his followers in the following way.
“Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable,
Doing or suffering; but of this be sure
To do aught good never will be our task,
But ever to do ill our sole delight.”
A famous critic Don Surat says that Milton himself belongs to satanic party,
because he himself seems to be Satan.
“Paradise Lost” is a classical epic because Milton is over-conscious to project
Satan’s party. He has used grand style to describe epic similies. For example, Milton says
that Satan has been thrown from Heaven to Hell, like falling leaves in the season of
autumn. Second epic similie is that John Milton is comparing Satan’s shield with the moon.
Third epic simile is that Satan is moving on the surface of the hell as a sea monster
leviathan (Whale).
“---------------------Or that sea-beast
Leviathan, which God of all his works
Created hugest----------------------------”
“Paradise Lost” is a classical epic because Milton is depicting various situations
which are related with historical images. For example, there is description of Heaven and
Hell. The reader starts trembling when he reads that sulphurous fire is burning in Hell and
Hell is a bottomless perdition. It is just like a huge, horrifying, terrifying and irritating
furnace which is full of scorching flames.
Core and crux of the matter is that “Paradise Lost” is very thought provoking classical epic
which is quotable in literary circumferences. It is really Milton’s master-piece. His name is
still echoing in our heart and soul because of his unique literary creation.

MILTON’S GRAND STYLE


It is a quotable and undeniable fact that style is the man. Each and every writer has
a particular style of writing which may be different from that of others. Milton is very
grandiloquent, mighty mouthed and eloquent poet. His epic similies, verse paragraphs,
blank verse, verbosity, flowery language and other multidimensional exposures are really
fabulous. For example, in the opening lines of ‘Paradise Lost”, John Milton is projecting
historical and mythological image in the following manner;
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 76
“Of Man’s first disobedience and the fruit

Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste


Brought Death into the world, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden-----------------------------------”
Milton’s grand style is also evident in Satan’s speeches. In his first speech, he
showed vigorous and tremendous style.
“And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost--- the unconquerable will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate,”
In second speech Milton is regarding his followers as “fallen angels”—
“Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable,
Doing or suffering; but of this be sure”
In third speech, Satan’s commanding nature is shown that reign in Hell is better
than service in Heaven. He says that one must have ruling nature.
“To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell:
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in heaven.”
Milton’s grand style is also visible through epic similies. For example, Milton
remarks that angels were falling from Heaven to Hell like autumnal leaves. Milton also
remarks that Satan’s shield is as big as the moon. Another epic similie is that angels were
falling like Locusts from Heaven to Hell.
It is also pointed out that Milton’s grand style is highly appreciated by Christopher
Gillie. He is of the opinion that Milton’s superb style is unsuspected element in English
Literature because he uses historical imagery and lacks humour.
Milton’s grand style is also appreciated by so many critics. Some of them have
eulogized Milton’s cultivation and Grand style. So many critics regard John Milton of
appropriate user of rationa-capax, logical approach, historical images, argumentative
description and scholastic approaches.
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Milton’s style is the proof of his extended
wisdom, deep-rooted intellect, subjective views and grand style.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 77
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ELEMENTS IN “PARADISE LOST”
“Paradise Lost” has some personal glimpses of grandiloquent poet John Milton. He
was highly self-conscious poet. He is much autobiographical or subjective in his approach.
He believes that basic purpose of literature is reflection of life with the help of words. Only
those people succeed in their lives that have unique blend of subjectivity as well as
objectivity. The pages of history of literature reveal that there was broken-home situation
in his house. The members of his family especially his better-half was the least concerned
with literature. Even she had no tolerance for Milton’s literary bent of mind. Not to speak of
being a blue stocking, even she was not interested in basics of literature. Such types of
situations become very horrible in personal life. So Milton was somewhat disturbed,
perturbed and emotional due to disturbed personal life. Even he used to sit in the corner of
his home because was sharing his solitude. In “Paradise Lost” subjective glimpses are
transparent when we come to know that Milton says “solitude sometimes is the best
society”.
John Milton is really marvellous in his thoughts because his poetry is colored with
autobiographical tinges. Being a self-conscious poet, probably, either he has compared
himself with Holy Adam (May God be pleased with Him) or Satan. It is an undeniable fact
that nobody is paragon of perfection. We are neither angelic nor satanic. We are just
common human beings. A Punjabi poet Baba Bulleh Shah says---
Na main Musa na Firaun

Ki janan main kaun


It is right to remark that John Milton is typical Puritan but the other opinion is that
Milton belongs to satanic party. It is also historically proved that being a Puritan Milton
mentions corrupt clergy of that time. In Lycidas he has mentioned it especially. In
“Paradise Lost” it seems that John Milton is expressing his disgust and contempt against
his opponent party. Being a vocal, confident and courageous speaker, he has used his
grand style to project Satan’s speeches. In third Satan’s third speech, Milton’s own
commanding nature is crystal clear and transparent in the following manner.
“To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell,
Better rule in Hell than serve in Heaven.”
A famous critic of cosmopolitan prestige Don Surat says that Milton himself seems
to be Satan. Milton is so self conscious that his autobiographical elements are oozing out
of his summom bonnum. In Satan’s first speech, he says that one must be revengeful and
unconquerable lord.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 78
“And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?

All is not lost--- the unconquerable will,


And study of revenge, immortal hate,”
Milton is so self-conscious that he believes in magnetic presence, eloquent volume
and arresting timber during speech. In Holy Adam’s soliloquy, he is regarding Holy Eve
(May God Be Pleased with her) as flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone.
“Another rib afford, yet loss of thee
Would never from my heart; no, no I feel
The link of nature draw me: flesh of flesh
Bone of my bone thou art, and from thy state.”
Holy Adam is regarding Holy Eve (May God Be Pleased with her) as the fairest of
mortal creation. All this shows that Milton is very subjective in his bent of mind. Perhaps,
Milton is disguising himself in various characters. Sometimes it seems that Milton is
present in every line of “Paradise Lost” because the writer can not remain away from the
writing.
Consequently, we can say that Milton is self-conscious in his autobiographical
creation “Paradise Lost”. He is still quoted as subjective writer of English Literature.

JOHN DRYDEN AS AN ENGLISH POET


MAIN PROPOUNDING OF JOHN DRYDEN
John Dryden is really a man of unique exposures. He got name and fame by writing
“Absalom & Achitophel”, “Astrea Redux”, “Annus Mirabilis”, “The Medal”, “Mac Flecknoe”,
“Religio Laici”, “The Hind” and “The Panther” and “Absalom & Achitophel Part II”.
“Absalom & Achitophel” is a political and allegorical satire with epical grandeur. Therefore
it is called wit with heroic base. There is Biblical symbolism in the literary creation.
In “Absalom & Achitophel”, John Dryden described King David (Charles II) who was
polygamous because he had lot of wives and concubines. He was very emotional,
passionate and snobbish king. It is really thought provoking that John Dryden has pointed
out that one must be aware of so many ins and outs related with monarchy, democracy
and other sociological impacts. Dryden is pointing out that Jews and Christians were
entirely different from each other in so many matters. For example, the Jews are proud of
their dynasty or pedigree.
“Absalom & Achitophel” makes a remarkable use of allegory. Dryden uses Biblical
allegory to raise the political satire to a higher level. Though the story of Absalom had
always been used for political purposes and Achitophel had been clearly identified with
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 79
Shaftsbury by other writers of this period and Dryden’s hands, the allegory attains a
splendid effect.
The political nature of “Absalom & Achitophel” is given weight by expression of
Dryden’s own views on political scenario. Dryden gives his own thoughts on the divine
right of kings and how the populace should not think that they can remove the monarch
arbitrarily.
“Kings are the public pillars of the State
Born to sustain and prop the nation’s weight.”
In the ancient Holy times, the priests were crafty and before marriage, relations with
many women were regarded as sin. King David bows before the will of Allah Almighty.
“In pious times, e’r Priest-craft did begin,
Before Polygamy was made a sin;”
Dryden is very descriptive and narrative in his style of writing. John Dryden was
Neo-classist both in theory and in practice his poetry is more realistic than romantic. His
poetry was closely related to the society of the day. He was not a rigid classist. He did not
advocate blind imitation of the ancients or a rigid adherence to rules. He is a
representative of neo-classical tendencies. Dryden’s work shows his preference for artistic
control and order against the exuberance and wildness of imagination.
As an English poet, Dryden was especially commissioned by the king to create a
poetic creation. In this poetic creation he remains in support of the royalist group and the
power of the King. Dryden makes his satire with a concentrated and convincing poetic
style. He chose Biblical story of Absalom revolting against his father David at the
instigation of Achitophel, in order to satirize political situation. Dryden is regarded as the
most vigorous and polished of English satirists. As satirist, generally resorts literary
devices such as fable and parody.
Dryden uses allegory and he adopted Biblical story for various reasons. It gave him
the advantage of dealing with name and situation already familiar to the public. Three
important characters are Achitophel, Absalom and King David. The character who
occupies large place is Achitophel. He was a political leader who enjoyed the favour of
King Charles II; (Same name of the King David).His object of life was either to rule the
state or to ruin the state.
“In friendship false, implacable in hate,
Resolved to ruin or to rule the State.”
A famous and prestigious critic Ian Jack writes “The measure of man’s merit or
guilt the nature of Dryden’s own relations with him, his social position and above all the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 80
degree of royal favour which he enjoyed---- all these considerations are taken into
account in what way he is to be treated.”
In a nutshell, it can be pointed out that “Absalom and Achitophel” is historical,
allegorical, satirical and literary piece of art. Therefore, Dryden is really appreciable and
marvelous poet of English Literature.

BIBLICAL STORY OF “ABSALOM & ACHITOPHEL”


RELIGIOUS EXPOSURE IN “ABSALOM & ACHITOPHEL”
“Absalom & Achitophel” can rightly be entitled as Biblical story. In this allegorical
satire “Absalom & Achitophel”, John Dryden has pointed out some Biblical thoughts in
very analytical manner. It is a typical Biblical idea that virtue is always successful and vice
has no feet to stand upon. Virtue is really fascinating while vice is very condemnable. It is
also unique Biblical concept that virtuous people are always awarded and vicious people
are always condemnable. Ultimately, it is quoted that vice has to suffer but during youth
evil looks very charming and attractive. A Persian poet rightly says;
“Der jawani tauba kadan shawa-e-paighmberi
Waqt peeri gurg zalim me showad perhaizgar”
In “Absalom & Achitophel” Dryden took up the story of David and Absalom from the
Bible to apply to the contemporary political situation. The Biblical story could not be
adopted in its entirety by Dryden. The story of Absalom ends with his death and David’s
mourning his son’s death. Absalom won the people’s heart by his handsome looks and
charm of manners. He rebelled against his father at the instigation of some evil
counselors. Achitophel was very cunning, condemnable, satanic and damnable person
Absalom was very humble, gentle, caring, loving, chivalric, and fond of horse riding and
enthusiastic style.
“Of all this Numerous Progeny was none
So Beautiful, so brave as Absolon:”
Actually, his father was polygamous; therefore King David was somewhat
notorious. In fact the King was authoritative and authority corrupts the man and absolute
authority corrupts absolutely.
“In pious times, e’r Priest-craft did begin,
Before Polygamy was made a sin;”
“Absalom & Achitophel” is Biblical thought because the poet has gotten theme of
the Bible. Charles II had often been compared to the Biblical King David. An evil counselor
had always been named with Achitophel. The events of 1670, had increased the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 81
potentialities of Absalom story. The poem gets depth through Biblical thought because
Absalom’s association with second Moses and guardian fire, his representation as a
“Young Massiha” who “shows the promised land” all have metaphorical values. David
appears as God Almighty did to Holy Moses (May God be pleased with him).
Corah in the Bible was a man who was false and responsible for the sad fate of some
innocent people.
A famous critic Doctor Johnson was of the opinion that Dryden’s “Absalom &
Achitophel” is acrimony of censure elegance of praise, artful delineation of character,
variety of sentiment, happy turns of language and pleasing harmony of numbers.”
John Dryden has also described about Popish plot. The Jebusites (Catholics) suffered
from some handicaps. The situation became intolerable for them. They even tried to
convert the uncommitted English community to the Roman Catholic faith.
In nutshell, we can say that “Absalom & Achitophel” is very laudable Biblical and
informative poetic creation. It is replete with so many ecclesiastical traditions and religious
conventions.
“ABSALOM & ACHITOPHEL” AS POLITICAL SATIRE
“ABSALOM & ACHITOPHEL” AS POLITICAL PAMPHLET
“Absalom & Achitophel” is not only a political pamphlet but also a work of art. The
seventeenth century in England saw the phenomenon of writers earning a living through
their art. The political situation was primarily responsible for the creation of an atmosphere
in which writers could make money by wielding (using) the pen.
Two major political parties grew in this age, the Whigs and Tories. Political
propaganda was naturally common as both parties were vying (quarrelling) with each
other to gain public opinion and sympathy. Political periodicals to make their appearance,
“Absalom & Achitophel” clearly originated in the contemporary political situation. The
situation was graceful with controversy. The question of succession to the English throne
was an object of contention. The King had no legitimate children. He favoured his own
brother James the Duke of York as the next in line of succession. The Tories were willing
to go by their King. The Whigs however, were strongly opposed to James, who was a
Roman Catholic and hence, unpopular with the general public of England. So in the
opening lines of this political, allegorical satire about King David, John Dryden says,
“In pious times, e’r Priest-craft did begin,
Before Polygamy was made a sin;”
In this political satire, Dryden has also used so many historical references which
are related with political satire. It is historically proved that King David had so many better-
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 82
halves. He was lucky enough to be the father of Absalom. Contrary to Absalom,
Achitophel was very cunning, satanic and ruffian.
The political nature of the poem is given added weight by the expression of
Dryden’s own views on the political situation. In a long passage, the poet gives his own
ideas on the Divine right of Kings and how the populace should not think that they can
remove the monarch arbitrarily. He declares rather categorically.
“Kings are the public pillars of the State,
Born to sustain and prop the nation’s weight.”
In “Absalom & Achitophel” Dryden exhibited great political sense but if it was only
that the poem would not have survived as long as a piece of literature.
As one critic so aptly comments “A party pamphlet it would have remained that and
nothing more.”
The epitome of the matter is that “Absalom & Achitophel” is an individual and
political pamphlet which is replete with political upheavals of the particular milieu in which
he himself was dwelling.
ALEXANDER POPE: The Rape of the Lock
THE RAPE OF THE LOCK
1. Social Satire in “The Rape of the Lock”
2. Reflection of Eighteenth Century Milieu
3. Mirror to Augustan Society
“The Rape of the Lock” can rightly be regarded as social satire because main end
of satire is an amendment of vices by correction. It is propounded that a good humorist is
a good humanist. A satirist can expose various draw-backs of the society in which he
himself is dwelling. Pope has exposed Belinda who is typical representative of all
fashionable girls in eighteenth century society. She gets up at twelve ‘O’ clock of the day,
even then she regards herself a sleepless lover.
“Now Lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake,
And sleepless lovers, just at twelve, awake;”
In “The Rape of the Lock” Pope has ridiculed social system, political system,
judicial system and economic system of Augustan society. For example, Pope says that
girls and guys of eighteenth century were not favoring anybody but they are not allowing
anyone to be angry with them.
“Favours to none, to all she smiles extends;
Oft she rejects, but never once offends,”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 83
Pope says that ladies of Augustan society have no moral scruples. “Honour” is a
word with little meaning for them; and “reputation” is more important to them than honour.
The loss of “Honour” does not matter if “reputation” is not lost. Several passages in the
poem reveal moral disarray of their lives. In one passage, for instance, a frail China-Jar
receiving a crack is equated with a lady’s losing her chastity. A lady’s staining her honour
is more serious than her staining her new brocade. A lady’s missing a dance-party is as
serious a matter as her forgetting her prayers. A lady’s losing her necklace is as serious
as losing her heart. The death of a lap-dog or the breaking of a rich China-vessel is as
serious a matter to the lady as the death of her husband. These are all example of the
superficial nature of the ladies of the time. There is a complete confusion of moral values
in their minds.
“The Rape of the Lock” is a social satire because Pope has shown mirror to hungry
judges of eighteenth century in Europe. Whenever the wretched client was suffering, the
jurymen were busy in dining. The following lines can elaborate this trend,
“The hungry judges soon the sentence sign,

And wretches hang that jurymen may dine;”


In “The Rape of the Lock” Pope has also ridiculed economic system. The
merchants are earning lot of profit and they are returning from stock exchange in very
peaceful manner. In eighteenth century, if the business of shares is going to be bullish, it
is considered a profitable business.
“The Merchant from the Exchange returns in peace;
A famous critic G. Chand Mahajan says that Pope and Swift were so typical
satirists that they left no stone unturned to satirize the whole paraphernalia.
To shrink the silky thread of my discussion, I can say that “The Rape of the Lock”
is individual and unique social satire. It fulfills all the requirements and requisites of the
typical social satire.

THE RAPE OF THE LOCK AS A MOCK EPIC


Heroi-Comical Poem
Alexander Pope is expert in mock epic. Mock epic is mostly related with ridiculous
exposure of any serious matter. Probably, Pope had studied Homer who had written
classical epics like Slliad and Odyssey. Virgil wrote Aeniod. Dante wrote “Divinia
Comedia”. Neistzche wrote THUS SPAKE ZARTHUSHTRA. Perhaps Pope had also
studied Milton’s “Paradise Lost”. Pope knew it very well that there are six traditions of
classical epic:
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 84
1. Invocation to Muse of Poetry.
2. Description of Virtue.
3. Description of Vice.
4. Combat between Virtues and Vice.
5. Victory of Virtue and defeat of Vice.
6. Consolation to the defeated party.
Pope says that he has not got any invocation from Muse of poetry. It is very
ridiculous that he says his friend Caryll has told the story that Baron’s proposal was
rejected by Belinda and domestic quarrel motivates Pope to create Mock Epic “The Rape
of The Lock” .
“I sing—this verse to Caryll, Muse! Is due:
This, ev’n Belinda my vouchsafe to view:”
In “The Rape of the Lock” it is a typical mocking of the tradition that hero and
heroine are living in fool’s paradise. Belinda does not favour anybody but she extends her
smile to everybody. She does not offend anyone. She shines equally on everybody like
the moon and the sun.
“Favours to none, to all she smiles extends;
Oft she rejects, but never once offends,”
The hero is also very strange and over-ambitious to cut Belinda’s lock. He prepares
an altar of love by putting twelve books of French Romances neatly gilt. He begged before
fire for the success of his love. He requested fire that he should be lucky enough to chop
up Belinda’s lock.
“But chiefly Love to Love an altar built,
Of twelve vast French romances neatly gilt.”
In “The Rape of the Lock” there is unique combat between virtues and vice, when
we come to know that instead of battle fields there is velvety green carpet on which cards
like spade, heart, club and diamond are being thrown.
A famous critic says that in mock epic “Great is made small and small is made great.”
Dennis opines that there is no such thing as the fable or character in the poem.
The sentiments according to him are both trivial and extravagant.
It is also a mock epic because in the same line the Bibles are also discussed with
billet-doux. It is fact that the Bible is very holy and sacred book but Pope is so typical
satirist that he has mentioned the Bibles and billet-doux in the same line. In the same way
in one line elephant and tortoise are described.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 85
“Here files of pins extend their shining rows,
Puffs, powders, patches, Bibles, billet-doux.”
In “The Rape of the Lock” forces are not introduced rather supernatural machinery
of gnomes, nymphs, salamanders and sylphs are introduced. In this mock epic micro-
organism like virus, bacteria, butterfly and mosquitoes are introduced. How a butterfly can
protect chastity of human being.
“The Rape of the Lock” is a mock epic because hero is venturing for adventure to
cut Belinda’s lock. This is indecent and humiliating for a man to cut the lock of a damsel. It
is also indecent on the part of heroine that she herself desires to let her lock of hair be cut
into pieces by hero. For example, Ariel had anticipated that “beware of all but mostly
beware of man”, even then she is sipping coffee. Now Ariel is advising her to escape from
the situation but she remains still and stone. Ariel becomes anxious and he penetrates
into her heart through her nose. Even then she is not getting up to escape from the
situation. Ariel comes to know that an earthly lover is lurking in her heart. Now her sacred
hair is separated from her head forever. When her lock is cut into pieces, she starts
screaming, “Restore the Lock, Restore the Lock”. Hero is expecting that he should be
garlanded.
Pope consoles Belinda by saying that she is enlisted among heroines and duchesses.
“What wonder then, fair nymph! Thy hairs should feel,
The conquering force of un-resisted steel?”
Christopher Gillie says that “The Rape of the Lock” is an individual, marvelous
and appreciable mock epic. To conclude, we can say that “The Rape of the Lock” is very
smile provoking and laughter inspiring.

1. Belinda’s Character / Feminine Frivolity / Feminine Oddities


2. Belinda as a Heroine of Mock Epic 3. Belinda as a Spoilt Child
4. Belinda is so-called goddess of Beauty and Love
5. Belinda as a Representative Augustan Youth
Belinda is really main but mean character of the mock epic “The Rape of the Lock”.
Other characters are rotating around her. She is very condemnable representative of
eighteenth century society. Her character can be discussed under these headings;
1. Belinda as a heroine.
2. Belinda as a spoilt child.
3. Belinda as a so-called goddess of beauty and love.
4. Belinda as a representative of the girls of eighteenth century.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 86
Belinda is a typical heroine of the mock epic. In eighteenth century early rising
was not in vogue. Late sleeping and late rising was common practice which is being
practiced up-till now. Belinda is also sailing in the same boat. She gets up at 12’O clock of
the day; even then she regards herself as sleepless beloved.
“Now Lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake,
And sleepless lovers, just at twelve, awake;”
Belinda can rightly be regarded as spoilt child because she is very lecherous lady.
She is shifting her heart from one person to another like a mobile toy-shop. She thinks that
basic purpose of life is enjoyment. So she is the least concerned with sincerity, fidelity and
morality. It is also remarked that Belinda is very promiscuous and pernicious girl. She
desires to play Ombre with two adventurous knights. She is burning to encounter with
them in Ombre.
“Belinda now, whom thirst of fame invites,
Burns to encounter two adventurous knights,”
Belinda is so hypocrite lady that she inwardly desires that her favorite lock should
be cut into pieces but outwardly she is posing and pretending false modesty.
The other side of the picture is that Belinda is somewhat appreciable character
because she is very confident and courageous creature. She is very social and sociable.
She is extending her smile to everyone.
“Favours to none, to all she smiles extends,
Oft she rejects but never once offends,”
Pope has ridiculed trends of fashion, especially of snobbish and foppish people of
eighteenth century society. Belinda is true representative of such type of fashionable girls
of England. She is so called goddess of beauty because she believes in cosmetic powers.
She is repairing her smile because there are shining rows of hair pins. It is an undeniable
fact that real beauty needs no ornament. She is also expecting that she should be
regarded as a damsel of good manners and etiquettes.
“Here files of pins extend their shining rows,
Puffs, powders, patches, Bibles, billet-doux.”
Belinda is true representative of girls of Augustan society. Some ladies of
eighteenth century society have no moral scruples. “Honour” is a word with little meaning
for them; and “reputation” is more important to them than honour. The loss of “Honour”
does not matter if “reputation” is not lost. Several passages in the poem reveal the moral
disarray of their lives. In one passage, for instance, a frail China-Jar receiving a crack is
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 87
equated with a lady’s losing her chastity. A lady’s staining her honour is more serious
than her staining her new brocade. A lady’s missing a dance-party is as serious a matter
as her forgetting her prayers. A lady’s losing her necklace is as serious as losing her
heart. The death of a lap-dog or the breaking of a rich China-vessel is as serious a matter
to the lady as the death of her husband. These are all examples of the superficial nature
of the ladies of the time. There is a complete confusion of moral values in their minds.
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Belinda is very bold, fashionable, emotional
and passionate representative of eighteenth century milieu. She is neither angelic nor
satanic.

Supernatural Machinery or Elements in “The Rape of the Lock”


1. Gnomes, Sylphs, Salamanders and Nymphs
2. Can we say Ariel, Umbriel, Megrim and Cave of Spleen
In “The Rape of the Lock” the concept of supernatural machinery is very eminent.
The pages of history reveal that Rosicruss was the philosopher who pointed out that
human being is made of four elements: air, water, fire and earth. So the creatures of these
four elements should assist human being at the need of time.
As far as furious ladies were concerned, they were changed into fiery termagant ---
Salamander.
“The spirits of fiery termagants in flame
Mount up, and take a Salamander’s name.”
Pope also says that the souls of gentle and submissive ladies were transmigrated
into nymphs. They were undergone Pythagorean metempsychosis (transmigration of souls
from one creature to another according to deeds).
“Soft yielding minds to water glide away,
And sip, with nymphs, their elemental tea.”
Pope also propounds that mischievous people were changed into Gnome. This
idea is evident through the following couplet.
“The graver prude sinks downward to a gnome,

I search of mischief still on earth to roam.”


Pope believes that coquettish people were changed into sylphs as a penalty.
Following reveals this trend.
“The light coquettes in sylphs aloft repair,
And sport and flutter in the field of air.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 88
In “The Rape of the Lock” supernatural machinery is very eminent and dominant
aspect of this mock epic. Ariel is the head of supernatural machinery. He is a watchful
spirit. He claims that he can protect Belinda at any cost. He also reveals that Ariel is
expert in palmistry and horoscope. He also tells Belinda that something wrong will happen
with her but he does not reveal that what will happen? Where it will happen? It seems that
Pope is mocking so called chivalric attitude of militia in eighteenth century in England.
Ariel is also delivering a speech in which he classifies the supernatural machinery in three
categories. He addresses them by fairies, Daemons, Genii, Sylphs and Sylphids.
“Ye Sylph and Sylphids, to your chief give ear!
Fays, Fairies, Genii, Elves, and Daemons hear.”
Supernatural machinery is also crystal clear in “The Rape of the Lock” when we
come to know that Ariel is assigning various duties. Belinda is being regarded as princess
of beauty. He orders that powder should not exhale from Belinda’s clothes. Perfume
should be imprisoned in her dress. He also threatens them to punish the shirkers and evil
doers strictly. He announces that he will throw them in bitter lakes. He also announces
that the shirker will be cut into two pieces. He also mentions bodkin’s eye. He also says
that they will become faded flowers.
A famous critic Dr. Johnson said that in “The Rape of the Lock” new things are
made familiar and familiar things are made new.
Core and Crux of the matter is that in this mock epic supernatural machinery is very
smile provoking and thought inspiring.

RAPE OF THE LOCK--BELINDA’S CHARACTER


Belinda is central character of this mock epic, “The Rape of Lock”. Others
characters are rotating around her. Belinda’s character can be discussed under three
headings i.e. Belinda as a heroin, Belinda as beauty of love and as a spoilt child of
bureaucratic family.
Belinda is heroine of this mock epic. She gets up at 12’ O clock of the day. But she
regards herself as sleepless lover. She is proposed by Lord Peter who is Baron. But when
she rejected the offer of marriage, he took this matter to his heart and he becomes
avengeful to cut her lock. She is regarded as heroine because she is considering herself
as dreaming lover.
In her morning dream she dreams about a young fashionable man, who is kissing
her and whispering in her ear Belinda is highly fashionable, flirt, free, frank and frivolous
that she does not favour any body. But she extends her smile to each and every lover.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 89
She oftenly rejects the offers but she does not let anybody be angry with her. Pope
rightly says:
Favours to none to all she smiles extends
Oft she rejects but never ever offends
Belinda is centre of attraction in Hyde Park as well as Hampton court. As a heroine,
Belinda is love thirsty as well as fame thirsty.
Belinda is a spoilt child of rich family. She beautifies herself with cosmetic powers
just after getting up at 12’O clock. She enters the toilet and regards herself as a heavenly
image. She bends her body before looking glass. Her maid servant Betty is assisting her
by using powders, puffs and patches. She is so much self-conscious that she wants to
enjoy her life, at any cost. She is determined to play amber with two adventure knights as
she is assisted by various members of supernatural machinery. She carries the days in
the cards and starts shouting, Therefore, Pope says that some – times human beings are
very happy and sometimes very seed.
The nymph exulting fills with shouts the sky, the wall, the woods and long canals reply.
Just after becoming successful in ember she states sipping coffee Belinda, becomes so
much busy in taking coffee that the hero Baron becomes emotional that he is determined
to cut her lock into pieces at any cost. All this shows that Belinda is a spoilt child.
Belinda is regarded as goddess of beauty, and love. She is so much love thirsty
that she is showing vanity from every part, so she shifts the moving toy shop of the heart.
She can eclipse the sun. She is so much beautiful that various members of supernatural
machinery are assisting through think and thin. Ariel is at her back and call. He assigns
different duties to the subordinates.
C. Gillie remarks that Lord Peter had cut off a lock from the hair of Miss Arabella
Fermor and she regarded herself as gravely insulted.
Consequently, it can be pointed cut that Belinda is very prominent character of this
mock-epic of social satire, the Rape of the Lock.

SATAN’S CHARACTER (PARADISE LOST)


Satan is the most important character in Paradise Lost. Ambercrombie remarks,
“Paradise Lost exists for one figure, which is Satan, just as the Iliad exists for Achilles. It is
in the figure of Satan that the imperishable significance of Paradise Lost is centred”.
Legouis says that Milton has put most of himself, his pride and his temperament
into Satan many other critics think that Milton has created the very figure of Puritanism in
his Satan. The character of Satan gives epic grandeur to Paradise Lost. He is endowed
with some of those qualities that make the hero of an epic.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 90
It was after his defeat that Satan’s greatness manifested itself. Defeat could not
curb independence of his spirit,
“--------what though the field be lost, all is not lost the unconquerable will and
study of revenge, immortal hate, and courage never to be overcome”
Even Hell could not break his spirit. In fact, he welcomes Hell,
“Infernal world and though profoundest Hell,
Receive they new possessor one who brings a mind
not to be changed by place or time”
Satan has infinite courage in himself as the poem begins, we find him in a hopeless
situation. He and his followers have been hurled down into bottomless pit of Hell. Heaven
is lost to them, and they are doomed to live forever in the darkness of Hell. But this gloomy
prospect of the future does not fill Satan with despondency. Not one word which he utters
expresses despair. If one can retain his courage he can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of
Heaven,
“The mind is its own place, and in itself
can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of itself Heaven”
Satan is an embodiment of obdurate pride. It is the motive of his revolt against God.
He suffers from a “sense of injured merit”. He says,
“To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven”
This gives rise to “high disdain”, “immortal hate” and “the study of revenge”. Pride
prevents him from showing repentance, though sometimes he seems on the verge of it
“Pride and worse ambition threw me down”. As a leader, Satan has great qualities of
character. It needs mighty courage to challenge him even in captivity. Besides, Satan is
not only courageous himself, but also he can inspire courage in his followers. Satan’s
greatest quality as a leader is his readiness to act under all circumstances. Even Hell can
not rob him of his power to act. He is full of sympathy and affection for his powers. When
he stands to speak to them, he is filled with feelings of compassion to such an extent that
he is not able to restrain his tears.
As the poem proceeds, the character of Satan degenerates. It was pride that had
raised him to contend with the Mightiest, where is that pride, when the archangel enter, in
the mouth of sleeping serpent and hides himself in its mazy folds. So Satan degenerates
from the role of a brave hero to that of a cunning villain. C. S Levies remarks: “From hero
to general, from general to politician, from politician to a secret service agent and thence
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 91
to a thing that pear in at bed room or bath room windows and thence to a toad and
finally to a snake such is the progress of Satan”.
John Peter is of the opinion that the degeneration of Satan is due to the fact that
Milton lost poetic fervor after two books.
While portraying Satan, Milton projects himself into Satan and expresses his own
feelings through him. Milton has expressed his own pride, love for liberty, and defiance of
authority. Through the character of Satan Milton himself was proud and had stood against
the king. Though his party had been defeated, he remained courageous and defiant in the
teeth of adversity as Satan. The character of Satan was militating against his avowed
theme. Hence Milton restrained himself and showed the real character of Satan, the arch
devil.
Why does Milton give the importance of a hero to Satan? Satan is the most
important character of the poem because of the narrative arises. So, Milton had to bring
Satan necessarily before the reader, more prominently indeed than any other character.
The theme of the poem which Milton selected for Paradise Lost depended for its action on
the deeds of a wicked character. Problem for Milton was the manner in which he was to
present such an evil character. Milton would have risked losing the interest of his readers
had he presented Satan as an evil character. That is why Milton refrained from blackening
the character of Satan unduly. Not only so, but also he depicts Satan’s possessing manly
qualities which are good and noble. Addison is of the view that Satan is the most exalted
and most depraved being”.
Like Macbeth, he too seems to be a tragic character. Though Satan represents evil,
he has a greatness of his own. In fact, it appears that he is the real hero of “Paradise Lost”
without him Paradise Lost would be no more than a theological thesis composed in verse.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 92

NOVEL
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 93
SECTION-A

JANE AUSTEN: Pride and Prejudice


Limited Range of Jane Austen as novelist in “Pride and Prejudice” OR
Theme of love and marriages in “Pride and Prejudice”
The major theme of Jane Austen’s novel is love, courtship and marriage. In “Pride
& Prejudice” theme of love and marriage is crystal clear. The following opening sentence
of the novel shows that Jane Austen was very conscious to reflect theme of love and
marriage.
“It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a

good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”


Jane Austen remained damsel throughout her life. She enjoyed catharsis while
writing such type of romantic novels, whose basic theme is love, marriage, elopement,
engagement and varieties of marriages. In this novel five marriages are discussed.
A famous critic W.A Crack says “It is universally acknowledged says the famous,
opening sentence that marriage in Jane Austen is closely bound up with money. Jane
Austen’s own attitude to money and marriage should be clear to any intelligent reader.”
It is really marvelous idea that Jane Austen is enjoying purgation and catharsis.
First marriage in this novel is between Mr. Bennet and Mrs. Bennet. They are spending
the life of cat and dog. Mr. Bennet is a mixture of odd behavior.
“Mr. Bennet was so odd a mixture of quick parts, sarcastic humor, reserve, and
caprice, that the experience of three twenty years had been insufficient to make his
wife understand his character. Her mind was less difficult to develop. She was a
woman of mean understanding, little information uncertain temper.”
It “Pride & Prejudice” love between Mr. Bingley and Jane is materialized by their
marriage. No doubt marriages are decided in heaven but celebrated on this earth. So it is
a matter of exhilarating pleasure, that Jane Bennet and Bingley are fortunate enough to
enjoy first glance love. Their marriage is based on simplicity, fidelity, sincerity, selflessness
and devotion, which lead to success in marriage.
But love between Mr. Darcy and Miss Elizabeth is very jerky, uncertain and strange.
In the beginning Mr. Darcy is very hot tempered, he is so emotional chap that just after
seeing Elizabeth is very much redeemed. She undergoes a journey to enlightenment.
“She is tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 94
This couples Darcy and Elizabeth is very strange. Their incidents are very mind
boggling that Elizabeth is showing so much prestige and egoism, but with the passage of
time English is very much redeemed. She undergoes a journey to enlightenment.
Lydia and Captain Wickham are also very strange and emotional creatures.
Wickham remains simpering and smirking. He is posing to be dandy beau, but actually he
is cheater of the first rank. No doubt, emotional decisions are wrong but Lydia is so
capricious that she leaves no stone unturned to materialize her dreams. It is fact that is
takes two to make quarrel. So they elope with each other.
Some marriages are accidental and incidental. For instance, Charlotte never
thought that she will be a married in such a limited span of time. Mr. Collins was so
pernicious person that he is shifting his heart from one girl to another like a mobile
toyshop. He proposes Elizabeth at the moment when she is dreaming for Mr. Darcy. She
rushes to her father. Elizabeth is between the devil and deep sea. Her father says, if she
marries a man like Collins, he will not talk to her but after seeing his wife, he says if she
does not marry a man, like Collins, her mother will never talk to her. In this way, Lizzy is
entangled between the Devil and deep sea.
She is suffering from approach avoidance conflict. She is facing Damocles sword. It
is also negation is self assertion that Elizabeth is just in the hands of her parents.
It is rightly pointed out that theme of nuptial bliss is crystal.

Humour and Irony in “Pride & Prejudice”


It the novel “Pride & Prejudice” humour and irony is transparent. No doubt, a good
humorist is a good humanist because main end of satire is an amendment of vices of
correction. It is also pointed out that Jane Austen is skillful to utilize the weapon of humor
and irony. Irony is for of “Pride & Prejudice”. In the opening line of “Pride and Prejudice”
Following statement is very dimple creative, smile provoking and laughter inspiring,
“It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a
good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”
A famous critic Mr. Tillyard is of the opinion that in “Pride and Prejudice” colorful
saga and panoramic view of marriages and passionate desires is read with a curve of
smile. In “Pride & Prejudice” it is really humorous incident that Mrs. Bennett is so strange
and crazy Lady that she leaves no stone unturned to capture her expected sons-in-law of
grant fortune. The following lines are very humorous;
“Oh! Single, my dear, to be sure! A single man of large fortune; four or five
thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 95
In “Pride & Prejudice dramatic irony of situations, irony in dialogues, irony of fate
and chance are also described in very smile provoking manner.
One distinguished critic says, “Pride & Prejudice is very crispy and crunchy.”
In the novel “Pride & Prejudice” humor and irony is repeatedly used. For example, it
is unique irony o situations that Mr. Collins is invited by chance. But basic desire of Mrs.
Bennet is marriage between Collies and any of her daughters. But Charlotte is luck
enough to marry Mr. Collins. When Elizabeth Bennet asks the bride how she tolerated
such type of bride-groom. Charlotte answers in very the thought provoking manner due to
social differences biodiversity appears. As Charlotte is poor, therefore she is not quality
conscious. It is also universally acknowledge that matrimonial alliances are decided in the
heaven but celebrated on this earth.
It is really humorous rather irony of fate and chance that Elizabeth was desire to
elevate the states of her family. But Lydia stigmatized the whole family. Although Lydia is
apparently very mature and sober but inwardly she is very childish and excessively
innocent. Lydia is so hypnotized and mesmerized by Captain Wickham that she is ready to
leave her father’s home. It is really ironical that serious and sober person Mr. Bennet is
also impressed by Mr. Wickham.
It is also smile provoking situation that Mr. Darcy is lock enough to win Lizzy’s
heart. Darcy is not conscious about Lydia, actually he desires to heap favors on Elizabeth
because he is really sweet heart of Elizabeth. Elizabeth is so hypocrite and lush rather a
girl double standard of morality. That she has surrendered her feminine assertion for the
sake of Darcy but outwardly. She is posing and pretending that she is damned car Mr.
Darcy. It indicates that Jane Austen knows feminine psychology as well as masculine
psychology. It is unique dictum that to every action there is reaction but in opposite
direction.
“I was surprised to see Darcy in town last month. We passed each other
several times. I wonder what he can be doing there, Perhaps preparing for his
marriage with Miss de Bourgh.”
Humor and irony is visible in the closing chapter of this novel when we come to
know that Mr. Darcy is determined to marry Elizabeth but all in vain till her permission.
Darcy himself has irritated her no human being can pocket the insult with smiling face.
A famous critic Virginia Woolf remarks “Jane Austen is mistress of much deeper
emotion than appears on the surface”.
Nitty gritty of the matter is that there are so many humorous are ironical elements in
the novel “Pride & Prejudice”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 96
DRAMATIC ELEMENTS IN THE NOVEL “PRIDE & PREJUDICE”
WHAT ARE THE RESEMBLANCE POINTS B/W DRAMA AND NOVEL WITH
SPECIAL?
In “Pride & Prejudice” on can precede so many dramatic elements. The pages of
history reveal that Jane Austen dreamed to be dramatist like “Shakespeare”, but she
became novelist by chance. Some critics believe that she is expert to use dramatic irony in
her novels like pride & Prejudice, Emma, Northanger Abbey, and Persuasion, Mans field
Park, Sense and Sensibility.
A famous critic Lawrence J. Clipper says “Compares various movements the novel
to the movements of dancer, which take part of its beauty from the overall organization of
many dancers.”
In this novel “Pride & Prejudice” dramatic elements are visible, when we come to
know that there are five marriages in five acts. The division of the plot is just like that of
drams. In this novel the opening sentence is replete with dramatic skill and suspense.
“It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good
fortune, must be in want of a wife.”
In this novel dramatic elements are also transparent when we come to know that
there are ever changing situations in the novel. For example, Mr. Darcy is exposing his
pride when he speaks extempore, Darcy says.
“She is tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me.”
There is a dramatic turns in this novel, when a perceptive reader may come to
know that same Darcy is chasing same Elizabeth. It is rally dramatic irony that hero is
adoring heroine. It is also dramatic touch that heroine is escaping in order to tempt the
hero. Darcy is struggling to win Elizabeth’s heart and soul by hock and by crook. He
leaves no stone unturned to heap favors on her. Mr. Wickham was not having good terms
with Darcy but just because of Elizabeth. Darcy has buried the hatchet to become
comrade of Captain Wickham once again. It shows that necessity is the mother of
invention and some people are bound to become opportunist at the need of tome.
“Mr. Wickham was so perfectly satisfied with this conversation, that he never
again distressed himself, or provoked his dear sister Elizabeth---------”
Dramatic turn is also transparent, when we analyzed different dialogues of
Elizabeth and Wickham. For example;
“Come Mr. Wickham, we are brother and sister, you know. Do not let us quarrel
about the past.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 97
In this novel, it is also dramatic element that Mr. Collins is very unique laughing
stock. He is so officious but very loving caring, very humble and gentle. He is very
obedient to his wife. Before marriage, he proposes Elizabeth, who rushes to her father’s
library. Mr. Bennet is keen observer and man of pragmatic approach. He threatens her
that if she marries a man like Collins, he will never talk to her. But just after seeing his
spouse (wife) he says that if she does not marry a man like Collins her mother will
excommunicate her.
Dramatic element is also visible in the elopement scene, Captain Wickham is very
hypocrite; he passes and pretends to be thoroughly gentleman. But actually he has dark
heart and clear face. He is simpering and smirking before the listeners. Even Elizabeth is
impressed by him, she feels isolations when Captain Wickham does not come in the party
arranged by Mr. Bingley. Captain Wickham is so strange person of double of morality that
he eloped with Lydia.
A famous critic Edwin Muir says, “The correspondence in a novel of this kind
between the actions and the characters is so essential that one can hardly find terms to
describe it without appearing to exaggerate one might say that a change in the situation
always involves’ change in the character, while every change a dramatic or psychological
external or internal is either caused or given its form by something in both.
To pen off, I can say that in the novel “Pride & Prejudice” there are so many
dramatic elements, which are full of thrill, suspense, ever-changing situations and other
dramatic prerequisites.

ART OF CHARACTERIZATION IN “PRIDE & PREJUDICE”


Characterization in “Pride & Prejudice” is very marvelous. Her characters are life
like. Realism is visible in her characters. We can not find any fairy, ghost, giant, apparition
and no other inhumane character, real characters of flesh and blood. It we compare
Shakespeare mode of characterization with that of Jane Austen, there is hell like
difference between the two.
Jane Austen is totally different because she is projecting real panorama and
paraphernalia. Contrary to her, William Shakespeare is creating horrible creatures. For
example, in “Hamlet” ghost’s character is introduced, while in “Macbeth” witches are
haunting. But in “Pride & Prejudice” characters are real made of flesh and soul. For
example, vivid characterization is crystal clear in this domestic novel. All characters are
homosopien (all human), homologue and homofaber.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 98
One critic says, Elizabeth, Darcy as well as other characters in this novel are
closely related to real characterization but the great blot on the book is the authors
portrayal of Darcy.”
In “Pride & Prejudice” domestic characters are introduced because of limited range.
She herself admits, “Three or four families in a country or village is the very thing to work
on” and she herself call her work as “two inches of ivory.”
In “Pride & Prejudice” variety of character is present. For example, the proud Darcy,
foolish Collins, strange Mrs. Bennet, loving but prejudice Elizabeth, emotional Lydia, meek
or simple Jane, opportunist Charlotte, curing Captain Wickham, scapegoat Mr. Bingley
and self centered Bingley a sisters, affectionate Miss Darcy.
Such type of variety of characters is salient feature of Jane Austen’s art of
characterization. In Jane Austen’s world, there is no monotony, tedium rather, there is
suspense ever changing situation’s sudden turn’ negation of pride and extinction of
prejudice and fluctuation of pride and prejudice. All of the characters are so lively and
idiosyncratic. For example, Mr. Bennet is totally different from Mrs. Bennet; both are just
like two poles apart.
“Mr. Bennet was so odd mixture of quick parts, sarcastic humour, reserve, and
caprice, that the experience of three twenty years had been insufficient to make his
wife understand his character. Her mind was less difficult to develop. She was a
woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper.”
In the novel “Pride & Prejudice” art of characterization is so vivid, lucid and life like
that even a reader of common caliber can understand them. “So characters in the novel
“Pride & Prejudice” are related with nineteenth century milieu. For example, Lydia is very
emotional character; she is loosing her temper and temperament just after seeing Captain
Wickham. It indicates that love begets love. Libido or sexual love is dominating.
Anatele France says that human being should control sex; sex should not control
human being. As far as elopement it concerned, it is always outcome of emotions.
Lydia and Wickham are so passionate that they leave no stone unturned to
materialize their dreams to elopement. No doubt, some people are lucky to materialize
their dreams, while other are shattered are injured in their real life. Lydia and Wickham are
really fortunate to enjoy love, marriage and arrange marriage. Mr. Bennet and Elizabeth
are sober creatures. Darcy and Wickham bury their hatchet to become friends once again.
Actually, Wickham has so multidimensional personality. He is magnetic personality.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 99
“Mr. Wickham was so perfectly satisfied with this conversation, that he

never again distressed himself, or provoked his dear sister Elizabeth, by introducing
the subject of it.”
Characterization in “Pride & Prejudice” reaches its zenith through the description of
Miss Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy. Darcy is so pompous, self centered: proud, stiff
necked that he regards Elizabeth as a tolerable girl.
“She is tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me.”
Darcy is so strange person that his mood and mode of thought remains fluctuating.
Darcy seems to be capricious character. He remains suffering from approach avoidance.
Mr. Darcy regards Elizabeth as apple to his eye rather sweet heart. Elizabeth is so
gorgeous, capricious, multifarious and unique heroine of literature that her role needs no
introduction. Probably she is Jane Austen herself, Jane Austen; she remained unmarried
throughout her life. Perhaps she was idealist and she enunciated that idealism should
never be achieved. Because, if ideal is achieved, it is no more ideal. Jane Austen is visible
in the character of Elizabeth. Because she herself was in search the most suitable match
to be married. But it is pathetic that some people were very idealist, they do not
compromise with prevailing cosmos.
A famous critic Lord David Cecil rightly points out that Jane Austen studies men in
relation with each other and not in relation to God, to polities or to abstract ideas.
To conclude, I can say that characterization in “Pride & Prejudice” is very famous
because of idiosyncratic characterization.

CHARLES DICKENS: Great Expectations


GREAT EXPECTATIONS - CHARLES DICKENS AS A NOVELIST
Charles Dickens can rightly be regarded as the most popular Victorian novelist. He
achieved distinguished name and fame by writing Great Expectations, Pick Wick Papers,
David Copperfield, Tale of Two Cities and Oliver Twist.
In “Great Expectations” Charles Dickens has exposed children psychology, human
psychology and criminal psychology in very humorous and pathetic manner. It is a typical
tale of passions, feelings, thoughts and emotions. For example, Mr. Pip is really a puppet
in the hands of Mrs. Joe. She is so authoritative and strict lady that she leaves no stone
unturned to berate and misuse Pip. But Joe deals him with impunity. Even she does not
spare her brother. Not to speak of her husband even she is strict to her real brother. So
Pip is sick of this broken home situation. He rushes to escape from this bitter situation but
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 100
he is flabbergasted to find a convict in near marshy area. When Magwitch comes to
know that an immature boy is in front of him, he captures him and frightens him. When he
comes to know that Pip is leaving the profession of blacksmith, he orders him to bring food
and file, otherwise an evil spirit will kill him.
“You get me a file.’ He tilted me again. ‘And you get me wittles.’ He tilted me
again. ‘You bring ‘em both to me.”
When the plot proceeds, we come to know that Mr. Magwitch is arrested by the
police and he is regarded as a Jail-Bird. As a Victorian novelist, Charles Dickens has
pointed out that to every action there is a reaction but in opposite direction. Miss
Havisham is embittered old spinster. Actually she is irritated by her lover, she decorated
herself and bower of bliss but the bridegroom does not appear because of his grudges
and injuries and many other reasons. So he thinks that he should not proceed with
wedding procession. In this way, Miss Havisham has become venomous. She brought up
Estella just in order to get revenge from male race.
“Miss Havisham’s intentions towards me, all a mere dream; Estella not designed
for me; I only suffered in Satis house as a convenience, a sting for the greedy
relations, a model with mechanical heart to practice on when no other practice was at
hand; those were the first smarts I had.”
As a Victorian Novelist Charles Dickens also believed that Miss Havisham is
representative of all those people who are hurt emotionally so they become poisonous
and biting. When the plot of this novel proceeds we come to know that Miss Havisham
is enjoying catharsis because she is passionately injured. So she instigates Estella to hate
Pip, even if he loves her she must hate him. Contrary to this, she requests Phillip Pirrip to
love Estella. Even if she hates him, he must love her. Even if she wounds him, he must
love her. Even if she tears him into pieces, he must love her.
With the passage of time, Pip is really elevated as a gentleman. He is sponsored by
Magwitch who desires that Pip should be more than man of the street. Mr. Jagger is well-
equipped with money and in this way all the members of the Gargery family are
purchased.
When the plot proceeds, Pip is surrounded by luxuries. Pip has become proud
because as he is upstart. It is really appreciable on the part of Charles Dickens that he
has exposed his deep rooted observation, quick perception and laudable intelligence. Pip
forgot his past even he ignored his near and dear Mr. Joe. Pip might have taken this
matter to his heart that his kiths and kin are happy about this bargain. Another reason is
that he is away from his sweetheart Estella. Pip and his friends are enjoying epicurean
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 101
taste; meanwhile Mr. Joe appears, he does not know, where to put the hat. Although
hat stand is there, yet he does not know how to use it. At last everything ends in fiasco. It
is fact that easy come easy go. Pip is returned and is sitting with Estella.
“I took her hand in mine, and we went out of the ruined place; and, as the
morning mists had risen now, and in all the broad expanse of tranquil light they
showed to me. I saw no shadow of another parting from her.”
The epitome of the matter is that Charles Dickens is a superb Victorian novelist.
PIP versus ESTELLA
Philip Pirrip can rightly be regarded as marvellous and unique hero of this novel
because of some of his attributes or qualities of head and heart. One critic remarks that
Pip is a coward hero because he remained puppet or plaything in various hands. He had
not beautified his personality by promising endeavours. Perhaps Pip ignored this fact that
man is architect of one’s own fate. We can make our persona by performing virtuous and
appreciable deeds. Contrary to this, we can mar our personality by indulging in vices and
vicious web of evils.
In this novel Pip is dependent or parasite in the hands of Mrs. Joe, Miss Havisham,
Miss Estella and Mr. Jagger. Probably, he has not followed this noteworthy quotation.
“Fortune lives in labour’s shell. All is well that ends well and we are not here to
dream to drift we have to work hard and loads to lift. Shun not struggle, it is God’s gift”.
Charles Dickens has also remarked that Pip is victim of circumstances. Being an
orphan, he had to suffer in his life. His life seems to be a continuous channel of miseries.
His real sister Mrs. Joe seems to be cruel towards her real brother. It shows that nature or
temperament varies from person to person. Mr. Magwitch also threatens him in the
following manner:-
“……..and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin. ‘O’
don’t cut my throat, sir”
Estella is also the centre of attraction for Mr. Pip. They fall in love with each other.
It is fact that there are so many slips between cups and the lips. When Miss Havisham
comes to know about emotional attachment between them, she becomes jealous. She
motivates Mr. Pip to love Estella but simultaneously, she is inspiring Estella to hate Pip.
Miss Havisham instigates Mr. Pip in this manner.
“Love her, love her love her. It she favours you, love her, if she wounds you,
love her, love her, love her”
Estella is really noteworthy character of this novel. She is very strange character. In
the ending of the novel, she is compromising with Mr. Pip but in Miss Havisham’s
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 102
bungalow or villa, she does not reveal each and every secret to Pip. Perhaps she was
bound to do that due to her service. In the closing lines, friendship between Pip and
Estella is transparent through the following lines:-
“I took her hand in mine and we went out of the ruined place - - - -- - - - - - - --
- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - I saw no shadow of another parting from her”.
Core and crux of the matter is that Pip is an archetypal hero and Estella is marvellous
heroine of the novel “Great Expectations”.
PIP versus ESTELLA
In the novel “Great Expectations”, Charles Dickens has pointed out that love begets
love. Do good have goods. In this novel “Great Expectations”, Pip is struggling to express
and expose his deep rooted love to Miss Estella, but Miss Havisham is major barrier.
Actually Pip and Estella start loving each other from the beginning because love is a
natural passion which is present in the heart and soul of every human being. It also shows
that Dickens is aware of so many incidents, events and happenings of Victorian culture. In
Victorian age, Dickens has gotten much popularity because of the real character portrayal.
The writer is well aware the human psychology. For example in the opening pages
of this novel, we come to know that the hero Pip is in the clutches of other characters. For
example, he is a puppet in the hands of Mrs. Joe. She was strict in his grooming so far the
whole life. It is really unique thought that childhood is the best portion of the human life
because it is very care free period. She is really conscious about this fact that one should
be authoritative. As a result, this strict behaviour has made Pip passionless, double-
minded and frustrated. He is on the horns of dilemma. He is so much in a fix that he can
not decide what to do. At last he exposes from the situation and moves towards the
marshy area where he comes across a convict. It shows that he is out of frying pan into
fire. He is really frustrated to know that Magwitch is frightening him by saying that his liver
and heart will be eaten by the devil. He started planning how to steal the food and file.
“I said that I would get him the file, and I would get him what broken bits of
food I could, and I would come to him at the Battery, early in the morning.”
In this novel Pip is really unfortunate because he is victim of circumstances.
Charles Dickens has also pointed out that the heroine Miss Estella is also suffering from
approach avoidance conflict. She desires to respond Pip’s love but she is forbidden by
Miss Havisham. Even Miss Havisham orders Estella to hate Pip by saying that
“Hate him, hate him, even if he loves you must hate him.”
Pip is a plaything or a puppet in the hands of his relatives. Pip is really over-worried
about his links and emotional attachments with Miss Estella is really involved with Pip but
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 103
Miss Havisham is very “heavy lady”. Actually Miss Havisham is inwardly hurt by her
lover Compyson. She remained old spinster even her whole life. Estella desired that she
might be married to Pip but Miss Havisham becomes revengeful. It is fact that revenge is a
kind of wild justice. Miss Havisham also desires that Estella should be away from Pip. So
that she may be satisfied psychologically.
“I had been looking around – in fact, for Estella—and I stammered that I hope
she was well. ‘Abroad’ said Miss Havisham ‘educating for a lady; far out of reach;
prettier than ever; admired by all who see her. Do you feel that you have lost her?”
Miss Estella is really pitiable character because her guardian Havisham is very
pathetic figure; she desires to expose her deep-rooted love but simultaneously, she fears
from Miss Havisham. She thinks that she will be lucky enough to be married to Pip but she
does not know that there are so many slips between cups and lips. It also illustrates that
Estella desires to expose her deep-rooted attachment but each and every matter of
human life has a specific time of action and implementation. There is marriage between
Miss Estella and Pip in the closing lines of the novel but this couple has to face some
restrictions and bondages. Pip is really appreciable character because he has convinced
Estella up to such extent that she is ready for marriage.
“I took her hand in mine, and we went out of the ruined place; and, as the

morning mists had risen now, and in all the broad expanse of tranquil light they
showed to me. I saw no shadow of another parting from her.”
A famous critic Compton Rickett is of the opinion that Charles Dickens is man of
pathos and humour.
Consequently, we can say that “Great Expectations” is a saga of passions,
emotions & feelings.
SYMBOLISM IN “GREAT EXPECTATIONS”
In the novel “Great Expectations” Charles Dickens has used so many symbols to
illustrate his point of view. In the opening pages of this novel we come to know that
children psychology is exposed in a marvelous manner. It is very obvious phenomenon
that everybody wants to be wanted, everybody desires to be desired, everybody loves to
be loved. Pip is so much frustrated, over-worried and confused. He is compelled to leave
his home. He is observing the gibbets which are the symbol of crime.
“Like an unhooked cask upon a pole – an ugly thing when were near it; the other
a gibbet, with some chains hanging to it which had once held a pirate. The man was
limping on towards the latter, as if he were the pirate come to life.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 104
Leg iron is also symbol of crime; it is fact that crime is not liked by anybody.
Actually poverty leads to crime and one is entangled to vicious web of poverty. Pip is really
taken aback to know that Magwitch is ensnared with leg-iron.
“And yet this man was dressed in coarse grey, too, and had a great iron on his
leg, and was lame.”
In this novel Mr. Joe and Mrs. Joe are quarrelling with each other. So Pip is sick of
this broken-home situation. In this novel Miss Havisham is representative of revengeful
people. She is no doubt hurt by Mr. Compyson but she is determined to get revenge from
every man. She becomes venomous.
When the plot proceeds, we come to know Pip is victim of Ms. Havisham’s biting
nature. She has brought up Estella with a specific purpose so that she may be capable to
get revenge. Francis Bacon is at every inch right to remark that revenge is a kind of wild
justice. Ms. Havisham motivates Estella to hate Pip so that she may enjoy catharsis,
purgation, purification and ventilation of bottled up emotions. When Pip enters Satis
House, it is a matter of fate, chance and co-incidence that Pip and Estella fall in first
glance love but Miss Havisham creates barriers intentionally. Even she inspires Pip to love
Estella from the core of his heart by saying that he should love Estella at any cost, even if
she tears him into pieces, he must love her. The symbol of revenge is crystal clear when
we come to know that Miss Havisham is stimulating Estella to shun away from Pip. It
illustrates that Miss Havisham is exposing her own deep-rooted symbol of hatred, sarcasm
and emotional nature. She becomes typical “Kaido” and she does not allow mingling Heer
and Ranjha.
Symbol of smithy is also transparent when we come to know that Mr. Joe is working
as a blacksmith and Pip is also dreaming to be a blacksmith. But with the passage of time,
Pip is fortunate enough to elevate his status by hook or by crook.
It is really symbolic exposure that Charles Dickens has exposed his deep-rooted
observation of working class by exposing the symbol of smithy. Mr. Joe is blacksmith by
profession and he is instructing his brother-in-law Pip to be blacksmith. It illustrates that
Dickens believes in dignity of work. No doubt, the following quotation is followed by them.
Fortune lies in labour’s shell. All is well that ends well. &
We are not here to dream, to drift. We have to work hard and load to lift
Shun not struggle, it is God’s gift.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie says, “In “Great Expectations”, Dickens has
used some symbols to elaborate his point of view”.
Core and crux of the matter is that Charles Dickens is the Victorian novelist is
expert in symbolisms.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 105
HUMOUR AND PATHOS IN “Great Expectations”
It is fact that humour is thinking in jest while feeling in earnest. Dryden also says
that main end of satire is an amendment of vices by correction. In this novel Dickens has
used so many smile provoking situations to elaborate his point of view. For example it is
laughter inspiring situation that Pip is misfit case in his case. Mr. Joe and Mrs. Joe remain
quarrelling with each other like cat and dog. The result is that Pip suffers from
maladjustment. Even he escapes from that situation. Factually he is out of frying pan into
fire. A notorious thug is lucky enough to capture him. In this way, Pip is on the horns of
dilemma, he is in a fix and he can not decide what to do. First he threatens him of evil
spirits there.
“You get me a file. He tilted me again. ‘And you get me wittles.’ He tilted me
again. ‘You bring ‘em both to me.”
In the novel “Great Expectations”, the dinner scene abundantly reveals Dicken’s
extraordinary gift of humour. His humour is really creative, fresh and original. Here we
have five examples of the comedy of situation as well as comedy of character. Joe’s
typical manner of giving gravy to Pip just to console him and the way uncle Pumblechook
starts jumping, whirling and making hideous faces after drinking tar-water along with his
brandy. These are all nice examples of humour of situation. Then there is abundance of
humour in his description of external appearance of typical characters. Thus uncle
Pumblechook has been described as---
“A large hard-breathing middle-aged slow man, with a mouth like a fish, dull
staring eyes and sandy hair standing upright on his head……”
Then in the character of Joe, we get a delicious combination of a true gentleman
and a comic figure. Joe’s awkwardness in his Sunday clothes demonstrates the absurdity
of social pretensions.
Uncle Pumblechook’s theory about the way of the convicts’ entrance into Joe’s
house and Mr. Wopsle’s way of objecting to the validity of this, are fraught with elements
of humour.
It is really humour and pathos that Pip is being captured by Magwitch who is rascal
and ruffian of the first rank. He desires to threaten and frighten Pip at any cost.
“Hold your noise!’ cried a terrible voice, as a man started up from among the
graves at the side of the church porch. ‘Keep still, you little devil, or I’ll cut your
throat!”
We take pity on Phillip Pirrip when we come to know that Pip is really a puppet
everywhere. He is good for nothing because he has no personality of his own. Therefore,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 106
it is pathetic scenario that Pip is humiliated everywhere.
Another humorous situation is that Mr. Wemmick is eating wafers in such a manner
as he is posting the letters in the letter-box. All this is very smile provoking. Another smile
provoking situation is that Mr. Joe is so rustic minded that he does not know, where to put
the hat. Although hat stand exists in front of him, yet he does not know where to put the
hat.
It is very laughter inspiring that Mr. Joe puts his hat on the terrace and sits on sofa.
It is matter of chance that his hat falls and he again places it on terrace. In this way
everybody starts laughing. It is also matter of chance that Joe’s head collides with the tray
and the glasses are broken into pieces.
Another situation creates curve of smile on the lips of the reader when we come to
know that Miss Havisham remained waiting for wedding procession but the bridegroom
does not appear on the screen. The bridegroom takes this to his heart that he is
humiliated by Havisham. It is also pathetic scenario that Miss Havisham has become out
of senses. She remains beautifying herself. She is very miserable character but she
becomes venomous and she says to Estella to hate Pip, hate him. Even he loves you, you
must hate him. Contrary to this she says to Pip to love Estella, even if she tears you in
pieces, you must love her. A famous critic Mr. Springer says that the humour and pathos
is crystal clear in “Great Expectations”
Core and crux of the matter is that there is humour and pathos in marvelous
Victorian creation “Great Expectations”.

THOMAS HARDY: The Return of Native


THOMAS HARDY as Victorian Novelist
In Victorian era the novelists like Charles Dickens, Thackeray, George, Meredith,
George Eliot (Mary Evans) and Thomas Hardy achieved global fame by creating so many
marvelous and noteworthy novels. Hardy needs no introduction because he is innovated
new concepts theme of fate and chance, unique plot construction, life like characterization
and rustic atmosphere. In his novels like Under The Greenwood Tree, Tess of
D’Urbervilles, Life and Death of Major Casterbridge, Jude the Obscure and the Return of
the Native”, he has left no stone unturned to materialize his dreams and desires to reflect
Victorian trends in his literary creations.
In Tess of D’Urbervilles, Miss Tess is victim of circumstances. In this male- oriented
culture, male chauvinism is criticized. The hero of the novel becomes irritated when Tess
reveals her past life. Before marriage, he was love lore emotional, passionate and
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 107
impulsive. After marriage, the tables are turned. It is also unique fact that marriage is a
turning point in one’s life. In the novel, Hardy has proved it.
In the novel, “Under the Greenwood Tree” theme of fate, chance and coincidence is
crystal clear. Miss Fancy Day and Mr. Dick Dewy are emotionally attached with each
other. Although there are economic differences and social distinctions yet they are well
equipped with passionate links, albeit Miss Fancy Day is inclined towards Mr. Maybold. It
is very confusing, irritating and thought provoking for Mr. Maybold that she is already
involved with Mr. Dick Dewy.
In “The Return of the Native” Thomas Hardy has used the weapon of individual
fabrication of the plot in very sequent and organized manner. Various events, incidents
and happenings are dove–tailed with one another. It seems that we cannot skip even
single incident from the plot of the novel.
As a Victorian novelist Thomas Hardy has mentioned nature within and external
nature. It is fact that inner feelings are the criterion of judgment. In this novel, Edgon
Heath plays vital role for the development of various events. In the opening sentence,
Hardy says: “A Saturday afternoon in November was approaching the time of

twilight, and they vast tract of unenclosed wild known as Edgon Heath embrowned
itself moment by moment”.
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that Thomas Hardy can be regarded as marvelous and
archetypal novelist of Victorian age.
FATE AND CHANCE IN “THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE”
Thomas Hardy got much name and fame by writing “The Return of the Native’, Far
from the Madding Crowd, Under the Greenwood Tree and Life & Death of Mayor Caster
Bridge.
Theme of fate and chance is crystal clear in the novel ‘The Return of the Native”. It
is typical saga of fate and co-incidence that Clym Yeobright becomes manager of a
market related with diamond in Paris. He is sick of metropolitan environment. Being a
contented person, he wants to establish his own school. It is really matter of fate, chance
and co-incidence that Miss Eustesia Vye is determined to proceed to Paris. Therefore she
wants to capture and ensnare the manager of diamond market. She performs the role in
the play in order to tempt him. It is again role of fate and chance that Mr. Clym falls in love
with her. Although Mrs. Yeobright is forbidding him to marry such a flirt, pernicious,
remorseless and treacherous lass, yet he marries her.
“She was a woman of middle age, with well formed features of the type usually
found where perspicacity is the chief quality…Her normal manner among the rustic
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 108
folk was somewhat reticent, the result of her consciousness of a superior
communicative power.”
This is the start of tragedy. On very first wedding night, they start quarrelling with
each other in the bower of bliss. She is motivating him to proceed to Paris tomorrow. He
explains that he is very easy going and contented person but Eustesia Vye is over-
ambitious. The result is very horrible.
In this novel “The Return of the Native” it is typical example of fate, chance and co-
incidence that Mrs. Yeobright starts heading her son’s home. When she reaches there,
Clym is reduced to furze cutter. The school is also failed and he becomes semi-blind.
When she reaches there, Wildeve is already sitting with Eustesia Vye. Mrs. Euobright
remains knocking at the door but all in vain. At last she returns with heavy heart. She is so
exhausted that she wants to relax. It’s a fate and chance that she sits on the hole of the
adder (snake) and the adder stings her and dies at the spot. Before breathing her last she
reveals whole story to the shepherd. It is again co-incidence, fate and chance that Clym
Yeobright is informed by the shepherd that his mother is dead. In this was Clym Yeobright
is frustrated, confused and over-worried. He thinks that he should punish his wife because
she is responsible for all calamities.
It shows that Thomas Hardy is aware of various ins and outs of Victorian culture. It
is also typical example of fate and chance that Clym Yeobright wants to punish his wife
but she is offended and leaves the home and Wildeve is befooling her. Even they are
ready to go to Paris. It is height of fate and chance that even this hen-pecked and wife-
worshipper writes very notorious letter in order to compromise. Such type of husbands are
very rare in real life, rather such type of husbands are condemnable. If Clym Yeobright
had been a vigorous and tremendous person, Eustesia would never have thought about
Wildeve. Hardy is really believer of fate and chance and it is really appreciable in this
novel when Clym Yeobright writes the letter, she is unable to receive it. She plans with
Wildeve to elope to Paris. But on the bank of the pond, they become emotional and fall in
the pond. When Clym Yeobright reaches there, he hears the splashing sound and wants
to save the drowning people. It is very appreciable philosophy that man proposes but
Allah Almighty disposes.
Last example of fate and chance is very interesting when Clym is going to propose
Ms. Thomson but she is already engaged to Reddleman-Venn Diggory. In this way,
everything ends in fiasco.
Consequently, we can say that the novel “The Return of the Native” is replete with
fate and chance.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 109
SECTION-B

E. M. FOSTER: A Passage to India


A PASSAGE TO INDIA by E. M. Foster (1879-1970)
Type & Time of plot: Social criticism, 1920 in India, first published: 1924
Principal Characters:
 Dr. Aziz, a young Indian surgeon. Mrs. Moore, a visiting Englishwoman.
 Ronald Heaslop, the city Magistrate, Mrs. Moore’s son and Dr. Aziz’s friend
 Adela Quested, Ronald’s fiancée visiting India with Mrs. Moore.
 Cecil Fielding, Principal of the Government College, Dr. Aziz’s friend
CRITIQUE
A Passage to India has two aspects, political and mystic. Politically it deals with the
tension between the natives and the British (now solved by the withdrawal of the British)
and also Hindus and Moslems (now solved by the creation of the two Dominions of India
and Pakistan). Mystically it is concerned with the search after the infinite and the eternal,
so characteristic of Oriental religion, and with illogical and inexplicable element in human
life. The visit to the Marabar Caves illustrates the malignant side of mysticism; the Temple-
Festival at the close illustrates its benignity. The three sections into which the book is
divided correspond to the three seasons of Indian year, the Cold weather, the hot weather
and the Rains.
E. M. Foster was a member of the intellectually selected Bloomsbury group in
London which flourished just before and after World War-I. Educated at Cambridge, as
were many group, Foster became one of England’s leading novelists during the pre-war
Edwardian period. In the Bloomsbury group his friends include Lytton Strachey, the
biographer; Virginia Woolf, the novelist: Clive Bell, the art critic; John Maynard and others.
The group rejected convention and authority, placing great faith in its own intellect and
good taste. Foster wrote several good novels between 1905-1910: Where Angels Fear to
Tread, The Longest Journey, A Room with a View, and Howard’s End. After a hiatus of
fourteen years, he published during his lifetime. A posthumous novel, Maurice, was
published after his death in1970. He once confessed that he did not understand the post
World War-I values and had nothing more to say. A Passage to India, however, belies this
statement; it is a novel for all seasons.
Forster’s title comes from the Whitman poem by the same name. This choice is
ultimately ironic, for Whitman’s vision is of the total unity of all people. In this novel the
attempt to unite people fails at all levels.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 110
The book is divided into three sections: mosque, cave and temple. These
divisions correspond to the three divisions of the Indian year: cool spring, hot summer, wet
monsoon. Each section is dominated by its concomitant weather. Each section also
focuses on one of the three ethnic groups involved: Moslem, Anglo-Indian and Hindu. The
Cave could also be called “The Club”. Just as the Mosque and the Temple are the Moslem
and Hindu shrines, so the Club is true Anglo-Indian shrine. Foster is not writing a religious
novel; but has drawn a more detailed picture of India with life characters representing
reality at that period of time, besides, discussing the difficulty of unity.

THEME ANALYSIS
Imperialism
A Passage to India is a critique on British rule of India. The British are not shown as
tyrants, although they do fail to understand Indian religion and culture. They are also
convinced that the British Empire is a civilizing force on the benighted “natives” of India,
and they regard all Indians as their inferiors, incapable of leadership. And yet, in their way,
the English try to rule in a just way. Ronny, for example, the City Magistrate, is completely
sincere when he says that the British “are out here to do justice and keep the peace”
(chapter 5). And there is no trace of satire in the passage that shortly follows this, which
describes Ronny’s daily routine:
“Every day he worked hard in the court trying to decide which of two untrue
account was the less untrue, trying to dispense justice fearlessly, to protect the
weak against the less weak, the incoherent against the plausible, surrounded by lies
and flattery.”
Ronny is also aware of the hostility between Hindus and Moslems, and believes
that a British presence is necessary to prevent bloodshed. Even Fielding, the most
sympathetic of the English characters, does not argue that the British should leave India.
However, the British lack any ability to question their own basic assumptions about race
and Empire and as such they become the objects of Forster’s biting satire.
The economic consequences of British imperialism are hinted at only briefly in the
novel. This occurs when Fielding mentions to Godbole and Adela that mangoes can now
be purchased in England:
“They ship them in ice-cold rooms. You can make India in England apparently,
just as you can make England in India” (chapter 7).
This hints at the economic exploitation of India. The British claim to be in India for
the good of the Indians, whereas in fact, they are there to increase their own wealth by
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 111
setting up a system of trade that is entirely beneficial to themselves.
Twenty-three years after the publication of A Passage to India, Aziz’s prediction at
the end of the novel came true. He tells Fielding that the next European war will lead to
the liberation of India. That war was World War-II and Britain economically exhausted and
facing a non-violent nationalist movement in India led by Gandhi, granted India
independence in 1947. An attempt to pacify the simmering hostility between Moslem and
Hindu resulted in the creation of the mostly Moslem state of Pakistan.

Culture Clash
The English, schooled in a fairly simple version of Christianity are unable to
understand the mysterious spirituality of India. Mrs. Moore shows some interest in the
topic when she first arrives in the country. She likes the idea of “resignation”—being
passively resigned to the will of God—which she associates with Indian thought. She is
also attracted to the unity of everything in the universe, another idea she associates with
India. But the incident in the caves, when she hears the echo, unnerves her. The echo
annihilates all distinctions in the name of the unity of life, and also annihilates distinctions
between good and evil. This is far from the Christian view of life, at least in Mrs. Moore’s
view and leads her into despair and apathy.
But this is merely a Westerner’s point of view. Against the negative portrayal of
Indian spirituality implicit in the “echo” incident is a more positive vision that occurs in Part
3 of the novel. There is no mistaking the joy and affirmative value of the Hindu festival
conducted at Mau, in which the birth of Lord Krishna is enacted. Once again, this is
rendered largely from the outsider’s point of view, since neither Aziz nor Fielding
understands it, but it well represents the “mystery” of Indian spirituality that cannot be
penetrated by Westerners.
The clash of cultures can be seen not only in Mrs. Moore’s response to India but
also in Fielding. Fielding does not believe in God and therefore has no interest in the
contrast between Eastern and Western spirituality, but nonetheless, as chapter 32 shows,
he feels far more at home with the forms of Western architecture he encounters in Venice
than with the temples of India. The temples represent to him merely the “muddle” of India,
whereas Western architecture presents him with a view of “the harmony between the
works of man and the earth that upholds them, the civilization that has escaped muddle,
the spirit in a reasonable form, with flesh and blood subsisting.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 112
The Story. Two Englishwoman, the young Miss Adela Quested and the elderly Mrs.
Moore, travel to India. Adela expects to become engaged to Mrs. Moore’s son, Ronny, a
British magistrate in the Indian city of Chandrapore. Adela and Mrs. Moore each hope to
see the real India during their visit, rather than cultural institutions imported by the British.
At the same time, Aziz, a young Muslim doctor in India, is increasingly frustrated by
the poor treatment he receives at the hands of the English. Aziz is especially annoyed with
Major Callendar, the civil surgeon, who has a tendency to summon Aziz for frivolous
reasons in the middle of dinner. Aziz and two of his educated friends, Hamidullah and
Mahmoud Ali, hold a lively conversation about whether or not an Indian can be friends
with an Englishman in India. That night, Mrs. Moore and Aziz happen to run into each
other while exploring a local mosque and the two become friendly. Aziz is moved and
surprised that an English person would treat him like a friend.
Mr. Turton, the collector who governs Chandrapore, hosts a party so that Adela and
Mrs. Moore may have the opportunity to meet some of the more prominent and wealthy
Indians in the city. At the event, which proves to be rather awkward, Adela meets Cyril
Fielding, the principal of the government college in Chandrapore. Fielding, impressed with
Adela’s open friendliness to the Indians, invites her and Mrs. Moore to tea with him and
the Hindu professor Godbole. At Adela’s request, Fielding invites Aziz to tea as well.

At the tea, Aziz and Fielding immediately become friendly, and the afternoon is
overwhelmingly pleasant until Ronny arrives and rudely interrupts the party. Later that
evening, Adela tells Ronny that she has decided not to marry him. But that night, the two
are in a car accident together, and the excitement of the event causes Adela to change
her mind about the marriage.

Not long afterward, Aziz organizes an expedition to the nearby Marabar Caves for
those who attended Fielding’s tea. Fielding and Professor Godbole miss the train to
Marabar, so Aziz continues on alone with the two ladies, Adela and Mrs. Moore. Inside
one of the caves, Mrs. Moore is unnerved by the enclosed space, which is crowded with
Aziz’s retinue, and by the uncanny echo that seems to translate every sound she makes
into the noise “boom.”

Aziz, Adela, and a guide go on to the higher caves while Mrs. Moore waits below.
Adela, suddenly realizing that she does not love Ronny, asks Aziz whether he has more
than one wife—a question he considers offensive. Aziz storms off into a cave, and when
he returns, Adela is gone. Aziz scolds the guide for losing Adela, and the guide runs away.
Aziz finds Adela’s broken field-glasses and heads down the hill. Back at the picnic site,
Aziz finds Fielding waiting for him. Aziz is unconcerned to learn that Adela has hastily
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 113
taken a car back to Chandrapore, as he is overjoyed to see Fielding. Back in
Chandrapore, however, Aziz is unexpectedly arrested. He is charged with attempting to
rape Adela Quested while she was in the caves, a charge based on a claim Adela herself
has made. Fielding, believing Aziz to be innocent, angers all of British India by joining the
Indians in Aziz’s defense. In the weeks before the trial, the racial tensions between the
Indians and the English flare up considerably. Mrs. Moore is distracted and miserable
because of her memory of the echo in the cave and because of her impatience with the
upcoming trial. Adela is emotional and ill; she too seems to suffer from an echo in her
mind. Ronny is fed up with Mrs. Moore’s lack of support for Adela, and it is agreed that
Mrs. Moore will return to England earlier than planned. Mrs. Moore dies on the voyage
back to England, but not before she realizes that there is no “real India”—but rather a
complex multitude of different Indians.

At Aziz’s trial, Adela, under oath, is questioned about what happened in the caves.
Shockingly, she declares that she has made a mistake: Aziz is not the person or thing that
attacked her in the cave. Aziz is set free, and Fielding escorts Adela to the Government
College, where she spends the next several weeks. Fielding begins to respect Adela,
recognizing her bravery in standing against her peers to pronounce Aziz innocent. Ronny
breaks off his engagement to Adela, and she returns to England.

Aziz, however, is angry that Fielding would befriend Adela after she nearly ruined
Aziz’s life and the friendship between the two men suffers as a consequence. Then
Fielding sails for a visit to England. Aziz declares that he is done with the English and that
he intends to move to a place where he will not have to encounter them.

Two years later, Aziz has become the chief doctor to the Rajah of Mau, a Hindu
region several hundred miles from Chandrapore. He has heard that Fielding married
Adela shortly after returning to England. Aziz now virulently hates all English people. One
day, walking through an old temple with his three children, he encounters Fielding and his
brother-in-law. Aziz is surprised to learn that the brother-in-law’s name is Ralph Moore; it
turns out that Fielding married not Adela Quested, but Stella Moore, Mrs. Moore’s
daughter from her second marriage.

Aziz befriends Ralph. After he accidentally runs his rowboat into Fielding’s, Aziz
renews his friendship with Fielding as well. The two men go for a final ride together before
Fielding leaves, during which Aziz tells Fielding that once the English are out of India, the
two will be able to be friends. Fielding asks why they cannot be friends now, when they

both want to be, but the sky and the earth seem to say “No, not yet. . . . No not there.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 114
SYMBOLISM IN “PASSAGE TO INDIA”
The word symbol is derived from the Greek verb “Symbellein” which means to
throw together. In “A passage to India” Edward Morgan Forster has depicted some major
and minor symbols. Symbols of mosque, cave, echo and temple are projected upto full
extent. Mosque is the symbolic dimension of union because mosque is such a place of
worship where all Muslims assemble under one banner of Islam. Mosque is centre of
excellence and touchstone of Islam. In the mosque, Dr Aziz comes across Mrs. Moore
who is already moving in the mosque without her shoes because she is well versed and
well equipped with basic rules of Islamic thoughts. Dr Aziz addresses Mrs. Moore in the
following manner:
“Madam! Madam! Madam! Oh! Oh! The woman gasped Madam, this is a mosque,
you have no right here at all; you should have taken off your shoes this is a holy place
for Moslems”.
Symbolism in “A passage to India” is crystal clear through the following depiction:
Mosque--------→Union--------→Thesis
Caves--------→Separation --------→Antithesis
Echo--------→Evil
Temple--------→Reunion--------→Synthesis
Caves are the symbols of separation. It is an undeniable fact that in cool
atmosphere, things contract but in hot atmosphere, matter is expanded. Personal
relationship or friendship between natives and non-natives are shattered and
misunderstanding is started. A famous critic G.O Allen finds the caves representing
Christianity.
In Marabar caves, Mrs. Moore becomes hallucinated and hysteric. She feels
confections and confusion in the hollowness of the caves. Adela Quested is living in fool’s
paradise. She was expecting happy response from Dr Aziz but her dreams are shattered
when impulsive and capricious Dr Aziz replies that he is married.
“Are you married, Dr Aziz, she asked stopping again, and frowning. Yes, indeed,
do come and see my wife.”
Echo is the symbol of evil because just after listening resounding in the caves, the
tables are turned. A topsy-turvy situation happens that Dr Aziz is captured for nothing.
Ronny magistrate becomes furious and hot tempered and poor Dr. Aziz is imprisoned.
Temple is the symbol of reunion or synthesis Dr. Aziz and Fielding bury their
hatchet and become friends once again. Professor Godbole becomes minister of Mau and
he showers favour on various characters.
Core and crux of the matter is that symbolism is salient feature of “A passage to India”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 115
DOCTOR AZIZ’S CHARACTER
Dr. Aziz needs no introduction in the novel “A Passage to India”. He can be
regarded as central and round character. All other characters are rotating around him. He
is a man of parts and owner of the qualities of head and heart. He is neither angelic nor
satanic. He is a man of somewhat emotional nature.
A famous critic G. M. White describes Aziz as the “most human, must believable of
all Forster’s character.”
Dr. Aziz is very unique and marvellous friend of Hamidullah, Mahmood Ali, Fielding
and Professor Godbole. When he is invited by Hamidullah, his feast is disturbed by Major
Calendar. After being humiliated by his boss, he enters the mosque where he comes
across a British lady Mrs. Moore. The following dialogues are exchanged between them:
“Madam! Madam! Madam! Oh! Oh! The woman gasped. Madam, this is a mosque,
you have no right here at all”
Dr Aziz is very hospitable personality. He arranges an appreciable feast in Marabar
Caves for Adela Quested, Mrs. Moore, Fielding and Professor Godbole. His oriental
hospitality is highly lauded by so many characters.
Dr Aziz is very innocent, humble, gentle and meek. He is fond of Islamic dynasty. He
remains quoting Babar and Aurangzeb Alamgir. He prefers Islam to Hinduism and
Christianity.
He is very popular doctor. Actually he is highly skilful in his professional liabilities.
He knows diagnosis and prescription. Not to speak of Muslims even Hindus and Christian
patients are also consulting him.
In Marabar Caves, Dr Aziz has proved his deep rooted love to his spouse and
children. When Adela Quested asks him if he is married or single, he replies in positive.
Even he tells lie before her.
“Are you married, Dr Aziz? She asked, stopping again and frowning. Yes,
indeed, do come and see my wife, for he felt it more artistic to have his wife alive
for a moment.”
The other side of picture is that Dr. Aziz is lecherous fellow. He goes to Calcutta to
watch dancing girls. He has familiarity with a commission agent of characterless girls.
Dr Aziz is a man of inferiority complex. He is very officious and capricious fellow. He is
highly impressed rather depressed by British officers and officials. A critic says “A
Passage to India” is a novel without hero or Dr Aziz is the hero of the novel.
Nitty gritty of the matter is that Dr. Aziz is neither angelic nor satanic. He is a normal
human being.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 116
PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
In “A passage to India” E.M. Forster has exposed the following personal relationships:-
a. Relationships b/w native and non-natives
b. Relationship b/w Ruler and ruled
c. Relationship b/w Native and Native
d. Relationship b/w Non-native and non-natives
e. Relationship b/w Adela and Ronny
f. Relationship b/w Adela and Dr Aziz
g. Relationship b/w Adela and Mrs. Moore
h. Relationship b/w Adela and Fielding
j. Relationship b/w Dr Aziz and Mrs. Moore
k. Relationship b/w Dr Aziz and Godbole
l. Relationship b/w Dr Aziz Fielding
Personal relationships between native and non-natives are very complicated and
strange. It is Islamic philosophy that Yahood-O-Nisara” cannot be good friends of Muslims.
Therefore whole British administration in the novel is opposing Dr. Aziz except Fielding.
In the novel “A Passage to India” E.M. Forster has remarked that there was a
remarkable gap between the ruler and the ruled. British were living in fool’s paradise to
think that there are few gentlemen in India. Therefore, Dr. Aziz remains fearing from his
boss Major Calendar. He is also under the spell of the magistrate Ronny. Dr Aziz is
suffering from inferiority complex before British officers.
Relationships between Non-natives and non-natives are also thought provoking.
Ronny magistrate is not a humble and obedient person. He is typical bureaucrat. He does
not mingle with common people. He suggests that Dr. Aziz must be hanged. Police officer
MC. Bryd is also favouring him. Credit goes to Fielding that he is openly favouring Dr. Aziz.
Relationship between Mrs. Moore and Dr. Aziz are based on sincerity, fidelity and
mysticism. Dr. Aziz enters the mosque and he is really flabbergasted or bewildered to
know that an English lady is already moving in the mosque. Just after seeing her, he says,
Madam! Madam! Madam!
Oh! Oh! The woman gasped Madam, this is a mosque, and you have no right here at all.
Relationship between Adela and Ronny are based on estrangement and restriction.
Although they are fiancé and fiancée yet they are just like two poles apart. It is fact that
love begets love. Do goods and have goods. As you sow, so shall you reap. Therefore,
she is inclined towards Dr. Aziz because of his qualities of head and heart.
Personal relationships between Professor Godbole and Dr. Aziz are noteworthy. In
the beginning of the novel, Professor Godbole remains jealous and prejudiced. He does
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 117
not accompany Dr. Aziz to Marabar Caves. In the closing chapters, we come to know
that Professor Godbole has become minister in Mau.
Core and cruse of the matter is that Edward Morgan Forster has enumerated so
many personal relationships in very noteworthy manner.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TITLE


The title of the novel “A Passage to India” is very significant or important. There
may be geographical passage and passage in the hearts and souls of the people. As far
as geographical passage is concerned, it started from England. It is historically proved
that Vascoday Gama was very adventurous. During his venturing he discovered sea route
from England to Kalikut and revealed this geographical fact.
E.M. Forster has also pointed out that British officers and officials came to India for
specific purposes. First of all, East India Company was established for commercial
purpose but with the passage of time trade was converted into politics and lords became
viceroys and other dominating officers. Lord Clive, Lord Wilzli and Lord Mountbatten
became eminent personalities. They hatched traitors like Meer Jafar and Meer Sadiq.
Ultimately Tipu Sultan and Siraj-Ud-Daula died and tragic chapter started.
In “Passage to India” E.M. Forster has also remarked that in Chandrapore, Dr. Aziz
is just like a puppet or plaything in the hands of British officers and officials Ronny
magistrate is very jealous and strange officer. He is not emotionally attached with his own
mother and fiancée.
“Ronny said Let’s go into this, let’s look for its tracks, exactly, you wish to
borrow this electric torch”.
In “Passage to India” E.M. Forster has also remarked that British were suffering from
superiority complex except the Principal Mr. Fielding. Contrary to him, the Muslims were
suffering from inferiority complex. Dr. Aziz is true representative of those people who are
very humble, submissive and gentle. Dr. Aziz is under the spell of Ronny magistrate,
commissioner Turton and Police offer MC Bryd.
In this novel, E.M. Forster has used so many symbols like mosque, cave, echo and
temple. Mosque is the symbol of union and thesis. Caves are the symbols of separation,
echo is the symbol of evil and temple is the symbol of reunion or synthesis.
A famous critic C. Gillie says that Passage to India has psychological, political and
religious dimensions and it is the last of these is the most important.
In the novel “A passage to India” Professor Godbole has exposed his prejudice
against Dr. Aziz, When Dr. Aziz invites him to Marabar Caves and he exposes a lame
excuse that it was particular day of “Pooja”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 118
In Marabar Caves, Miss Adela Quested asks Dr. Aziz of he is married. He
answers in affirmative. The following dialogue is really thought provoking.
“Are you married, Dr Aziz? She asked, stopping again and frowning. Yes,
indeed, do come and see my wife, for he felt it more artistic to have his wife alive
for a moment”
Core and cruse of the matter is that “Passage to India” has so many dimensions.
The title is really significant.

WILLIAM GOLDING: Lords of Flies


WILLIAM GOLDING AS A NOVELIST
As a modern novelist, William Golding has earned lot of reputation and prestige by
writing so many novels like “Lord of the Flies” and “Birds of Paradise” and others. In the
novel “Lord of the Flies” William Golding has also quoted so many allegorical and symbolic
elements in very didactic manner. If we analyze themes and thoughts of this novel, we
may perceive so many thought provoking elements. For example, Ralph, Simon and Mr.
Piggy are sailing in the same boat. They are really praiseworthy, noteworthy and
appreciable characters. They are dreaming and desiring to get liberty or freedom because
nobody likes slavery. Bondage is never liked by anybody. Obviously children were also
desiring authority, peace, serenity and calmness. When the plot of this novel proceeds, we
come to know that Mr. Ralph is fortunate enough to get coral shell.
“Ralph had stopped smiling and was preventing into the lagoon. Something
creamy lay among the ferny weeds. ‘A stone’. ‘No. A shell”
In the novel “Lord of the Flies” W. Golding has also remarked that in modern age,
people are facing generation gap social differences, social distinctions and other socio-
economic problems. For example, Jack and Roger have become jealous and venomous
because they have observed innovative and perceptive approaches of Piggy and Ralph.
They become Jealous of Simon for nothing. Actually Simon is true prototype of holy
people. One critic is of the opinion that Simon may be the symbolic projection of Holy
Christ (may Allah be pleased with him) Ralph may be regarded as the symbol of Holy
Adam (may Allah be pleased with him). Piggy may be regarded as intellectual and
scholarly person.
“Piggy spoke also dribbling. Aren’t I having none, Jack had meant to leave him
in doubt, as an assertion of power, but Piggy by advertising his omission made more
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 119
cruelty necessary”.
In this novel, William Golding also remarks that democracy is the need of time. No
doubt, democracy is the Government of the people, by the people and for the people.
We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting. They’ll come when they hear us”.
Nitty gritty of the matter is that William Golding can rightly be regarded as individual
and archetypal novelist of modern age. Therefore, he achieved Nobel Prize due to his
qualities of head and heart.

WILLIAM GOLDING AS A MODERN ENGLISH NOVELIST

William Golding is one of illuminating and twinkling star among galaxy of


intellectuals and post-war literati. William Golding is very wonderful multidimensional,
creative and innovative novelist of modern era. He is fortunate enough to win noble prize
for literature. In its official citation, the Swedish Academy honoured Golding for his novels
which the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth,
illuminate the human condition in the world of today. He got global prestige and
cosmopolitan fame by writing “Lord of the Flies”. In this novel writer has used so many
weapons of literary devices like symbolism, allegory and other dimensions of literature.
Two famous writers Mark Kinkead-Weekes and Ian Gregor wrote in the book
“William Golding a Critical Study”, “Lord of the Flies” has become a compulsory stop on
the root of any surveyor of the English novel since the war, an addition to the canon of
writings prescribed by school examination boards, the occasion of a volume of critical
essays published in the U.S.A. and an award-winning film.”
What distinguish “Lord of the Flies” is its powerful and exciting qualities as narrative
and its appearance of extreme clarity of meaning; the later works are more difficult both to
read and understand. “Lord of the Flies” fulfills most effectively the novelist’s basic task of
telling a good story. Many readers may feel “Lord of the Flies” needs to be too crystalline,
too insistent, too manipulated to be acceptable but it seems likely that it is this
combination of narrative momentum and thematic clarity that explains the popular success
which greater Golding novels failed to achieve. Whether the art is so clear and crystalline
however is perhaps open to question. Let’s consider the finding of the shell which provides
the title for the opening chapter. We watch the conch, we might say liberated from
ordinariness, grasped and filled with meaning.
“What’s that?” Ralph had stopped smiling and was pointing into the lagoon.
Something creamy lay among the ferny weeds. “A stone.” “No. A shell.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 120
As a novelist Golding is skillful in the technique of symbolism. In the novel “Lord
of the Flies” Ralph is the symbol of Holy Adam (May Allah be pleased with him), Piggy is
the symbol of scholars and intellectuals. Simon is the symbol of Holy Christ (May Allah be
pleased with him). Jack is the symbol of Satan & Roger is the symbol of disciple of devil.
In this novel, Ralph comes across a Coral shell. He announces that the shell is the
symbol of authority. Therefore, he suggests that all of us should assemble and jumble
after listening sound of the shell. It is decided unanimously that all the companions will
collect the wood in order to raise fire. With the passage of time, they have collected wood
but now the question arises how they’ll raise the fire. Piggy hits upon an ingenious plan,
he uses his optical in order to reflect and refract solar light. It is really thought provoking
idea that William Golding has depicted this thought that necessity is the mother of
invention.
William Golding has concentrated on such type of incidents which are based on
modern trends especially post war situation. It is really a matter to ponder over that in this
novel “Lord of the Flies” concept of democracy is projected in very unique manner. For
instance, Ralph decides that everybody will collect wood but two children Roger and Jack
became rebellious. Ralph and Jack become leader of different parties. Ralph is the leader
of virtuous party but Jack is the leader of satanic party. It also indicates that William
Golding is of the opinion that one should be aware of this fact that everybody demands
projection, care, love, attachment and due regard. Therefore it is the duty of the parents
that they should be caring, loving and affectionate but after war, generation gap appears.
The women, children and old people feel insecurity and maladjustment. Piggy showed his
fear in the following manner.
“I’m scared of him, “said Piggy, “and that’s why I know him. If you’re scared of
someone you hate him but you can’t stop thinking about him.”
When the plot of this novel proceeds, a perceptive and analytical reader can
analyze that Roger and Jack establish their own satanic party and they become jealous of
the virtuous people. It is very harsh behavior of Jack and Roger that they kill Piggy and
Simon stone heartedly for nothing. This act projected them as inhuman, adversary,
remorseless, treacherous and villainous.
A famous writer says, “The broken detritus of man’s barbarity is made into
something beautiful, like a work of art: as a pebble is decorated with pearls, as the pitted
sand is smoothed and inlaid with silver.”
In nutshell, it can be averred that “Lord of the Flies” is very typical and allegorical
novel created by William Golding. He perpetuated his global fame by writing such type of
luminescent and thought inspiring novel “Lord of the Flies”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 121
“LORD OF THE FLIES” As an Allegory
According to J. A. Cuddon, “The term allegory derives from Greek word ‘Allegoria’
which means ‘speaking otherwise’. As a rule, an allegory is a story in verse or prose with a
double meaning. It is a story that can be read understood and interpreted at two levels
(and in some cases at three or four levels). It is thus closely related to the fable and the
parable. The best known allegory in English language (if not in the world) is “Bunyan’s
Pilgrim’s Progress”.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie says, “Allegory means, from Greek, speaking in
other terms. A way of representing thought and experience through images by means of
which (1) complex ideas may be simplified or (2) Abstract, spiritual or mysterious ideas
and experiences may be made immediate (but not necessarily simpler) by dramatization in
fiction.”
Allegory is literary device which narrates the story with a hidden moral teaching.
Basic purpose of allegory is to convey moral and religious truth in delightful manner. In
“Lord of the Flies” so many allegorical situations are blended in marvelous manner. The
title “Lord of the Flies” indicates that the novel was intended to have an allegorical
purpose. The forces of good are allegorically represented by Ralph, Piggy and Simon.
Contrary to them, evil is allegorically represented by Jack and Roger.
In this allegory “Lord of the Flies”, the children like Biggins and Littluns are quoted.
For instance, Ralph is the best character because he is the pioneer of so called
democracy in Barren Island. Accordingly, Ralph is so lucky that he is getting coral shell.
“Ralph had stopped smiling and was pointing into the lagoon. Something creamy
lay among the ferny weeds. “A stone.” “No. A shell”
It is really allegorical point that Ralph is symbolic projection of Holy Adam (May
Allah be pleased with him). It is really irritating situation that Ralph like optimistic lad is
being criticized by Jack and Roger, little rascals and ruffians. It is irrefutable phenomenon
that it is easy to criticize but it is difficult to reform. Ralph is such a strange person that he
desires to invent new ideas. He is very humble, gentle and innovative lad. He suggests
that the shell must be regarded as token of authority. He also innovates that all boys
should collect wood in order to raise fire. All of them collect wood to raise fire but it is a
matter of co-incidence that they have no safety match to raise fire. No doubt, necessity is
the mother of invention. So Piggy shows his innovative bent of mind and he raises fire by
reflecting solar light through his optical.
“His specs--- use them as burning glasses!”
In “Lord of the Flies” William Golding has also pointed out that with the passage of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 122
time, intentions, feelings, passions and thoughts remain fluctuation. For instance, Jack
and Roger change their minds and they establish their own hunting party to oppose good
people.
There seems to be no evil on the island in the early stages of story. Although, Jack
likes to be elected as the chief, he does not show any malice or bitterness when Ralph is
elected in preference to him. Soon afterward we become conscious to parallel instincts
operating strongly in Jack. After returning from mountain top both Ralph and Jack address
an assembly of the lads. Jack at this time says that there are pigs on the island and he
needs army of hunters. He slams his knife into a tree trunk. They desire to hunt pigs by
itself cannot be interpreted as showing an evil instinct in Jack. Maurice, Bill and Roger
slipped away from the meeting in order to join Jack.
“The Lord of the Flies” is an objectification of the evil within, his message is
reinforced through his delineation of Simon’s character. Simon who has witnessed from
his hiding place, Jack’s ritual in offering a pig’s head as a gift to the beast, begins to stare
at the pig’s head which is now surrounded by a thick swarm of flies.
Goodness of the twins is also exposed in an allegorical manner. The twins are also
one the side of goodness. They are obedient and loyal to Ralph but there is a touch of
dishonesty in their natures. For instance, they invent certain details in the account which
they give to Ralph and the others about their experience of the beast which they imagine
having seen. After this they pose that they know nothing about Simon’s murder.
In this allegory Roger and Jack are jealous of Simon’s innocence and Piggy’s
intellect. Therefore they decide unanimously that Piggy and Simon should be killed
ruthlessly. They are so cunning and cruel children that they kill Piggy without any specific
reason. Actually virtue is evergreen and lie has no feet to stand upon but virtue demands
intentional tendency but vice attracts the people or evil doers. Roger and Jack become so
brute, callous and treacherous that they kill Piggy during mock-hunting. The evidence is
provided below:-
“Piggy’s arms and legs twitched a bit, like a pig’s after it has been killed.”
As Roger and Jack become devil’s disciple and they are determined to kill virtuous
people. Therefore comparison between virtue and vice is main theme of this novel.
Piggy’s fear from evil party is evident through the following textual reference.
“I’m scared of him, “said Piggy, “and that’s why I know him. If you’re scared of
someone you hate him but you can’t stop thinking about him.”
In this allegorical novel William Golding is very conscious about so many calamities
and maladies. He believes that war is necessary evil. When love finishes war starts.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 123
Innovations in this allegory are laudable. Golding is also of the opinion that there should
be code of conduct, moral behaviour, good views and values, so that we may be capable
to get proper shelter and appropriate haven. No doubt haven is the best heaven. No doubt
children are in search of solace, satisfaction and home because it is truth universally
acknowledged that east or west, home is the best. Therefore children are under the spell
of home. They dream to reach the laps of their mothers as soon as possible because
maternal attachment is within instinct of human being. It is also generally observed that
children are more attached with mothers instead of fathers so they are dreaming to have
filial love as soon as possible.
Sum and substance of the matter is that “Lord of the Flies” is very pathetic and
tragic allegory. Tears ooze out of our lachrymal glands while perceiving so many tragic
events and defeat of some virtuous characters.

SYMBOLISM IN “LORD OF THE FLIES”


According to J. A. Cuddon, “The word ‘symbolism’ derives from the Greek verb
symballein ‘to throw together’, and its noun symbolon ‘mark’, ‘emblem’ ‘token’ or ‘sign’. It
is an object, animate or inanimate, which represents or stands for something else. As
Coleridge put it “A symbol is characterized by translucence of the special in the individual”.
A symbol differs from an allegorical sign in that it has a real existence whereas an
allegorical sign is arbitrary.”
Symbolism is one the most common devices in literature. Symbolism imparts a
deeper layer of meaning to a work of literature. In “Lord of the Flies” symbolism is crystal
clear. There are so many symbolic elements in the novel “Lord of the Flies”. For instance,
Ralph is the symbol of Holy Adam (May God be pleased with him). Jack is the symbol of
Satan. Piggy is the symbol of intellectuals and philosophers. Roger is the symbol of
assistant of Satan. Simon is the symbol of Holy Christ (May Allah Almighty be pleased
with him). It indicates that William Golding is very expert in symbolic projections. Another
evidence is that Golding is highly conscious to reflect his themes and thoughts in very
good manner. If we keep superficial meanings in our mind, it seems to be childish novel
but if we dig out underlying ideas, we may regard “Lord of the Flies” as a unique and
didactic literary piece of art.
A famous critic Jeanne Delbaere Garant is of the opinion, “As a rock stands
detached amid the water and a pool stretches on the island, a boy is singled out on each
side: Simon and Piggy do not really belong to their groups.”
William Golding projected so many symbolic elements in the novel “Lord of the
Flies” in very eloquent manner. For instance, William Golding has rightly averred that
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 124
virtue is always dominant and successful ultimately. Virtuous people are always
unconquerable because they remain under the spell of good aspects of human life. Ralph
is really symbol of virtuous actions and deeds because he is symbolic exposure of Holy
Adam (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him). Ralph’s superiority to other characters is
evident through following textual reference.
“Ralph felt the conch lifted from his lap. Then Piggy was standing cradling the
great cream shell and the shouting died down.”
Symbolic dimension of the novel is transparent when one perceives this thought
that coral shell is regarded as a token of authority. It is decided unanimously that the shell
will be symbol of authority and it will be rotated in all other characters with the passage of
time. All of them follow this thought that all children will perform collectively so that they
may be capable to get shelter through any rescue party.
William Golding provided wings to his thoughts through various symbols lying
beyond the apparent meanings. In this post war literature Golding is extending reader’s
horizons of intellect in the medium of symbols. Particularly, post war effects are crystal
clear in various contents of the novel. Generation gap is salient feature of war. After war
the children are compelled to wander, so obviously in this novel Jack, Roger, Simon,
Piggy and other Littluns and Biggins are dreaming and desiring to remain away from
calamities. Symbolism is also transparent when we come to know that a child Piggy is
symbol of intellectuals and his wisdom is highly lauded by critics. Roger and Jack are so
prejudiced and venomous that they can not tolerate even the existence of virtue. Jack and
Roger pretend mock hunting and they kill Piggy and Simon, so that other people may not
compare between virtues and vice.
“Piggy’s arms and legs twitched a bit, like a pig’s after it has been killed.”
The fire serves as another symbol. On a literal level, fire is used for purposes of
cooking and accordingly, Jack makes use of fire for roasting the meat of the pigs which he
is able to hunt down and killed. Once again it is only Piggy who takes the same interest in
the maintenance of the fire as Ralph does. At one point Ralph thus emphasizes the need
of maintaining a fire:
“The fire’s the most important thing. Without the fire we can’t be rescued. I’d
like to put on war-point and be a savage. But we must keep the fire burning. The fire’s
the most important thing on the island, because----”
Core and crux of the matter is that “Lord of the Flies” is replete with so many symbolic
elements. With the help of these symbolic dimensions “Lord of the Flies” is one of the
distinguished and eminent novels of English literature.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 125
THEME OF EVIL IN “LORD OF THE FLIES”
In “Lord of the Flies”, William Golding has depicted evil ways of life in very skillful
and efficient manner. It is an undeniable fact that evil is always damnable and
condemnable aspect of life. It is observed that evil is always captivating, fascinating,
charming and attracting factor. Virtue demands conscious efforts to be performed but evil
tempts all human being at every time. It is generally quoted that Pandora’s Box of seven
deadly sins; envy, wrath, gluttony, lechery, sloth, covet and pride.
In “Lord of the Flies” William Golding has enunciated theme of evil by comparing
virtue with vice. Virtuous characters are really loved by God Almighty because of Divine
Judgment but vicious characters are under the spell of evil.
A famous critic Antony Burgess opines, “Another British novelist much concerned
with evil (though hardly at all with good) is William Golding. He came late to the novel form
with a book about children which has some of the qualities of dystopian fable, since it
attempts to show how self defeating are all efforts to build an idyllic and just community. In
his boy’s book Coral Island, R. M. Ballantyne shipwrecked a number of decent church-
bred lads and watched them create from scratch a fear replica of British civilization.”
In “Lord of the Flies” theme of evil is transparent when Roger and Jack expose their
evil tactics. Even they kill virtuous and innocent character Piggy. They showed their evil
bent of mind by killing pigs. Even Ralph feels the temptation to hit Robert with spear. All
the boys chant ritually as at the last moment of a hunt.
“Kill the pig! Cut his throat! Kill the pig! Bash him in!”
Theme of evil is crystal clear, when we come to know that Roger and Jack
established their satanic party showing their malicious nature. They exposed their grudges
and prejudices against virtuous characters; especially they are jealous of Ralph, Piggy
and Simon. They are jealous of Piggy’s intellect, Simon’s innocence and Ralph’s good
luck. They are jealous of Ralph because he is fortunate enough to find Coral shell which is
token of authority.
“What’s that?” Ralph had stopped smiling and was pointing into the lagoon.
Something creamy lay among the ferny weeds. “A stone.” “No. A shell.”
Theme of evil can also be perceived in various actions and versions of Jack and
Roger. They leave no stone unturned to deviate various characters from virtue to vice.
They themselves are least concerned with virtue because they seem to be hater of virtue.
Actually, Jack and Roger are incarnation, prototype and embodiment of evil. In this novel,
evil is shown so dominant and attractive that some other characters are also under the
spell of evil. It was the demand of poetic justice, social justice and Divine justice that both
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 126
vicious characters should be pined away but in actual scenario Jack and Roger are
calm and cool. It is illustrates that trying to prevail on virtuous characters. They are along
with hunting party slay Piggy ruthlessly. The novel reveals that Piggy became centre of
attraction by raising fire but the vicious characters could not do that. Therefore, they
became jealous, revengeful, hooligan and thugs.
It is fact that Jack represents the principal of evil while Ralph is representing
goodness. Conflict is shown between evil and good forces and partial victory of evil is
shown. Released from restraints of school discipline and obligation of a civilized life, Jack
becomes tyrant and barbarian. The evil instinct in him finds ample scope on the island to
grow and flourish. Evidently, evil preponderates in Jack’s nature. Jack starts deteriorating,
evil is certainly victorious in this novel because an innocent boy Simon is killed and good
hearted boy Piggy is murdered deliberately. Perhaps, Golding wants to give this message
that evil is inherent in human nature.
In “Lord of the Flies” Sow’s head is symbol of evil, it is killed by Jack and his
hunters and stuck on a stick. It serves as a powerful symbol of evil. Basically the theme of
“Lord of the Flies” emergence to the surface of evil which lies dormant in human heart,
and the conflict of this growing evil with the good which continues to exist in the heart of
human being. Simon is the boy who is conscious of the existence of evil in human heart.
When the boys are discussing the probability of the beast on the island, Simon expresses
the view that beast exists within the boys themselves. The Lord of the Flies says to Simon:
“I’m part of you. I’m the reason why it is no go. And why things are what they are.”
A famous critic Kinkead-Weekes and Ian Gregor says, “To imagine that the evil is
in anyway in the pig’s head or more insidiously, that the pig’s head symbolizes and evil
external to the individual is in fact to commit the error from which only Simon, inspite of his
hallucination, is free.”
To sum up, it can be averred that evil in “Lord of the Flies” is really condemnable
and irritating aspect of the novel. Golding has utilized didactic approach by comparing
virtue with vice.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 127
THOMAS HARDY - THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE
VARIOUS THEMES OF THE NOVEL
In this novel “The return of the native” Thomas Hardy has pointed out themes of
love, marriage, death, business, fate, chance and coincidence. It is fact that love is a
natural passion which is present in our heart and soul. Love is major theme of this novel.
Clym Yeobright falls in love with Eustacia Vye. Clym Yeobright is such a humble, gentle
and genteel that he is surrendering his manly assertion for Eustacia’s sake. Even he left
the metropolitan atmosphere of France for her sake but she is so ungrateful, thankless
and strange lady that she is shifting her heart from one person to another like mobile
toyshop.
“Eustacia was now no longer the goddess but the women to him.”
Theme of emotional attachment is also crystal clear when we come to know that
Wildere is emotionally attached with pernicious Eustacia. She is so passionate creature
that she wants to get material benefits by hook or by crook. She leaves no stone unturned
to materialize her mundane approaches to satisfy her desires of power and pelf.
In this novel, it is very mind boggling, hair splitting, blood curdling and awe-
inspiring situation that Clym was reduced to furze cutter. Once, he was well settled well
adjusted and fully acclimatized with French atmosphere but with the passage of time, he is
entangled between the devil and deep sea. It is really condemnable on the part of
Eustacia that she has compelled such a thoroughly gentleman to behave like hen pecked
and wife worshipper. Actually, all human beings are makers of their own fate and future
life. One should think before speaking and look before leaping. It is really a realistic
exposure of different ins and outs of Victorian culture by Hardly.
“Wildere, as has been stated, was determined to visit Eustacia boldly, by day,

and on the easy terms of a relation, since the Reddleman had spied out and spoilt this
walks to her by night.”
A famous critic is of the opinion that Hardy’s novels are based on the folk-ways of
his native province.
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that “The Return of the Native” is replete with so many
themes, thoughts and logical exposures of human life.
ROLE OF FATE, CHANCE AND CO-INCIDENCE
In the novel “The Return of the Native” Clym Yeobright is victim of circumstances.
He is a manager of market especially jewel market in France. But with the passage of
time, he is reduced to furze-cutter. It illustrates that Thomas Hardy knows how to create
various situations in which theme of fate, chance and co-incidence is applicable.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 128
A famous critic is of the opinion that Thomas Hardy has exposed role of fate,
chance and co-incidence through his novel like “Under the Greenwood Tree, The Mayor of
Caster Bridge, Jude the Obscure, Tess of the D’Urbervilles and The Return of the Native”.
In the opening chapter of this novel “The Return of the Native” a perceptive reader
may come to know that Clym Yeobright is well settled in metropolitan atmosphere of
France. Being a contented fellow of Edgon Heath he feels maladjustment.
He is sick of hustle and bustle of the life in France. So he returns to his home town.
It is typical instance of fate and chance that Miss Eustacia is fortunate enough to win his
heart, albeit she has already hatched relations with Mr. Wildere yet she dreams to enjoy
French atmosphere. Hence, she is determined to ensnare him at any cost.
“Eustacia Knew it was ten to one that Clym Yeobright would go to no church at
all during his few days of leave and that it would be a waste of labour for her to go
driving the pony and gig over a had road in hope to see him there”
When the plot of this novel proceeds we come to know that marriages are decided
in heaven but celebrated on this earth. So wedding between Clym and Eustacia is pre-
decided, Although, Clym’s mother advises him to shun away from this adventure because
according to his mother it was an ill matched couple.
It is fact that emotional decisions are wrong therefore think before speak and look
before leap. It is also re-marked that parents are more than blessing, so parents should be
fully allowed to select the most appropriate matches for marriages of their wards. As Clym
disobeyed to his mother, he had to suffer drastic calamity. Clym never thought that he will
face such horrible and broken home situation.
“Eustacia was now no longer the goddess but the woman to him, a being to fight
for, support, help, be maligned for. Now that he had ………………………the forth coming
event was certainly a ready way of proving”.
The concept of fate and chance is also crystal clear when we come to know that
Wildere was present in Eustacia’s room. Therefore the door remained closed Clym’s
mother returned with heavy heart.
It is height of fate and chance that Mrs. Yeobright sits on the particular place from
where an adder comes out and stings her. Before, breathing her last, she reveals the story
and Clym become emotional against his wife for the first time. She becomes so offended
that she leaves his home. It is very thought provoking example of fate and chance that
Eustacia can not receive particular letter which is written by her better half. It is also
quoted that “death has no calendar”. It is very tragic chapter that Clym could not marry
Miss Thamasin.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 129
“He was half angry with her for choosing Venn.. ……Who? O Yes __ Diggory Venn.”
To make a long story short that the novel “The Return of the Native” is replete with
themes of fate and chance.
CLYM VS EUSTACIA
Clym Yeobright is really marvelous and central character of the novel “The Return
of the Native” All other characters are rotating around him. He seems to be a man of
centripetal force. He is a man of extraordinary caliber, potentialities, capabilities and
constant struggle. Probably, he believes in the following:-
Fortune lies in labour’s shell. All is well that ends well and we are not here to dream to
drift, we have to work hard and loads to lift. Shun not struggle, it is God’s gift.
Clym is so important character in this novel that he is being awaited by so many
characters.
“I met Mrs. Yeobright, the young bride’s aunt, last night and she told that her
son Clym was coming home a Christmas”.
Miss Eustacia Vye is very strange character of this novel. She is emotionally
attached with Mr. Wildere but she is determined to marry Mr. Clym Yeobright because he
is a manager of a market in Paris. It is her main dream and desire to be well settled in
France. She wants to materialize her dream of being settled in metropolitan atmosphere. It
is very smile provoking as well as pathetic picture that they face broken home situation
right from the beginning of their married life. Clym is overall thoroughly gentleman but he
is typical henpecked and wife worshipper. He is so man of straw that he is at the beck and
call of his better half. He is not shifting his heart from one person to another like a mobile
toyshop.
Contrary to him, Miss Eustacia is very hypocrite and lady of double standard of
morality. She is very condemnable lady. She is so callous and pernicious that she leaves
no stone unturned to enjoy luxuries in her life. She seems to be epicurean in her tastes.
She is the least concerned with fidelity, sincerely, morality and loyalty. She believes that
eats drinks and be merry, lest tomorrow will you die.
“This was the end of their talk and Eustacia left him. Clym watched her and
she returned towards the sun”. p-188.
Critics have often taken the view that to a greater or lesser degree Clym is Hardy
himself in his moral earnestness and his gestures towards social reform.
Core and crux of the matter is that Clym and Eustacia are central characters of the
novel “The Return of the Native”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 130

PAKISTANI LITERATURE
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 131
1. NOVEL

BAPSI SIDHWA: ICE CANDY MAN


FEMINISM IN ICE-CANDY MAN
Feminism is a movement for claiming women rights especially legal political and
social rights equal to those possessed by male race. In Pakistan, Razia Butt, Perveen
Shakir, Haseena Moin, Fatima Surraya Bajia, Bushra Rehman, Noshi Gillani, Bushra
Ansari, Shereen Mazari, Hina Faisal Imam and so many other blue stockings of Pakistan
desire to claim their rights: political, social and economical. They can rightly be entitled as
feminists. Bapsi Sidhwa is included among those dignified and luminescent intellectuals
who dedicated and devoted their potentialities and capabilities for feminine rights. In her
novels like The Crow Eater, The Bride and Ice-Candy Man, she has projected human
rights especially women rights in an expert manner. “Ice Candy Man” also published in
India as “Cracking India” in 1991. In the novel “Ice-Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa has pointed
out various feelings, emotions, passions and thoughts of human beings, especially ladies.
She has also projected real feelings of the people pre-partition and post-partition of Sub-
Continent.
In this novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa seems highly impressed by Charles
Dickens, therefore she used Lenny as mouth as Dickens used Pip in “Great Expectations”.
Lenny seems keen observer of surroundings. Hence she is real perceptive literati in her
narrative approach and she knows how to reflect her observed materials. It is really
appreciable on the part of Bapsi Sidhwa that she expressed her deep-rooted perception
and analytical approach in very thought provoking manner.
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa has enunciated various complications
due to early marriages. It is fact that marriage is a social ritual and it is a turning point in
human life. Marriage demands maturity, perception and tolerance. For example, a
teenager mother about 12 years appears before Colonel Bharucha. Lenny described that
doctor makes a strict castigation. Following textual reference can facilitate the purpose.
“She did not tell you. Are you a father or a barber? You all want Pakistan. How will
you govern a country when you do not know what goes on in your own house?”
In this novel “Ice-Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa exposed the poverty and helplessness
of woman, who were bound to surrender their feminine assertion because of male
chauvinism. In Pakistani culture, male oriented society is dominant. Woman is expected to
be confined in boundary walls and she is compelled to be as busy as bee in her domestic
liabilities. Ayah Shanta is one of these characters and also sailing in the same boat. Ayah
seems to be sexually perverted. She is victimized by Sher Singh, Ice-Candy Man,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 132
Faletties Hotel Cook, Government House gardener and an elegant compactly muscled
head and body, Masseur. The handsome Masseur is one of Ayah’s admirers. Ice Candy
Man, Sharbat Khan and Masseur are her principal lovers. Ayah is so passionate girl that
she mingles with every temporary lover without any hesitation. She shifts her heart from
one lover to another like a mobile toy shop.
“I lie on the grass, my head was on Ayah’s lap, basking in—and intercepting---
the warm flood of stares directed at Ayah by her circle of admirers. The Faletties
Hotel Cook, the Government House gardener, a sleek and arrogant butcher and the
zoo Attendant, Sher Singh, sit with us.”
Feminism is transparent in the novel “Ice-Candy Man”, when readers perceive
common use of early marriages exposed by Bapsi. For instance, Papoo a girl of eleven
years old is being married to a middle aged man Tota Ram. Papoo is daily flogged by her
mother Muchho and she becomes neurotic. The main problem of early marriages is
immaturity and lack acclimatizing attitude. In Pakistan early marriage, physical penalties
cross marriages (watta satta), women disparity and some other complications faced by
ladies.
The novel “Ice Candy Man” has so many strands; especially the third strand is
related with “feminism” and undisciplined sex. Sorrowful strain of feminism is also crystal
clear in fourth strand. Hamida, Lenny’s new Ayah is not accepted by her husband as she
has been touched by the Sikhs. It is not her fault but she is stigmatized for nothing.
Core and crux of the matter is that Bapsi Sidhwa has utilized her potentialities and
capabilities to use her weapon of pen to write about feminism. Being a perceptive analyst
she knows how to prick various dimensions of “Feminism”.
REALISM IN “ICE CANDY MAN”
Realism is a school of thought in which observed material becomes the food of
thought for the realist. Realism is exposition and portrayal of the society in the form of
words. J. A. Cuddon defined “realism” in the following manner; “Fundamentally, in
literature, realism is the portrayal of life with fidelity. It is thus, not concerned with
idealization with rendering things a beautiful when they are not or in any way presenting
them in any guise as they are not; nor as a rule is realism concerned with presenting the
supera-normal or transcendental though of course the writings of Richard Rolle of
Hempole.”
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa has painted the novel with realistic
vein. She has used literary device of realism to expose various ins and outs of Pakistani
society, especially Lahore. Realism is an endeavour tempted by Bapsi Sidhwa in the novel
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 133
“Ice Candy Man”, to present in literature a truthful impression about life, both in its
tangible form and in the mental processes of human being. Bapsi seems highly impressed
by Charles Dickens. She used narrative device just like Pip in “Great Expectations”, she
used Lenny as a narrator of “Ice Candy Man”.
In “Ice Candy Man” psychological and sensual realism is evident when so many
situations reveal oddities, frivolities and sensualities of human behaviour. Bapsi’s keen
observation and perceptive analysis illuminated through her mouth-piece Lenny when she
narrates the sensual acts of her Ayah and Masseur during massages. Masseur starts
massaging under Ayah’s sari and she grows still languid and her eye-lids close. It shows
Lenny’s psychological and penetrative observation in thought provoking manner. Human
oddities and flirtatious nature of men is transparent through following textual reference.
“The covetous glances Ayah draws educate me. Up and down, they look at
her. Stub-handed twisted beggars and dusty old beggars on crutches drop their
poses and stare at her with hard, alert eyes. Holy men, masked in piety, shove aside
their pretences to ogle at her with lust. Hawkers, cart-drivers, cooks, coolies and
cyclists turn their heads as she passes, pushing my pram with the unconcern of the
Hindu goddess she worships.”
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” realism and political upheaval of the time are
transparent when common reader comes to know about Lenny’s development from
childhood to adolescence concurs with India’s independence from Britain and partitioning
of India into two states Pakistan and India. The interwoven plots give each other
substantial meaning, partly because Lenny’s family is Parsee, a religious and ethnic
minority that remained relatively neutral in post-partition religious conflicts. Bapsi has
exposed all the people related with ethnicities and religions, both within Lahore and in
other locales. The following textual reference can reveal aptly the political, panic, pathetic
and heart rendering situation of the partition.
“The Hindus of Shalmi must have piled a lot of dynamite in their houses and
shops to drive the Muslims from Mochi Gate. The entire Shalmi, an area covering
about four square miles, flashes in explosions. The men and women on our roof are
slapping each other’s hands, laughing, hugging one another.”
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa illuminates so many thought provoking
realities like Lenny’s passionate love for Ayah and the loss of innocence that accompanies
their changing relationship through the partition is an energetic plot to the novel. Lenny’s
relationships with her mother, her powerful godmother and her sexually invasive cousin
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 134
are the important aspects of Bapsi’s realism in the novel. Lenny’s polio forms a
significant early narrative thread. Other minor but compelling subplots of the novel
including Lenny’s parents’ changing relationship, the murder of a British official and the
child marriage of the much-abused daughter of one of Lenny’s family’s servants.
Bapsi Sidhwa is expert in panoramic view and pen-picture of the characters in the
novel. She painted the characters in a real kaleidoscopic style that a common reader can
sketch the character in mind, just after reading Bapsi’s descriptive style. Ayah’s
description is really laudable and marvelous. Bapsi painted Ayah’s sketch with real color
of words. Following textual reference reveals evidently that Ayah was a girl of ensnaring
youth and illusion of beauty.
“Ayah is chocolate-brown and short. Everything about her is eighteen years old
and round and plump. Even her face, Full-blown cheeks, pouting mouth and smooth
forehead curve to form a circle with her head. Her hair is pulled back in a tight
knot.”
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” or “Cracking India” the real, sensitive and complex
subject matter is chosen by Bapsi Sidhwa. She averred “It was a very difficult book to
write….a difficult and painful.”
To sum up the matter, it can be remarked that “Ice Candy Man” is a tale of the
partition that led to the creation of independent Pakistan and India as the British left the
subcontinent. The book is both uplifting and heart wrenching realism, filled with characters
that the readers grow to love and despise as the story unfolds with the proceedings of the
plot. The story is replete with so many literary devices but the most eminent, is a real
perspective of Parsi community of Lahore, Sidhwa has done an amazing job of presenting
the story of the partition and Hindu-Muslim riots from a neutral perspective. She is
impartial in her realistic exposure.
THE PLOT CONSTRUCTION IN THE NOVEL “ICE CANDY MAN”
Bapsi Sidhwa is a twinkling star in the illuminating galaxy of intellectuals on the sky
of Pakistani Literature in English. She is not comparable and she is unique, archetypal
and the one in her field of writing. Bapsi is the author of four eminent novels and one of
Pakistan’s most eminent fiction writers. In 1991, Bapsi Sidhwa was the recipient of Sitara-
e-Imtiaz, Pakistan’s highest honour in arts bestowed upon a citizen. In 1998 her novel
“Cracking India” (Ice Candy Man) was adopted into movie “Earth” by renowned filmmaker
Deep Mehta.
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa portrayed her characters with intellect,
wisdom and deep-rooted perception. In this novel she poured a real touchstone of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 135
Pakistani society. She painted the canvas of her novel “Ice Candy Man” with so many
realities, perceptions and so many other frivolities of the society. For instance Lenny's
development from childhood to adolescence concurs with India's independence from
Britain and the partitioning of India into India and Pakistan. The interwoven plots give each
other substantial meaning, partly because Lenny's family is Parsee, a religious and ethnic
minority that remained relatively neutral in post-partition religious conflicts. She access to
the people of all ethnicities and religions, both within Lahore and in other locales. More
significantly, she has accessed to a wide variety of viewpoints both pre-and post-Partition
through her Ayah, a beautiful woman whose suitors are ethnically and religiously diverse.
The character of Ayah is portrayed in an expert manner. Ayah possesses beautiful
complexion and instigate a sense of sensuality from her appearance.
“Ayah is chocolate-brown and short. Everything about her is eighteen years old
and round and plump. Even her face, Full-blown cheeks, pouting mouth and smooth
forehead curve to form a circle with her head. Her hair is pulled back in a tight
knot.”
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi view on her characters objectively and more
logically in a thought provoking manner as they were prevailing in the pre- partition
society. She describes her characters as she was watching and wandering with them. She
does not show herself a harbinger of morality and social reformer. She does not use
“Should” anywhere in the novel rather her style is suggestive and penetrative. Her
characters are consists on real blood and flesh. She does not use any ghost, fairy, genii or
elves to reveal special revelations and prophecies or to create supernatural atmosphere in
the novel. For instance, Ayah a beautiful girl of eighteen years old remains the center of
attraction for the major and minor male characters. Everyone considers his duty to ogle at
her. She is the moon for everybody in the market.
“The covetous glances Ayah draws educate me. Up and down, they look at her.
Stub-handed twisted beggars and dusty old beggars on crutches drop their poses and
stare at her with hard, alert eyes. Holy men, masked in piety, shove aside their
pretences to ogle at her with lust. Hawkers, cart-drivers, cooks, coolies and cyclists
turn their heads as she passes, pushing my pram with the unconcern of the Hindu
goddess she worships.”
Proceedings of the novel reveal Bapsi Sidhwa’s keen perception in designing the
plot of the novel “Ice Candy Man”. For instance, Lenny's passionate love for Ayah and the
loss of innocence that accompanies their changing relationship through the partition is an
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 136
energetic center to the plot. Lenny's relationships with her mother, her powerful
godmother, and her sexually invasive cousin are also important to the novel. Lenny's polio
forms a significant early narrative thread. Other minor but compelling subplots include
Lenny's parents' changing relationship, the murder of a British official, and the child
marriage of the much-abused daughter of one of Lenny's family's servants. In this strand
of the story, Bapsi Sidhwa propounded psychological growth of children and their
awareness about sensuality. She has tried to get acquainted the readers with the
shocking facts of the society in really thought inspiring manner. The most quotable
situation is that Lenny’s cousin and the son of Electric Aunt exposes himself physically.
The plot of the novel “Ice Candy Man” or “Cracking India” is coherent, sequent and
various events are co-related with each other. None of the events are at sixes and sevens.
Various events are so dove-tailed that one may easily perceive Bapsi’s expertise in plot
construction. For instance, the links between individuals and nations are emphasized both
by multiple plots and points of view. Specifically, while Lenny is the clear protagonist and
narrator for most of the novel, Ranna, a Muslim child whose experiences were particularly
violent and traumatic, tells his own story. A significant aspect of the novel is the
marginality of Britain and the Raj in the plot; colonialism sets this trauma in place, but
postcolonial characters are its focus.
In this novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi's pervasive focus on embodiment of political
situation and society, particularly eros and aggression communicated through the body,
both figures the problem of the transformed national body of India/Pakistan and works on
a more literal level. In the opening pages of the novel, several passages evoke Lenny's
experiences as a polio patient, her enjoyment of the distinction of her disability and the
ways, polio affects her role within her family and wider social sphere.
“It is all so pleasant and painless. The cast is off. My mother’s guilt-driven

attention is where it belongs --- on the steeply fallen arch of my right foot. The
doctor buckles my sandal and helps me from the bench saying, ‘It didn’t hurt now, did
it? He and my mother talk over my head in cryptic monosyllables, nods and signals. I
am too relieved to see my newly released foot and its valuable deformity intact to be
interested in their grown-up exclusively. My mother takes my hand and I limp away
happily.”
Bapsi’s style is suggestive upto full extent in the novel “Ice Candy Man”. For
instance, the fact that polio vanishes as a plotline is both disappointing and interesting:
Lenny's failure to focus on disability during adolescence overturns stereotypes about
disabled girls' exclusion from the social and sensual culture of adolescence. There is so
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 137
many other topics in this novel, which are debatable and noteworthy but specifically few
topics requires attentive criticism like Sidhwa's treatment of polio is emphatically and
refreshingly local. Her focus on the way daily life goes on in its particular and individual
ways in the context of large-scale political conflicts and received notions about bodies and
identities.
The novel “Ice Candy Man” seems semi-autobiographical because Sidhwa also
acknowledges a friend for Ranna's story. The 1998 film version of the novel, Earth,
provides enough differences in emphasis to generate interesting classroom discussion.
A famous Independent scholar Muneeza Shamsie opines “In 1988 she published her third
novel “Ice-Candy-Man” [US edition Cracking India] her most complex, sophisticated and
important work to date and a significant contribution to South Asian Partition literature in
English.”
Core and crux of the matter is that the plot of the novel “Ice Candy Man” is well-knit,
coherent and sequent. The various events are co-related with one another.

BAPSI’S STYLE OF WRITING


Bapsi Sidhwa was born in 1938 in Karachi into an eminent Parsee family. She got
global prestige and cosmopolitan name by writing laudable novels like “The Crow Eaters”
(London, Jonathan Cape, 1980), “Ice Candy Man” (London, William Heinemann, 1988;
reprinted as Cracking India Minneapolis, Minnesota; Milkweed Editions 1991) and “An
American Brat” (Minneapolis, Minnesota, Milkweed Editions, 1993), “The Bride” (London,
Jonathan Cape, 1983). In Lahore, however, there were few Parsees and the Bhandara
family was cut off from mainstream Parsee life. Their mother tongue was Gujerati, but they
were also involved in Urdu and Punjabi culture of Lahore. Furthermore, belonging as they
did to Pakistan's Anglicized elite; they spoke English at home too. This multi-lingual, multi-
cultural background is pivotal to Sidhwa's work.
The novel “Ice-Candy-Man” consolidated Sidhwa's reputation, she won the 1991
Literature Prize in Germany, and was made into a powerful film, Earth (1998) directed by
Deepa Mehta. In 1991 Sidhwa was awarded with Sitara-e-Imtiaz by the Govt of Pakistan
and National Award for English Literature by the Pakistan Academy of Letters. In 1993
she received the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Writer's Award in the United States.
As a novelist Bapsi Sidhwa's style of writing is autobiographical, specifically in the
novel “Ice Candy Man”. The opening chapters of “Ice-Candy-Man” are perhaps closest to
autobiography. The narrator of the novel Lenny exposed her childhood in a thought
provoking manner. Bapsi herself contracted polio at the age of two years which paralyzed
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 138
her leg and affected her entire life. She acquired a great advantage of her personal
experiences in her third novel “Ice Candy Man” about Partition.
In an interview to Dawn, Karachi, at 20th January 2005 Sidhwa said:
“I started writing “Ice Candy Man” using the first person narrative voice of a

child, I had to at once distance myself from the character of Lenny. Had I not done
so, I would have been too self-conscious to write the circumstances of my life, but
Lenny is a very different child. She is feisty and shrewd, when I was quiet and docile.
I have based some characters, like Mother, Father, Godmother, on people I've known
intimately, but I've put them through all sorts of fictional situations.”
Bapsi’s style is based on comparison and contrasts because she writes about ins
and outs and whole paraphernalia of the society which she herself experiences. Sidhwa
was a solitary and lonely child. Her parents were advised by doctors not to send her to
school. She spent her time daydreaming and listening to stories told by servants. She
writes about servant's lives with such sympathy because she came to know their world, as
a child, better than the society her parents moved in. A governess taught her to read, write
and introduced her to little woman which made a great impression. She spent her teen
years reading voraciously. During this period she had a series of operations as a result of
which the problem with her leg “more or less vanished”.
Bapsi Sidhwa became a committed feminist after reading “The Female Eunuch” by
Germaine Greer while working on her novel “The Bride”. Her first marriage, which had
taken her to Bombay, ended in divorce. In 1963 she married Noshir Sidhwa, who was very
supportive when she started to write. She continued to live in Lahore, did social work, and,
in 1975, attended The Asian Woman's Congress in Russia. She began “The Bride” almost
as a compulsion after she had travelled to the scenic, mountainous areas of northern
Pakistan and heard the story of a runaway bride in that forbidding terrain. In an interview
conducted in 1987 she said:
“I wrote it as a sort of exercise to please myself. I didn't have the courage to
talk about it to anybody. It was not as if I was in the milieu of the scholarly mind. I
was a businessman's wife and a businessman's daughter. It seemed very pretentious
to say 'I am writing a book'. But writing was such pleasure for me. It was something I
wanted to do, like an addiction. I would steal away and write whenever I could.”
Sidhwa had no real English language literary ancestor in Pakistan, nor did
Pakistani English writing offer any literary precedent to the bawdy humour of her next
novel “The Crow Eaters”. Its ribaldry too was rare for South Asian English fiction at the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 139
time. The focus on the Parsee community was most unusual too, and preceded the
work of other major South Asian English writers of Parsee origin.
“The Crow Eaters” was praised for its exuberance and freshness and it changed
Sidhwa's life. Her exposure to Britain and America opened entire new worlds to her and
broadened her horizons. In 1983 “The Bride” too was published and received the Patras
Bokhari Award in Pakistan.
“Ice Candy Man” is most complex, sophisticated and important work to date and a
significant contribution to South Asian Partition literature in English. Bapsi uses humour
very skillfully to describe the multi-lingual world of her narrator, an endearing Parsee child,
and goes on to link Lenny's growing up with events leading to Partition and the loss of
innocence in the result of being with Ayah. Ayah is a girl of eighteen years old. Her
appearance is magnetically alluring for male characters in the novel. Her principal lovers
are Ice Candy Man, Masseur, Sharbat Khan and many others. When she passes through
the streets, everyone considers his duty to ogle at her.
“The covetous glances Ayah draws educate me. Up and down, they look at her.
Stub-handed twisted beggars and dusty old beggars on crutches drop their poses and
stare at her with hard, alert eyes. Holy men, masked in piety, shove aside their
pretences to ogle at her with lust. Hawkers, cart-drivers, cooks, coolies and cyclists
turn their heads as she passes, pushing my pram with the unconcern of the Hindu
goddess she worships.”
As a novelist Sidhwa considers her duty to expose human frivolities and male
domination or masculine chauvinism in the society. She also makes a comment on the
victimization of women in society and provides equal space to communal violence on both
sides of the Indo-Pakistan border. The voice of her child-narrator also gives her account
with simplicity and a frightening veracity.
In the novel “Ice-Candy-Man” Bapsi’s use of the multi-lingual cadences of Pakistani
English is also significant. The endearing Lenny, an English speaking child, can switch
with ease from one language to another, the way that bilingual Pakistanis do. She happily
re-interprets her multi-cultural world into English, including vernacular ditties with much
poetic license. Following text is noteworthy in order to provide exemplary evidence of
Lenny’s code switching.
“Smiling like roguish children, softly clapping hands they chant. ‘Langer deen!
Paisey ke teen! Tamba Mota, pag mahin!” Freely translated. Lame Lenny! Three for a
Penny! Fluffy pants and fine fanny!.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 140
In the novel “Ice Candy Man” Bapsi Sidhwa’s style of writing is based on liberal
grounds because her female characters do not confined in walls rather her disabled
character Lenny moves all through Lahore. Lenny's handicap, a leg paralyzed by polio, is
also used to great effect. Instead of rendering Lenny immobile it frees her from school and
enables her to roam Lahore in a pram pushed by her nanny, Ayah. This gives her access
to the company of a host of street characters in the park. Through their rich, varied lives
and conversation, as well as sudden quarrels between guests in her home, Lenny
becomes aware of a changing, charged atmosphere. Lenny comments,
“Gandhi, Jinnah, Nehru, Iqbal, Tara Singh, Mountbatten are names I hear. And
I become aware of religious differences. It is sudden. One day everybody is
themselves-and the next day they are Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian. People shrink,
dwindling into symbols. Ayah is no longer just my all-encompassing Ayah – she is also a
token a Hindu.”
Bapsi Sidhwa’s style is psychological sensual in this novel “Ice Candy Man”. She is
expert in painting flirtatious nature of illiterate men in streets with her artistic pen. For
instance, Ayah's admirers include Ice-Candy Man, the Popsicle vendor, and Masseur,
both Muslims, but the entertaining and friendly Ice-Candy-Man has a darker aspect which
develops and blossoms during the Partition riots in Lahore. The sad fate of Lenny's Ayah
amid Lahore's communal frenzy, the stories of rape victims, the descriptions of Lahore's
red light area, the Heera Mandi and the tragic child-marriage of her servant's abused
daughter Pappoo, are all woven into the narrative and make a chilling statement on
women's lives. Lenny's Sikh and Hindu neighbours leave and Muslim refugees pour in
across the border, but in Lenny's changed world there are also characters such as Mother
and Godmother who run risks to help others.
To epitomize the matter, it can be said that Bapsi Sidhwa is the one in her style and
a distinguished figure among literary circles. As a novelist, she is incomparable and
peerless in order to expose human nature, psychological description of frivolous, flirtatious
and illiterate men.

VIVID AND LIFE LIKE CHARACTERIZATION IN ICE CANDYMAN


In “Ice Candyman” Bapsi Sidhwa has portrayed life like and idiosyncratic characters. She
has not depicted any metaphysical or supernatural element. The reader cannot perceive
any fairy, giant, ghost and apparition. In “Ice Candyman” Bapsi Sidhwa has revealed
variety of characters. Ayah is very condemnable and damnable figure. She is alluring,
captivating, charming and fascinating girl.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 141
She is shifting her heart from one person to another like a mobile toyshop. Her
lovers like Mr. Dilnawaz, Messeur, Sharbat Khan and Sher Singh are nymphomaniac.
They are the least concerned with Ayah on passionate ground. They are libidinous,
treacherous, remorseless and villainous.
“Sharbat Khan grins, his eyes shining with love. Them I must bring the
mountains to you! What would you like? He asks Ayah. Almonds? Pistachios? Walnuts?
Dried apricots?
Bapsi Sidhwa has exposed physiology, physiognomy, universality and idiosyncrasy.
Lovers of various types are shown in very skilful manner. Various personalities are also
exposed in very marvellous manner. For example, there is unique reference of Gandhi,
Nehru, Quaid-I-Azam, Tara Singh and Mountbatten.
“Obviously he’s quoting this Base. Sometimes he” quotes Gandhi or Nehru or
Jinnah, but I’m fed up of hearing about them, Mother, Father and their friends are
always saying: Gandhi said this, Nehru said that. Gandhi did this Jinnah did that
what’s the paint of talking so much about people we don’t know?”’
Universal approach is crystal clear in this novel “Ice Candyman” such type of
characters are still present in our Pakistani culture. Bapsi Sidhwa has also exposed
individual as well as typical characters. For instance, Ayah’s gait is alluring and
captivating. Masseur’s character is somewhat different from others. He knows various
tactics and techniques. He is highly interested in his professional liabilities. Lenny’s
character is subjective glimpse of Bapsi Sidhwa. Lenny is inclined and impressed by
various lovers of Ayah. She is under the spell of Col Bharucha and Masseur.
“From on top of Imam Din’s head I see the other groups of villagers converging

on Dera Tek Singh, Hindu, Muslims, Sikh as they revise their own majestic trails of
dust”.
Core and crux of the matter is that in “Ice Candyman” vivid and life like characterization is
transparent and crystal clear.

TARIQ ALI: The Book of Saladin


Tariq Ali is really one of innovative literary analysts of Pakistani literature in English.
Tariq Ali is a writer and film-maker also. He has written over a dozen books on world
history, politics and plays for both stage and screen. “The Book of Saladin” is his fourth
novel. The next novel in the line “The Stone Woman” is also published by Verso Publisher.
Tariq Ali's latest novel is a rich and teeming chronicle set in twelfth-century Cairo,
Damascus and Jerusalem. “The Book of Saladin” is the fictional memoir of Saladin, the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 142
Kurdish liberator of Jerusalem, as dictated to a Jewish scribe; Ibn-e-Yakub. Saladin
grants Ibn-e-Yakub permission to talk to his wife and retainers so that he might portray a
complete picture of him in his memoirs. A series of inter-connected stories follow, tales
brimming over with warmth, earthly humour and passions in which ideals clash with
realities and dreams are confounded by desires. At the heart of the novel is an affecting
love affair between the Sultan's favourite better half Jamila, and beautiful Halima, a later
addition to the harem.
The novel charts the rise of Saladin as Sultan of Egypt, Syria follows him as he
prepares, in alliance with his Jewish and Christian subjects, to take Jerusalem back from
the Crusaders. It is a medieval story, but much of it will be cannily familiar to those who
follow events in contemporary Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad. Betrayed hopes,
disillusioned soldiers and unreliable alliances form the backdrop to “The Book of Saladin”.
This is the second of a planned quartet of historical novels depicting the
confrontation between Islamic and Christian civilisations. The first, “Shadows of the
Pomegranate Tree”, recounted the story of the fall of Islam in Spain. It has been translated
into several languages and was awarded the Archbishop San Clemente de Instituto
Rosalia de Castro Prize for the Best Foreign Language Fiction published in Spain in 1994.
Publishers Weekly averred Tariq Ali’s qualities in the following words, “Fiercely lyrical.
Weaving political intrigue, gay and straight love, betrayal, cross-dressing, rape,
assassination and crimes of passion, Tariq Ali's tale ripples with implicit parallels to our
age. Tariq Ali also eulogized by “New Statesman”, “his novel creates an authentic-
seeming court, full of intrigue, dominated by a man who is charismatic chivalric, dynamic
and multidimensional yet not a hero of romance . . . It gives a feeling of how it must have
been to be in the company of a great but harried genius and also paints a pluralistic and
tolerant Islam, a world of philosophical inquiry as well as military prowess.
Ali's passions for life, and his humour, are found all over this latest work which is
set in the 12th century--with eerily prescient echoes of modern times. It shows us the
conflict between Christian and Islamic civilisations set to a humorous, sometimes bawdy,
sometimes brutal background where all of life is in flux.

POLT CONSTRUCTION OF THE NOVEL “BOOK OF SALADIN”


The plot of the novel “Book of Saladin” is well fabricated, well knit and dove-tailed.
Various events, incidents and happenings are mutually associated with one another. In
the opening lines of this strange historical novel, we come to know that
“I have thought of our old home for many years. It is a long time now since the fire.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 143
When the plot of this novel proceeds, we come to know that Tariq Ali is distorting
some historical facts and figures table world knows that Sultan Nur-Ud-Din Zengi Esquire
was fortunate enough to serve Islam as much as he can. He dreamt that some
condemnable Christians were desiring to become blasphemous. Therefore Sultan Nur-Ud-
Din Zangi Esquire solved this issue with his courage confidence and religious zeal and
zest. But Tariq Ali has shown Nur-Ud-Din Zangi as found of wine:

With the passage of time Sultan Salah-Ud-Din Ayoobis military acquimen, chivalric
order, unique personality courageous acts, undaunted bravery and unconquerable
personal are exposed upto full extent but sometimes, Tariq Ali describes emotional acts of
Rachel, Halima and Jamila. It is historically proved that both Sultan Nur-ud-Din Zangi Esq
and Sultan Salah-Ud-Din Ayoobi were men of Character and morality. They immortalized
themselves due to their code of conduct, bravery and good deeds. A thinker said that we
do not live in years. We live in deeds. Whole World even Orientalists have eulogized these
Sultans who defeated Yahood-o-Nisara in crusade.

When the plot proceeds, we come to know that Halima and Jamila have exposed their
siren attitude, lecherous bent of wind and victims of carnal desires. Jamila because so
jealous of Halima’s popularity and physical charm that she uses venom to kill Halima.

Ibn-Yahub and Shahdi narrates various shameful events related with Rachel.

In the closing chapters of this novel, Sultan Salah-Ud-Din Ayoobi defeats Fredrick
of Germany and Richard of England. It is an undeniable fact that “Truth has come. False
has perished. Truth has come to stay forever.

Nilty gritty of the matter is that the plot of this novel is really well fabricated and well
knit.

TARIQ ALI AS PAKISTANI WRITER


Tariq Ali can rightly be regarded as unique, marvelous and laudable Pakistan
writer. He achieved global, name, fame and prestige by writing “Book of Saladin”. He has
also pointed out that Sultan Nur-ud-Din Zangi and Sultan Salah-Ud-Din Ayoobi
immortalized themselves by military techniques and chivalric order.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 144
In “Book of Saladin” Tariq Ali has also remarked that not gold but only men can
elevate nation. It is also fact that fortune lives in labor’s shell. All is well that ends well.
Tariq Ali has narrated various events and incidents which are really objectionable. For
example, he narrates that Nur-ud-Din was fond of drinking wine.

“Zangi was fond of wives on the night of his death, he had consumed an entire

flack of wine”.

As a novelist of first rank, Mr Tariq Ali is skilful in the art of characterization and
plot-construction. He believed it very well that basic purpose of literature is reflection of life
with the help of words. It also shows that Tariq Ali is skilful in pen pictures and projection
of life like characters. In “Book of Saladin” Mr. Tariq Ali has not depicted anyt genie, elf,
giant, fairy and other supernatural creature. It also indicates that Tariq Ali is aware of
various ins and outs, pros and cons and whole paraphernalia of the society related with
crusade wars. It is fact that Islam is the best religion. Muslims used to fight bravely and
courageously against the years and Christians.

“The Frang held curt for nearly fourteen days, but the Sultan brought their

king Guy from Damascus and offered to release him if they surrendered they give
Guy authority to deal on their behalf, and he promptly agreed terms with Sultan”.

In “Book of Saladin”, Tariq Ali has also remarked that some ladies like Halima,
Jamila and Rachel are very strange and emotional. Halima and Jamila are hatching
professional jealousy against each other.

Core and cruse of the matter is that Tariq Ali is marvelous and laudable Pakistani literati.

CHARACTERIZATION IN BOOK OF SALADIN


In famous creation “Book of Saladin” Triq Ali has depicted life like and historical
characters. A perceptive reader knows about historical importance of Sultan Nur-Ud-Din
Zangi Esquire and Sultan Salah-Ud-Din Esquire. No doubt, they were well wishers and
saviours of Islam. They fought crusade bravely and courageously. Still people quoted
Zangi’s sword and Sultan Ayoobi’s military techniques.
In this creation Tariq Ali has projected real and life like characters. One cannot
perceive any fairy, giant, elf, genni and other supernatural creature. It is really marvellous
on the part of Tariq Ali Esquire that he has reflected so many ins and outs of historical
events and incidents related with crusades. But the other side of picture is that Tariq Ali
has distorted some historical facts and figure related with Nur-Ud-Din Zangi.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 145
“Zangi was fond of wine. On the night of his death, he had consumed an
ontire flask of wine while still in his cups, he had sent for a young soldier who had
caught his eye during the siege”.
It is fact that Nur-Ud-Din character is really laudable. He is just like a shining star
among galaxy of crusade warriors. It is also quoted that Sultan Nur-Ud-Din Zangi Esq
dreamt about the best of the holy prophets, Hazrat Muhammad (Peace be upon him) that
he must protect Holy city of Madina Munawara.
Characterization is very vivid and clear. Some characters are really laudable but
some characters are very strange and objectionable. Especially, Rachel is very
condemnable character. During spring –festival, she becomes emotional and passionate
creature.
“Rachel and I went to where the big procession was due to assemble”.
Characterization is really marvellous. Real characters of flesh and blood are introduced.
In “Book of Saladin” Tariq Ali has also remarked that Halima and Jamila seem to be
jealous of each other when Halima breathes here last, some people blame that Sultana
Jamila has poisoned her.
“She was poisoned, Ibn Yakub. The poor woman was poisoned but who gave the

order?
Consequently, it can be remarked that characterization in “Book of Saladin” is really
superb, marvelous and unique.

ZULFIQAR GHOSE: The Murder of Aziz Khan


THEME OF MURDER OF AZIZ KHAN
Zulfiqar Ghose is very eminent, distinguished and a man of multidimensional
exposure. He is just like a twinkling star among the galaxy of intellectuals. He deserves to
be regarded as jewel of Pakistani literature because he has reflected theme and thought
of jealousy, mercenary approaches, upstart strata, usurpation, encroachment, bribery,
nepotism, jobbery violation of rules and so many other socio-economic maladies.
In “Murder of Aziz Khan“ Zulfiqar Ghose has pointed out that Shah Brothers became
upstart. In the opening lives, he says.
“When the Shah Brothers began to buy land around the small but increasingly
flourishing town of Kalapur, where they had established two textile nulls, most of the
landlords in this part of the Punjab were glad to sell”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 146
In this archetypal and distinguished novel, the writer has exposed greed and
limitless covet of Shah Brothers, Especially main Culprit, scoundrel, and rascal Akram. He
started his black mailing and black marketing from Bombay, with just three thousand
rupees. He multiplied his wealth by look or by crook. He hypnotized and mesmerized
some social high ups of Pakistan. He contacts some officials to captures barren land
which was situated near the main road.
“Akram, silent as a cannon outside a military academy, said nothing but sat
doodling on a piece of paper as if approaches to a solution, had to be drilled before
they gold be effected”.
In this novel Aziz Khan is shown as victim of these things. These Shah Brothers
have killed his innocent sons. Mr. Javed is entangled in an fictitious litigation. Aziz’s better
half Mrs. Zakia breathed her last because of kidney problem. In this way, this jewel likes
man Mr. Aziz Khan had to survive in unavoidable circumstances.
One critic remarks that Aziz Khan is just like daffodil in marshy area.
When the plot proceeds, we come to know that Aziz Khan has proved himself as a
philanthropist and anthropologist. He was fortunate enough to achieve selfless prayers of
the poor tenants or tiller. So, instead of all tactics, techniques, and malicious as well as
malafide intentions, Shah Brother could not carry the day in their vicious designs. In this
era of technology, will and skill, virtue is fighting its battle of survival but some embodiment
of vice are enjoying one man show. They are laughing at helplessness of virtuous people.
Anyhow, Heavenly bliss is waiting for virtuous strata.
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that “Murder of Aziz Khan” is meritorious and esteemable
panorama and saga of conflict between virtue and vice.
AZIZ KHAN – CHARACTER
Aziz Khan is very paramounting, monarchic, gigantic, superb and meritorious
character of this novel “Murder of Aziz Khan”. Other characters are rotating around him,
he plays pivotal vole. He is man of centripetal character. Her is a man of multifarious
dimensions. Being a man of generosity and tolerance, he remains projecting various
themes and thoughts related with his personality. He is man of egoism and egocentric
approach for example. He was just like a daffodil in the marshes area.
“Ayub felt more hostility against Aziz Khan, than his brothers. Where Akram
was content with accumulation of wealth Ayub wanted as well the assertion of power
to which he feet and titled by the wealth”
Aziz Khan was so much conscious about supremacy of virtue that he did not
surrender before vicious pursuits. For instance Akram Shah is dreaming and desiring
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 147
cherishly to grab Aziz Khan’s state by ensnaring in the vicious web of crime therefore
Akram Shah and his brother leave no stone unturned to snatch the particular property of
Aziz Khan.
Aziz Khan is so much straight forward, blunt and man of expression that he creates
hurdles and obstacles in the way of Shah brothers so that his ten a may remain safe and
sound.
“Get out of my land, Aziz Khan said quietly but with an authority which was so
much part of the Voice that the man involuntarily took a step back”
Aziz Khan’s character is really archetypal and individual because his statements,
actions versions are very realistic straight forward and thought provoking. As far as
physiognomy and anatomy of his character is concerned, Aziz Khan had impressive
moustache white beard, white turban and well shaped nose, rosy cheeks, cupidian lip. He
was dweller of a villa. His kith and kin were limited. His children comprised of two son and
three daughter. It is high of his good luck that all of his daughters are married. No doubt
daughters are blessing, but Aziz Khan was some what relaxed after their nuptial
ceremonies.
“Javed first met them in the canteen where he usually had his lunch. Saleem
and Riaz knew about Shah brother’s relation with Aziz Khan and when they
discovered that Javed was Aziz Khan son, they saw in him ideal material for
conversion to their ideology”
Aziz Khan is really idiosyncratic; he is not mingling with vicious company. He
maintains his individuality and generosity; even he does not sell his rice and other cereals.
He is fortunate enough to win the hearts of his tenant. Core and crux of the matter is that
Aziz Khan is single in the mob and unique character.
ROLE OF SHAH BROTHERS SOCIAL REFLECTION
In the novel “Murder of Aziz Khan” Zulfiqar Ghose has pointed out that some people are
very vicious lecherous venomous, treacherous, remorseless and leech. They are sucking
the blood of innocent people so that they many be entitled as feudal lords. Ayub Shah and
Akram Shah are just like stigmas on the face of modern society. In this era of will and skill,
Shah Brothers are looting innocent tenants just like ruffians, rascals, thugs and hooligans.
They are just like wolf in sheep clothing. They are just like octopus. They have penetrated
and crept into nature and culture of Kalapur. Hostility between Aziz Khan and Ayub Shah
is shown through the following opening lines.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 148
“It was march and the Shah brothers were contemplating the statistics
which their economist and accountant had together produced at a board meeting,
showing that though production, following the excellent harvest of the previous
autumn, had reached a ceiling, the profits of the business showed no clear increase
over the previous year”
Zulfiqar Ghose has also remarked that Akram Shah is very cunning, tactful and
vixen natured fellow. He starts his career with the help of three thousand rupee only. He
was well versed with the tactics and vicious designs to multiply his black money. It is fact
that authority corrupts the man. It is also remarked that absolute power corrupts
absolutely. Akram Shah is also villainous and mercenary that he contacts a social high up
and captures rather usurps a patch of land situated near G.T. road for establishment of a
textile mill.
Akram Shah believed that united we stand, divided we fall. So he invites his
brothers Mr. Ayub Shah and Afaq Shah from Bombay. Now Pandora box is opened. Even
he contracts a social high up to get machinery from England. Now, Shah Brothers struggle
their utmost to kill whole Aziz Khan’s family. They leave no stone unturned to deprive Aziz
Khan of his property and off-spring. It shows that Shah Brothers are very misanthropists
and sadists of the first rank.
Corer and cruse of the matter is that Shah Brothers are very satanic in nature but
Aziz Khan is of angelic temperament.

2. POETRY
ALAMGIR AURANGZEB HASHMI: EID-CRITICAL APPRECIATION,
SOCIAL SARCASM
Alamgir Aurangzeb Hashmi is one of twinkling stars among the galaxy of
intellectuals in Pakistani Literature in English. He perpetuated his infatuation by creating
Pakistan Movement, Eid, The Oath and Amen, My Second in Kentucky, Sun and Moon,
The choice of Hashmi’s Verse and The Poems of Alamgir Hashmi. He was on the jury for
1990 Commonwealth writer’s prize. Poets cannot be kept from writing poetry, thank God.
Exile may interfere even more basically, not only cutting off a poet's contact with his
language and culture, but even persuading a fully matured Russian writer like Joseph
Brodsky to attempt work in what is all too clearly a borrowed tongue: anyone who bothers
to read Brodsky's lame, stilted English-language verse can see for himself the effects of
such linguistic and literary sterilization.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 149
Hashmi has "our" history at his fingertips, as well as his own; he also has Robert
Lowell's sense of being both in and out of that history, those histories; and he has, too, an
almost Yeatsian sense for the gracefully circumscribed grand gesture, the sagely polite
invocation of classic images that some, less controlled, are fond of calling symbols but
what Western eye could possibly see Paris as Foujita sees it. What Western poet - for
Hashmi remains unabashedly the Oriental he was born as - would see human life
vanishing like dew in the sun, in quite this way.
Hashmi acknowledges this fundamental birth-difference, over and over, in wryly
Western but calmly Eastern ways: a poem about natural disasters, from his 1984 book,
Neither this time nor that place, concludes with this account of his young father, sent on a
relief mission in Quetta.
In his creation “Eid”, Hashmi has remarked rightly that Eid is more than
vermicellies. Actually Eid is such a sacred Islamic festival that it teaches selflessness,
equality, cooperation, coordination and sacrificing attitude.
“Perhaps Eid is more than the vermicelli thing
I was spoonfed to believe.”
In the poem “ Eid” Hashmi teaches us so many lessons. On the particular day of
Eid, it is moral obligation of the rich that they should share with the economically down
trodden creature. One should never be mercenary drudge and close fisted, especially on
Eid day. Islam is the torch bearer of equality among all human beings. Therefore, through
the mouth-piece of a school boy, Hashmi has tried to preach a moral lesson to all sensible
and sensitive people that they should not remain carefree and detached observer even
after gazing corduroy cheeks.
“Outside the beggars, buttonholed us.
Eid could not anchor in their corduroy cheeks.”
Hashmi also makes his readers realise their resposibility to assist the poor
alongwith offering prayers. “Haqooq-ul-Ibad” can never ignored. It is generally observed
that on Eid, some people become epicurean in their tastes. They believe in the so-called
dictum of “Eat drink and be merry, lest tomorrow will you die”. They seem the least
concerned with philanthropism and anthropology.
Hashmi has exposed his realism when he has used the image of blotting paper.
The school boy wishes to erase the worries and miseries of the poor with the help of his
blotting paper but all in vain because there are so many slips between cups and the lips.
There is hell like difference between idealism and realism. A famous reviewers Froude
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 150
says in “Party Politics”, “Men are made by nature unequal. It is vain, therefore, to treat
them as if they were equal.”
“How can these spindling shapes
be blotted out from the face of the morning?
I had left behind my blotting paper
The last day at school.”
Social differences are highlighted in a thought provoking manner. The rich are
discussing about table manners and variety of menu and venue while the poor remain
waiting for single morsel. Such type of social discriminations are very irrating, frustrating,
mind boggling, hair splitting and awe-inspiring.
Core and crux of the matter is that “Eid” is typical innovative poetic creation which is
very didactic and thought inspiring. Aurangzeb Alamgir Hashmi has proved his sensitivity
and sensibility for the poor.
PAKISTAN MOVEMENT
Alamgir Aurangzeb Hashmi is a typical man of literary taste, aesthetic sense and
intellectual zeal and zest. He expressed our historical movement which made a great
change in our states India and Pakistan. The pages of history reveal that Pakistan was
established because of untiring efforts of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali
Jauhar, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam. Sir Syed inculcated self confidence
among the Muslims of India and inspired them to maintain their nationality, integrity and
solidarity. It is generally quoted that Pakistan came into being on that particular day when
first Muslim Muhammad Bin Qasim proceed to India on the voice of an Arabian widowed
girl. The Eskimos (Descendents of Amir Taimour) made a great favour in its
establishment.
In the opening lines of this poem “Pakistan Movement” Hashmi used a pictorial
quality to express the historic background of Pakistan’s establishment. He narrates that
millions of Muslims were moving in a to and fro motion. They were homeless, penniless,
friendless and restless. They desired to be rehabilitated this partition.
“Movement, sure, Millions moving
from that side to this side,
from this side to that side,
and back again sometimes.”
In the poem “Pakistan Movement” Hashmi has flowed a flood of passions to
describe miserable and tears oozing situation at the time of this movement. The poet also
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 151
remarks that it was a blistering journey on foot and the grinding ox carts. Some were
traveling through steamy railways and they were being robbed by Sikhs. There is also
pathetic picture of burning cities in India and Pakistan. It is remarked that in 1947 people
were very mentally disturbed, frustrated, over-worried and confused. Every body was
facing isolation and loneliness. It was a colossal catastrophe having blend of happiness
and unhappiness. It was a saga of sacrifice, selflessness, devotion, determination,
enthusiasm, patriotism and nationalism. It was a height of patriotism that every Muslim
was ready to lay down one’s life and property for the name of homeland. That is why
solidarity, integrity and sovereignty of Islam become eminent issues.
Alamgir Hashmi is really well versed and well-equipped with historical
paraphernalia of Pakistan Movement. For example, communal violence was a common
practice in those days. Some Sikhs were so callous and stone-hearted that they used to
kidnap Muslims girls. It was a movement to humiliate Muslims. Shudhi and Sanghtan
movements were prevailing to put Muslims to task. Some reverend families could not
pocket this insult and they killed their own daughters with their own hands. Alamgir
Hashmi seems to be well versed with this historical fact. So this pathetic and tears
inspiring situation is floated through the following textual reference.
“The sultry summer—if you know what I mean – behind us.
The blistering summer--- journeys on foot, the grinding ox-cart.”
Hashmi has appreciated and eulogized land of Islamic saga because Pakistan is
full of melodious voices green valleys, skyscrapers, lofty mountains, fresh fountains,
flowing rills, lofty hills, elevated peaks, snow peaked cliffs and leaping waves of the rivers
are very fascinating scenario of Pakistan. Probably, Hashmi is referring Allama Iqbal’s
dream of eutopian state of Pakistan. No doubt, it was welfare state so in Khutba-e-Illah
Abad, Allama Iqbal dreamt about separate identity, separate electorate, sovereignty and
solidarity of Muslims. It is fact that Islam is universal religion which will dominate all over
the world. Therefore, Pakistan became the fort of Islam. Captivating and charming flora
and fauna of Pakistan is so impressive, magnetic and ensnaring that Hashmi is bound to
express the following textual reference.
“Think this is where we wanted to be
from the beginning of our time:
a land as beautiful as a poet’s dream:
or ever before he found it,
the Arab sailor’s act of faith.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 152
In the poem “Pakistan Movement”, Hashmi has also mentioned seasonal cycle
in Pakistan. Perspiration of summer, chill and shivering of winter, falling leaves of autumn
and blooming blossoms of spring season are enchanting and captivating scenes of
Pakistan. We are fortunate enough to have delta of hope. All inhabitants of Pakistani are
very optimistic about bright and twinkling future of Pakistan. Hashmi also says that curious
valleys, faithful sun, beautiful water ways, fragrant flowers, torrents and cascades are very
fascinating and a lulling scenario for nature-lovers.
“where I sow my words daily and you know
these good trees bear fruit round the year discreetly
moving along the waterways
and four seasons of faithful sun.”
Long and the short of the matter is that “Pakistan Movement” is a different type of
poetic creation based on historical paraphernalia and infrastructure. Alamgir Aurangzeb
Hashmi has perpetuated his infatuation to express his deep rooted and heart felt patriotic
thought.

HINA FAISAL IMAM: The Road


Hina Faisal Imam is really versatile genius of modern age. She is true feminist. She is well
versed with feminine psychology and nature of women. She is expert to expose the issues
related with women, especially, their confinement in big villas and emancipation of
women. She has used the weapon of satire in order to ridicule male chauvinism. No
doubt, Pakistan rather whole Asia is possessing male oriented culture. We are facing
multifarious problems due to illiteracy, feudalism, lack of civic sense, cultural taboos and
egoism. All these problems are portrayed kaleidoscopically by Hina.
In the opening lines of this poem “The Road”, Hina is very perceptive analyst to
describe natural objects like sandy dunes, the voices of songs and melodious voices of
rustic girls. These rustic girls are might be singing nuptial songs which are very lulling and
embalming for Hina, the poetess. In the villages women are very keen to see wedding
processions. Hina is enjoying the whole scenario. She might be thinking just like
Tennyson who says, “Marriages are made in Heaven.” She is accelerating her Pajero
while moving Jahania to Multan. She is observing green wheat fields. She could not stop
the jeep and was enjoying long drive in loneliness. She has lost in her own memories and
worries.
“I could not stop the jeep
or myself------- but I ran ---- free.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 153
In this poem “The Road” Hina has satirized some feudal marriages in which the
wives remain over-worried because of their polygamous husbands. The women are
regarded as puppet in their hands. They are just like plaything and inactive creature for
these dominant and willful husbands. Hina also observes that these women are enjoying
status within their villa. They have train of attendants but they remain weeping in
bathrooms because of their confinement or bondage in four walls. They having ornaments
and their wardrobes are full with costly and multicolored costumes rather they have their
own boutiques in havealies but their tears fall from pretty faces on the dust floors and
bathrooms.
“Tears fall on dust floors:
no one wipes them clean
from a pretty face
that mends loneliness
in the bathroom.”
In this poem “The Road” Hina narrates that feudal are fond of planting gardens of
mangoes, oranges and other cash crops. They are so materialistic that they are not so
conscious about their wives. Hina takes pity on such type of people. These feudal are so
short tempered and illiterate that they have no civic sense at all. Hina seems to be keen
observer of the feudal society. It may be Hina’s subjective glimpse; it seems that she has
personally seen any haveli. That’s why she is well versed with pros and cons of these
dwelling places and dwellers. They feel proud to bluff and boast about their crops and
possessions. They are least concerned with Islamic values and emancipation of women.
Following textual reference from the poem is noteworthy and quotable in order to provide
evidence.
“Mango orchards, rice, and cotton fields,
godowns for rain shelter, tubewells--- all
tell a story of what man has grown,
bought and sold.
The poem “The Road” is portrayed in very lucid style. There is clarity in the textual
syntax. Rhyme scheme is up to the mark. In the closing lines Hina is very subjective. She
thinks that her sequence of thought is finished and she found herself driving with empty
hands. Hina emphasizes that woman can no longer be browbeaten into subjugation or
bondage. They have a voice, a claim and must have confidence to know their worth. Blank
verse is used in this poem to reflect road of life.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 154
“The cycle must go on
and I have
stitched peace into the sleeves of my heart
but a knock, a phone cell, a longer dinner
conversation rips whatever I had sown quietly.”
The poem is composed with melancholy strain and aching worries of women folk.
Being a lady, Hina herself has felt a heart felt sympathy for whole women folk. She seems
to be philanthropist and anthropologist. She is really keen observer and realist of the first
rank.
To conclude the matter, it can be averred that “The Road” is summum bunnum or
the chiefest delight for Hina Faisal Imam to deserve to be entitled as true representative of
Pakistani blue stocking.

TAUFIQ RAFAT: Wedding in the Flood


Taufiq Rafat is flowering pride of Pakistani literature in English. He earned
reputation, especially cosmopolitan fame by writing anthologies like First Voices, Pieces of
Eight, Word Fall. He is really a man of letters and man of parts. He is fortunate enough to
be a teacher of younger poets like Athar Tahir, Kaleem Umer and Shuja Nawaz. Being a
man of perception and observation he knows how to create panoramic views. His dreams
and desires are reflected through his poems. His keen observation is also transparent and
crystal clear.
In this poem “Wedding in the Flood”, Taufiq has blended comic and tragic elements
artistically. It can rightly be entitled as tragic-comedy. According to classification of
feelings there are four strands in this poem. In the opening lines of the poem contain the
feelings of bride’s mother. She is soliloquizing her heart felt sense of bereavement and
estrangement by saying that they are taking my girl away forever. Her heart is sobbing
and she fears about how she will acclimatize among the strangers. Real filial love is
transparent through the following textual reference.
“They are taking my girl away forever,
Sobs the bride’s mother,”
Taufiq seems to be well versed and well equipped with different superstitions in
rustic atmosphere. It is generally observed that if there is rain on the particular of wedding,
people regard it as the output of licking of pots by bride and bridegroom. Some myopic
people misinterpret this credulous and superstitious thought. Some prejudice and illiterate
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 155
people under the spell of Hindu mythologies are very superstitious in various rites of the
marriage. They expose silly behaviour and foolish attitude on that particular occasion of
marriage. In the same manner Taufiq has portrayed his poem with a real glimpse of
pastoral trends. The bridegroom’s father is typical superstitious and old haggard blames
innocent bride for nothing. He says that her hobbit of licking pots has become the cause of
this calamity, heavy rain. To provide the evidence to above criticism the following text is
noteworthy.
“The rain nearly ruined everything,
But at the crucial time, when lunch was ready,
It mercifully stopped. It is drizzling again,
As they help the bride into palankeen.
The girl has been licking too many pots.”
Taufiq has also exposed greedy and covetous approach of bridegroom’s father. He
thinks that the nominal and trivial dowry is given to bride. The father is very callous, stone-
hearted and selfish. He thinks that the dowry a cot, a looking glass and tin-trunk will be
used by the bride only and he is not benefited by this marriage. So he is cursing her while
proceeding back. His greedy is transparent when he expresses his desire about huge
dowry especially the two oxen, so that his son may be independent in cultivation and other
farming liabilities. Taufiq has used so many literary devices to expose human nature,
especially of rustic people. They demand financial assistance by the bride’s parents rather
than helping them. To understand more evidently the following textual reference is really
quotable.
“They might have given a bullock at least,
grumbles the bridegroom’s father: a couple of oxen
would have come in handy at the next ploughing.
Instead, we are landed with
A cot, a tin-trunk and a looking-glass,
All the things that she will use!”
While painting the poem “Wedding in the Flood” Taufiq Rafat has exposed so many
knobs of social problems like poverty, illiteracy, lack of civic sense and over-population.
Poverty is exposed eminently in the poem because fewer dowry is bestowed to bride. It is
fact that many men many voices. Taufiq has described the dowry as a condemnable
social ritual. He seems to be impressed by J. S. Mill who has condemned dowry in his
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 156
famous treatise “On Liberty”. The following description of dowry is showing Taufiq’s
disgust against this custom of dowry.
“Two sturdy lads carrying the dowry
a cot, a looking-glass, a tin-trunk,
beautifully painted in grey and blue.”
As far as feelings are concerned in the poem “Wedding in the Flood”, the poem has
been beautified by the feelings of bridegroom. The bridegroom is such a humble soul that
he never saw his bride before his marriage. Not to speak of familiarity with even he has
never seen her. He is proceeding with bride’s palankeen with palpitating heart, throbbing
soul, trembling and shivering body. He gazes her hennaed hands and contemplating
about her slim fingers. He imagines that her face will also be as beautiful as her hands. He
is designing the atmosphere of his home in his imaginations that he will forgive her
deficient dowry if there is no mother-in-law problem.
“I like the look of her hennaed hands,
Gloats the bridegroom, as he glimpses
Her slim fingers gripping the palankeen’s side.
If only her face matches her hands,
I’ll forgive her the cot and the trunk
And looking-glass.”
Taufiq Rafat has also exposed bride’s feelings in an expert manner as he was
there. She is experiencing uncertainty and heart felt passions related with nuptial bliss.
She has so many worries related with this estrange phenomenon, nuptial feelings and
matrimonial alliance. In that heavy rain, she is also worrying and contemplating about her
looking-glass, a multicolored cot and a tin-trunk. She is also thinking about her husband
that what sort of person he would be? She might be fearing from her mother-in-law.
“The rain will ruin cot, trunk and looking-glass,
What sort of a man is my husband?”
The role of fate and chance in Taufiq’s poetry is eminently portrayed in the closing
lines of this poem “Wedding in the Flood”. All of the participants of wedding procession are
over-worried because the heavy rain and flood in the river. The completion of their
marriage journey depends upon the ferry man. The rain is getting heavier every moment.
The palankeen is leaking and water is dripping drop by drop inside the palankeen. The
bride’s feet are wet and she is trembling having so many unknown tensions in her mind.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 157
In the closing lines of this poem “Wedding in the Flood”, it is done which should
not be done. The role of fate and chance is transparent and expressed by Taufiq Rafat
upto full extent. Tears ooze out of our eyes when the perceptive readers come to know
that whole wedding procession is on the horns of the waves. Each and everything was
drowned and sunk in the river. It was really colossal catastrophe and pathetic scenario.
Robert Green’s wise words are really quotable and up to the mark to this relevant
situation. “Though men determine, the gods do dispose: and oft times many things fall out
between the cup and the lip.”
Long and short of the matter is that “Wedding in the Flood” is very panoramic pen
picture and word portrait painted by Taufiq Rafat. Taufiq is really expert in so many literary
devices and laudable techniques.

4. SHORT STORIES

SIKANDRA MIR: The Lady Finger


SIKANDRA MIR AS SHORT STORY WRITER
Sikandra Mir is really skilful in the art of creative writing. Her art of characterization
and plot construction are really laudable, impressive and unique. She has used life like
characters of flesh and blood. There is no fairy, giant, elves and supernatural elements. In
the opening lines of this short story, it is narrated:

“The time I remember best is when one day she sat on a law stool in front of
the choolah, clay hearth baking chappatis, and flat bread. Her hands moved deftly as
she rolled the ball of hands”

In this short story, Miss Sadiqa is victim of her circumstances. She is very various and
inquisitive about her parentage. It is really smile provoking and thought inspiring event that
Sadiqa is told that she is outcome of ladyfinger. She remains worried and frustrated.

When the plot of this short story proceeds, we come to know that Sadiqa is playing
hide and seek with Imran, Shafiq and her age fellows. It is a matter of fate, chance and
coincidence that Sadiqa starts loving Imran but Shafiq starts loving and adoring Sadiqa.

“Don’t be silly, girls don’t comment on such subjects. Have you seen any girl in
the family defy the wishes of her parents?”

With the passage of time, Sadiqa is going to be married to Mr. Aziz. It is an


undeniable fact that marriages are decreed in heaven but celebrated on this earth.
Sadaqa’s heart is palpitating about Mr. Aziz. Her feelings about married life are very
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 158
delicate, tender and appreciable. She is imagining about her future life. It is fact that
name proposes but Allah Almighty disposes. It is really bewildering matter that at the age
of 12, she is going to be married. She is also told that at the age of 12, her grandmother
was married. It is very pathetic situation that at the age of 17, her spouse or better half
dies of kidney problem. She becomes widow even at the age of 17.

Skindra Mir has also expressed various feelings, emotions, passions, desires and
limitless wishes of unanimous characters. Sadiqa remains expecting that she may be
married to Imran but it is a matter of fate and chance that Imran marries a girl in Jordan.
Sadiqa remains frustrated and pathetic character. In the closing pages know this short
story, we come to know that Sadiqa has become expert lawyer and assists women
organizations. Core and cruse of the matter is that Skindra Mir is really appreciable short
story writer.

FEMINISM IN LADY FINGER


In “Lady Finger” Skindra Mir has propounded the concept of feminism and reflection
of domestic liabilities. She has shown real feelings, passions and desires of ladies and
gentlemen. In the opening lines of lady finger, Skindra Mir has said:
“My mother, who also was the mother of many other children, regarded
me as special. It was not that she loved the others any less, it was due to the
circumstances in which I arrived in this world”.
In this short story, “Lady Finger” Skindra Mir has pointed out that fate and chance
play vital role in human life. Miss Sadiqa was very humble, gentle and curious. Her
inquisitive nature is crystal clear in the following lines:-
“Tall me the story of how I became me? I begged”.
Feminism is transparent in this short story. Sadiqa has exposed her feelings and
passions of her attachment to Mr. Imran. She loves him from the core of her heart but he
is least concerned with her. Contrary to this, Miss Sadiqa is loved by Mr. Shafiq.
“He said that he loved me dearly and would many me one day and will take me
far away to could not reach me”.
Feminism is crystal clear when we come to know that at the age of 12, Sadiqa was
going to be married, when she feels hesitation and reluctance, her kith and kin say that
her grand mother was also married at the same age. Feminism is also visible when
Skindra Mir has narrated various feelings passions, views and news of bride and
bridegroom are shown. Sadiqa narrates that her near and dear advised her to remain
silent on the occasion of marriage ceremony.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 159
It is really pathetic and tragic situation that Mr. Aziz becomes victim of kidney
problem. Now Sadiqa forgets Imran and starts looking after her better half Mr. Aziz. It is
really zenith of tragedy for her that she becomes widow at the age of 17.
Feminine feelings are also crystal clear whom Sadiqa expels that she might be
bride of Mr. Imran. It is fact that man proposes but Allah Almighty disposes. It is really
condemnable on the part of Imran that he marries a Christian girl in Jordon.
Tears ooze out of lachrymal glands of the reader when we come to know that
Sadiqa has become helpless, pearliness and friendless. She struggles to be established
as lawyer and deals cases of ladies. She also becomes active member of women
organizations.
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that feminism is crystal clear.

CHARACTERIZATION IN LADY FINGER


In “Lady Finger” Skindra Mir has portrayed various life like characters. She has not
projected any supernatural creature. There is no description of any fairy, giant, elf, genni
and sylph. It is pointed out that Skindra Mir is aware of various characters prevailing in the
society. So, art of characterization adopted by Skindra Mir is really life like & based on
reality.
It is also quoted that Skindra Mir’s characters seem to be universal in their
approach. For example, most of the children remain curious and inquisitive. So, Sadiqa is
also sailing in the same boat. She is also curious to ask following questions.
“Tell me the story of how I became me, I begged”.
Characterization is vivid and transparent in this short story. Sadiqa’s character is
really pathetic and tragic. She is really marvelous and unique in her approach. It is really
pathetic scenario that Sadiqa is helpless and dependent on others. In her childhood, she
remained under the spell of Mr Imran. It is really a matter of fate, chance and coincidence
that Mr. Shafiq fell in love with Sadiqa but she could not surrender her feminine assertion
for Shafiq. Therefore Shafiq became jealous and venomous against his own brother.
“He said that he loved me dearly and would marry me one day and will take me
far away to could not reach me”
Imran’s character is really condemnable. It is really strange a matter that Mr. Imran
marries a Christian girl in Jordon. It illustrates that marriages are decided in Heaven but
celebrated on this earth. Therefore Sadiqa aunt says;
“Marriages are made in heaven and who knows who will marry who and children

should not worry their heads over these serious matters”.


Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 160
Skindra Mir has projected Aziz’s character in very unique manner. Mr. Aziz is a
man of few words. He is very calm, cool, emotionally stabilized and amiable personality.
He is neither angelic nor satanic.
“Then one day, Aziz left a letter on my table which said that he now desired for us
to live as husband and wife. He also requested that I don’t mention the word the word
brother when I spoke to him or of him.”
Characterization is transparent or crystal clear in this short story. With the passage
of time, Aziz becomes victim of kidney problem. He is really a loving husband and
affectionate father. It is fact that death is pricking realty and pinching factor. Aziz’s death is
infact main shocking and melancholic strain for Sadiqa.

When the plot of this short story proceeds, we come to know that Sadiqa is on the
horns of dilemma. She is unable to decide what to do. At last, she decides to extend her
education. Some one suggests her to be advocate and she does so by educating herself
in law. She pleads cases of victimized women folk only and thus becomes herald of
feminism.
Core and crux of the matter is that life like characterization is transparent in this
short story.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 161

LINGUISTIC
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 162
IS LINGUISTIC SCIENCE?
Linguistics is a scientific study of language. Its branches are Socio- linguistics and
psycho-linguistics. Psycholinguistics can be elaborated through the following diagram.

P
S P L L
Y S I A
C Y N N
H C G G
O H U U
L O I I
O S S
G T T
Y I I
C C
S

In case of Psycholinguistics, behaviorism is propounded by Skinner White where as


mentalism is depicted by Noam Chomsky.
Linguistics is science because it is highly associated with the following scientific
procedure.
THEORY

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION

HYPOTHESIS

Linguistics is a scientific study because so many equipments are used in language


laboratories. For example linguists may use laryngoscope, pharyngoscope, vocal boxes,
candles boxes and cylinders.
Linguistics is a science because it is related with curiosity and suspense curiosity is
the source of knowledge and linguistics is highly associated with phonetics.
Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG), Universal Grammar(UG), Pedagogical
Grammar(PG), Traditional Grammar(TG), Semantics, Syntax and other dimensions of
linguistics.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 163
Linguistics is scientific study because it is associated with experimental groups
and control groups. For example Skinner underwent an experiment. He encaged a rat who
used to shake the bar while seeing food. The rat was accustomed to such type of stimulus
and response. Once it happened that the particular person could not jingle the bar and the
rat did not eat anything. In this way, skinner created the following equation:-
Stimulus Response Reinforcement Repetitions
(SRRR)
Syntax. It is the study of structure of the sentence. It is generally observed
that in case of any sentence, subject is in the beginning, verb is in the middle and object is
placed at the ending of the sentence. There may be N.P (Noun phrase) and V P (Verb
Phrase). In each and every language, the structure of the sentence varies. For example
structure of an Urdu sentence may be different from that of English language.
They go to Karachi
S V P O
Noam Chomsky laid emphasis on structural analysis for example, in Transformational
Generative Grammar, N P and V P are emphasized:-
Aslam goes to College.
Structure of the sentences vary in various languages:-
(1) He goes to College.
(2) He does not go to College.
(3) Does he go to College?
(4) Why does he go to college?
(5) When does he go to college?
(6) Where does he go to College?
(7) At what time, does he go to College?
(8) How does he go to College?
(9) With whom does he go to College?
(10) If he goes to College, he will learn a lot.
(11) If he had gone to College he would have learnt a lot.
Kinds of sentences:-
(1) Assertive sentences.
(2) Interrogative sentences.
(3) Imperative sentences.
(4) Exclamatory sentences.
(5) Optative sentences.
(6) Universal Truth,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 164
If we compare structure of English with that of Urdu, we may differentiate in the
following manner.
“The picture is good
Tasnveer acchi hai.
Moorat changi ha gi
Photoo sohna ha.
To epitomize, I can say that deletion, insertion, substitution, movement, Universal
Grammar and Transformational Generative Grammar play pivotal role in syntax.

DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS
1. Language. It is a system of conventional, spoken or written symbols by means of
which human beings, as the members of a social group and participant in its culture
communicate (OR). It is a primarily human and non instinctive method of
communicating ideas, emotions and dresses by means of a system of voluntarily
produced symbols.
2. Linguistics. It is the science that studies the origin, organization, nature and
development of a language descriptively, historically comparatively and formulates
the general rules related to language.
3. Diachronic Linguistics. It is the linguistics that studies the development of
language through history or through time.
4. Synchronic Linguistics. It is the linguistics that investigates how the people
speak and use language in a given speech community at a given time.
5. Comparative Linguistics. It is the linguistics through which two or more different
languages are compared.
6. Langue. It is the set of all possible grammatical sentences in the language.
7. Parole. It is the only object available for direct observation to the linguist.
Utterances are examples of parole.
8. Socio-Linguistics. The study of language as part of culture and society has now
commonly been accepted as socio- linguistics.
9. Psycho-Linguistics. It is the study of interrelationship of psychological and
linguistic behaviour.
10. Dialect. It is a specific form of a given language spoken in a certain locality or
geographic area.
11. Sociolect. It is a form of language, which is spoken by the members of a
particular group of stratum of a speech community.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 165
12. Isogloss. It is a line indicating the degree of linguistic change.
13. Registers. These are the varieties of language that correspond to different
situations, different speakers and listeners and writers and readers etc.(It is
business language of a particular profession)
14. Idiolect. It is a variety of language used by one individual speaker, including
peculiarities of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary etc.
15. Diglossia. Where we do find two or more dialects or languages in regular use in
a community we have a situation which is called diglossia.
16. Pidgin. It is a contract language, a mixture of elements from different natural
languages.
17. Creole, It is a mixed natural language composed of elements of different
languages in areas of intensive contact.
18. Phonetics. It is the scientific study of the production, transmission and reception
of speech sounds.
19. Acoustic Phonetics. It is the study of the physical properties of speech
sounds such as frequency and amplitude in their transmission.
20. Auditory Phonetics. It is the study of hearing and the perception of speech
sounds. It studies different auditory impressions of quality pitch and loudness of
sounds.
21. Articulatory Phonetics. It recognises that speech is produced by some kind of
sound making apparatus inside the human body and that specific sounds may be
related to specific movement of the apparatus.
22. Vowel. A word which is uttered without a blockage of air is called vowel.
23. Consonant. A word that cannot be spoken with out a blockage of air is called
consonant.
24. Stress. It is the degree of force with which a syllable or a word is uttered. It is
crucial in English pronunciation. It can be called grammatical device in spoken
English.
25. Intonation. It is the tune, the melody, the music of speech. It shows the speaker’s
mental attitude.
26. Phonology. It is the organization of sounds into patterns. It is the study of vocal
sounds and sound changes, phonemes and their variations in particular language.
27. Phoneme. It is the minimal bundle of relevant sound features.
28. Allophone. It is a speech sound which is one of a number of variants of a
phoneme. Such a variant can be either in complementary variation or in free
variation.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 166
29. Morphology. It is the science and study of the smallest grammatical units
of language and of their formation into words including infection, derivation and
composition.
30. Syntax. It is the grammar of sentences and morphology is the grammar of words.
31. Morpheme. Minimal units of grammatical structure such as the four components
of “un-faith – ful – ness” are called morphemes.
32. Lexical Morphemes. These are nouns, verbs adjectives and adverbs.
33. Grammatical Morphemes. These are elements like prepositions, articles,
conjunctions, gender or tense and so on.
34. Compounds. A compound is lexical unit in which two or more lexical morphemes
are juxtaposed (contiguous / placed side by side) eg. Air craft, text book.
35. Idiom. An idiom is a phrase, the meaning of which cannot be predicted from the
individual meanings of morphemes it comprises.
36. Sentence. A sentence is a word or set of words followed by a phrase and
revealing on intelligible purpose.
37. Word. It may be defined as the union of a particular meaning with a particular
complex of sounds capable for a particular grammatical employment.
38. Analogy. It is process by which morphs, combination of morphs or linguistic
pattern are modified or new ones created in accordance with those present in a
language.
39. Stylistic. It is the study of linguistic features of a literary text – phonological,
lexical, syntactical which directly affects the meaning of an utterance.
40. Phrases. A group of words which is grammatically equivalent to a single word
and which does not have its own subject and predicate is called a phrase.

THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND THEORIES


Man is inquisitive by nature; he has tried to investigate the nature of both micro as
well as macrocosm. Language is the most important human activity which has remained a
subject of serious contemplation by Language Scholars over the centuries. In this attempt,
they have addressed themselves to the whole range of issues which are related to the
origin of language, for example when was language first originated? What was its first
form? Where language was first originated? How was first originated?

In order to find out the answers of these questions, linguists have studied, the
language used by children, speech of primitive societies, the behaviour of higher animals
and the state of the people suffering from speech defects. There have been a number of
perspectives through which language has been studied, yet none of them is scientific.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 167
Thus all the attempts to reconstruct the tracer of primitive language are based on
speculations. Below are given some of the most important views and theories to account
for origin of the language.

1. Religious Views. According to Islam language is a divine gift. The Quranic view
does not confirm to the evolution theory with regard to language. Similarly the Biblical
view, representing ancient Jewish belief of Adam’s naming the creatures of the earth
under God’s guidance, is quite well known. Thus religions associate language to God’s gift
to human beings.
2. Mythological Views. Mythologies are not just the tales of various imaginary
gods and goddesses. They are considered to be the first rationalistic and consistent
approaches by human beings to understand himself and the vast universe around him. In
Egyptian mythology Thoth (a name) is supposed to be the creator of language in this
world. Seshet (a name) the goddess of art of writing served as his secretary to Thoth. In
Chinese Mythology, God created a sea horse, which spoke the Chinese language. The
sea horse is supposed to have spots on its body, which eventually formed the basis of
Chinese orthography which consists of pictures. The people of India identified language
with a goddess called Vog Devi (Vog is a word, Devi is goddess). Vog Devi is considered
as an originator of language and the god Indra is supposed to have invented articulatory
speech. Thus the mythological views maintain that language was created by various gods
and goddesses, it is not a human creation.
3. Anthropological Views. Here is the investigated relationship between language
and culture. As human civilization undergoes various changes towards development,
similarly language developed out of instinctive noises, gestures, cries etc, so it was quite
later in human civilization that we acquired the present shape of language.
4. Interjection Theory. The most famously known Pooh-Pooh theory is a
creation of 19th century. According to this theory, language smeared as a result of certain
kinds of circumstances. Man is a spontaneous of strange moods; sometimes he is happy
and sometime depressed. He may laugh and cry. In those moods, he must have made
some noises which eventually paved the way for the type of language spoken those days.
But this theory does not explain the aspect of creativity in language.
5. Mimetic Or Imitation Theory. It is known as Bow-Wow Theory. According to
this language originated as a result of imitating natural sounds of animals, grumbles,
sneezing, clouds, winds, air etc.
6. Nativistic (mentalistic) Theory. According to this theory there is mysteriously a
harmony between sound and symbol and sense and symbol. Man has a peculiar
instinctive faculty by which every external impression that he receives is given vocal
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 168
expression. Thus he has the instinctive ability to name things, places, person, actions
etc. This theory is based partly on the mentalistic and partly on the behaviorristic notions
of Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement and Repetition. But this theory also explains
nothing but the terms, etc.
7. Interactive Theory. According to this theory language originated as a result
of noises made by a group of people engaged in some activity e.g. moving a tree or a
stone etc. We can quite likely to make various grunts, groans, etc. This theory explains the
distinctions of sounds in terms of vowels and consonants.
8. Gesture Theory. According to this theory gestures are preceded by a proper
speech. The sign language used by the Red Indians is still used in North America.
Gestures are used even today in almost all the languages of the world.
9. Musical Theory. Man is so made by nature that he is greatly moved by music,
rhythm and intonation. Almost every person is a disguised singer. He likes to imitate
others singing songs. Thus the musical nature of man could have been the motive force
behind the origin of proper language.
10. Social Contact Theory. Man is essentially a social animal. He likes to live with
others for his safety, security and satisfaction. So it is quite possible that he might have
made contacts with other fellow beings through sounds, cries and through words.
All the discussion given above suggests that it is hard to know scientifically
about the origin of language so all these theories are partially true and none of these
is completely wrong.
WHAT IS MODERN LINGUISTICS
(What is difference between Linguistics and Literature?)
What is Linguistics and what is not. Linguistics is a modern subject and it is
occupying the prominent and dominant position in the various educational institutions. It
deals with the most important activity of man (the activity of speech). Man and language
are inseparable because man expresses his ideas, moods and knowledge through
language. But it is a matter of pity in linguistics that some of the most important aspects of
it are misunderstood due to the lack of formal training in this field.
People generally tend to perceive language causally but such an attitude on the
part of the people does not quench the thirst of the modern linguists. Here we are
concerned with clarifying some of the stereo typed notions about linguistics:-

1. Linguistics and Literary Criticism. It is generally assumed that linguistics and


literary criticism are the same things, but it is a wrong notion. Linguistics is an objective
field that deals with the various elements, aspects and information concerning to
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 169
language. In other words, linguistics has nothing to do with critical evaluation or critical
comments on any piece of literature. Literature of criticism is purely a subjective field. In
literacy criticism the personal ideas, remarks and commentary play vital role. So
Linguistics and Literary Criticism are two different fields and to take them as one and the
same thing is the most misconception.
2. Linguistics and Polyglottism. Linguistics and polyglottism (multilingual) are two
different fields but generally people are not able to make any sort of difference between
these two. Polyglottism means the knowledge of more than one languages and any one
who can speak more than one language is not a linguist. A linguist is he who can discover
the hidden mysteries concerning to man’s languages. For example, how language was
originated? What was its first form? And what is the significance of language in man’s life?
3. Linguistics and Rhetoric. It is also misconception in the people that
linguistics and Rhetoric are same things. But it is once again the result of poor training in
this field. Rhetoric is generally used in the speech or debating contests in order to impress
the audience. It has nothing to do with the real spirit of linguistics which deals with
language, scientifically as a human activity so, linguistics and rhetoric are two different
things because the main purpose of rhetoric is limited whereas the main purpose of
linguistics is very high.
4. Linguistics and Traditional Grammar. Linguistics and Traditional Grammar are
also two different fields. Traditional Grammar has a limited scope. It does not go beyond
the sentence level in the case of communication. So, fundamental principle in Traditional
Grammar is subject, verb and object (S. V. O), whereas in the linguistics the minimal unit
of language is Phoneme (sound) and the maximal unit beyond the sentence level is
discourse (conversation). So the scope of the Traditional Grammar is limited as compared
to linguistics. So it is also a blunder to take Linguistics and Traditional Grammar as one
and the same things.
5. Linguistics and Philology. Linguistics also deals with the historical
prospective and it has been a fascinating subject among the 19 century linguists. In
Historical Linguistics, the linguists are interested in knowing the historical background of
language, the origin of language and the process of evolution of language in various ages.
This is what the philology deals with, but no one can give concrete scientific informations
about the historical process (the origin and creation of language). Linguistics now deals
with so many model aspects. The 20 century linguists show no interest in knowing the
historical background of language. That is why philology has been excluded from almost
all the institutions of the world.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 170
6. Linguistics and Language Learning. To think that linguistics and language
learning are the same things is not true. Linguistics is a science subject and it deals with
language as a human activity. It has no concern with any peculiar human language. It
discusses language in general whereas in language learning we are concerned with any
specific language and a traditional approach is adopted in the case of any language
learning. So linguistics is an objective field that has scientific empirical and objective
foundations, whereas language learning is clearly a different field in which the process of
learning depends upon the choice, taste and mental approach of teacher and taught.
7. Linguistics and Language Teaching. Linguistics and language teaching are two
different fields and it will also be injustice if we take them as one and the same thing. In
linguistics, a linguist can occupy the seat of language teacher, but in such a case he is not
a teacher of any peculiar language. He feeds our inside with the stuff of ins and ‘outs’
relating to language as are activity of man. But in case of language teaching the teacher
focuses his attention to the concern language and clarifies his ideas only about that.
So, to sum up the discussion we can say, that there are so many misconceptions
concerning to the linguistics and the basic reason of these misconceptions is that this
subject is rapidly embarking on the way of development and so many new branches of
this subject are taking their origin. So naturally the misconceptions may arise concerning
to this subject and these misconceptions should be removed carefully.

BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS
There are so many branches of linguistics which have nothing to do with the other
subject. These branches are surely linguistics such as Theoretical Linguistics, Applied
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics and Descriptive Linguistics, while many branches are
taken as inter- disciplinary branches and these branches are related to other fields such
as Socio Linguistics, Psycho Linguistics, and Computational Linguistics etc.

1. Theoretical Linguistics. This branch of linguistics deals with the concrete


theories presented by the language scholars about the various aspect concerning to
linguistics. This branch highlights the various processes of evolution and the gradual
development of linguistics that has been taking place from year to year. So, theoretical
linguistics aims at finding out the significance of the theories about language as a human
activity from time to time.

2. Descriptive Linguistics. This branch deals with description and elaboration of the
theories which are presented by the language scholars. In this very branch, the linguists
are concerned with analysing the theories which mostly are presented in order to discover
the real nature of the subject. In descriptive linguistics, it is also analysed how the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 171
presented theories are near to reality. In this way Theoretical Linguistics and
Descriptive Linguistics both are complementary to each other.

3. Applied Linguistics. Applied Linguistics deals with the application of some


fundamental issues relating to the language. In this branch of Linguistics, the linguists
after pains taking research apply some set formula and these formulas pave the way for
the new research, inquiries, and discoveries in the subject. For example, the Traditional
Grammar does not quench the thirst of a linguist and he goes beyond it and gives his own
methods of learning as in Traditional Grammar one does not go beyond the sentence
level, where as in the linguistics the maximal unit of language is discourse beyond the
sentence level.

4. Historical Linguistics. Historical linguistics aims at finding out the serious


informations, theories and rules presented by the language scholars over the centuries. In
Historical Linguistics, the linguists dive into the deep ocean of subject try to call historical
background of the subject as when language was originated and what was its form, how it
was originated etc. This branch of linguistics is very complex because it is hard to know
the real origin of language and about its first form. So the historical informations are mostly
based upon the speculation.

5. Socio Linguistics. Socio linguistics is an inter-disciplinary branch of linguistics. It


deals with the relationship between language and society. Man and society are
inseparable. Man is a social animal and cannot live without society. Infect it is society that
polishes all his capabilities to speak; rather it is society that stimulates the child to utter a
word in order to meet his success. In this way Skinner has presented Behavioristic Theory
and according to this theory child can get no power of speech until he enjoys the
atmosphere of a society, so the ideal social condition stimulates every child to start
speaking.

6. Psycho Linguistics. It is also an inter-disciplinary branch of linguistics. It


elaborates the psychological process under which a child goes in order to be able to
speak any language. For this Skinner has presented Behavioristic Theory. In this theory
he also says that child is mentally prepared by the society to acquire the real capability to
speak. In this way psychological process plays a vital role to enable a child to learn any
language.

To sum up the discussion we can say that linguistics also is a new subject, yet it is
occupying more and more prominent position in the field of education. With its
development one can come across so many branches are linked with each other.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 172
SKINNERS BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORY

The process of learning language one has always been a complex phenomena
among the critics. It is an acknowledged fact that the lap of mother is the first educational
centre for the child and the foundation of every human activity is laid when a child uses
the lap of her mother, the only shelter of him. In this way this has always been a debatable
question how far the lap of mother, the surroundings and the entire atmosphere in which a
child grows proves helpful in learning language. In this respect two theories have been
forwarded, “The Innate Theory” presented by Chomsky and “Behaviouristic Theory”
presented by Skinner.

According to Skinner, child acquires his first speech through a process which is
called operant process. Operant process means that language is an activity that a child
willingly acquires voluntarily without any external force. In this way child acquires his
language one in his own free will without any sort of pressure. According to Skinner the
whole process based upon four elements, Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement, and
Repetition.

Skinner has elaborated all these things after making experiments on animals. He
illustrates the whole process as a rat is put in a box, containing a bar and this rat is
rewarded food only if it presses the bar. Initially the bar was pressed accidentally and as
accidental process it was rewarded with the food, but eventually the rat got the perception
of pressing the bar. Later the process is made a little difficult and now it gets the food if it
presses the bar at certain number of times. It felt confused initially but eventually it learnt
the trick.

After this experiment Skinner expresses the very notion that every stimulus which is
followed by a response plays a vital role in learning the first language. Initially this
response is given only in case of sort of punishment or reward but eventually the child
becomes volunteer in this.

Features of language learning process are:-

a. Making response is very necessary

b. Response to every stimulus is necessary.

c. Response needs to be re-enforced.

d. Making correct response is necessary.

e. Every response needs to be repeated.


Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 173
For example a child listen a word toffee: he tries to store this word in mind and
when he taste a toffee he enjoys it, he tries to associate this word with actual theme
(toffee). And when child gives response in such a way by uttering the word toffee it proves
no less than fairy song for his parents. So they reinforce him to utter this word again and
again and child makes repetition. This is the whole process that has been referred and
presented by the behaviorists.

Child enjoys a flexible mind; he is easily attracted by the atmosphere in which he


lives. That is why Skinner seems to be firmed in his notion that language learning is not
different from learning anything else, and anything which is stuffed in the mind of child
becomes the part and parcel of his life. That is why Skinner denies that language is a pre-
programmed activity. It is just the gilt of society and operant conditioning of his
surroundings. If we take up the example of fictional character Tarzen, Skinner seems to be
true in his notion because Tarzen was brought up among the animals and according to the
story tellers he spoke the language of animals. So, he could not help being affected by the
company in which he lived.

Skinner is not without his critics. It was Chomsky who made a better attack on the
theory presented by Skinner. He considered it to be an in appropriated theory that is why
he brought his own theory named Nativistic Theory on Mentalistic Theory or innate theory.

To sum up the discussion we may say that although Skinner’s theory was
challenged by Chomsky yet he paved the way for the other language scholars to test their
abilities and solve the mystery of child’s first language acquisition

CHOMSKY’S INNATE THEORY

Language is a complex phenomenon, language, scholars have been trying to


investigate the various mysteries of language acquisition for so many years and finally
these theories have been put forward in this regard. The first theory presented by skinner
is Behavioristic Theory. He presented this theory in his book, “The Verbal Behaviour”, and
second theory is expounded by Chomsky, that is Innate Theory. It is also called
Mentalistic Theory. Both those theories have played the vital role in understanding the real
process of language acquisition.

According to Behaviouristic Theory an ideal social condition plays a necessary role


in language learning. When a child comes to this world, he brings no separate language
learning capability. He has to rely upon the society in case of language learning. He
listens to his nears and dears speaking around him and imitates theme. So, according to
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 174
Skinner, man is bound to live in the society in order to get sufficient knowledge of his
language one. In this respect Skinner talks of the three factors which play an important
role in case of language learning i.e. Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement, and Repetition.
In other words Skinner completely denies any innate capability in case of language
learning.

As a reaction Chomsky comes out with his new theory i.e. Innate or Mentalistic
theory. He points out that every child is pre-programmed to speak. He also does not
exclude the role of society in case of language learning. He is of the view that language
learning is a biological process and God has facilitated man with this gift before his birth.
Society only enhances this capability. So according to Chomsky; child does not rely upon
the society only. They theory presented by Chomsky seems to be more concentrated
(potent) and clear than that of Skinner’s because the whole biological process is an
evident example of what is said by Chomsky. The puppies open their eyes according to a
biological process, the trees shed their leaves in autumn according to a biological process
and human babies start their movements according to a biological process. Societies and
communities can only be helpful in improving the God’s gifted capabilities. Similarly the
first cry of a child is actually the announcement of his arrival in this world.

Chomsky refers two structures in this regard, i.e. Surface Structure (accent, a way
of pronouncing the words) and Deep Structure (brain or area, a person, comes from).
Surface structure differs from man to man, community to community and nation to nation.
Whereas the deep structure remains as it is in the entire world. Surface structure
indicates the accent, way of speaking and style of conversation. Whereas Deep Structure
deals with the basic thing of language for example a man cries when he is over worried,
he shouts when he is over excited and he laughs when he is happy.

In this context Chomsky presents two notions that are Competence and
Performance. Competence deals with the basic rules of grammar of the language and
performance deals with the performance of an individual in case of language learning.

Chomsky also maintains that every child first speaks noun, or noun phrase, which
is followed in the later stage by verb. This is a set and acknowledged formula which
cannot be challenged. The process of second language learning is the some as that of
adopted in first language learning. When a person comes across a foreign language, he
commits many errors and it is only because he has not the sufficient knowledge of that
language.

To sum up the discussion we may say that language learning is a debatable


process and the two theories have been put forward in this respect, but Innate Theory
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 175
seems to be more important than Behavioristic Theory because it refers to the role of
both the innate process as well as the ideal social condition. In case of language learning;
both these theories have brought a major change in thinking about the process of fast
language acquisition.

PSYCHO LINGUISTICS
Psychology is a scientific study of mind whereas linguistics is the scientific study of
language. The relationship between mind and language is called Psycho Linguistics.
Psycho linguistics is an important branch of linguistics. It deals with the association, co-
relation and co-operation between mind and language. This branch of linguistics also
throws light on the process of language acquisition and language learning because man’s
mind is ever working instrument and it can not be disassociated with the other activities
specially language. Man always moves his lips and tongue according to the orders given
by mind and if the relation between mind and language is broken all the words spoken by
man will be the words spoken by the mad.

Human mind is a dark store of ideas and memories and in case of language
learning, memory plays a vital role. The more vocabulary a person stores in his mind, the
more perfect he will be able to speak a language. So psycho linguistics throws light on the
process through which a mind operates to associate the words with the actual things.
When a child comes into this world with his first cry, he seems to be a helpless
puppet in the hands of society. He can do nothing except weeping and breathing so he
needs the support of his nears and dears at every step. He is fed by others, dressed by
others and taught by others, how to speak. In this respect his range of mind of picking
power and sharp memory plays a great role. His nears and dears stimulate him to speak
on a peculiar age of his life. The sharper mind he has, the sooner he speaks. In this way
the atmosphere in which he lives plays a vital role in stimulating his mind, so he starts
speaking. The linguists have probed into the detail of this process; they explain it in the
very branch (psycho linguistics).
In this respect two important theories have been presented, the Innate Theory &
Behaviouristic Theory. According to innate theory a child brings the capability of speaking
in born and society enhancing this capability by pouring some words of current language
into his mind, whereas according to behaviouristic theory, child brings no innate capability
of speech, rather it is the product of society and it depends upon human mind how quicker
it picks / operates. In this way according to this theory, the process of language acquisition
and language learning remains only between lips and mind.
It is generally analysed that child always proves to be the reflection and projection
of his mother and father in utterance. He exhibits the existence of his parents, follows the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 176
same way of talking and repeats the same style of conversation. It is only because his
mind is prepared by them. His ears always remain busy in attending to the people living
around him. For example; when a child touches the boundaries of a peculiar age, he tries
to imitate his parents. The parents make him to speak and child gives them response so
this is the process of language acquisition and no one can deny the role of psychology in
it.
Psycho linguistics is the recent branch of linguistics and this branch of linguistics
has been very important in solving so many ambiguities concerning to language. It is a
fact that psycho linguistics and socio linguistics carry so many ideas co-relating to each
other, but there is still a difference / distinction between these two. Psycho linguistics
deals with the relationship between language and mind and Socio linguistics deals with
the relationship an individual and society. Psycho linguistics gives all the interpretations
and elaborations concerning to mind and its capacity of assimilating a language.
It does not mean that Psycho linguistics deals only with the process of language
acquisition. It also maintains the role of mind in language learning. When a person tends
to learn any foreign language his mental capacity plays a primary role and if mind is fertile
and memory is sharp the individual will feel no difficulty in learning the required language.
To sum up the discussion we may say that out of the four main branches of
linguistics such as Psycho Linguistics, Socio Linguistics, Historical Linguistics &
Descriptive Linguistics, the role of Psycho Linguistics seems to be very prominent
because it deals with the basic and fundamental element in respect of language learning
and that is mind. In this way the sovereignty of mind is the part and parcel of the process
through which we acquire and learn a language.

SOCIOLANGUISTICS
Linguistics comes into being when society culture and geographical area work
together. That is why there is a deep relationship between language and society. It is in
society that man learners and uses language.
When we study language we have to study it further sub-levels such as dialects,
socialists, idiolects etc. For this purpose we have to keep in mind the geographical area in
which a language is spoken, the culture and the society in which it is used the speakers
who use it the listener for whom it is used and the purpose for which it is used besides the
linguistic components (words and grammar) that compose it. Further, we need to study
also form and function of language.
In the light of above mentioned views, we can say that socio-linguistics is the study
of speech functions (meanings) with reference to the speaker the hearer, their relationship
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 177
and contact, the context and the situation, the topic of discourse, the purpose of
discourse and the form of the discourse. Thus socio-linguistics is a fascinating and
challenging field of linguistics. It studies the ways in which language interacts with society.
It is the study of the way in which the structure of a language changes in response to its
different social functions, and the study of the definition of what these function are. The
word “society” in this topic means race, rationality, more restricted regional, social and
political groups and the interactions of individuals within groups.
The area of socio-linguistics, therefore, is the interaction between language and
various sociologically recognizable variables such s social class specific social situation,
status and roles of speakers / hearers, etc. As J.B. Pride sys, socio-linguistics is not
simply a combination of linguistic and sociology. It includes every aspect of the structure
and the use of language that relates to its social and cultural function.
Language with its different varieties is the subject matter of socio-linguistics. It
studies the varied linguistic shapes of socio-cultural meanings which are used in every
day social interactions. The shapes of meaning relate to particular cultures, societies,
social groups, speech communities, language dialects, varieties and style. We mean to
say that these shapes give one meaning at one place and another at other place. That is
why language variation generally forms a part of socio-linguistic studies.
Language can vary not only from one individual to the next but also from one
subsection of speech community (family, village, town, and region) to another. Thus
language varies in geographical and social space. Variability in a social dimension is
called Sociolect. According to socio-linguists a language is a code. There exist varieties
within the code. And the factors that cause language varieties
can be summarized in the following way:-
(1) Nature of participants, their relationship (socio-economic, occupational, etc).
(2) Number of participants (two face-to-face, one addressing large audience, etc).
(3) Roles of participants (teacher / students / priest/ father / son/ husband/ wife/
friend, etc).
(4) Function of speech event (persuasion, request for information, ritual etc).
(5) Nature of medium (speech, writing, scripted speech, speech, reinforced by
gesture, etc).
(6) Genre of discourse (scientific experiment, sports, art, religion etc);
(7) Physical setting (noise/ quiet/ public/ private/, family/ formal gathering,
familiar / unfamiliar, appropriate for speech e.g. sitting room/ inappropriate);
(8) Regional or geographical setting etc.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 178
WHAT IS LINGUISTICS?
Linguistics is a scientific study of language. It can be subdivided into socio-
linguistics and psycho-linguistics, semantics, stylistics and grammar. In case of Psycho-
Linguistics, emphasis laid on mind and behaviour because Psychology is scientific study
of cognitive capabilities and behaviourism.
Skinner believed that human being can learn lot of things with the help of habit
formation and operant conditioning. Skinner believed that to every stimulus there is
response. I can be elaborated through the following equation.
Stimulus → Response → Reinforcement → Repetition
Skinner underwent an experiment, he encaged a rat and before feeding the rat, he
used to jingle the bell. The rat was so accustomed to it that he could not eat anything
without this sound. He could not eat anything without this sound. It was true example of
operant conditioning for habit formation.
Chomsky also believed that behaviourism is totally impossible because human
being learn with the help of cognitive approach. He believed that there is hell like
difference between human being and rat. So Chomsky believes in the following
L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+………………………..so on.
Crashan believes in combination of behaviourism and mentalism.
Many questions about the nature of language are still unanswered. In fact,
Linguistics, which is often described as the scientific study of a language, is considered
somehow as a new field. Therefore,
“any speaker of a language has more comprehensive unconscious knowledge of
how language works than any linguist has yet been able to describe.”
According to Encyclopedia,
“Linguistics is scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology

and syntax; grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the
history of relations of languages to each other and
Cultural place of language in human behaviour.”
There is a large body of scientific knowledge about how we use language to
communicate. In its broadest sense, linguistics is the study of human language with
certain aspects such as: how it is structured, how it is used to represent meaning, how it is
used to communicate ideas, how it is formed and how it is decoded. We shouldn’t be
confused with language teaching, which aims to teach a single language. Contemporary
linguistics is divided into sub field of study:
Syntax: the study of the grammatical form of sentences.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 179
Semantics: the study of the meaning of sentences.
Pragmatics: the study of how sentences are used to communicate,
Morphology: the study of the form of words,
Psycholinguistics: the study of the mental process by which sentences are constructed,
Sociolinguistics: the study of how language varies from one society to another to form
groups of geographical region, economic class or ethnicity,
Computational linguistics: the study of how computer can be used to analyze and
generate sentences.
On the other hand, we have to distinguish between linguistics and (Phonetics,
Audiology and Speech Therapy). First of all: “Phonetics is defined as “the study of the
production of speech by the human vocal mechanisms”. Therefore it is argued that
this field is partially related to linguistics but mainly it is related to the science of acoustics.
Secondly, Audiology is a clinical field concerned with hearing impairment. And
audiologists are involved in assessing and diagnosing hearing disorders. Plus, the Speech
therapy is the clinical field concerned with assessing people with a communication
problem.
To sum up, any reader in linguistics must have a clear idea about the exact
definitions of linguistics. It is really important not to confuse between the different
interrelated sciences with linguistics.
PHONETICS
Phonetics is a scientific study of production, transmission, and reception of sounds.
Phonetic symbols are written as following:-
Diphthongs PHONATICS

ei Say
∂џ go
ạі five
αυ now
Э‫׀‬ boy
Acoustic Auditory Articulatory
‫∂׀‬ near. (Physical properties of (hearing and (Recognizing sound
making
e∂ hair. sound frequency, perception) apparatus of human
body)
υ∂ pure. amplitude etc)
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 180
As far as varieties of English are concerned, it can be described as following:-
(1) Anglicized English.
(2) Acrolect.
(3) Mesolect.
(4) Basilect.
METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING
Method of teaching play vital role in pedagogy. Eminent methods of teaching are
enumerated as following:-
(1) Grammar Translation method.
(2) Direct method.
(3) Community language learning.
(4) Audio-Visual method.
(5) Audio-Lingual method.
(6) Silent way.
(7) Suggesto paedia.
(8) Inductive deductive approach.
(9) Eclectic method.
In case of Grammar Translation method (G.T.M), emphasis is laid on tenses,
parts of speech and grammar. The student or learner thinks in his mother tongue. Then he
translates it in Urdu. Them he translates the sentence in English. Meanwhile the learner:
Main Merit of G.T.M is that the learner is lucky enough to know about Tenses and parts of
speech. The main techniques of G.T.M. are:-
(1) Translation of literary passages
(2) Reading comprehension questions
(3) Antonyms and synonyms
(4) Deductive application of rules
(5) Fill in the blanks
(6) Memorization
(7) Use of words in sentences
T.G.M. is simple method in which teacher is authority, feels no need to monitor
students, gives knowledge and students remain passive thus their mental capabilities do
not find chances of growth.
In case of Direct Method, emphasis is laid on communication. Even tenses and
parts of speech are ignored. The students are very vocal, confident and courageous. They
do not feel hesitation, reluctance or psychological blockage. This method puts more stress
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 181
on oral performance for better pronunciation, fluency and confidence and chances of
self correction. Techniques of Direct Methods are:-
(1) Reading aloud
(2) Question and answer exercise
(3) Getting student self correct
(4) Conversation practice
(5) Fill in the blanks exercise
(6) Dictation
(7) Paragraph writing
In case of Audio- Visual Method, the pedagogue teaches the learners with the
help of audio- visual aids. The teacher uses computer, over- head projector, tape
recorders, radio, white board, black board and television.
The best method of teaching is Eclectic Method. In this method, advantages or
merits of all methods are combined to create unique method of teaching. Eclectic method
is just like a bouquet in which all flowers are collected.
Core crux and nucleus of the matter is that teacher should pedagogue should
utilize all possible means to make his teaching effective and appreciable.

AUDIO VISUAL AIDS


Audio Visual aids play vital and pivotal role in teaching process. It is quoted that
25% of the lecture is under stood by the class through oral lecture 25% of the lecture is
under stood by studying at home 75% of the lecture is facilitated and comprehended
through audio visual aids by undergoing various practical and demonstrations. The use of
Audio Visual aids has following advantages:-

(1) They make students motivated and interested in their learning because they
engage their various senses.
(2) They make it easy for the teacher to present their lesson productively.
(3) They enable students experience new knowledge. In this way new
knowledge become more appealing and memorable.
(4) They reduce teacher talking.
(5) Because of them atmosphere become more natural and language learnt in
such an atmosphere become more fruitful.
(6) They reduce the abstraction of concept and enable students experience
concept in concrete terms.
(7) They contribute to the growth of meaning and to development of vocabulary.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 182

Some of the commonly used A.V aids in the class room are:-
(1) Object
(2) Black and white boards
(3) Pictures
(4) Overhead projectors
(5) Television and VCP/VCR
(6) Tape recorders
(7) Computers and Multimedia projectors
These training aids have advantages over each other but depends upon the cost,
nevertheless these very cost effective most useful, beneficial and assist in better
comprehension to the learner and facilitate the pedagogue.
In A V aids, TV, VCR, VCP, overhead projector, computer, multimedia, simulated
software, blackboard, whiteboard, map, charts, pictures or pictorial descriptions, radio,
tape player and laryngoscope, pharyngoscope, cylinder, vocal boxes and candles.

Audio visual aids are really significant. These are really facilitators and motivating
agents, which not only keep the whole class in contact but also enhance linguistic
competency and comprehension of the learners of taught.
The taught as well as pedagogue do not face monotony or tedium, rather, whole
class feels motivation, enhancement and stimulus for further extension of knowledge with
the help audio-visual aids, one can expand horizons of one’s intellect, wisdom and
capabilities in very scientific and unique manner. For example if we are determined to
study whole novel of Tom joules, it may consume our almost whole week but by watching
its movie, one can have a grip and grasp on whole content of the novel within three hours.
The other side of picture is that some learners are accustomed to watch movies. So
their ready skill is affected and they are deficient about chunking, scanning and slimming
techniques.
All A.V, aids are not available in all educational institutes. Even in some schools of
the villages, blackboard is not available. Not to speak of overhead projector (O.H.P) even
maps are not available in some schools of the villages.
Another drawback is that each and every pedagogue is not well equipped and well
versed to handle modern A.V. Aids. Anyhow, chance of improvement is always present. It
is an undeniable fact that from cradle to grave, human being remains student.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 183
ERROR ANALYSIS
Dictionary definition: “The systematic study of deviations from target-language
norms in the course of second-language acquisition, especially in terms of the learner’s
developing inter-language.”
The field of Error Analysis in SLA was established in the 1970s by Stephen Pit
Corder (S.P. Corder) and colleagues. Error analysts distinguish between errors, which are
systematic and mistakes, which are not. They often seek to develop a typology of errors.
Error can be classified according to basic type: omission/omissive, addition/ additive,
substitution/ substitutive or related to word order. They can be classified by how apparent
they are:
Overt errors such as "I angry" are obvious out of context, whereas covert errors are
evident only in context. Closely related to this is the classification according to domain,
the breadth of context which the analyst must examine, and extent, the breadth of the
utterance which must be changed in order to fix the error.
Errors may also be classified according to the level of language: phonology
/phonological errors, vocabulary/vocabulary or lexical errors, syntax/syntactic or
grammatical errors, and so on. They may be assessed on the degree to which they
interfere with communication.
Global errors make an utterance difficult to understand, while local errors do not
interfere with understanding the language. For instance, in the above example, "I angry"
would be a local error, since the meaning is apparent.
From the beginning, error analysis was beset with methodology/methodological
problems. In particular, the above typologies are problematic:
It is often impossible to reliably determine what kind of error a learner is making,
based on linguistic data alone. Also, error analysis can deal effectively only with learner
production (speaking and writing) and not with learner reception (listening and reading
(activity/reading). Furthermore, it cannot control for learner’s use of communicative
strategies such as avoidance, in which learners simply do not use a form with which they
felt uncomfortable. Examples:
* She like apples. Subject verb agreement Correction: She likes apples.
* I look forward to hear from you. To is a preposition and it is followed by a gerund
Correction: I look forward to hearing from you.
A common mistake committed by the students while translating Urdu to English.
For instance, some people translate this sentence in a wrong manner.
My heart became garden garden (Mera dil bagh bagh ho gaya.)
Misunderstanding (Larki neechay khari hey.)
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 184
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 185

POETRY-II
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 186
SECTION-A

WILLIAM WORDS WORTH


W. WORDS WORTH AS A ROMANTIC POET
Words worth is the unique pioneer of Romantic Movement. He regarded pseudo classical
poets like Chaucer, Milton, Dryden, Shakespeare and Alexander pope as the doves
because they were sitting in their drawing rooms and they were hatching old stories of
past. They were creating poetry without observation of nature, Contrary to this; romantic
poets were regarded as angels because they were keen observer of nature and natural
backgrounds like high mountains, fresh fountains, melodious songs or voices chirping
birds and the beauties of nature. It illustrates that William words worth is high priest of
nature (He believes in simple words in order to express his views and news in poetry. It
also shows that W. Wordworth is really self –conscious poet. He is very subjective in his
analysis. He also lived in pantheism.
The famous critic Moody and Loves say that a homage to words worth’s position
and influence are partly due to the fact that he greatly enlarged the boundaries of poetry
giving it as subject matter, themes varying from joys and sorrows of simple homely lives to
the transcendental interest of soul in communion with nature and God Almighty, partly to
this development of a poetic style.
In the opening lines of “The prelude” words worth believes that nature is very
loving, caring appealing and benevolent.
“Oh there is blessing in this gentle breeze
That blows from the green fields from the clouds
And from the sky, it beats against my cheek,
And seems half-conscious of the joy it give!
In “The Prelude” William Words Worth is very self-conscious poet. He believes that
main purpose of literature is reflection of the life with the help of words. So his subjective
inclination is main feature of “The Prelude” for example an event of this childhood and
school time when he was enjoying sunbath after jumping into the river Dervent.
“A naked boy, in one delightful Rill
A little mill-race sever, d from his stream,
Made one long bathing of a summer’s day
Bask’d in the sun, and plunged, and bas, d again,”
Another aspect of “The prelude” is that words worth narrates that he was over
worried after stealing the bout of a shepherd. He become guilty conscious he had not got
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 187
permission from the owner of the boat. It indicates that words worth was hypersensitive
person form the beginning of his life.
“---It was an act of stealth.

And troubled pleasure, -------“


Another theft committed by words worth is that when he was a child he stole the
eggs of a raven and became guilty conscious. He remained seeing the mother bid that he
was also frustrated after seeing the bird in that disturbing state. So he took pity on the bird
and left the eggs on the same place.
“The mother bird had built her lodge, though mean
My object, and inglorious, yet the end.”
As a romantic poet diction four aspects are used:-
a. Observation.
b. Contemplation.
c. Recrudescence.
d. Composition.
In case of poetic diction four aspects are used:-
a. Rustic language must be used for poetry.
b. There should be selection of the language realty spoken by man in vivid
sensation.
c. There is no essential difference between language of prose and language of
poetry.
d. Meter must be used in the poetry.
Consequently, I can say that a William Word was pioneer of romantic poetry.

THE PRELUDE AS AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY


“The Prelude” is rightly regarded as physical, poetical and spiritual autobiography.
William words worth is very conscious about his personal life. He is going to depict
panoramic views related with his childhood and school time.
Doctor Johnson says, every man’s life is best written by himself. William Words
Worth took the hint and produced what Legouis described the unique autobiographical
poem. William Words Worth says,
“Oh there is blessing in this gentle breeze
That blows foam the green fields and from the clouds
And from the sky “s, it bents against my checks,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 188
A captive greats thee, coming form the house
Of bondage, from yon city, s walls set free,
A prison where he hath beer long immured”
The prelude is an autobiography because William words worth is narrating various,
events, incidents, narrations, descriptions and collaboration of “his London and he is going
to race down valley. He is enjoying various beauties of nature. He is enjoying and
observing green leaves and from water of streams chirping birds, melodious voices, lofty
mountains, elevated peaks, ascent of hills, descent from mountains, kite flying, skating
cards, stealing of beat, bird nesting, stealing of eggs of raven is major events of book I. He
is describing all these events for example in “The prelude” W.W.W. says that he is
dreaming and desiring that he should enjoy the life. He desires that any sweet stream
should Lull him to rest.
“Shall I take up my home and what sweet stream
Shall with its murmur Lull me to my rest”
William, words worth narrates that he used took both in the river Dervent when he
was just a baby of five years. He still remembers that he was enjoying long bathing in
summer days and then he was enjoying sunbath.
“A naked boy in one delightful Rill,
A little mill-race sever-d from his stream
Made one long bathing of a summer’s day,
Bask, d in the sum, and plunged and bask’d again”
Another incident is that he stole the eggs of a raven. It is also a childlike exposure
that he saw the bird and started thinking about stealing of eggs, the mother dove became
sensitive.
“The mother bird had built her lodge though men
My object, and inglorious, vet the end”
William, words worth also remember that he stole a bird, which was captured by
any hunter, in this way he became guilty conscious. He started condemning himself.
“Became my pray, and when the decd was done
I heard among the solitary hills
Low breathing coming after me, and sounds”
Another event narrated by William words worth stealing of a boat. One summer
evening William words worth stole the skiff of the shepherd. It was tied with a Willow
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 189
tree. He enjoyed troubled pleasure and act of stealth.
“Even like a man who walks with stately steps
Though bent on speed, I was an act of stealth
And troubled pleasure not without the voice”
In the prelude book II William words worth narrates that he used to enjoy different
games. He used to return late at night. His parents were sleeping. The benches were
empty. No body was present on the chair. He also narrates that he feared.
“No chair remained before the bench
And threshold steps merely empty, first asleep.”
William words worth narrates that he used to enjoy various races and various
incident related with Hakshed School. William Word Worth also describes that he was
enjoying his school life especially at Hawkshed Grammar School.
Vexing its own creation ’Tis a power
That does come unrecognized storm
To thread the topic of this discussion, I can say that William word worth has projected his
autobiography in a very stylistic manner.

BEAUTY AND FEAR IN PRELUDE


In the prelude “Beauty and Fear” are crystal clear and correlated wherever beauty
is fear is there. It is a fact that beauty is momentary, short lived and fleeting phenomenon.
The most melancholic aspect of beauty is that it is momentary. It is also pointed out that in
the prelude word worth is blending “Beauty and Fear” in the following manner.
“Fear seed time had my soul, and I grew up
Fostered alike by beauty and by fear”
A famous critic Dequincy gives a very significant title for a passage selected from
“The friend “Growth of genius from the influence of natural objects on the imagination in
boyhood and early youth and in the prelude word worth offers us a record of his mental
and spiritual growth.
Word Worth was enjoying various beautiful scenario of his birth place Cocker Mouth.
He was so adventurous that he remained venturing for adventure. For example Word
Worth, narrates that he stole the boat of a shepherd. It was a moonlit night. The moon was
shining. The waves of the water of river Dervent were moving up and down. He stole the
boat of a shepherd and stated rowing it. Leaping waves of the river were really very
artistic. He was under the spell of ensnaring, captivating and motivating beauty but
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 190
simultaneously he is fearing from various phobias or unconscious fear. So he himself
regards it as an act of stealth and troubled pleasure. He has created a pen picture of
boating excursion by portraying that the boat was moving like a swan. It illustrates that
Word Worth was very conscious about beauty and fear.
“Though bent on speed, it was an act of stealth,
And troubled pleasure: not without the voice”
Word worth was enjoying moon lit light but he was also fearing from the owner of the skiff.
It indicates that beauty and fear are blended in his poetry in a very unique manner. It also
illustrates that word worth was under the spell of beauty but he was fearing from different
problems of future. Beauty and fear is also visible in the prelude when we come to know
that word worth was enjoying a sight of beautiful birds captured in the cage but he started
fearing after catching birds. All this shows that worth was under the influence of both
beauty and fear. At the same time he knew it very well that beauty is something soothing,
embalming and consoling but there are some fearful concepts related with beauty. For
example beauty lies in natural description of hills, sounds, spring time’s primrose flowers
and valleys but Words Worth was fearing and becoming guilty conscious after
commitment of the particular emotional act.
“O, ever power, d my better reason, and the bird
which was the captive of another’s tolls
became my pray, and when deed was done
I heard among the solitary hills
Low breathing coming after me, and sounds.”
It is also remarked that words worth is blending beauty and fear at the moment
when he saw mother bird of raven. She was worried because words worth was gazing the
nest repeatedly. She thought that words worth might steal the eggs after spoiling the nest
that’s why the concept of beauty and fear were ambulated. All this denotes that w. worth
was high priest of nature who was very conscious to reflect various events and incidents
related with human nature.
“The mother bird had built her lodge. Though moon
My object, and inglorious, yet the end
Was act ignoble oh! When I have hung”
In his superb creation “Romantic Imagination” C.M Bewra is right to remark that
childhood is carefree portion of human life. Therefore each and every human being is
emotionally attached with this span of life. So, words worth is also sailing in the same boat
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 191
In “The prelude” words worth still listens to slow breathing chasing him. It
indicates that these fears remain clinging with his conscious as well as unconscious.
“I hard among the solitary hills
Low breathing coming after me and sounds
Of undistinguishable motion, steps
Almost as silent as the turf they trod”
No, doubt’ William words worth was enjoying natural scenario of mountains,
fountains, rills, chirping birds, lulling songs, melodious voices and other aspects of beauty
of nature but he was fearing from nightmares and other confusing complications. For
example, once was satisfying his aesthetic sense by gazing silent water of Winnander
Lake. He whistled to tease owls. Now all the owls assembled and jumbled round his and
he was horrified and terrified.
Words worth has mentioned so many beautiful events and incidents for example in
opening lines he is enjoying beautiful scenery of gentle breeze lulling stream Race done
valley. Flowing water of river Dervent unique music and other beauties of nature but he
was fearing about secure future no body knows what may happen the next. So we must
wish for the best and fear from the worst any how on should not lost one’s heart and
continue one’s
deep rooted links with beautiful aspects of nature.
“Shall I take up my home and what sweet stream
shall what it murmur lull me to my rest?
The earth is all before me with a heart”
In “the prelude” following incidents are related with beauty and fear:-
a. Bathing.
b. Bird snaring.
c. Birds nesting.
d. Expedition in stolen boat.
e. Skating.
f. Fishing.
g. Kite sailing.
h. Naughts, crosses and gats.
Consequently, I can say that beauty and fear are main aspects, of “The prelude”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 192
JOHN KEATS
John Keats –“Negative Capability”
“Several things dovetailed in my mind, & at once it struck me, what quality went to
form a Man of Achievement especially in Literature Which Shakespeare possessed so
enormously. I mean NEGATIVE CAPABUKUTY, that is when Man is capable of being
uncertainties, Mysteries, doubt, without any irritable reaching after fact & reason” – John
Keats
Keats was a self-made poet for he determined to be one of England’s greatest
poets. Therefore, he devoted himself to learning to write great poetry until he
accomplished his dream. He produced 1820 collection of poems, which has been
considered “the greatest single volume of poetry in English language”. Negative
Capability is a distinctive theory of Keats and can be seen obviously in his work. It was
expressed in his letter to George and Thomas, Keats dated Sunday Dec 1817.
The above famous quoted phrase from Keats letter has accumulated several heavy
comments. A stated definition for this deep concept is “Belief that poet possessing the
power to eliminate his own personality can take on the qualities of something else and
write most effectively about it”. Keats argued that poets should have no identity of their
own. For a thorough reader into this theory, two points may be offered first, distinguishing
between what is called the “objective” poet. Who simply and impersonally presents his
materials and the “subjective “poet, who presents his material as, it appears when viewed
through his personal interests, beliefs and feelings. The poet of negative capability” is the
objective poet. What Keats is saying is that it is more important to say what we see than
what we think. I think Keats is moving poetry towards science, where you observe before
you theorize. He is also asking for a kind of honesty in observation. In addition, the
believes that poetry is not about giving the answers to certain topics. It’s about finding
more questions, within the discussed subject matter.
He thought great poets, such as Shakespeare, are capable of negating their own
identities, ignoring reason and moral or rational judgment.
In the second point, Keats, suggests that the presentation of a subject matter within
a poem in an artistic form that appeals to our “sense beauty is enough despite its truth or
falsity when compared to reality outside poem.
“This pursued through Volumes would perhaps take us no further than this,
that with a great poet the sense of beauty overcomes every other consideration.”
The sense of “negative capability” is most evident in Keats’s poetry through his
powerful concrete imagery. According to the experts, it is this rich and complex poetic
style that explains the greatness of Keats.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 193
Negative capability is the highest form of imaginative connection with the
external world. Keats asserts the positive capability of negative knowledge through an
oxymoronic correspondence between dark and light. In the 1818 sonnet “To Homer”,
Keats depicts in lines 9 to 12 the paradox of knowing ignorance in term of thematic
harmony of mind and nature as a symbolic union of dark and light;
“Aye on the shores of darkness there is light,
And precipices show untrodden green
There is a budding morrow in midnight,
There is a triple sight in blindness keen.
Ode on a Grecian Urn” was composed by Keats in May 1819, two year after he first
wrote the famous lines about the Negative Capability. In this poem Keats is describing a
particular Greek vase that he saw in a British museum. In the fifth stanza, Keats says
about the urn “thou silent form dost tease us out of thought /. As eternity “The scene of the
urn can take us beyond the limits of our own thoughts. He compares the attempt to
decipher the urn’s message to our attempts to understand eternity and the meaning of life.
In this case we may try and think but we will never exactly what is going on. His question
can not be answered. However, when he is gone and the reader is gone, the beauty of the
urn will still exist and this is the truth of the beauty. “Keats is saying that beauty, whether
the beauty of art or nature and our emotions and imaginative reaction to them are all we
can know on earth and all we need to know. This is the truth. The wordless emotion itself
is truth.
After an intensive study in Keats’s Negative Capability and looking into several
resources, I think it is really unavoidable not to show oneself, especially artists. For
example, a beautiful unset or a violent scene will certainly provoke natural personal
emotions and thoughts rather than a pure objectively descriptive scene. Despite this, I
believe that sometimes we, readers, need to see things as they appear in reality in order
to question, argue and give our own judgment.
A famous critic W. T Arnold wise word “The Greek Vase” which inspired Keats was
no figment of his imagination but had a real existence and is not. It is said under the
arcade at the south front of Holland house”
Consequently we can say that Keats was very famous due to his negative
capability.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 194
A ROMANTIC CRAFTSMAN
Following the common English literature historian, the “Romantic period” spans
between 1798 to1832. This was a revolutionary period, during which England experienced
change from a primarily agriculture society to a modern industrial nation along with the
influence of the French Revolution. No writer at that time thought of himself as a
“Romantic”. For the word was not even applied until half a century later by English
historians. Many of the major writers, however, did feel that there was something
distinctive about their time an intellectual and imaginative climate.
John Keats (1795-1821) one of the greatest Romantic Poets had regarded poetry
as an imitation of human life. “A Mirror Held up To Nature” is a great work of poet’s
imagination, which is productions of his feelings and sense of experience. Keats once
wrote. "If poetry comes not as naturally as the tree leaves to a tree it had better not come
at all".
In accordance with the view that poetry expresses the poet’s own feelings and
temperament, the lyric poem written in first person, became a major Romantic form.
Therefore, in the Romantic lyric, the “I” has recognizable characteristics of the poet in his
own person and circumstances. At the early age of 21, Keats set himself a program of
poetic training modeled by the greatest poets. He described this experience in Sleep and
Poetry.
“For ten years that I may overwhelm
Myself in poesy; I may do the deed
That my own soul has to itself decreed
As other Romantic writers, Keats deliberately put himself in competition with his
greatest predecessors. This could be recognized clearly in his longer poems, which are
mostly constructed on novel principles of organization and style, like his great sequence of
Odes. In addition, Keats’s Endymion; a Poetic Romance represents an essential aspect of
the romantic period, which is the fascination of myth and legend. This poem of more than
4,000 lines, which is based on the classical myth of a mortal beloved by the goddess of
the moon, tells the story of Endyomin’s long and agonized search for immortal goddess
whom he had seen in several visions.
“We have imagined for the mighty dead;
All lovely tales that we have heard or read:
An endless fountain of immortal drink,
Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 195
A glance at the table of content of the collection of Keats Romantic poems will
show the degree to which natural scene has become a primary poetic subject Keats
wrote.
“Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friends of the maturing sun,
Conspiring with him how to load and bless”
This nature poem is in fact a meditative poem, in which the presented scene
usually serves to raise an emotional problem or a personal crisis.
Keats’s dedication to poetry, his poverty and his growing illness mode his marriage
to Fancy Brawne, his true love, impossible. So in this period of distress and emotional
turmoil, round 1819, Keats achieved masterpiece followed by masterpiece in astonishing
succession. The Eve of St. Agnes, La Belle Dame sans Merci, Lamia and a number of
great sonnets, all these poems possess the distinctive qualities of his maturity as a major
Romantic poet. His letters, no less remarkable than his poetry, dramatized reality
revealing the conflict of evil and suffering.
No one can read Keats’s poems and letters without an under sense of the tragic
waste of this extraordinary intellect and genius, which was cut off so early. Although he
stopped writing at the age of twenty four, died by then his work exceeds great poets at the
same age.
Consequently we can say that Keats is the great romantic poet of modern era.

CAN WE SAY THAT KEATS WAS HIGHLY SENSUOUS POET?


John Keats is typical sensuous very well how to utilize visual (seeing), auditory
(speaking), olfactory (smelling) sense, tactical (touching) sense, gustatory sense and
intuition (sudden insight). A famous critic C.M. Bowera says, in his book “Romantic
Imagination” that Keats is exceptionally refined and elevated poet because of negative
capability and sensuousness.
In this famous creation Ode to Psyche, Keats has mentioned the term cool-rooted
flowers. It seems that he has touched the roots of flowers.
“The grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree wild;
White hawthorne, and the pastoral eglantine;”
Being a perceptive observer Keats is also aware of this fact that one must extend
the frontiers of one’s knowledge by observing mountains, fountains, hills, rills and other
beauties of Nature. In his famous creation Ode to Nightingale, Keats has created a pen-
picture of moonlit night. As a sensuous poet Keats is also aware of this fact that some
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 196
sounds are very fascinating. For example, bleating sound of full grown lambs. In the
same way chirping sound of the bird red-breast and twittering of swallows is very artistic.
“Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft
The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;
And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.”
As a sensuous poet, Keats is skillful to enjoy aesthetic pleasure because of his
aesthetic sense. No doubt, human being is crown creature and we want to satisfy our
dreams and we want to satisfy our dreams and desires by seeing watching, tasting,
touching and feeling. For instance, Keats has mentioned performed and fragment flowers.
In the same way, Keats also believes in expression of feelings after observation. For
example, he saw a “Grecian Urn” while traveling, there were so many engravings and
encoring on the four sides of the urn. At one side he saw a romantic painting. In which a
boy and a girl are showing ecstasy. The girl is trying to escape but the boy is very bold, he
is gazing her constantly. It illustrates that love is emotional passion which very invigorating
and contemplating. Keats is meditating about his own love.
“Bold lover, never, never, canst thou kiss
Though winning near the goal yet, do not grieve;
She cannot fade, though thou bast not thy bliss
For ever wilt thou love and she be fair”.
Keats’s sensuousness is also transparent in his famous creation “Ode to Autumn”.
He regards the autumn as a season of mists and mellow fruitfulness. It is also gustatory
sense is active when he mentions the sweet kernel.
“To swell the gourd and plumb the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,”
In “Ode to Autumn”, Keats’s sensuousness is visible when he mentions buzzing of
the bees.
In Keats’s poetry sensuousness is also crystal clear. In this creation “Ode to
Nightingale” be has mentioned different dimensions of symbol of nightingale. She may be
symbol of beauty, future and expectations about coming days, Keats also believes that
one must forget intensity of grief by looking different beauties of nature especially
nightingale. No doubt, one may forget intensity of gloom by dividing one’s concentration.
In the opening lines of “Ode to Nightingale” Keats is mentioning his gustatory sense
when he describes his desire of drinking Opiate, Flora, Blushful Opium and other
tranquilizers.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 197
“My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains”
In Ode to Autumn, for example, he described granary floor, winnowing wind,
gleaner and Cyder press, oozing drop by drop.
“Or by a Cyder-press, with patient look,
Then watchest the last oozings hours by hours”
Olfactory sense is also crystal clear when Keats describes perfumed musk rose, ivy
myrtles, budded Tyriam, whispering roof of the flower and so many aspects of Flora and
Fauna of England.
“Of leaves and trembled blossoms, where there ran
A brooklet, searce espied:
Mld hushed, cool-rooted flowers, fragrant-eyed,
Blue, silver-white, and budded Tyrian”
Sense of touch is also crystal clear when we come to know that Keats is crazy to
touch the different objects of observation. For example, Keats is touching engraved and
en-carved the lover’s beloved, melodist green leaves of the trees.
Consequently, we can say that Keats is very famous due to his sensuousness.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 198
SECTION-B
ROBERT BROWNING
ROBERT BROWNING’S DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE
Robert Browning is very famous for dramatic monologues because he was very
perceptive and analytical and idealist. In his dramatic monologue, Fra Lippo Lippi and
Andrea Del Sarto, Porphyria’s Loves and Bishop Orders. His Tomb and Sainte Praxed’s
Church: Browning has reflected various ins and outs of Victorian morality, Victorian
Church and Victorian trends.
In his dramatic aggression, he is of the opinion that love must be achieved,
therefore the lover intentionally strangulate his beloved. She thinks that the lover is cutting
joke and he will not strangulate but is height of her bewilderment that he kills her at the
innocent. He was thinking that in real life, he is unable to achieve her but he should
perpetuate his infatuation. So he wanted to perpetuate his love. In real life he was facing
social differences but in practical life. So in his romantic attachment he decided to kill her
so she may not be the wife of anybody else. “While I debated what to do,
That moment she was mine, mine, fair,”
In his poem Andreas Del Sarto, negation of male chauvinism is crystal clear. It is
height of surrender of manly assertion. He thinks that his wife should appreciate his art but
this dream is not internalize. The cousin is waiting outside and he is whistling repeatedly
to tempt her. “Again the cousin’s whistle’ Go, my Love”
In his poem Fra Lippo Lippi, Robert Browning is projecting various emotional and
passionate aspects of friars. Who is caught red handed enjoying with three slim shapes
sportive ladies. When the friar is confined in his chamber, he sick of his additional and
conventional life in the church. He desires change or variety in life. He was compelled to
paint the soul after rubbing the body. Fra Lippo Lippi narrates that he was brought up as
an orphan boy. His parents were very caring but he faced miseries of life after their death.
He wants to hypnotize and mesmerize the particular friar. He thinks that he should be
fortunate enough to see the world.
In Browning’s dramatic monologue, Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint praxed’s
Church ecclesiastical figure are quarrelling with each other for the sake of a girl. He is
requesting his sons and nephews to construct very magnificent tomb having archetypal
architectural design.
“ Old Gandolf, at me, from his onion,-stone,
As still he envied me, so fair she was.”
Consequently, I can say that Browning is expert in dramatic monologue.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 199
BROWNING’S OBSCURITY
Robert Browning is very famous as Victorian poet. But his obscurity is very strange
factor. There is deficiency of clarity in his poems.
For example in his poem Fra Lippo Lippi, Robert Browning is aware of this fact that
some people are very emotional and passionate in their approach, Fra Lippo Lippi is one
of them. He also knows it very well that some people of his age are not interested in their
aptitude. Fra Lippo Lippi is not interested in monk ship but he is compelled by the
circumstances and becomes very conscious about enjoyment. It also illustrates that
Browning is very conscious about projection of human nature. It is very condemnable on
the part of Fra Lippo Lippi that he is caught red handed while enjoying with sportive ladies.
“Week, weke, that’s crept to keep him company.

Aha,you know your betters , Then, you’ll take.


Robert Browning is also aware of this philosophy that sex is a basic instinct but one
should not be under the spell of sex forever. Sex can’t control human being but Fra Lippo
Lippi is controlled by his passion and emotion. He is thinking that he should enjoy life it is
very strange exposure of obscurity that he combines painting with description. It also
illustrates that Robert Browning is blending different aspects of life in a very marvelous
manner. For instance, in Fra Lippo Lippi, Browning has also reflected deep-rooted
quintessence of theory of art. He knows very well that art has not chart and art
immortalizes the artist.
Sartor, the husband is hen-pecked. He is painting five pictures to get good will and
favor of his better half. He is hankering that his wife should be humble, gentle and
submissive but she is shifting her heart life a mobile toyshop. Her cousin is whistling
outside and she is really inclined toward him. Obscurity is crystal-clear rather transparent
when we come to know that Andrea is amalgamating his personal life with painting. The
reader of
common caliber is unable to understand real theme and thought of this dramatic
monologue.
G.K. Chesterton opines that Browning is using the technique of stream of
consciousness in a unique style but there is obscurity in his dramatic monologue.
Core and crux of the matter is that there is obscurity in Browning’s poetry
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 200
BROWNING’S OPTIMISM
Robert Browning is very famous Victorian poet. His optimism is really appreciable.
He achieved global name and fame by writing Andrea Del Sarto, Fra Lippo Lippi, Bishop
Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed’s church, the Laboratory, My last Duchess and
Porphyria’s Lover. Browning is optimist. He knows it very well that basic purpose of
literature is reflection of life with the help of words.
Browning is really optimist because he behaves in positive values of life. In
Andrea Del Sarto the husband is highly optimistic about strange behavior of his life.
Although he is worried about nymphomaniac behavior of the cousin yet he is hopeful that
situations and circumstances can be normalized through table talk and negotiation.
In the opening lines of this dramatic monologue, we can come to know that Andrea
and his wife Lucrezia are quarrelling with each other because she has demanded money
from him and at the particular moment. He has no penny in his pocket. Therefore, he
compels her to sit before him as a model so that he may be capable to paint five pictures.
But do not let as quarrel any more,
No, my Lacrezia, bear with me for once:
Sit down and all shall happen as you wish.”
Optimism is crystal clear in some dramatic monologue when we some to know that
he is highly conscious about positive trends in life. In “Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint
Praxed Church” we come to know that the particular Bishop in dying degrees but he is
very apologetic in his mood to express his lost will. He is imploring and requesting his
some that architectural design of his tomb must be majestic so that his villain may feel
jealousy after seeing it. It illustrates that Browning is aware of so many emotions and
passions; Bishop is allowing his sons that they can get share from his property because
he is bequeathing villas, baths, bank balance and other movable property.
A famous critic says, “Whatever enriches experience and favors aspiration is good
and is to be used us whether conventionally sanctioned or not. That which enervates
paralyses, deadens is bad and must be put aside.”
Consequently, I can say that Browning’s optimism is transparent in his dramatic
monologues.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 201
BROWNING’S PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE RELATED WITH NATURE
Browning is highly conscious about human nature because nature can not change.
Only those people are fortunate enough in this world that is lucky enough to understand
human nature. Browning’s philosophy is associated with optimistic trend which are co-
related with human nature.
A famous critic G.K. Chesterton opines that Browning is very conscious about
human nature in his dramatic monologues, Fra Lippo Lippi and Andrea Del Sarto.
In Fra Lippo Lippi , it is negation of morality and ethics that a friar is caught red handed by
head watchman and his subordinates. Probably Browning has depicted that sex is basic
instinct, the friar is compelled by the religion not to speak of marrying even is not allowed
to kiss the girls. It is human nature that every action has a reaction. Fra Lippo Lippi is so
expressed and suppressed that he openly says that this made a monk of him and
remained subduing his flesh, unintentionally. Actually Browning has also pointed out that
one must be fortunate enough to overcome one’s passion and emotion. Some people say
that unbridled emotions.
“I am poor brother Lippo, by your leave
You need not clap your torches to my face
Zooks, what,s to blame ?You think you see a monk
What, tis past mid night, and you go the rounds”
Browning’s philosophy of life is transparent in Andrea Del Sarto. It is within the
nature of man, that we demand affection, love, motivation and passion from one’s near
and dear. But one is unable these assets of life one remain emotionally perturbed. Andrea
Del Sarto is embodiment of manly surrender. He is henpecked that he is tolerating
frivolous, triviality and stupidity of his better – half. He knows it very well that her cousin is
whistling outside.
In the same manner the Porphyria’s Lover, human nature is exposed. Porphyria is
so love thirsty that one bids farewell to final love and remains in search of libido. She is so
love thirsty; she wants to die in his hands. He strangled her by long hair three times
around her ivory neck.
“While he debuted what to do
That moment she was mine, mine, fair”
Consequently, I can say that philosophy of life related with human nature is
transparent in Browning’s dramatic monologue.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 202
VARIOUS THEMES OF W.B YEATS
William Butler Yeats has propounded so many themes in his poetic creation like,
Among School Children, The Wilde Swan At Coole, Easter 1916, Sailing To Byzantium,
The Tower, The Second Coming, Byzantium, To Second Troy, September1913, A Prayer
for My Daughter, Leda & The Swan, Lapis Lazuli, Meditations in Time of Civil War, When
You Are Old, A Dialogue of Self and Soul.
Main theme of W. B. Yeats’s poetry is love and patriotism. It is a fact that love is
natural phenomenon which is present in heart and soul of every human being, Love is
something intuitive. Probably it is unintentional. Yeats was also having such type of
experience. He was lover of Miss Maude Gonne but fan of Lady Gregory.
It is important to know a little about the three women in Yeats’s life Maude Gonne,
beautiful but strong- minded girl with whom he fell in love and remained in love for many
years (she appears often in his poetry, even in later years when he is offended by her
intellectual and political arrogance, which he saw as unwomanly); In his famous poem
“Among School Children” Yeats mentioned Miss Maude Gonne symbolically. As he went
to the girls’ school fr inspection a particular girl resembled his beloved Miss Maude Gonne.
He used to enjoy this flavor that his beloved would also be studying in any particular girl
school. It was the proof of his deep rooted love to Miss Maude Gonne. But the child-girl
became worried.
“I dream of a Leda can body, bent
Above sinking fire, a tale that she
Told of a harsh reproof, or trivial event
That changed some childish day to tragedy”
Lady Gregory, an aristocratic patron of the arts, who collaborated with Yeats on the
Abbey Theatre in Dublin and other projects and his wife, whom he married when he was
fifty-two and who brought a fulfillment and stability into his work which it had previously
lacked.
A famous critic William H. Pitchard opines, “Yeats’s poetry is subjective, complex,
allusive and thinks through its images. It is dramatic and possesses the requisite amount
of lyrical tension”.
Theme of love is also crystal clear in his poem “Leda and The Swan”. In this poem
Zeus fell in love with Leda. She was taking bath in a pond. So he disguises himself into
swan and started swimming on the surface of pond. He became so emotional that he
picked fire up towards the sky. She expected a baby and born Helen of Troy. Trojan War
was fought for her sake.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 203
“A sudden blow: the great wings beating still
Above the staggering girl,
her thighs caressed his heart.
As this poem is post war literature, therefore, it is colored with warring situations. It
is undeniable fact that war is necessary evil. A famous historian says that when love
finishes, war starts vice versa. W.B. Yeats is also praying that his daughter should be safe
and sound from calamities.
“Once more the storm is howling, and half hid
Under this cradle-head and coverlid
My child sleeps on.”
He is of the opinion that war should be finished because war can spoil out serenity,
peace and calm atmosphere. He also thinks that his daughter should be free from social
maladies. No doubt war is a very abhorring malady.
Irish themes are also transparent in his poem “The Second Coming” Being a
mystical poet he is mentioning Bethlehem. He is highly conscious about holy preaching
missionary work of Holy Christ and his disciple. The pages of history of Irish literature
reveal that in Ireland Celtic movement was going on. Irish poets as well as orators took
active part in this movement. W.B. Yeats says that most of the people of Ireland and
indulging in the web of evil, If Holy Christ is rejuvenated or resurrected; it will be pathetic
scenario for him. Therefore Yeats is mentioning following lines.
“That twenty centuries of stony sleep
Were vexed to nightmare by a racking cradle,
And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?”
Irish themes are also visible in his poem “To A Shade” one of the most significant
Irish poems of Yeats is addressed to Mr. Pamell the Irish leader of Celtic, who the hero of
Yeats’ youth before reactionaries of the Church.
“If you have revisited the town, thin shade,
Whether to look upon your monument”.
A famous critic Louis Mac Niece says, “Yeats had for a long time regarded the
essential Ireland as incite in the country gentry and the peasantry. The Irish “Troubles”
however, evoked in him an admiration, even envy, for the dynamic revolutionaries.
Consequently, we can say that W. B. Yeats has propounded and projected so
many Irish themes in his poetic creations.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 204
SYMBOLISM IN W.B. YEATS’S POETRY
In Yeats’s poetry, there are so many symbols which can rightly be regarded as
individual and archetypal. For instance, there is a symbol “Lyre” Probably. W. B. Yeats
believes that in this world, each and every person captured, entangled in some
materialistic web. Nobody is as free as lark in this world there are so many shackles,
debacles and manacles. So being a perceptive he has reflected different attachments,
annotations, passionate links and emotional incompatibilities.
Arthur Symons dedicated his book. The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1919) to
W. B. Yeats and called him, the chief representative of that movement in our country. The
fact is that his conception of the end and object of the symbolic technique is fundamentally
different from that of his French compeers and counterparts.
In Yeats poetry there are symbols of two types’ traditional symbol and personal
symbol. For example, the rose is traditional symbol of beauty and it has been used by
poets from times immemorial. But in Yeats’s poetry the rose has different meanings. It
would be released point to discuss that Yeats was the member of Hermetic Students of
the Golden Dawn, which was founded in 1888. The rose was the central symbol of
Theosophist society. In Yeats’s poems like, “The Second Coming Bethlehem” is typical
epitome of Christian thought. It is historically proved that holy Christ was born in
Bethlehem. So all Christian regard this place as embodiment of virtue.
“That twenty centuries of stony sleep
Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,
And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?”
The theories of symbolism which, Yeats derived from the translations of the French
symbolist by Arthur Symons are clearly seen in the poems of the volume “The Wings
among the Reeds”.
In the poem “Leda and The Swan, Wild Swans at Coole” and ‘No Second Troy’ two
prominent symbols are used; Swan and Helen is the symbol of destructive beauty and it is
linked with Maude Gonne. Actuality the symbol of rose, the symbol of swan and the
symbol of Helen are typical symbols of intellectual beauty. It is historically proved that
Yeats was over conscious about Maude Gonne. Therefore he symbolizes Miss Maude
Gonne directly and indirectly.
“The feathered glory from her loosening thighs?
And how can body, laid in that white rush,
But feel the strange heart beating where it lies?”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 205
By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill,
He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.”
Theme of patriotism and nationalism is also crystal clear in some of his poems, like
Meditations at The Time of Civil War, A Prayer For My Daughter, To A Shade.
In his poem “To A Shade” one of the most significant Irish poems of Yeats is
addressed to Mr. Parnell the Irish leader of Celtic, who was the hero of Yeats’s youth
before reactionaries of the Church.
“If you have revisited the town, this shade,
Whether to look upon your monument”
A famous critic Louis Mae Niece says, “Yeats had for a long time regarded the
essential Ireland as inmate in the country gentry and the peasantry. The Irish “Troubles”
however, evoked in him an admiration, even envy for the dynamic revolutionaries.
Consequently, we can say that William Butler Yeats has expresses his love,
patriotism and many other themes in a marvelous manner.

YEATS’S MYSTICISM & OCCULTISM


Remarkable enough, Yeats had been preoccupied with his continued search for a
system or pattern that could bestow unity and coherence to his beliefs. This search led
him to study of magic, astrology, theology and teachings of Plato and Platonious. This
curious mixture caused him develop a system of his own, in his prose work “A Vision”,
which also continued the elements of philosophy, mythology and mysticism.
Mysticism is sometimes, seen as spiritualism, hypnotism and objective
psychological state or happening. Others see it as the rare state of consciousness
available only to meditative minds. More so, mysticism is conscious not only of divine
presence in nature but also of the existence of an essential identity of being between man,
nature and God.
In a letter, Yeats wrote, “The mystical life is the center of all that I do and all that I
think and all that I write”.
Yeats was well and not only in theosophy (belief that knowledge of God could be
attained through spiritual ecstasy and direct intuition) and occult works but also in Plato
and the Neo Platonists. H was influenced by the Hindu “Upanishads”, by St Thomas
Aquinas, by Berkley Blake and Kant. There was also the influence of the Ballasts and
Rosicrucianists.
All this resulted in a distinct phase in Yeats’s poetic development when his poetic
world appears not in full sunlight but in starlight and twilight and the unearthly cold light of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 206
dawn and under visionary fires. Even rhythms at this stage of his work are half
entranced like a man walking alone, lost in a train of visionary thoughts as if he thought of
poetry as priestly vocation. At that stage, in his work, the human figures are few and
belong to ancient times or to all times. There is a hermit or two, an old priest, there are
Druides are heroes out of old legends are vaguely medieval queens. This world is thickly
populated by supernatural beings, fairies that have not forgotten their divinity.
Angelic presences and vaguely distinct voices are emanations from the poet’s
imagery because he creates a world to reflect his spirit. Behind the scene of most of the
poetry of this time is the human soul’ all the figures are Shelleyian who wanders like a
daydream through dim wilderness of the mind. Yeats’s vision around this time moves from
darkness through the half-light in the while radiance of eternity. There are glimpses of
angelic hosts disappearing into the dawn of eternity. The point was that all things,
supernatural as well as natural, will have to merge, at last in God.
“Transformed utterly

A terrible beauty is born”.


In Yeats’s poetry symbolic exposures are really crystal clear. For instance, in his
poem “Among School Children” W. B. Yeats is very personal about his deep-rooted love to
Miss Maude Gonne. He is also aware of this fact that love is natural phenomenon which is
present in the heart and soul of every human being. Everybody wants to be loved and
secured. W. B. Yeats saw a particular girl who resembled with Maude Gonne so he
became crazy just after seeing her.
“I walk through the long schoolroom questioning;
A kind old nun in a white hood replies;
The study reading-books and histories.”
In this poem “A Dialogue of Self & Soul”, he is right to say that soul is more
prominent and eminent than human body. Rusty and dusty body goes to the dust. But
eternal soul bubbles up to purgatory.
“My Soul, I summon to the winding ancient stair:
Set all your mind upon thee steep ascent,”
My Self, The consecrated blade upon my knees
Is Sato’s ancient blade, still as it was,”
In his famous poem “Sailing to the Byzantium” Yeats has depicted some unusual
symbols. It is historically proved that “Byzantium” is with the old name Constantinople or
Istanbul. In fourth stanza Yeats is very conscious about freedom. He will not take his new
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 207
form any natured thing but the form of golden bird which was designed by Greek artists
to sit upon a golden branch to sing and keep the king awake. In this way he has depicted
his views about freedom with the help of symbols and images. A famous critic Edmund
Wilson, “Yeats, in transplanting his symbolism to Ireland gave it a strange and national
quality”.
Consequently, I can say that symbolism is salient feature of Yeats poetry.
A theosophical society founded in New York 1875 and later in London was
interested in Indian experiences the spiritual body taking control of the physical body. The
goal was “Nirvana” in which the lower half is dead. These mystic visions led Yeats to
believe in re-incarnation.
The note of mysticism runs throughout Yeats poetry and the world of his poetry remains
the world of mystic visionary in which the gods and fairies of the Celtic mythology live
again.
One may question Yeats’s mystic leniencies, yet to Yeats these meant a search for
a non-materialistic world. This was a vital search for Yeats. It may be taken as beginning
of Yeats’s lifelong search for symbols, thought forms, images, his answer to the fears he
had about the separation of spirit and matter in the modern world.
Consequently, it can be pointed out that Yeats’s occultism is very crystal clear and
laudable in his poetry.

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS AS IRISH POET


William Butler Yeats is very renowned Irish poet. He achieved global prestige by
writing the poems like Among School Children, The Wild Swans At Coole, Easter 1916,
Sailing To Byzantium, The Tower, The Second coming, Byzantium, No Second Troy,
September 1913, A Prayer for My Daughter, Leda and The Swan, Lapis Lazuli,
Meditations in Time of Civil War, When You Are Old, A Dialogue of Self and Soul.
As an Irish poet, W.B. Yeats is very typical poet. Perhaps he believes in Emerson’s
saying, who says that one who does not love one’s country can love northing.
A famous critic Pinto opines, “Yeats began as a loose romantic and pre-Raphaelite
with the additional advantage of contact with Irish mythological, traditional and folk-culture.
What is remarkable about his whole career is his sustained power of development. He
could not remain a poet of the Celtic Twilight.
As an Irish poet, W.B. Yeats is very conscious for freedom of thought, liberty of
opinion, intellectual, uplift of Irish community. In most of his poems Irish themes are
prevailing. He desired his deep rooted to country in very laudable manner. In his famous
poem “Easter 1916”, Irish theme is crystal clear. The Ireland of Easter 1916 – The Ireland
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 208
of common place of little people, The Ireland seen from Dublin clubs and the Ireland of
the people who existed only to provide butts of the jokes are visible in the following
manner;
“Now and in time to be,
Wherever green is worn,
Are changed, changed utterly:
A terrible beauty is born.”
In the poem “Meditations of Civil War”, he is highly conscious about post war
situations of Ireland. It is unique thought that nobody loves war.
In his poem “Among School Children” romantic nature of W. B. Yeats is shown. He
is highly conscious about his beloved Miss Maude Gonne. Therefore, in the opening lines
of the poem he says.
“I walk trough the long school room questioning;
A kind old nun in a white hood replies;
The children learn to cipher and to sing,
To study reading-books and histories,”
As an Irish poet W.B. Yeats, has also aware of this fact that filial love is natural
phenomenon because love is intuitive aspects. In the poem “A Prayer for My Daughter”,
W. B. Yeats is praying for his daughter from the core of Symbolism and imagery is also
transparent in “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” the particular timid hero is struggling and
daring to propose an imagery girl but alienations. He is dreaming to daring spark but
actually he is away from the canvas of reality. He is so melancholic in his mood that he is
cogitating, meditating and brooding one matter; his expected marriage. Symbol of
marriage and sex is revealed through his character he wants to be an apple of an eye of
the particular Lady. But he is under the spell of phobia. He is over-conscious about
baldness and thin legs. It also illustrates that W.B. Yeats is very conscious about incitation
and personification of a brooding young man. Who wants to be daring but his inward
cowardice is very confusing, congestive and frustrating for him.
“To wonder, Do I dare?, and, “Do I dare?’
Time to turn back and descend the stair,
With a bald spot in the middle of my hair-
(They will say: “How his hair. Is growing thin!)”
A famous critic Pinto opines that “Here is a poet who has thoroughly immersed
himself in the destructive elements, the sordidness the stupidity and the ugliness of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 209
modern urban life, without surrendering to its values, which he treats with the curiosity
of an artist and the irony of a keenly calculating intellect”.
Thomas Stearn Eliot is really marvelous, appreciable, eulogized poet his modern age.
A famous critic Williamson is opinion that “The min interest of the poem lines in
“what goes on within the mind, rather than in the exterior events which provoke the mental
activity and play of thought and feeling”.
Consequently, it is remarked that W.B Yeats is very towering, multidimensional and
venerable poet of modern era.

Thomas Stearn Eliot(T.S.ELIOT)


VARIOUS THEMES OF T. S.ELIT
Thomas stern Eliot is very conscious to project different themes in Wasteland, Love
Song of J. Alfred Prufrok and Ash Wednesday. Being a keen observer, rational thinker,
social satirist and perceptive analyst he has depicted so many frivolities, oddities,
stupidities. Comicalities, lecherous bent of mind, snobbery, foppish trends, aimless routine
of modern life, spiritual decay, material benefits, mechanical routine life and so many other
socio- economic maladies.
C. Gillie opines that T. S. Eliot’s importance as a critic linked with his importance as
a poet in as much as his really influential critics was concerned with a reassessment of the
past in such a way as to lead up to his own poetic production. The Wasteland came out in
1922 in which year he established the criterion. His poetry permanently enlarged the
range and from of poetic expression as a medium of the modern consciousness.
In Wasteland, spiritual decay is major theme, he is right to say that modern man is
victim of his desires. We are multiplying our greed; contentment is just for nominal sake.
Most of the people are status conscious because materialized or mundane trends are ever
cherished by the majority. The result is corruption. Most of the people are lecherous, rusty
and morally bankrupt. The churches are empty but there is hustle and bustle in the public
places.
“And each man fixed his eyes before his feet.

Flowed up the hill and down King William Street,

To where Saint Mary Woolnoth Kept the hours

With a dead sound on the final stroke of nine’.


Another theme is over- indulgence in sex. He is right to say that passion and
emotions of high society, middle class, lower class are entirely different. Lady of the Rock,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 210
Belladonna is over- conscious to beautiful her appearance. Her drawing room is well
decorated with unique decoration pieces. But she herself is good for nothing. There is also
description of Philomel, Barbarous king and sexual sounds of ‘ Jug Jug’. Aimless thinking
and brooding melancholy is also out put of modern age. The lover is not having sequence
of thought and harmonized ideas. In the same manner three daughters of river Thames
are also revealing experiences of emotional act. One of them says that her lover started
weeping after that emotional act. There is also description of Richmond and Kew. And
Urdu poet says that.
In Wasteland, T. S. Elliot is also aware of this fact that in modern age people are
not enjoying purity of passions rather they are very frivolous superficial. Hollow and
shallow. They are regarding passion as a mechanical tool. The typist girl and boy are not
enjoying passionate love they are sick of this emotional act. So they thank God Almighty
that is it over.
“Well now that’s done; and I’m glad it’s overrr”
T.S.Eliot is also aware of this fact that modern people are changing their priorities.
In the past religion, rank, rationality, family line and morality were the criterion of judgment.
But now-a- day people are very snobbish, morally bankrupt and sexual. Therefore in the
poetic extract “But the Thunder Said” the poet is intentionally quoting “Da, Datta’
Dayadhvam and Damyat”. The River Ganges and little water, dark clouds were gathering
over Himalaya Mountains. The jungle animals gathered together. Now the thunder spoke,
Da = Give, Dayahvam = Sympathize and damayata= to control. It is fact that self control
and inner- discipline makes life smoothing.
" DA
Damayata : the boat responded
Gaily, to the hand expert with sail and oar
The sea was calm, your heart would have responded
Gaily, when invited, beating obedient
To controlling hands”
In Wasteland, Tiresias is a kind of all knowing universal person, who belongs to the
past as well as present. He may be compared with Ibn-e-Sabah of Islamic tradition. He is
a prophet who told king Oedipus of Thebes that his land had been made desolates by is
on action. He visited the underworld, Hades and other regions. Here, Tiresias comments
on the strength of his own experiences among the poor Thebes. He could understand and
explain feelings of the poor people involved in occasional sexual meetings. In the context
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 211
of the modern world mating or sex contact has become a mechanical and routine
experience.
Another theme of Wasteland is that T.S. Eliot is over-conscious about social
reflection. For example Madam Sosastrous is highly conscious about fortune-telling. She
is suffering from bad cold. It indicates that people of modern age are not religious minded.
They believe in fortune telling.
Consequently we can say that T.S. Eliot is representative of the modern mind,
keenly aware of his surroundings, its problems and of the needs the modern life.

LOVE SONG OF PRUFROCK AS A MONOLOGUE


Thomas Stern Eliot (1888 to 1965) “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock “can rightly
be regarded as dramatic monologue. Monologue is a device to undergo catharsis in this
process the speaker expresses different bottled up feelings. It is also remarked that “The
Love Song of Prufrock” is actually purgation of a particular person who has come to
England and he suffers from inferiority complex after observing different characters.
A distinguished critic Williamson opines, “The main interest of the lies in “what goes
on within the mind, rather than in the exterior events which provoke the mental activity and
play of thought and feeling.”
In this monologue T. S. Eliot says that the speaker desires to express him passions,
feelings, emotions, dreams and wishes But he is very reluctant, hesitant and block
psychological. He also fears that the particular girl would have rejected him offer of
marriage. In this way, he is on the horns of dilemma and he is unable to decide what to
do. It also indicates that T.S. Eliot is expert and skillful to depict different types of feelings
and passions, which are experienced by the particular lover. He asks different queries
from himself. He wants to be daring, courageous, confident and outspoken but
simultaneously he is tongue-tide It illustrated that he is very egoistic, shy, hesitant person.
This bent of mind is crystal clear in the following lines.
“Do I dare
Disturb the universe?”
A famous critic A.G George says “Prufrock is in love and just as ethically he can not
being himself to a point of decision so romantically he cannot being himself to propose to
his lady.”
While waiting this monologue, T.S. Eliot seems to be highly impressed and
influenced by “Dante” who wrote ”Divinia Comedia”. Prufrock is so conscious about his
future that he is dreaming not only at night but also in day light. He is busy in brown study.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 212
He thanks that he will be wearing costly dress, rare necktie but he fears that he has a
bald spot on his head. He is also conscious about his then legs and physical weakness.
“With a bald spot in the middle of my hair-
(They will say: ‘How his hair is growing thin’)
My morning cost, my necktie my collar mounting firmly to the chin
My necktie rich modest, but asserted by a simple pin-
(They will say: ‘But how his arms and legs are thin)
Do I darer”
T.S. Eliot seems to be highly impressed by Shakespeare, therefore he is making
Prufrock study “Hamlet” in order to give this gesture that he is well read and literate
bridegroom. But it is height of diplomacy rather hypocrisy on the part of T.S. Eliot that he
used to regard “Hamlet as an artistic failure. It is also bewildering that he dedicates Hamlet
as “Monaliza of literature”. In “The Love Song of Alfred Prufrock” then is blend of fun, fairy
painting and literature. He is mentioning Michelangelo. He is sitting in a cheap hotel, he is
also facing polluted atmosphere. Probably T.S. Eliot is going to expose so many socio-
economic as well as sociological maladies of modern era. No doubt pollution is incasing
European culture because of development in industry, smoking vehicles, deforestation,
mushroom urbanization and so many other problems. The particular person is very
conscious about alien atmosphere. He is over-conscious about people talking
Michelangelo.
“In the room the woman come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.”
In this anti-romantic song colloquial language is used. There is clarity lucidity,
flexibility and lack of ambiguity in this love song. For instance he desire to convey his
inward feelings that he wants to discuss so many indecision’s, complications, revisions
and so many other self-concocted thoughts. Imagery and symbolism in “Love Song of J.
Alfred Prufrock” is very appreciable, historical of Lazarus purgation.
To say: “I am Lazarus, come from the dead,
Come back to tell you all, I shall tell you all”-
If one, settling a pillow by her head,”
Core and Crux of the matter is that “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is very thought
provoking, humorous and awe-inspiring.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 213
SYMBOLISM AND IMAGERY IN T. S. ELIOT’S POETRY
Thomas Stearn Eliot got global prestige by writing Wasteland, Love song of J.
Alfred Prufrock and Ash Wednesday.
In Wasteland, empty bottles, cigarettes and dirty water of river Thames are the
images and symptoms of pollution. It is fact that pollution is the outcome of industrial
wastes, lack of biodiversity, deforestation and mushroom urbanization.
“The river bears no empty bottles, sandwich papers,
Silk handkerchiefs, cardboard boxes, cigarette ends”
In Wasteland, we can also find symbolic imagery of passionate desires and
dreams, colored with lechery. It is fact that human being is passionate creature. We are
somewhat emotional our decisions, no doubt emotional decisions are wrong. Therefore
we should think before speaking and look before leaping. No doubt all human beings
should have emotional stability and passionate links. For instance, three girls narrate their
incidents of emotional acts related with the river Thames. One of them says in Richmond
and Kew she had emotional experiences.
“High bury bore me. Richmond and Kew Undid me.”
T. S. Eliot has also pointed out that in modern age; some people are very snobbish
and foppish. They want to impress others, with the help of their passions, materialistic
desires and various mundane designs. It also indicates that T. S. Eliot is aware of so many
worldly tactics. For instance, the Lady of the Rock is highly conscious to decorate her
drawing-room with chandelier, candles and so many other decoration pieces. It illustrates
her deep rooted interest in worldly dreams and lecherous designs.
“Doubled the flames of seven branched candlebra
Reflecting light upon the table as
The glitter of her jewels rose to meet it,”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 214

DARAMA-II
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 215
SECTION-A

OSCAR WILDE
“THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST” AS A FARCICAL PLAY

“The Importance of Being Earnest” belongs to a literary genre known as artificial


comedy. This kind of play flourished during the restoration period in England and was
subsequently revived by Congeries. Their kind of comedy is entirely lacking in truth to
nature and it creator an artificial imaginary; illusory world. The Importance of Being
Earnest too is deficient in truth to nature. However it is free from the indecency and
obscenity which were glaring features of Restoration comedy. The Importance of Being
earnest is characterized by exaggeration and extravagance both in its plot and its
dialogue. In fact, the keynote of the play is absurdity.

The distinguishing feature of a farcical comedy is exaggeration to the point of


absurdity. Most of the situations in “The Importance of Being Earnest” are absurd and they
amuse as by their very absurdity. The central situation about which the play linger is
Jack’s having been found in a hand-bag. In the cloakroom of a railway station in London,
Jack is this foundling. The act of being a foundling is not by itself absurd. What is absurd
is that Miss Prism; the nurse committed a blunder by putting the child in a hand bag in the
cloak room of railway station in London. The three- volume novel written by her in the
perambulator instead of putting the manuscript in the hand bag and letting the child
remain in the perambulator. Now, it is impossible for us to believe that anybody, no matter
how absent-minded, can commit a blunder of that kind. That is not the only absurdity but
stupidity. We do not understand why, after having committed that blunder, Miss Prism did
not go back to her employers to report the loss of the child and why she simply
disappeared from the scene.

The absurdity of the manner in which Jack was lost as an infant serve as the basis
for a number of witty remarks by Lady Bracknell and also as the basis for her rejection of
Jack as her would-be son-in-law. When, in the course of her interrogation of Jack, she is
told that he does not know his parentage, she tells him that she can never allow her
daughter “to marry into a cloak room and form an alliance with a parcel” , which is one of
her most witty remark. When Jack asks her what he should do under these circumstances,
her advice to him is to try and acquire some relations as soon as possible and to make a
definite effort to produce at any rate one parent; of either sex; as soon as possible. When,
towards the end of the play, Miss prism gives an account of how she had lost the child,
jack jumps to the conclusion that he is the illegitimate son of Miss prism herself and so he
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 216
amuses as by offering to forgive his supposed mother for her of folly in having been
seduced and having given birth to an illegitimate child.
Another absurdity which could be found only in a farcical play is Gwendolyn’s
rapturous reaction to the name of Earnest. She tells Jack that it has always been her ideal
to love someone of the name of Earnest because there is something in this names that
she has absolute confidence. She adds that the moment her cousin. Algernon first
mention to her the fact that he had a friend named Earnest, she know that she was
dedicated to love the men having that name. She also makes the paradoxical statement
that she was far from indifferent to Jack even before having met him. She makes it clear
that she could not love a man with any other name. The name Jack for instance, is not
acceptable to her because this name is domesticity notorious for John. Gwendolyn pities
any woman who is married to a man called John because such a woman would never
enjoy the pleasure of a single moment’s solitude. The name Earnest, she says, is a divine
name, with music of its own. It is a name that produces vibrations. All Gwendolyn
comments on the name Earnest are absurd, but delightfully witty. No woman in her senses
would think this way about a name, but this very talk constitutes one of the comic
highlights of the play.
Another absurdity in this farcical comedy is Lesley’s similar reaction to the name
Earnest. That is to say that there is something in the name Earnest which seems to inspire
absolute confidence, and she too pities on any poor married woman whose husband is not
called Earnest. She too says that it had always been a girlish dream of her to love some
one whose name was Earnest. We have already noted the absurdity of Gwendolyn’s
reaction to the name Earnest, and now similar reaction on the part of another girl to that
name makes the situation doubly absurd.
Yet another absurdity in the play is the decision of both Algernon and Jack to be
rechristened in order to acquire the name of Earnest which has fascinated their beloveds.
Both of them make appointments with Dr. Chasuble for the christening ceremonies which
Dr Chasuble readily agrees to perform. It is really surprising and incredible that two
sensible, well educated girls should be fascinated by a name, and two sensible and well
educated men should think of changing their names to Earnest because of that
fascination.
In spite of so many absurdities in this play, it must be admitted that there are a
number of realistic and credible situation and happenings in the play also. For instance,
there is nothing, nonsensical or absurd or fantastic about Algernon’s invention of Bunbury
and Jack’s invention of a younger brother called Earnest. We all seek excuses for some of
our unusual or objectionable activities, and both Algernon and Jack have created two
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 217
persons in order to cover up their escapades. Lady Bracknell’s reaction to Jack’s
account of his origin is also perfectly believable. In no society a lady would agree to the
marriage of her daughter with a man whose parentage is not known. Lady Bracknell’s
reaction to the fact that Cecily has a large amount of money in her name is also perfectly
believable, because a bride who can bring a rich dowry is always acceptable to people.
There is nothing wrong about the three love affairs in the play. It is perfectly natural for
Jack to be in love with Gwendolyn, for Algernon to fall in love with Cecily and for Dr
Chasuble to be attracted by Miss Prism and to marry her in order to relieve his loneliness
even though the primitive Church was opposed to matrimony. Nor is there anything
absurd about Gwendolyn’s flight from home to meet her lover at his country home. So
many girls run away from their homes to join their lovers.
It is quite possible that O’ Wilder, apart from providing rich comic fare to his
audiences, wanted also the devious people among then to derive some food for thought
from his play.
In the end we can say that author has made the play very enjoyable by his wit and
on the whole this play is considered as a farcical comedy.
PARADOX, EPIGRAM AND IRONY IN “THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST”
The Importance of Being Earnest is a comedy of dialogue, abounding in the use of
paradox, epigram and irony. All these three devices produce a comic effect in this play
even though it possible for a dramatist to use there devices for a serious purpose also.
There are a number of paradoxical remarks, all of comic nature as to amuse us. When the
play is presented on the stage, the audience would keep laughing most of the time
because of the witty paradoxes and witty remarks of an ironical nature.
Almost every character in the Importance of Being Earnest makes paradoxical
remarks which are witty. At the very outset, for instance, Algernon says that the lower
orders of society should set a good example of moral responsibility for the upper classes.
This is a paradoxical statement, because the accepted view is that the upper classes
should set a good example for the lower classes. Algernon while talking to Jack makes the
statement that more than half a modern culture depends on what people should not read.
In actual fact, reading contributes to the development of culture.
Another paradoxical statement made by Algernon is that truth is rarely pure and
never simple; the accepted view being that truth can be pure and simple. Algernon here
adds that modern literature would be a complete impossibility if truths were either pure or
simple, and this is another paradox. He also says that literary criticism should be left to the
people who have not been at university but is actual fact literary critics are people who
have had the benefit of a university education. When Algernon demands as explanation of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 218
the inscription on Jack’s cigarette case, Algernon speaks in a paradoxical manner
saying “Now produce your explanation, and pray make it improbably” whereas normally

we would say. “Now produce your explanation, and pray make it probably or plausible”.
When Algernon describes women’s flirtation with their own husbands as washing
their clean linen in public he is again making a paradoxical statement because the idiom is
to make ones dirty linen in public. Another paradoxical statement made by him is
“Well one must be serious about something one wants to have any amusement in life”.
How can --------- about anything be a source of amusement? ---Another paradoxical
statement made by him is the fallowing:
“When I am in trouble, eating is the only thing that consoles me. At the present
moment I am eating muffins because I am unhappy.”
The real fact is that when one is in trouble or is unhappy, one feels no desire to eat
anything.
Jack also makes a number of paradoxical statements which are quite amusing. For
instance, when he sees tea cups and cucumber sandwiches on the table in Algernon’s
flat, he says to Algernon:
“Why all these cups? Why cucumber sandwiches? Why such reckless
extravagance, if one is so young.”
In the first place, even cucumber sandwiches are as sample of reckless by
extravagant. Jack makes another paradoxical statement when he says that he is not quite
the sure of thing one should offer to a nice sweet and refined girl because the normal view
of the matter is that a nice and sweet girl should alias be told the truth and should not be
deceived. Talking of Cecily, Jack says that she is not a silly girl, that she has an excellent
appetite and talks of long walks, adding paradoxically that she pays no attention to her
studies.
A number of paradoxical and witty remarks come from Gwendolyn also. When
Algernon says that he cannot allow Gwendolyn to have a private conversation with Jack,
she replies, Algernon you always adapt a strictly immoral attitude towards life. You are not
old quite enough to do that. She further adds:
“The old fashioned respect for the young is fast dying out”
Speaking to Jack, she says:
“The simplicity of your character makes you exquisitely incomprehensible to me.”
If a man is simple, he is fully comprehensible and not incomprehensible as
Gwendolyn says. Another paradoxical remark made by her is that home is the proper
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 219
sphere for a man.
Cecily makes her own contribution to the paradoxical and witty statements in this
play. When Miss Prism tells Cecily that she had once written a novel, Cecily makes
following paradoxical remark:
“I don’t like novels that end happily. They depress me so much.”
Cecily also makes the paradoxical remark that, whenever one has anything unpleasant to
say, one should always be quite candid frank. Actually, when somebody has anything
unpleasant to say, we expect him not to say it in a blunt or candid manner.
Lady Bracknell makes a number of paradoxical statements. Speaking of Lady
Banbury who has lost her husband, she says that Lady Banbury is now sister to Bracknell
an altered woman because she looks at least twenty years younger. Lady Bracknell,
paradoxically enough, does not approve of anything that interferes with anybody’s natural
ignorance.
She feels happy to note that in England education produces no effect whatever. If
education produces any effect, it would prove to be a serious danger to the upper classes.
When Jack admits that he smokes Lady Bracknell paradoxically says,
“I am glad to hear it. A man should always have an occupation of some kind.”
Another paradoxical remark make by her is that a girl with simple, unspoiled nature
like Gwendolyn is not expected to reside in the country side. Her comments on the death
of Mr. Banbury are also of a paradoxical nature.
Witty epigrams are also contributed to the play by almost all the characters.
Algernon makes an epigrammatic remark when he says that divorces are made in heaven,
thus giving a twist to the well-known saying that marriages are made in heaven. He also
makes the epigrammatic remark that the only way to behave to a woman is to make love
to her if she is pretty, and to someone else if she is not pretty. Jack makes an epigram.
When he says:
“When one is in town one amuses oneself, when one is in county one amuses

other people”.
Cecily makes an epigrammatic remark when she says: “Of course, a man who is
much talked about is sways very attractive”. She feels there must be something in him
after all. Then we get a few epigrams from Miss Prism also.
There is plenty of irony in this play, and it is comic irony of course. Lady Bracknell’s
remark, “A life crowded with incidents, when Jack tells her about the certificates which he
has got regarding Cecily’s birth, baptism etc is ironical. Comic irony also exists in a
situation when some of the characters are getting in and others are ignorant of it. An
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 220
obvious example is of Algernon visiting Jack’s house under the assumed name of
Earnest and pretending to be Jack’s brother. Here the reader, as well an Algernon and
Jack, knows the reality, but others are important.
Thus we can say that this play is full of irony and paradoxical remain

G.B SHAW- “PYGMALION” AS A PROBLEM PLAY

Problem play is a play in which many problems are presented and analyzed
thoroughly but no solutions to them are provided by the dramatist. The readers are
provoked to think over the problems presented in the play and work out their own solution
to these problems. “Pygmalion“ is a problem play in the sense that there are many
problems which have been discussed. G.B. Shaw provides no solution to these problems.
Being a social reformer, Shaw has pointed out a lot of social problems in his
various plays. He follows the view of “Ant for snake of reformation” All his plays are
extremely didactic and thought provoking. Shaw’s “Pygmalion” is a clear depiction of
social problems prevailing in his contemporary society. In his plays, he has discussed
many problems like middle class morality, wrong distribution of wealth and then
unsuccessful education system of his age though Shaw calls his play “Pygmalion” a
romance but the abundance of problems makes it a problem play. New we discuss these
problems in detail.
The most important problem presented in the play “Pygmalion” is the problem of
education. Eliza’s education in phonetics is a difficult problem. Higgins successfully
overcomes the difficulties. Within six months, Eliza can speak correctly. But her education
creates problems for educator who has made her a lady and so she cannot go back to her
former environment and sell flowers as she used to sell. Even she has lost her identity.
Now, Eliza is faced with the problem of loss of identity. She wants to live in the new social
environment to which she has been raised by her educator. So she puts her own
problems in these words:
“What am I fit for? What have you left ma fil for: Where can I go what am I
to do? What’s to become of me?”
These are the problems for Eliza in which she is entangled.
The problem in “Pygmalion” is considered as the world problem of education.
Educate is to give new life to those who receive the education. This world problem is
presented in Pygmalion through the medium of a lesser these which is a national one
confined to English who have respect for their language and will not teach their children to
speak it. Bernard Shaw was disgusted by the harsh and slovenly speech of many people
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 221
in England. He blamed this to an English spelling. Shaw believed that and
representation of sounds, in writing and in print would bring about correct pronunciation by
everyone and break down class distinctions.
The class distinctions are not so broken in this play and so Eliza’s predicament
remains. Higgins takes no further interest in her and she has to work out her own solution.
In the play are given that the problem would be solved by marriage with Friday. But he is a
weakling and has been brought to no occupation. Eliza herself would have to support hem
if she marries him, their marriage and after life has not been depicted in the play itself. The
natural solution to Eliza’s problem would have been a marriage with Higgins or Colonel
Pickering. But they both are confirmed old bachelors. Higgins is a victim of Oedipus
complex and taken no human interest in Eliza. This would have been a proper solution to
the problem of Eliza but this does not happen. So her problem remains unsolved. The
dramatist has provided no solution but made his reader sit up and think.
Another problem presented in the play is the predicament of Alfred --------------. He
was poor and considered “an undeserving poor” and so nothing is done for him by society.
Still, he was happy in his poverty. Then suddenly, he acquired large wealth and became
one of the newly rich. He was raised to the status of middle class. He could no longer be a
happy dust man. He had lost his former identity. He was alienated from his former class
and the kind of life he led as a poor dustman. He must new acquire a new identity and a
new sense of belonging to a higher class. He expresses his problem this:
“Who asked him to make a gentleman of me? I was happy. I was gee I have had
pretty nigh every buddy for money when I wanted it. Same I leveled you, I may I-----
----. Now I am worried heed --------------------
Further he must now marry his mistress with whom he was happy so for, but after
marriage. He would lose his happiness because she would no longer be docile and
obedient as she was in her unwedded state. But middle class morality forces him to marry
her. He cannot refuse to accept the wealth that has come to him, for it is only this wealth
which can protect him from the workhouse. It alone will be his support and stay in his old
age and so he cannot refuse to accept it. This is the problem for Alfred Doolittle. No
solution has been provided.
To conclude the whole the whole debate we can say “Pygmalion” problem play, in
which many problems have been described. But the dramatist gives no solution to these
problems. A. C. Ward says in this connection:
“Pygmalion is not a romance. It is a problem play and the problem goes much
deeper than the hare story told in Pygmalion.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 222
This drama is thought provoking. The readers are provoked to think over the
problems and work out their own solutions to these problems.

ENDING OF THE PLAY “PYGMALION”


Many critics of the play comment on Eliza- Higgins relationship. They have
regarded it as unsatisfactory. In their view the play should have ended with the marriage
of Eliza and Higgins because. Shaw has called the play romance and in a romance, the
hero and the heroine are always married in the end. It is also pointed out that in the
“Pygmalion-Galatea” story, Pygmalion Galatea. So in this play also, Higgins should have
married Eliza. But in the play such a marriage does not take place. Hence, they consider
the ending of the play defective.
Higgins is a typical her of Shaw who is not at all a romantic heel a rationalist and
realist to the core. Shaw takes pleasure in shifting rational and illusions of all kinds. Shaw
has done so in his all plays. For example, we see in “Pygmalion” that Higgins wants to live
life only at the cerebral level. He is a book – warm fit more for science and literature,
philosophy and art than for the company of a passionate Woman. He frankly tells Eliza:
“You find me cold, unfeeling, selfish, don’t you? Marry some sentimental hag or
other with lat of money, and a think pair of lips to kiss you with and a thick pair of boots to
kick you with.”
Higgins is an unsatisfactory companion for Eliza. He likes her but does not fall in
love with her. He is deeply motivated by a desire for his companionship but not marriage.
Higgins is quite unsentimental and unromantic in his approach to Eliza; she leaves the
place as a free woman. He has lived a life of a scholar and his approach to sex is quite
different. Higgins mother has influenced the life of his son so much that he does not love
any other woman except his own mother. Shaw says: “If an imaginative boy has
“sufficiently rich mother who has intelligence, grace ------------ of --------------------- with out
harshness and cultivated sense of the best art of her time in enable her to make her
house beautiful, She sets a standard for him.”
Higgins idealists his mother and canny establish satisfactory relations with any
anther woman who does not come up to that standard. As the following lines show that he
is a victim of Oedipus complex which may be explained as the excessive love of a person
for the parent of the opposite sex. He says to his mother.
“Oh, I cannot be brother with young women. My idea of a lovable woman is
somebody as like you as possible. I shell never get into the way of seriously liking
young women: some habits lie too deep to be changed.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 223
A critic tells as that it is Oedipus complex, which comes in the way of Higgins,
marriage with Eliza. According to Shaw’s philosophy, Eliza could not have married Higgins
who is old of he life force would prompt her to marry Freddie who is much younger and is
likely to make a better father to her children. Obeying the dictates of life force, Eliza turns
to Freddie and marries him.

In Shaw’s plays a woman thinks of a man wham she loves and marries both as a
warrior who must make his way and as a child who has last His way. In his first capacity,
her instinct is to strong them and encourage him that he may go out into the world, make
his way and earn bread for her and her children. In his second, she feels impelled to
comfort and reassure him; soothing the hurts that world has given him.
Now men like Higgins don’t want mothering and restring except in
unrepresentative moments. In their normal moment, they are too full of confidence in
themselves. More over, since they are originators and innovators through whom life
seeks to raise itself to higher levels, they are unlikely to prove reliable bread winners.
Hence the woman’s instinct goes to fight shy of them in the sale if permanent mates and
furthers for their children. It is for this reason that Eliza chooses Freddie Hill as her
marriage partners. Speaking about the man of her destiny, she says:
“If he is weak and poor and wants me, may be head make me happier then my
betters that. Bully me and don’t want me.”

To conclude the whale debate we can say that the end of the play has been
criticized very much. It is entirely in keeping with Shaw’s theory of life force. The render,
and play goers are disappointed because Higgins does not Mary Eliza but in Pygmalion
Galatea story Pygmalion marries Galatea who is his own creation. Shaw’s play is a re-
telling of the mythical transformation and we can see clearly that Shaw gave the first part
to Higgins reserving the last part to Eliza. Eliza was not intended by Shaw to be a reward
for the hero and a house-manager. That flower girl has been changed in to a strong and
important woman, a woman almost equal to the hero. She stands up to Higgins and taken
an active part in deriding her own destiny.

G.B. SHAW ASA A DRAMATIST


In the history of English drama, Shaw holds a second position when the first
position is of Shakespeare. He dominated that English theatre for over sixty years and his
influence, name and fame were all pervasive. He built up his own theatre” The Theatre of
Ideas.” Dickinson appreciates him in these words:
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 224
“Whatever Shaw is, he is not primarily a dramatist. Before he come to the
writing of the plays he head expressed himself as a lecturer, writer on social
economic topes, novelist and critic.”
Shaw is always analyzing human nature and causes of action and trying to find out
whether they are justified or otherwise. He has been interested in everything and made all
things his own affairs.
Shaw is not a philosopher. His view tacks the consisting leaving of a philosopher. He
is a Lester of values and there fore is make entrusted in man’s experiments and efforts
towards truth than in any abstract vision of truth. That quality of realism which he
represents and disqualifies him for philosopher is not a mental participant in the world. He
is a man who uses his mind to deny the concrete of the world.
Shaw is first, last and all the time a critic. He searches the object of his criticism for
its underlying ideas subjects these to his test of the logic of events. Most of his criticism is
of two Kind Thirsts, criticism of music, drama, painting and iterative. Secondly, criticism of
society’s formulated ideas in religion, poultices and morality. Art is to him, the expression
of the process of the hidden logic of life. The only function of art is the interpretation, all
that gives entertainment supplies pleasure. The beauty that is own justification, he cares
nothing for. When after him unsuccessful efforts as a novelist, he turned to musical and
dramatic criticism. He completely disregarded form and technical considerations in art. He
brought to bear upon art and music a stimulating method. He criticizes social ideas in the
same way. His first tendency is to turn away from formulas of belief or code of vice and
virtue. Diehinson says:
“He always keeps his mind face of entangling alliances of faith or enthusiasm.”

Shaw never attained command of any technique. He has been so prodigal of ideas
that he found it difficult to give them while expression. This novels show his ideas and the
difficulties found in other management. In his novels we have middle class bigotry, women
pursuing men, the problems of wealth, the crime of poorly, ridicule of the ideas of sport
and heroism just us we have them in the plays. What Shaw needed to find was a noted
medium of art that would permit the maximum of theorizing with a minimum of narrative?
The found this in drama. Dickinson says,
“With no affection for drama as such Shaw seized upon it as the means of
putting over has ideas”
We may identify Shaw’s characters by the fact that they are all taking characters.
Their speeches are long because the speakers have so thing to say. Many of his
characters talk about their business which is every body’s business. Shaw’s plays deal
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 225
with ideas which are discussed and debated. The ideas even the talk become dramatic.
Dickinson says:
“Where there had been the struggle of wills, there is the struggle of ideas and
the struggle of speech.”
Most of Shaw’s plays are fall of humour and fun. His famous play “Pygmalion” is
replete with fun and humour. The play sparkles with Shawian wit and humour in every
line and the dialogue is always amusing. In Act (II) of the play Higgins amuses greatly by
the logic according to which he calculates that Eliza offer of a shilling per lesson to him is
equal to an offer of sixty and seventy pounds from a million. Then he amuses us by his
scornful way of talking to the member of Hill family.
His handling of Alfred Deal with in Act (II) is a fine example of his wit. His habit of
swearing and his untidy habits are also amusing. His habit of swearing is an example of
the unconscious humour provided by him. To Shaw, conflict is essential for drama. His
plays have this quality of conflict.
We see that Shaw often user some romantic elements in his plays, In “Pygmalion”
the element of romance is provided by the love of Eliza and Freddy. Freddy is a romantic
young man who comes every night to meet Eliza. Eliza is also in need of love and
sympathy. One night, when she comes out of Higgins house in anger, she meets Freddy
and both embrace and kiss each other.
To conclude the whole debate we may say that Shaw is the greatest dramatist of
his age. His plays give the impression of his creative powers, working in a spontaneous
unity. Shaw has succeeded in creating a new type of drama in which discussion of ideas
is as vital as “action” in the older drama. He is a realist who tries to find out the essence
of truth. His characters are the essence of his plays. “Pygmalion” is Shaw’s best
masterpiece which is filled with humour, with ideas and romance.

THEME OF “PYGMALION”
The main point around which the whole story revolves is called theme or central
idea. Shaw’s “Pygmalion” is a complex work of art and it has many themes. However, its
central theme is the education of Eliza do little and progress of her soul from spiritual
darkness to light. She achieves spiritual illumination through successive stage of despair,
self-realization, illumination and the ultimate achievement of social identity and sense of
belonging.
In the beginning of the play, we find that Eliza is an illiterate ignorant girl selling
flowers. She cannot speak correct words which can be understood only by the people of
London. She is at this time crude and ill- mannered girl. She has received no education at
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 226
all. Her education begins when she comes to the home of professes Higgins to take
lesson in phonetics. Higgins accepts the bet of Pickering that he would transform the
shabby flower girl into a lady who would be able to pass on a Duchess in the garden of an
ambassador. The process of her education is a difficult one.
Her education in phonetic is a severe ordeal for her but she has courage, talents
and determination and so is able to face the ordeal. As her education proceeds, she
realizes that the difference between a flower girl is not how she behaves but now she is
realized, Eliza becomes a duchess in the eyes of others except in those of Higgins
because she was her pupil and he could not forget her earlier status. Higgins has picked
her up as “gullersnipe” girl. Even when his science of phonetics has refined her speech
had improved her personal impression, he continues to treat her as a low-class flower girl.
In the third act of the play, Eliza’s progress in her education is tasted. She is
dressed like a lady, behaves like a lady and all are impressed by her. She has progressed
considerably. Eliza of third Act is quite different from the flower girl of First Act. But her
education is not yet complete. Eliza talks about matters which easily betray her low origin,
even though the language which she speaks is almost flawless and the manners in which
she speaks it is worthy of a highly educated person. The upshot, result, of this test is that
Eliza is found wanting and in need of same further instruction. His mother tells Higgins that
Eliza is a triumph of his art and also of the art of her dressmaker but every sentence that
Eliza had already given her away.
Now, three months still remains to complete the process of her education Higgins
continues to give her lessons in phonetics. She is an intelligent pupil and is soon able to
talk fluently and correctly like any high burn lady. At the conclusion of six months of
training, she is again subjected to a test. This time, she is able to pass off not merely as a
Duchess but as a princess with real blood in her veins.
During the course of her education in phonetics, her soul less been awakened and
she has progressed from spiritual darkness to light. The hidden possibilities of her soul
have been fully developed. She now seeks social identity. Her soul has been awakened
and she is aware of problem that now faces her. She has been lifted out of her social
environment and she cannot return to it. But also she does not belong to the middle class
to which her education has raised her. Her quest for social identity fills her with despair.
She must belong and such belongings are necessary for social happiness.
She has acquired aspirations and ambitions and seeks for emotional fulfillment.
Higgins and Pickering have last all interest in her. They ignore her completely and her
despair and frustration is forcefully expressed when she throws the slippers of Higgins into
his face, diverts herself of all the jewelry that has been given to her and leaves the house
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 227
with anger. She has been alienated from her earlier social environment and new her
quest is for identity and belongingness in the higher social environment to which she has
been raised.
As a critic points out “In Modern Parlance” Cinderella stands for any girl who
achieves happiness and success after a period of weakness.
Eliza, the modern Cinderella has suffered limpidly at the hands of her stepmother,
her father, Higgins and even Mrs. Pearce, the house keeper. But her soul has not been
crushed. As she comes out of Higgins House at midnight, she meets Freddy who is a
romantic youngman. Soon they are happily married and Eliza sets up a flower shop with
the help of Pickering. They work hard and their business grows and flourishes and there
are clear indications that they would live happily together forever.
To conclude the while debate we can say that the theme of “Pygmalion” is the
education of Eliza. She has not only been made a lady, her soul has also been awakened.
She has acquired self-confidence and the search for identity and belongingness which
were the most serious problems that confronted her after Higgins experiment had been
successfully completed.

“PYGMALION” AS A ROMANCE
Shaw’s personality was a unique combination of the gay and the serious so that the
people could not make up their minds whether to take him as a clown or as a philosopher.
He was a comedian with a serious purpose, a humorist with a tragic cry at his heart and
an anti- romantic with romantic elements.
G.B Shaw added a sub-title to his play “Pygmalion” A romance. Indeed, Shaw was
anti-romantic and he has punctured age-old romantic notion is his play. In “Arms and the
Men”, he has shattered the romantic notion of love and war. And in his “Man and Super
Man” he has shown that it is the woman who chases her man relentlessly and ultimately
marries him. Beauty and sex appeal of a woman are shown to be traps to capture the man
who is likely to make a suitable father and husband.
Thus, he is also an anti-romantic in the play “Pygmalion” Undoubtedly the
transformation of a shabby and dirty girl into a fascinating lady is romantic enough is the
sense that such orations are not usual but “Pygmalion” cannot be regarded as a romance
because in it the heroine does not marry the hero, Mr. Higgins rather the heroine throws
the slippers of the hero into his face and goes out of his house in anger. Higgins interest in
Eliza is merely scientific and it comes to an end as soon as he has achieved success in
his experiment. He is old and scientific and not at all lover.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 228
However, carnal love is an essential element in a romance. Freddy falls deeply
in love with Eliza when he meets her at the house of Mr. Higgins. He is amply assented by
Eliza and from that day onwards he begins to haunt Wimple Street where Eliza lives in
Higgins’ house. Higgins does not care for anything in life except phonetics. As a reaction
to the strong will of Higgins not to marry any woman, Eliza decides not to marry Higgins.
Freddy has been writing love letters to her daily. He is a young, nearly twenty years
younger than Mr. Higgins. He is a gentleman and speaks a very decent language. He is
nicely dressed and is guile fit to marry Eliza.
One night, when Eliza comes out of Higgins, house in anger; she meets Freddy in
the street and asks him what he is doing there. Freddy replies that he spends most of his
nights here in this street because he gains peace and feels happy here. Then, he exposes
his desire that she is dearest being for him and he, spontaneously smothers her with
kisses. She also responds fully to his love making and they stand there in the street in
each other’s arms till they are intervened by a policeman. Then the lovers flee from that
spot and halt at an other place where again they embrace each other but they are once
again interrupted by an other policeman. Ultimately, the lovers get into a taxi and spend
the remaining hours of the night driving around the city. Subsequently, Eliza tells Higgins
that Freddy has been writing very lengthy love letters to her and that she has decided to
marry him. Now, this whole episode is romantic even though it appears only towards the
end.
Eliza loves Freddy but the story of their marriage has not been depicted in the play
itself. It has been completed through an appendix which Shaw has added to the play. In
this appendix, we are told that Eliza does get married to Freddy and with the financial
backing of Colonel Pickering; she sets up a flower shop where subsequently vegetables
are also sold. We are also told that Eliza begins to live once again with Higgins and
Pickering and that her husband also begins living in that household. By this arrangement,
Eliza continues to render her services to Higgins to which he had become accustomed
and for which she had become almost in dispensable to him. The reason for her preferring
Freddy to the much older Higgins and Pickering are also explained. The life force
instinctively prompted her to her choice because Freddy would make a batter father to her
children than the two confirmed old bachelors. This part of the story of Eliza is developed
in a kind of prose Epilogue which Shaw has added to the play. According to M.G. Ward:
“The account given in the Epilogue regarding Eliza’s marriage to Freddy Eynsf
Hill after the play ends is one of Bernard Shaw’s least successful piece of writing.”
The relationships between Freddy and Eliza are not romantic but their marriage is
going to be held on realistic grounds. In the sequel, Shaw has explained that Eliza would
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 229
have committed an error in marrying Higgins. She would have been a slave to Higgins
all her life.
Shaw is a realist who tries to find out the essence of truth behind the garb of
romance and respectability. He is a great in iconoclasts who has shattered countless
romantic shows and conventions. In one play after another, he has shown that our gods
are false gods are ideas are fictions, our religion is superstition, our science is nonsense,
our heroes are often monsters or petty and the truth of his views is now generally known.
To sum up the whole debate we can say that the play “Pygmalion” IS not a
romance in the sense that the hero marries the heroine in the end. A. C. Ward says.
“Pygmalion is not a romance, as it could rightly have been called if Higgins and
Eliza had fallen in love and married.”
But the element of romance is provided by the creation of Eliza into an entirely new
‘Creature’ and the Eliza Freddy love story.

SHAW’S ART OF CHARACTERIZATION


Shaw’s art of characterization has been mostly criticized. Have characters have
been denounced as static, wooden flat and of very law standard. This is so because his
art is usually judged according to the canon of the old romantic drama. It is forgotten that
he is the founder of a new kind of drama, the drama of ideas” which must be judged by its
own rules and principles.
Many critics praise Shaw’s art of characterization for example, E. Albert praising
Shaw’s skill in this respect points out that Shaw has second place as a dramatist while first
place is of Shakespeare. He appreciates Shaw in these words’
“After Shakespeare no English dramatist equals Shaw in the variety and
vividness of his characters”
He further says;
“He has contributed many memorable characters to the national heritage.”
What Coleridge said of Shakespeare is equally true of G.B. Shaw. He did not take
actual people as his models but he conceived original characters who created their own
situations. The men and women whom he puts in his dramas are not shown in their
natural life with all its confusion, pettiness and muddle headedness but they living people
in their hidden selves, displayed in the bright hues of their marked absurdities. Like a
caricaturist, he seizes upon the salient features of his characters and emphasizes them.
His characters give an account of their dress, personal appearance, habits and manners
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 230
etc and even go into their past history. He shows his characters as impelled and driven
by the life force.
In order to impart distinctness to his characters, Shaw creates suitable dramatic
situations for them and notes their reactions to those situations. These situations are full of
inversions, paradoxes, exaggerations and his characters have to react to these strange
situations thereby acquire extraordinary vividness and individuality.
As a matter of fact, Shaw has a crowded gallery of characters. His figures are
drowning from all strata of society and from all professions, kings, ministers, politicians,
love conservatives and progressives ordinary citizens. I can is a simple illiterate village girl
but she has been made the here in of one of the greatest plays of the modern age. He has
drawn his characters even from different nations. For example, Napoleon and Lloyd are
French. The Serbs and the Austrians and the Russians and the Bulgarians are also found
in his plays. The sweep and range of Shaw’s characters is unique.
Though it is not true that all Shaw’s characters are versions of himself or that Shaw
repeats his character and they load diversity, there is also no denying the fact that his
characterization sometimes locks the power of fully convincing us.
On the other hand, Dickinson puts it, even the best of his characters, “are
personified mental points of view.” They are creatures of intellect and not of emotion. They
are the vehicles of ideas and the conflict in Shaven play arises from a clash of ideas and
not of characters and emotions. They are all talking characters.
Shaw’s art of characterization must not be judged by the commons of the old
romantic drama. It should be criticized by the tannest of modern drama. In Shaw’s dramas
of ideas, instead of emotional conflict, he has given us something higher the conflict
between human will and human surroundings. His characters are not emotionless but the
emotion and sentiments are subordinated to the drive of the life force to a higher and
better life. He has given to the English theatre a new type of character.
Collins rightly points out that at least in two directions his characterization
possesses special powers. First, he has extraordinary skill in booking our sympathy and
interest for unattractive, odious people. Secondly, he can endue his characters with
intuitive power, with a “sort of sixth sense” which gives an extra dimension to personality.
The world of Shaw’s has a large place for women. Pardom says “He honoured
women showing in his plays that they were not only to be loved, but respected, even
feared” He has put women at a higher pedestal.
Shaw has skill in sketching clergymen, priests and other religious men. They all
belong to the Christian church though Shaw lost faith in Christianity; they are all treats with
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 231
respect and allowed their say. He has brought them to life and makes them very real
and living.
To conclude the whole debate, we can say that Shaw, character are the essence of
his plays; He is considered unrivalled in the art of characterization. His characters have all
the qualities which are found in a good personality. To study his characters and the
direction of their though and action is to understand his themes.

SECTION-B

SEMUEL BECKETT
“WAITING FOR GODOT” AS AN ABSURD THEATRE
It is rightly pointed out that “Waiting for Godot” is a typical absurd theatre. Actually it
is rightly pointed out that in modern age human being is so busy status conscious and
under the spell of social differences that one remains over-worried. In this modern drama
Estrogen and Vladimir are tramp because one of them is trying to put off his hat; both are
unable to achieve their aim and objective. It is symbolic projection of frustrated people
who are unable to achieve their goals and could set get rid of their worries even the whole
life.
In the opening lines of “Waiting for Godot” following them and thought is very appreciable.
“Estrogen: (giving up again) Nothing to be done
Vladimir :( advancing with short, stiff strides legs wide up art)
I’m beginning to come round to that opinion.
“Waiting for Godot” is a typical absurd theatre because Samuel Beckett is highly
impressed by Proust, Bergson and Sartre. In some respects “Waiting for Godot” is
different from Sartre writings. It is rightly remarked that there are two types of time one is
clock time and the other is subjective time. It is fact that nature varies from man to man for
example, nature of Pozzo is entirely different from that of Lucky. Because Pozzo is the
ruler and Lucky is the ruled even Pozzo is ready sell Lucky and he is having whip in his
hand. It is fact that authority corrupts the man and absolved authority corrupts absolutely
but all the human beings are not same. “Waiting for Godot” is absurd theatre because
there is no sequence, balance and harmony among the dialogues of deferent characters.
For instance Estrogen and Vladimir are talking with each other without any sequence and
harmonized thoughts. For example first of all they start talking about putting off their hat
and shoes.
“Estrogen: Taking off my boot. Did that never happen to you?”
“Waiting for Godot” is absurd theatre because characters are taking without any
sequence. For example, they start mentioning four thieves and then they change their
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 232
Topre and talk about Eiffel Tower. After this they switch their code towards Pozzo and
Lucky. They are really surprise to know that Pozzo is dragging Lucky with a pope. He is
also using whip. In this way Pozzo is shown every authoritative butr all others are very
recessive. It also shows that Pozzo and Lucky are somewhat different from Estrogen and
Vladimir. When Pozzo comes to know that are waiting for Godot and Godot is symbol of
happiness and pleasure. Pozzo is also interested in waiting because it is an undeniable
fact that everybody wants pleasure, good future and marvelous exportations. But is the
matter of fate and chance and co-incidence that Godot does not come and they remain
waiting. They want to go that particular place but they can not do that.
Consequently, I am say that “Waiting for Godot” can rightly be regarded as typical
absurd theatre with the concept of existentialism.
EXISTENTIALISM IN “WAITING FOR GODOT”
In “Waiting for Godot” typical concept of existentialism is clear. No doubt, theory of
survival of the littlest and struggle for existence is crystal clear. In this modern age people
are worried, frustrated, confused and victim of financial worries. For example, Estrogen
and Vladimir are conscious about this fact that they are financially down trodden. There
fore they are victimized by their own –self-imposed restrictions. One is so worried that he
is unable to put off his hat. It seems to be hat of worries. That other is unable to put off his
shoes, it indicate that he is unable to avoid from miseries of life.
“Estrogen: Taking off my about. Did that never happen to you?
Vladimir: Sometimes I feel it coming all the same. Then I go all queer.
(He tucks off his hat, peers inside it, and feels about inside it. Shakes it puts it on again.)
All this shows that Samuel Beckon is frustrated. Confused and over-worried
because of so many socio -economy problems. It also shows that Beckon is keen
Observer of the society in which he himself was dwelling. He might have observed
different pros and cons of the society in which he himself was living. It illustrates that
Beckon is also conscious about this fact the rich is being richer and the poor being poorer.
In “Waiting for Godot”. It is also related with existentialism that. Estrogen and
“Waiting for Godot” it is also related with existentialism that. Estrogen and Vladimir desire
to commit suicide. They are aware of this fact that life has no many confusions, and
congestions. But we should be optimistic about our future because hope sustains life and
with out hope we are nothing it we desire that we should be fortunate enough to maintain
our future, we shall have to follow the following thought. “Fortune lies in labor’s shell. All is
well that ends well. We are not here to dream to drift. We are here to work hard and load
to lift. Shun not struggle it is good gift. In “Waiting for Godot” it is typical example of
existentialism that Pozzo is unable to acclimatize him self with the situation. He thinks that
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 233
he is enjoying name. Fame and financial studies there fore, he should be regarded as
chief lord. So he is well-equipped with whip and he is pulling the rope around the nick of
Lucky.
“Pozzo: (he jerks the rope) up hog (pause) every time he drops he falls asleep.
(Jerks the rope) up hogs (noise of Lucky getting up and picking up is his baggage)
Existentialism is also crystal clear when we come to know that the there is physical
time and philosophical in” Waiting for Godot”.
Proust, Bergson and Sartre are of the opinion that subjective time of every human
being may be different from the other. Clock is equal for all but philosophical time and
subjective time may differ from one person to another. It also shows that existentialism is
salient feature of “Waiting for Godot”. W.W Graham says that in Waiting for Godot, their
concept of existentialism is crystal clear because of socio-economic.
The epitome of the matter is that existentialism is a salient feature of Samuel
Beckett’s writings.

WAITING FOR GODOT AS AN ABSURD PLAY


The dramatist who are regarded as belonging to the theatre of the absurd were not
conscious member of any school, they only share certain common attitude and similar
interpretation of human predicament. They wrote sound about the middle of 20th century.
All the writers who are placed in this group share a common outlook about life and
man. They believe “humanity’s plight as purposeless in an existence out of harmony with
its surroundings. They believe that there is no purpose at all in life whatever we do is of no
significance. Rather, whether we do something or do not do anything; it makes no
difference. The end of life is death whether one is rich or poor. Great or mean, everyone
has to die. This vision of life created frustration in them that is significant feature of their
plays. Since they did not believe in god, they did not believe in the life after death, so they
naturally saw that life itself is purposeless.
Samuel Beckett is well known as an Absurd Dramatist. He was a prolific writer, and
he wrote “Waiting for Godot” when his genius was at its height. Beckett has poured all his
philosophy in this play. We should remember all absurd play writers were basically
philosophers and they made their play a medium to express their philosophical views.
Beckett is no exception. Waiting for Godot is surely an Absurd play. All the features of
Absurd play are present in this play as well.
The good play usually has good story and plot, but in an absurd play we may not
find any plot, not even a story. The same is the case with the present play as well. In the
world of Godot even the minimal action is impossible. There are philosophical points of
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 234
views that are given the shape of dialogues. The whole story, if we may call it story, is
that there were two tramps who are waiting for somebody who promised to meet them on
this appointed place but he never turned up. They waited and just waited and this whole
story.
There is death of action in this play. Life is meaningless, and so is the every action,
so there is no use of doing anything. In the world of Godot even the minimal action is
impossible. A pair of bettered shoe, the tramps symbol, is the first centre of focus.
Estrogen is trying to remove his shoe. His first comment is “Nothing doing”. A critic rightly
puts it,
“It explores a static situation. Nothing happens, nobody comes nobody goes, it

is awful”.
Waiting for Godot has several moments of anguish despair and helplessness. Pity
is also experienced spontaneously, when Pozzo first appears driving before him miserable
Lucky laden with baggage and with a rope round his neck, they are full of compassion for
the pale exhausted creature. The two tramps are in a place and mental state in which
nothing happens and time stand still. They are unable to distinguish time they did not
recognize Lucky and Pozzo whom they had met before. Their main purpose is to pass
time as well as possible until night comes and they can go. They realize futility of their
exercise that they are merely filling up the hours with pointless activities and this fills them
with anger and helplessness.
Waiting for Godot has some typical qualities of modern French drama. The brutality
of French drama of post war could be seen in the present play as well. It seems that this
play will be valued as evidence of mood of fifties. Whether or not it was a dominant mood,
the echoes of Second World War were there. People who had seen two World wars and
death was hovering all around then perhaps were bound to be pessimists. There is
atmosphere of cruelty. Estrogen tiers to wipe Lucky’s tears and gets kicked for his pains.
Thus human relationship found no place. Every thing seemed to be in chaos and so was
the world around them.
The atmosphere of their play is a blend of wit and humor, farce, pathos and even
occasionally anguish which is akin to tragic. Waiting for Godot cannot be called tragic but
it has some moments of tragic anguish It take sensibility which is believed to be common
attributes of most tragedies yet it depicts a despair which in view of slenderness of hope is
nothing short of heroic Pozzo in second act, acquires a near tragic status. There is
something very moving in plight of Estragon who sleeps on as the boy tells Vladimir that
Godot would not come even that day. In fact it depends on evidence. It widener shares his
or her view with these people sough party to him that would be tragic but those who do not
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 235
share any of their opinion with them to then the play would be wholly comedy to keep
on taking off busts is comic to some and tragic to others. That is truly we call it as a tragic
comedy.
The second act depicter the tramps lose of identity. These two are old acquaintance
but as they are no longer sure of their own identity, their relationship is in doubt. At
present they merely wait for the ultimate extinction a response to which they look forward
with longing and horror and also disbelief for having been frustrated too long.
The play depicts the difference in the attitude of two tramps. Because he is of a
speculative turn of mind Vladimir considers briefly the possibility of Christian mainly as a
way to kill time. Estragon the realist tires and declares I am leaving but Vladimir introduces
a me tap her for their inaction .We cant (leave) we are waiting for Godot.
Their play is really an absurd one for it sashes all the characteristic of an absurd
school of thought. Its central them that is futility of human existence is very much absurd
.It has no story and a litter action. Unlike good plays, absurd drain has not rely an witty
and pointed dialogue, rather it often consist of incoherent babblings and same in the case
with their play as well . The setting is nothing more then a bare tree an a lovely rood the
only change in setting that takes place in second act the tree is shown writy some leaves
with some leaves sprouted on it. However we can say that this is only one sided view of
life that these people had. Depicted it but there are other sides of this life of joy, of
happiness of human relation that they ignored. Perhaps that was the reason that their
theatre existed only for a decade and after that it disappeared from the stage altogether.

WAITING FOR GODOT AS TRAGEDY – COMEDY


The English edition of waiting for Godot, published in 1956 describes the play as a
tragic- comedy in two acts” the atmosphere of this play is a blend of urit and heinous, farce
pother and even occasionally, anguish which is akin to the tragic. The play also has
Existentialist and Absurdist touches. Towards the end there is a imperious note which is
quite akin to the comedic.
Waiting for Godot has many touches which are genuinely comic whether because
of the urit of the dialogue or the humour of character or situation. There is also comedy on
the lower plane. Quite under standby this occasionally degenerates into the farcical, or it
would be more correct to say that it assumes the aspect of the Absurd. After of course, the
comedy is not walleyed with more serious implications so that the total atmosphere is
closer to that in dark comedy. The urit is at times a blind for a more proud response for
example Vladimir is determined not to hear Estrogen’s night –more. The latter pleads with
him in vain to hear him saying that there is nobody also to wither has may communicate
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 236
his primate nightmares when Vladimir is determined not to hear him, Estrogen turns the
table on him by implying that Vladimir is afraid of listening to his dream because he find it
impossible to cope with another nightmare, the universe the evit arises from the fact that
one of the speakers either really mistake the meaning of the other or pretend to do so or
the speaker puts a construction or the word of the other which he never intended . .there
are several farcical touches in the play However mast of these have a deeper aim than is
immediately apparent. For example we have a situation where Estrogen and Vladimir put
on/ takeoff each other hat as well as that of lucky again and again. Although this is farcical
it has the aim of telling the reader that in the world of the tramps there is no place for
significant action but only for trivial over perhaps the most farcical situation in the play is
the one where the tramps are testing the strength of the cord with which they wish to hang
themselves. Estragon who has removed the cord from his trousers stands there pulling at
the cord at one eyed while his trousers have come down to his antler. The cord breaks
wider the stone. One cannot have an uninhibited laugh at the situation, for there is in it
also something deeply uncomfortable, the situation of two wretches who find who find their
way to suicide also barred also barred.
Waiting for Godot has several moments of anguish and despair. Eight in the
beginning we learn that being. Beaten by unknown men is a daily occurrence for
Estragon, which he mentions in a most matter of fact way. But me? Certainly they beat
me” the bodily ailments that afflict them, Estragon feet and Vladimir kidneys, are also to be
taken for granted. Vladimir kidneys trouble is so had that it does not even permit him to
laugh. Life lies all bleak and barren before then, and the only valid comment on it is the
one with which the play opens: “Nothing to be done Estrogen’s nostalgia about the map of
the Dead Sea is also touching this is a world of negations in which” inactivity is the safest
course, as Estragon says: Don’t let us do anything. It’s safer “The tramps are living at the
barest level of existence, carrots, turnips and radishes are all they have to eat. There is
something near tragic in the hopeless waiting of Estragon and Vladimir, about which is the
former rightly says:
Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, its awful” The situation of lucky is
quite pathetic, especially in view of his glorious past, as Pozzo describes it, his speech
tells as that in his saner moments lucky must have brooded deeply over the anguish of the
human situation .
Waiting for Godot cannot be called thigh on the whole, in the traditional or any other
since, but it has some moments of tragic anguish. It lacks the ability which is believed to
be the common attributes of most tragedies, yet it depicts the despair which in view of the
slenderness of hope, is nothing short of heroic. Estragon and Vladimir will come back and
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 237
wait for Godot again and again, although they seem to known in their heart of hearts
that he will never come, hid even if he does come , there is little real hope to which they
can look forward. It won’t help even if he grants their request, for they did not ask him to
do any thing tangible for them. What they said to him was only a sort of prayer, a vague
supplication. In the second Act even Pozzo acquires a near tragic status. There is
something very having in the plight of Estragon, who sleeps on as the boy tells Vladimir
that Godot wait come even that day. All though the play Vladimir has behaved as a sober,
level- headed and capable of enduring hopeless agony patiently. Now even his pain
seems beyond endeared have we see in his soliloquy in which he repeated a sentence of
Pozzo, amplifying it as to give it an altogether new significance:
Astride of a grain and a difficult birth
Downing the whole lingeringly, the gene digger puts on the forceps . We have time to
grin old.
The air is full our cries. (Helisten) But habit is a great deaden.
Compose: contrast
Estragon: Vladimir
Present relationship, Contrasted nature Pozzo: lucky (Lucky as Samuel)
Attachment Pozzo as jumps Symbolic meanly

MAJOR THEMES OF WAITING FOR GODOT


There are several themes in waiting for God, which have captured critical attrition.
Some of there are the theme of the triviality and boredom of human life the theme of the
prevalence of suffering, the theme of economic and intellectual exploitation and the theme
of the meaninglessness of space, time and identity for a proper understanding of the
meaning of their play, it is necessary to know the working but of all there themes.
Many critics say that waiting is itself the theme of the play. There is a lot is this view
for not only the readers wait, with Estragon and Vladimir, for the arrival of the mysterious
Godot, they also wait breathlessly and futilely for something to happier. It is to lighter the
tedium of endless waiting that the tramps to various device to pass the time. Estrogen
suggests more then once that they might leave, but Vladimir remind him that they dare not
for they are waiting for Godot. The serious attitudes of the tramps enhance their theme, for
example going to one edge and then to the other of the stage and looking into the
distance with the eyes shielded by the hand. They also tell worn out jokes and anecdotes
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 238
to each other. It is made clear that waiting must go on the next day and then the next,
until Godot comes, of which they do not seem to harbour and real hope.
Waiting for Godot may be a symbol of man’s waiting for a Device savior, a wait that
obviously, must go back and on their view in strengthened by the fact that the tramps
admit that they do not request Godot to do anything difficult for their. All they do to make a
sort of Ragu prayer or supplication to him. Vladimir says more than once that if Godot
come they would be saved.
The way the two tramps pass time is indication of the boredom and triviality of
human activities, the lack of significance of life and the constant suffering which existence
is. It also brings out the hollowness and insincerity of most social intercourse. Estrogen
and Vladimir question each other; contradict each other, abuse each other become
reconciled to each other with out any serious meaning or attention. All these devices are
employed to one end to make their waiting for Godot less unbearable. Estrogen taken off
his boot, gropes inside them, and shakes them out expecting something to fall out of
them, but nothing happens. Vladimir does the same with his hat, with the same result. It is
this utter lack of meaning which drives Estrogen and Vladimir to thought of suicide, but the
world of their play is one in which no significant action is permitted, therefore, even suicide
is not within their reach.
One of the thanes of waiting for Godot is that suffering is an inseparable part of the
human condition. Vladimir and Estrogen suffer intensely and incessantly. Vladimir cannot
even laugh without suffering excruciating pain. Estrogen’s feet make life a long torture for
him. Estrogen is beater is beater daily by same gang ruffians without his providing them
any sort of provocation. They have nothing to eat except carrots, turnip and radishes.
They have nothing to last back on except the days when they did not lost so
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 239
JOHN OSBORNE
Naturalism in “Look Back in Anger”
Naturalism is often said to be the extreme from of Realism. A number of writers,
while evolving Naturalism, had in their mind a philosophical concept. It is a sort of sequel
to post-Darwinian biology. Its thesis is that man is a part of Nature. All creatures, including
man, conform to common principles and patterns. Man’s culture and religion cannot keep
him apart from the domain of nature. The Naturalists professed that man is an animal of a
higher order and is guided by heredity and environment. Hunger and sex are instinctive
and man shares them with the animal of the lower order.
Brutal frankness manners mark the naturalistic novels and dram as. Yet we must
say that the line of boundary between Realism and Naturalism is very subtle and it is
difficult if not impossible to find out what is what.
“Look Back in Anger” is as much as Realistic as a naturalistic play. Frank realism
characterizes this play from the beginning. The bear-squirrel episode relieves the realism
for a while but tone of the play remains unchanged.
The play was written in the wake of the Second World War. It was an age of
disillusion. The last vestige of romance was tarn into shred. Kingly Aim’s “Lucky Jim” is a
lurid picture of young men who are ill mannered and sexy. They are rebels they talk
blasphemy, they talk smuts, and they prefer to live the life of Don Juan.
Jimmy porter is not Lucky Jam. He stands between the cynics and the idealists. But
his language is not that of culture and urbanity. His out pouring s remind us of the
characters of the naturalistic plays. His bitterness produces a fine flow of sewage talk. He
is not an individual but an able and representative of the class of angry young men.
A strictly speaking, Jimmy is not really a cynic born to punish the society. He
reflects the psychology of a young man caught in a snare. Behind all his rudeness and
vulgarity, he is building idealized images of men, women, institution and things. He
believes in idealism. But there is no cause to which he can dedicate himself whole-
heartedly .He was born in an age, which offered nothing positive. It Jimmy cannot turn to
any thing positive, all that he can do is to talk continuously. The reviewer of the play rightly
suggests;
“So he draws liberally on the vocabulary of the intestines and laces his tirades
with the steamier epithets of butcher.”
The play can be called ‘” Naturalistic “not for its style and language alone. It is
‘naturalistic because of its tone of authenticity. It is a photographic play and now here has
the author invested it with the tinge of idealism, romance and glamour. In traditional
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 240
naturalistic plays, the room is represented, as a trap from which there is no escape.
One is doomed to stay inside. Those inside the room seemed to be caught in a trap.
There were sounds of the out side world. Jimmy was indulging in diatribes at himself as
well as at others. The room was the world in miniature and the inmates are the frustrated
characters of post war world. The society is sick, in fact, moribund.
Jimmy is a representative of young men whom Somerset Maugham has described
as ‘Scum’. The whole characters are real, and speak a direct language. The writer,
Osborne is a social realist and has got success in his mission. Jimmy explains that in his
age, people have a cause to fight for. That is what distinguishes him from many sub
merged in self-satisfaction. In Osborne’s play there is neither the melancholy tone nor
animal motivation. Moreover Jimmy looks women as creatures to be detested. Its estimate
about Allison’s mother is brutally frank. He says:
“That old bitch should be dead,------- I said She’s an old bitch and should. I
say she ought to be dead.”
His hatred of women is clearly obvious in the following lines:
“No there’s nothing left for it my boy, but to set yourself be butchered by the
women.”
It is something more that. Jimmy is sensitive, though not sensible. What he suggests is
that women are the mast important factors in the society; the society is sick and dying.
Such a society has no right to exist, but it is women who are trying to perpetuate it there
fore, women are the roots of all troubles and problems.
To sum up the whole debate we can say that “Look Back in Anger” is perfectly as
naturalistic play for it voices the feelings and sentiments of the youths of the fifties against
a back ground that is highly realistic and in a language, in an idiom no less realistic.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 241

PROSE-(PAPER-X)
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 242
JOHN STUART MILL: On Liberty
J.S MILL AS LIBERAL THINKER
John Stuart Mill is really herald of liberty of thought and discussion. He believes that
all silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. If all mankind minus one is of
one opinion, one must keep in mind that the best ideas in the best interest of people
become public opinion. It shows that J.S. Mill believes in expression of opinion at any
cost. It also shows that J.S. Mill believes in expression of opinion of thought and
discussion. He also believes that there should be catharsis of the bottled up emotions and
passions. One should not be very conservative and orthodoxical. He is also of the opinion
that there are three possibilities of newly received opinion. First probability is that newly
received opinion will be totally true. In this case, it is the duty of society to follow the best
opinion. If anybody is going to silence the opinion it means that he is posing to be
infallible. So he says,
“If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, and only one person were of the
contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person,
than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind. Were an opinion
a personal possession of no value except to the owner; if to be obstructed in the
enjoyment of it were simply a private injury, it would make some difference, whether
the injury was inflicted only on a few persons or on many”
J.S. Mill also believes that all human beings are fallible: we commit errors,
therefore, J.S. Mill says.
“All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. Its condemnation
may be infallibility. Its condemnation may be allowed to rest on this common
argument, not the verse for being common.”
A famous critic Christopher Gillie says that J.S. Mill is typical embodiment of
expression of opinion. Consequently I can say that J.S. Mill is real harbinger of liberty of
opinion.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 243
J.S MILL’S INDIVIDUAL VERSUS PUBLIC OPINION
J.S. Mill says in his treatise “On Liberty” that the best ideas in the best interest of
people become public opinion. He also believed that each and every human being has
particular individual opinion. He also believed that all silencing of discussion is an
assumption of infallibility. It is an undeniable fact that all human being are fallible. To err is
human, to forgive is Divine, John Stuard Mill also knew it very well that:-
“If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, and only one person was of the
contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person,
than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind. Were an opinion
a personal possession of no value except to the owner, if to be obstructed in the
enjoyment of it were simply a private injury, it would make some difference, whether
the injury was inflicted only on a few persons or on many”.
There are three possibilities of newly received opinion. First possibility is that
newly received will be totally true. For example, if any person says in British culture that
let’s go to the church, it is the best opinion. Therefore it should be the duty of the society
that they should follow the opinion. If any body is silencing this best opinion it means that
he posses to be infallible. Second possibility is that newly received opinion will be partially
true and partially wrong. In this case, it is the duty of the public to follow the right portion
of the opinion because good opinion can be regarded as public opinion. For example, if
any person says that let’s go to the church and then we should gamble. In this case, it is
the duty of the public to follow good portion of opinion. Third possibility of opinion is that
newly received opinion will be totally wrong; even in this case it is the duty of society not
to suppress the opinion because the best ideas can become public opinion.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie is right to remark that J.S. Mill has expressed right
idea for the catharsis of the emotions, passions with the help of appropriate individual.
Consequently, I can say that there are three possibilities of newly received opinion.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 244
LIBERTY OF THOUGHTS AND DISCUSSION
John Stuart Mill needs no introduction. He believes in expression of opinion at any
cost. It is remarked rightly that all silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. It
is also pointed out that the best ideas in the best interest of people become public opinion.
“If all mankind minus one were of one opinion and only one person were of the
contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person than
he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind”
J.S. Mill has also pointed out that each individual should be permitted to express
the opinion because expression of opinion is basic right of each and every human being.
No opinion must be oppressed or suppressed. Otherwise, people will face confusion,
congestion and suffocation. Actually, it is typical Islamic idea that one must express one’s
opinion even before one’s enemy and tyrant ruler.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
John Stuart Mill also believed that all human beings should be fully allowed
to have individual opinion. Therefore he enumerates three probabilities of newly received
opinion. First probability is that newly received opinion will be totally true. Second
possibility is that newly received opinion will be partially true and partially false. Third
option is that it would be totally false. In each and every case, it is the duty of the listeners
that they should give chance of expression of opinion to each and everybody at any cost.
Faiz Ahmed Faiz has rightly remarked:-
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
John Stuart Mill also believed that individuality means self development. We should
not move in a sheep like way. If we are following other in each and every matter of life,
where goes our precious self.
As a herald of freedom of expression and torch bearer of liberty of thoughts,
J.S. Mill opines that customs are made for customary circumstances. Therefore ages are
also fallible. One must believe in expression of opinion at any rate because it will allow
ventilation and expression of our bottled-up-emotions.
As a herald of expression of opinion, J.S. Mill believes in Christian self denial
instead of pagan self assertion. It is also says:-
“There is a different type of human excellence from the Calvinistic, a

conception of humanity as having its nature bestowed on it for other purposes than
merely to abnegated pagan self assertion is of the elements of human worth as well
as Christian self denial”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 245
C. Gillie says “Mill’s literary output was very large and his influence on his

time was great, though much of his writing has now been superseded by subsequent
thinking”.
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that J.S. Mill believed in expression of opinion and

FRANCIS BACON’S ESSAYS


BACON’S RENAISSANCE SPRIT
Renaissance means revival of learning and restoration of knowledge. It can be
elaborated through the following diagram:-

In Bacon’s essays like “Of Studies”, “Of Truth, Of Marriage and Single Life, Of
Revenge, Of Friendship and Of Great Place. A unique writer Alexander Pope is of the
opinion that Frances Bacon is the wisest, brightest but meanest.
In his essay “Of Truth” he says that mixture of lie doth ever add pleasure. It seems
to be immoral and vicious version that he is allowing artistic blend of lie and truth. It an
undeniable fact that truth is evergreen and lies has no feet to stand upon.
In his essay “Of Studies”, Frances Bacon is highly conscious about extension of
knowledge and expansion of the horizons of intellect and wisdom by studying marvellous
books. He lays emphasis on language skills like reading, writing and conference in the
following manner:-
“Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man.
And therefore, if a man write little he had need have a great memory”.
Renaissance spirit is also crystal clear when we come to know that Bacon is
classifying the books by saying that some books are tasted, some are chewed and some
are swallowed;
“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be
chewed and digested”
Bacon is embodiment of Renaissance. One critic has entitled him as evil genius
and spoilt child of Renaissance. Anyhow, his vision, perception, rationality, pragmatic
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 246
approach, utilitarian philosophy and pithy, condensed and terse style are really
noteworthy and upto some extent praiseworthy. His maxims, quotations and proverbs are
really promising endeavor of Bacon.
1. Men in great places are thrice servants. (Of Great Place)
2. Lookers on many times see more than the gamesters. (Of Friendship)
3. A man that studieth revenge keeps his own wounds green. (Of Revenge)
4. He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune. (Of Marriage)
5. Revenge is a kind of wild justice. (Of Revenge)
6. A crowd is not company, and faces are but a gallery of pictures. (Of Friendship)
7. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.
8. Some books are to be tasted others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed
and digested. (7 & 8 Of Studies)
9. For there is no such flatterer as is man’s self. (Of friendship)
Nitty-gritty of the matter is that Renaissance is salient feature if Bacon. All essays
are replete with wisdom, proverbs, maxims and quotable quotations.

BACON’S STYLE
It is fact that style is the man; each and every writer has a typical style of writing.
Bacon’s style is related with Renaissance spirit. Bacon is very conscious about
appropriate usage of similes and metaphors. He says that people fear from death as
children fear from darkness. He also says that suspicion among thoughts is just like bat
among animals.
Bacon’s style is really appreciable because he uses short sentences, which are
very chipsy, crispy, and crunchy. For example he says that mixture of lie doth ever add
pleasure. If we compare Russell’s style with that of Bacon, we come to know that there is
remarkable
difference between the two. Russell uses long sentences but Bacon uses small ones.
Another feature of Bacon’s style is appropriate usage of epigrams and proverbs.
1. Men in great places are thrice servants. (Of Great Place)

2. Lookers on many times see more than the gamesters. (Of Friendship)
3. A man that studieth revenge keeps his own wounds green. (Of Revenge)
4. He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune. (Of Marriage)
5. Revenge is a kind of wild justice. (Of Revenge)
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 247
6. A crowd is not company, and faces are but a gallery of pictures. (Of Friendship)
7. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man(OS)
8. Some books are to be tasted others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed
and digested. (Of Studies)
9. For there is no such flatterer as is man’s self. (Of friendship)
Bacon is really appreciable because his style is related with Renaissance spirit.
Actual Renaissance is an era of literature in which people were highly interested in revival
of learning and restoration of knowledge. It is really associated with different research
oriented work. Everybody was laying stress on studies or extension of knowledge. For
example, in his essay, “Of Studies” Bacon is right to say,
“Crafty men condemn studies; simple men admire them; and wise men use them”
In the same essay,
“Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
And therefore, if a man write little he had need have a great memory.”
Bacon’s style is philosophical style but Russell’s style is scientific style. Bacon is
really, appreciable because he is very typical man of Elizabethan era. He is very
pragmatic in his approach. He thinks’ that one must be pragmatic and analytical in one’s
approach. One should not feel any shyness to get material progress. One should be rich
by hook or by crook. His essays are replete with materialism. Even in his essay “Of
Marriage and Single Life” he says
“He who hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune”.
Famous critics Leguos and Cazamian say that Bacon is lacking humour.
Consequently, I can say that Bacon’s style is really laudable. He is very individual
and archetypal in his style.

BACON’S PHILOSOPHY
It is the fact that philosophy is related with philosophical doctrines. Only those
people can be good philosophers who have rational thought, logical linking and
appropriate usage of rationa-capax. No doubt Bacon is a typical philosopher of
Renaissance era. Therefore his philosophy is replete with pragmatism and utilitarian
approach. Being an individual and archetypal, man of Renaissance, he believes in revival
of learning and restoration of knowledge. For instance, in his essay “Of Studies” he lays
stress on achievement of knowledge, so he says in order to classify the books that some
books are chewed some are tasted, while others are swallowed.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 248
“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be
chewed and digested”
Bacon’s philosophy is also crystal clear when we come to know that his
philosophical thought is really applicable to each and every era. Bacon is also aware of
this fact that each and every human being has certain liabilities. Therefore all human
beings should be under the spell of goodness of thought and approaches related with
Renaissance even Bacon is depicting this thought that one may be opportunist and
pragmatic even to the members of his own family. Therefore in his essay “Of Marriage and
Single Life” he wrote,
“He who hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune.
It shows that Bacon was not sincere even with his own children. It is also remarked that”
“Unmarried people can be good friends, good workers and good rulers or leader
but not necessarily good subjects because they are light to depart”

Sir Francis Bacon is also aware of this fact that most of the people are sick of
philosophers. But Bacon’s philosophy is so appealing and fascinating that most of the
people are admirers of Bacon’s philosophy. For instance, Bacon is depicting his views
about revenge by saying that.
“Revenge is a kind of wild justice.”
It is also pointed out by so many philosophers that justice delayed is justice denied.
It is also pointed out that justice is ever cherished by every person.
In Bacon’s philosophy, some aspects are really objectionable. For example, in his essay
“Of Truth” he says;
“The mixture of lie doth ever add pleasure”
A famous critic Pope says that Bacon is wisest, brightest but meanest.
Consequently, I can say that Bacon’s philosophy is really marvelous and thought
provoking.

BERTRAND RUSSELL: Sceptical Essays


BERTRAND RUSSELL’S STYLE
It is fact that style is the man. Each and every writer has typical style of writing,
which may be different from others. For example, Russell’s style is totally different from
that of Bacon. Russell is using long sentences but Bacon is using short sentences. For
example in his essay “Dreams & Facts”, he has composed facts from the dreams. It is
unique thought that dreams are the output of our unconsciousness. Whatever is unfulfilled
in day, it is fulfilled in our dreams. Russell is also aware of his mathematics are crystal
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 249
clear in his essays like, ‘Can Man be Rational’ ‘Value of Scepticism’, ‘Do the Scientists
Believe in God?’, Dreams and Facts, Freedom Versus Authority in Education, Russell has
used the words of subtraction, multiplication, percentage, topology, deductive method and
inductive method. Russell’s style is based on clarity because there are so many
appropriate examples. He does not create ambiguity. He is fond of clarity; he thinks that
one must be clear out. For example, in his essay “The Horns that Good Men Do”. Russell
has quoted the following examples to illustrate his point of view.
“The life of Wordsworth illustrates the change. In his youth he sympathized
with the Revolution, went to France, wrote good poetry, and had a natural daughter.
At this period he was a ‘bad’ man. Then he became ‘good’ abandoned his daughter,
adopted correct principles, and wrote bad poetry. Coleridge went through a similar
change; when he was wicked he wrote Kublai Khan, and when he was good he wrote
theology.”
Bertrand Russell’s style becomes somewhat ambiguous when we come to know
because he was a philosopher of the first rank. Therefore in his sceptical essays like
“Value of Scepicism” and “Can Man be Rational”. A reader of common caliber can face so
many ambiguities and confusing situations. He has also pointed out that in modern age,
most of the people are not logical, rational and user of rationa capax. Russell’s style is
also replete with terminology, difficult words and some similes in metaphors.
In his style Russell is using question, answer technique. It is very natural that
question- answer technique can inspire the readers and one may think about the answers.
In his essay “Freedom Versus Authority” Russell says.
“How if its nature leads it to swallow pins, I asked but I regret to say the
answer was near... .”
Another feature of Russell’s style is appropriate usage of punctuation marks; he
knows how to use comma, colon, semi-colon and other punctuation marks. This is
invented for me, and delivered to me orally by Mr. Mudstone, and begins “If I go into a
cheese-monger’s Shop and by five thousand Double-Gloucester cheeses at Four pence-
half penny each, present payment”.
Another feature of Russell’s style is that Russell is very conscious about blend of
difficult and easy words. Some of the words expressed by Russell are very difficult while
other words are very easy. It depends on the temperament and mood of the writer.
A critic Christopher Gillie says that Russell’s style is really individual and archetypal
one. The epitome of the matter is that Bertrand Russell is very unique in his style.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 250
RUSSELL’S PHILOSOPHY
Russell’s philosophy is related with modern trends. He believed that “Man is the

rational animal; any peculiarly cruel or unnatural action is called brutal or bestial
although such actions are infact distinctively human. God made man in his own image
and the welfare of man is the ultimate purpose of the universe”.
Russell’s philosophy is highly applicable with modern thoughts. For example, in his
essay “Can Man be Rational” Russell says in the opening lines

“I am in the habit of thinking myself as a rationalist, and a rationalist, I

suppose must be one who wishes men to be rational opinion. What is a rational
opinion? And what is a rational conduct? Pragmatism emphasizes the irrationality of
the opinion. And psycho analysis emphasizes the irrationality of Conduct”.
Russell’s philosophy of education is also based on liberal thoughts. He is not
in favour of strict education. Russell is herald of inductive and deductive method of
teaching. Russell believed that all human beings are very conscious about educational
philosophy because education is the source of enlightenment and illumination. It is really
appreciable on the part of Russell that he is in favour of universal education. He believes
that school teacher must be abroad. He is not allowing that teacher to be strict. Teacher is
architect of nation. So the well-wisher and benefactor of nation should be respected.
Russell’s philosophy is replete with wisdom scholasticism, rationality, metaphysical
approaches and other aspects of human life. It also indicates that Bertrand Russell is so
innovative, creative and capable that his philosophy is still applicable. He is also inspiring
his followers to be rational, sceptic and logical. So that the world should be free from
miseries of life and the people of modern age should have philosophical bent of mind
because philosophy is essence of life. Russell has condemned moral bankruptcy, oddities,
frivolities, snobbery and foppish behavior. In his famous essay, “Dreams and Facts”
Russell has also pointed out that dreams output of our unconscious”. Unfulfilled desires
are fulfilled in our dreams.
Consequently, I can say that Russell’s philosophy is really unique, archetypal and
marvelous.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 251
SCEPTICISM
Bertrand Russell is a typical sceptic of English prose. In his famous essay “Value of
Scepticism”, Bertrand Russell has pointed out that human being should be sceptic,
rational and logical. One must be conscious about different aspects of human life. For
example, Russell says that he should be aware of international approaches and problems.
Actually Russell was not only nationalist but also internationalist. He has also mentioned
some customs of “Tibet”. He believes that one must be creative and capable of innovating
new ideas. He has quoted polygamy and polyandry in Tibet. Now it is not essential that
each and every human being should have implementation on polygamy and polyandry. It
is fact that all human beings have some dreams, desires, adorations, limitations and
restrictions as well jurisdictions.
It also illustrates that Russell is very conscious about sceptical and rational
thoughts.
“It seems that sin is geographical. From this conclusion, it is only a small step
to the further conclusion that the notion of sin is illusory and that the cruelty
habitually practiced in punishing it is unnecessary. It is just this conclusion which is
so unwelcome to many minds since the infliction of cruelty with a good conscience is a
delight to moralists that is why they invented hell”.
Russell is also pragmatic, scientific, analytical and unique in his approach. He
believes it very well that science is based on rationality, Scepticism, logic and creative
capability. In this essay Russell also says,
“Respectability, regularity and routine--the whole cast-iron, discipline of a
modern industrial society have atrophied the artistic impulse and imprisoned love so
that it can no longer be generous, free and creative but must be either stuffy or
furtive.”
Scepticism does become self-defeating when either it is carried too far or it is
allowed to encroach upon certain spheres where instincts should rules supreme.
A famous critic says that Scepticism by its very premises is a self-defeating attitude.
Consequently, I can say that Scepticism is salient feature of Russell’s writings.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 252
Lytton Strachey: The Eminent Victorians
LYTTON STRACHEY: AS PROSE WRITER
Lytton Strachey can rightly be regarded as individual and archetypal prose writer.
He is a marvelous biographer of the first rank. He believes that all human beings have
certain potentialities and capabilities. He has used his lucid, descriptive and narrative style
to illustrate his point of view. He has written biography of General Gordon, Florence
Nightingale, Cardinal Manning and Dr. Arnold. He narrates that Florence Nightingale was
very pioneer of nursing. She was working in Scutari. She was serving every patient with
full zeal and zest. She was so selfless, devoted and dedicated that she left her villa,
property and large estate. Florence Nightingale was really marvelous lady. She believed in
the life of hustle and bustle. Florence Nightingale was not epicurean in her tastes but in
practical life, she led very adventurous life. She also believes that one should venture for
adventure, because one must lead very struggling life to maintain fame and name. She
led a life for other because she was anthropologist and philanthropist. She knew it very
well that one must be caring, loving and selfless in one’s deeds so that one may achieve
one’s aims. During Crimea War she served selflessly.
“The name of Florence Nightingale lives in the memory of the world by virtue
of the lurid and heroic adventure of the Crimea”.
Dr. Arnold was very unique headmaster of Rugby School System. He also knew it
very well those four things are essential for educational process, first is educator, second
is taught, third is curriculum and fourth is extra curricular activity. According to Rugby
School education teacher talking time is less than student talking time. He also believed
that the teacher is the maker of nation provided that teacher must be devoted, dedicated
and competent in his profession.
Strachey also describes the biography of General Gordon. He was very versatile
genius. He was commander of Khartoom Army. He was Commander-In-Chief of army in
Egypt. He enjoyed authoritative job.
As biographer Strachey has also pointed out various qualities of Cardinal Manning.
He was highly appreciable, ecclesiastical figure. He believed in trinity and different aspect
of Christianity.
C. Gillie says that Lytton Strachey is a prose writer of English literature who got
repute by writing “Eminent Victorians”
In nutshell, we can say that Lytton Strachey is towering prose writers.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 253
CHARACTERIZATION IN “EMINENT VICTORIANS”
In this piece of prose “Eminent Victorians” Lytton Strachey has pointed out that
characters project the story. It is remarked rightly that Lytton Strachey’s characters are
real characters. They are not based on supernatural elements rather they are real
characters of flesh and blood. They are not supernatural elements. Lytton Strachey has
not projected any giant, fairies, fays, genii, Daemons and Elves. Rather the characters are
life-like and there are no super human qualities. Lytton Strachey is man of realism and
there is no verbosity or flowery language in his characters. For example Florence
Nightingale’s character is very typical life-like character. She is regarded as “Lady of the
Lamp” because she is an anthropologist and very conscious about improvement in
warring camps. Actually Florence Nightingale was aware of this fact that it is basic duty of
human being to love others.
Florence is really appreciable character because she was pioneer of nursing and
she knew it very well that nursing is such type of profession which demands selflessness,
devotion and dedication. Even in Crimean War, she participated in warring camps with full
zeal and zeal. She desired to become apple of eye and she really became popular figure,
because it is undeniable fact that where there is will, there is way. Strachey also believes
that Florence Nightingale was such type of character who was dreaming to perpetuate her
infatuation to anthropology and philanthropism. It is also historically proved that.
“Amid all these activities took up further task of inspecting the hospitals in
the Crimea itself. The labour was extreme and the conditions of life were almost
intolerance”.
General Gordon is also marvelous character of the book “Eminent Victorians”. He
was the man of extraordinary caliber, potentialities and capabilities. Actually he believed
that one must have capabilities to lead and commanding nature. He remained serving in
Khartoom, Africa, China and Spain. He believed that men at their best are present in Army
because military minded people are appreciable.
“But how rare are the qualities of self-control and wisdom which such a
subordinate must possess! And how little-reason there was to think that General
Gordon possessed them”.
Cardinal Manning’s character is also individual and archetypal. He was staunch
ecclesiastical figure. He knew different parameters, paraphernalia, infrastructure and
prerequisites of Catholic and Protestant school of thought. It is also quoted that Cardinal
Manning desired to improve the status of church. He desired cherishly to adopt such
measures especially remedial measures to mitigate intensity of materialistic trends. But he
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 254
believed that it is impossible to be ascetic. He was in favour of tolerance, forbearance
and open-minded approach.
Dr. Arnold is the pioneer of Rugby School System. He pointed out that educator,
taught, curriculum and extra curriculum activities play vital role for the upbringing and
appropriate brought up or grooming of the children.
“There can be little doubt that what he had achieved justified the prediction
of the Provost of Oriel that he would, change the face of education all through the
public schools of England".
Lytton Strachey exhibited a beautiful literary style. As Ward puts it, he
“Had a ser se of literary form and the value and significance of words, which is
in itself enchanting”.
Consequently, I can say that Lytton Strachey is a man of innovation.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 255

CRITICISM
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 256
SECTION-A
ARISTOTLE: The Poetics
ARISTOTLE’S CONCEPT OF TRAGEDY

In his famous book “The Poetics”. Aristotle has defined tragedy by saying that
tragedy is an imitation having serious thoughts, appropriate magnitude and its basic
function is catharsis of the emotions of pity and fear. Aristotle laid stress on six
components of tragedy. He believed that plot, character, spectacle, melody, thought and
diction.

It is fact that the plot proceeds through character, therefore a tragic hero or
protagonist should be neither ruffian nor thoroughly gentleman or saint like figure. If a
saint like person is moving from prosperity to adversity we take pity on him but we do not
feel fear for him. It means that a saint like person can not be elevated as a tragic hero but
George Bernard Shaw has projected Saint John as a tragic hero. Contrary to this, a ruffian
or murderer, can not be elevated as tragic hero but William Shakespeare has written
“Macbeth” in which he has pointed out so many incidents where the protagonist is going to
be emotional rather murderer. Even he kills King Duncan and General Banquo. It means
that Shakespeare is the least concerned with Aristotle while writing Macbeth.

Aristotle laid stress on four qualities of a tragic hero. . . . . . . . .

a. Goodness.

b. Likeness.

c. Appropriateness.

d. Consistency.

Aristotle also believed that there should be beginning middle and ending of tragedy.

Tragedy

Middle

Ending
Beginning
Time…..

Aristotle also pointed out that there should be no mixture of tragedy and comedy.
There must be either pure tragedy or pure comedy but Shakespeare has violated this
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 257
concept of Aristotle in “The Merchant of Venice”. Actually Shakespeare believes that
the quantity of tears and smiles remains constant in this world. When one body starts
smiling, the other starts weeping and vice versa. Therefore literature should reflect the
society hence, there must be neither complete tragedy nor complete comedy.

Aristotle also pointed out that there should be organic unity in the plot of tragedy.
So Aristotle compared the plot of tragedy with body of an animal. As there is sequence,
harmony and balance among various organs of an animal. In the same manner, there
should be sequence, balance and harmony among various thoughts, feelings, emotions
and passions. He also knew it very well that human being is crown of creation and
monarch of creature. The plot of tragedy should be, neither too long nor too short. It must
be appropriate. Such type of idea is negated by William Shakespeare in “The Merchant of
Venice” because in this tragic comedy or romantic comedy there is bond story, casket
story, Lorenzo and Jessica episode as well as ring episode. In this way unity of the plot is
shattered.

In “The Poetics”, Aristotle laid stress on catharsis. It is fact that purgation or


ventilation is natural desire of every human being. Nobody desires that his emotions
passions should be bottled up.

Aristotle also laid stress on two type of purgation. Firstly, like cures alike. Secondly,
like cures unlike. For example, a weeping baby is consoled to sleep with lulling, in the
same way; anti- rabbis’ vaccine is also made of saliva of dog.

To sum up, I can say that Aristotle is typical pioneer of literature. His concept of
tragedy is still applicable.

ARISTOTLE AS A TRAGIC HERO

Aristotle believed that hero of tragedy should be either king or prince. He should not
be common man or layman or man of street. Aristotle knew it very well that of a thoroughly
gentleman or saint like figure is moving from prosperity to adversity, we take pity on him
but we do not feel fear. It indicates that a saint like person can not be hero or protagonist.
This concept of tragic hero is rejected by George Bernard Shaw. He wrote the play “Saint
John” in which he has violated various concepts of tragic hero propounded by Aristotle.

Contrary to this, Aristotle believed that a ruffian, ruffian, rascal or murderer can not
be tragic hero. If a murderer is moving from prosperity to adversity, we do not take pity on
him but we feel fear.

The same philosophy is highly contradictory by William Shakespeare. While writing


“Macbeth” William Shakespeare has violated Aristotle. Actually Aristotle believed that
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 258
murderer or rascal can not be protagonist but Aristotle has pointed out that rascal or
murderer can not arouse the emotions of pity. It is obvious that Aristotle is laying stress on
the protagonist. Tragic hero is the person who is undergoing stress and strain in the play.

In “The Poetics” Aristotle laid stress on four qualities of the tragic hero. These
qualities are written as following;

1. Goodness.
2. Consistency.
3. Appropriateness.
4. Likeness.
Aristotle believed that tragic hero should be good at heart and soul. If the
protagonist is well equipped and will become more appreciable. It also indicates that
Aristotle knows different ins and outs of tragedy.

In the characters there are four points to aim at, first and foremost that they shall be
good. There will be an element of character in the play, if (as has been reserved) what a
person says or does reveals a certain moral purpose, and a good element of character, if
the purpose so revealed is good. Such goodness is possible in every type of person, even
in a woman or a slave, though the one is perhaps an inferior, and the other a wholly
worthless being. The second point is to make them appropriate. The character before us
may be, say, manly, but it is not appropriate in a female character to be manly, or clever.
The third is to make them like a reality, which is not the sane as their being good and
appropriate, in our sense of term. The fourth is to make them consistent.

Aristotle also knew it very well that consistency is salient characteristics of Aristotle
tragic hero. For example, if we are showing one maintains his consistency. It also
indicates that Aristotle is highly conscious about appropriateness as well as consistency.

It is fact that to err is human to forgive divine. We are neither angelic not satanic.
Therefore tragic hero is artistic blend of merits and demerits.

In nutshell, I can say that Aristotle is very conscious about various qualities of tragic hero.

ARISTOTLE’S CONCEPT OF CATHARSIS

The term ‘Catharsis’ is used only once in the course of Aristotle’s (384-322 BC)
“The Poetics” in fourth chapter. Catharsis is a meditated term. Aristotle got the idea from
his father who believes that Catharsis is purification, ventilation, clarification, purgation
and bubbling of the emotions. It is historically proved that Aristotle’s father was a figure
among the cipher; he was really hero among the zero. He believed that excess of bad
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 259
blood can pollute the human body, therefore, he knew it very well that excess of pity
and fear can pollute the human mind. Therefore, there must be ventilation of excessive
emotion of pity and fear. Now in homeopathic medical treatment, catharsis is a medical
term, which is used for the treatment of constipation.

A distinguished critic I.A. Richards says that the emotion of pity is an impulse to
advance, while fear is an impulse to withdraw. In tragedy both these impulses are
blended, harmonized into balance. Emotional excess is thus brought to a balance.

In Greek era, Catharsis was a common practice and it is gaining practice now a
days. It is really smile provoking that Aristotle’s father was a quack, whenever any patient
used to come, he used to prick the vein of the left arm. After pricking the vein, the blood
was oozing drop by drop, in this was Aristotle got the concept of catharsis. After getting
this concept, he reached in Greek theatre and came to know that the producer and
director of the theatre used to bring the ‘Goat’ physically on the stage. They use to
prick/twist the ear of the ‘Goat’ the bleating sound of goat was called “Tragedia”. So,
Aristotle define tragedy by saying that tragedy is an imitation of an action, as;

“Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete and of a certain


magnitude”.

Aristotle’s Catharsis term is also linked with the concept of pity and fear. It is,
therefore, necessary to consider the meanings of pity and fear as connected with tragedy,
if a thoroughly gentleman or Saint is moving from gentleman or Saint is moving from the
prosperity to adversity, we take pity on him, but there is no catharsis of fear. Inspite of this,
George Bernard Shaw has written a drama “Saint Joha”, in which a Saint like person is
moving from happiness to gloom. It shows that G.B. Show is the least concerned with
Aristotelian concept of Catharsis. Contrary to this, a ruffian or a thug is moving from
prosperity to adversity, we do not take pity on him but there is catharsis of fear. It is fact
that William Shakespeare has written “Macbeth” in which a murderer, rascal, scoundrel,
ruffian, vicious and debaucherous person is elevated as a protagonist of the drama.

Fear may also arise out of a feeling of guilt or rather recognition of this guilt in
ourselves, when we see it portrayed in someone else, “Pity”, we are told by Aristotle is

“A kind of pain or disturbance due to a mental picture of some destructive or


painful evil in the future”

There are tow types of Catharsis, like curing the like, unlike curing the unlike. It is
fact that if the dog has bite any person then anti-rabbis vaccine is inoculated. In the same
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 260
way, if the snake has stung any person anti-venom serum is injected. Aristotle has also
quoted the example of Plato. In “The Poetics” Aristotle refers to the curing of religious
frenzy. According to Plato, a crying child is rocked to sleep by singing a song. If the baby
is weeping, he or she is put in the cradle by the mother and she starts lulling the baby.
This lulling song creates silence and the baby stops weeping and yelling.

“A crying child is rocked to sleep by singing a song”

Catharsis was seen to be in the nature of unlike curing the unlike. The arousing of
Pity and Fear, the more tender emotions, brought about a purgation or evacuation of other
emotions like anger and pride. The sight of the incidents aroused pity and fear, the
spectator is purged of those emotions which caused the incidents of suffering in the
tragedy. Aristotle points out that the pleasure in the imitative arts is connected with
learning. Pleasure does not come from joy alone; even the picture of dead bodies can give
pleasure that pleasure is there in anything filled to instruct. It is paradox that even the ugly
and the repellant can and do give pleasure. A similar paradox lies there in tragedy.
Aristotle himself tells us that tragedy has its own kind of pleasure, and that we must seek
from it this pleasure. This pleasure involves the preservation of events which arouse pity
and fear, as:

“Catharsis becomes an indication of the function of tragedy, and not of its


emotional effects on the audience.”

Catharsis refers to the incidents of the tragedy rather than to the psychology of the
audience. Catharsis is not purgation of emotions, nor is it a purification of emotion. It refers
to the way in which the poet has presented his incidents of pity and fear to rise from the
particular to the universal.

A renowned critic Lascellas says “Catharsis is in any case a metaphor. It may


allude to rites of religion, in which case it means “Purification” or it may allude to theories
of medicine in which case it means “Purgation”.

To sum up the matter, we can say that catharsis of emotions of pity and fear is
salient feature of Aristotelian concept of catharsis.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 261
ARISTOTLE’S THEORY OF IMITATION

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is very conscious about the concept of ‘imitation’. The term
‘Imitation’ is not used for the first time by Aristotle. In fact, Aristotle got this idea of imitation
from his superior teacher “Plato”, who propounded the concept of utopia. Plato believed
that this world is the reflection of ideal world; each and every person has his own ideas
and utopian thoughts, which are imitative by him in his personal life. But Aristotle’s use of
the term is fraught (filled) with new dimensions. He gave to it a greater precision of
meaning and a greater comprehension of scope.

A famous critic Abererombic says “Within the scope Aristotle has assigned to his
subject, all poems may be classified either as narrative or dramatic. Thus poems which
resemble each other in the object (imitation of human life) may differ in (the manner of
imitation, and the other way round.. . . .”

Plato has distinguished between the useful arts and the imitative arts. The useful
arts, such as medicine and agriculture, serve our requirements. The imitative arts did not
have such a utility; poetry belonged to the category of the imitative arts. To Plato, the
‘idea’ was the truth of the reality. For example, if a carpenter knows about a table, he will
prepare the table by imitating the idea of table which is presented in his mind. In the same
manner, poetry is imitation of an art. Aristotle also believe that tragedy is an imitation of an
action having serious thought appropriate magnitude and its basic function is catharsis of
the emotions of pity and fear. He says,

“Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain


magnitude.”

From this definition, we can deduce an idea that tragedy as well as poetry,
especially epic poetry is based on imitation, because it is related with imitation of different
idealized thoughts. Thus, ‘imitation’ in poetry is clearly distinct from photographic
representation. Tragedy and epic deal with men better than in real life. Aristotle has also
distinction between tragedy and comedy lies in how the agent of action represented, he
says;

“Given both the same means and the same kinds of object for imitation.”

Aristotle also distinguished between imitation and creation. He was quite justifying
says that there is a lot of difference between imitation and creation. His concept of
imitation made the poetic process out to be not one of mere copying but an act of creative
vision, through which the poet taking material from phenomenon of life. Poets deal with
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 262
the basic essentials of human nature or the possibilities of human nature. Aristotle
asserts.

“It is not the function of the poet to relate what happened- - - - -but what is
possible according to the law of probability or necessarily.”

Limitation is really salient feature of Aristotelian thought because it is a device to


create poetry and drama. It is also unique idea that imitation is the need of time, without
imitation the writer can not achieve one’s name and objective. Dramatic art is the imitation
which reproduces life’s emotions rather than life is sense impressions. Aristotle says, there
may be three modes of imitation: one, the poet may imitate through the medium of
narrative at one moment and a character on the other, two he may remain the same
throughout the poem and finally, whole story may be represented dramatically.

“The imitators may represent the whole story dramatically”

Aristotle also propounded the object of imitation; the objects of poetic imitation are
‘men in action’. These men may be either better than lower than the average man in real
life. At first sight, this seems to be at variance with what he says in “The Poetics” that

“The objects of imitation are men in action.”

Aristotle defended poetry, and offered a wider scope and greater significance to the
term ‘imitation’. This imitation is not mere slavish copying. It is not mere representation of
the outward appearance.

A famous critic Butcher observes, Aristotle’s theory encompasses for poetic


imitation, the characteristic moral qualities, and the permanent disposition of the mind, the
passing emotions and feelings which are all actions and so the proper objects of imitation.

To sum up the matter, we can say that in “The Poetics”, Aristotle gave to the term
‘imitation’ a more precise as well as deeper significance and wider sensation.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 263
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH
PREFACE TO LYRICAL BALLADS
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH AS A CRITIC
William Wordsworth can rightly be regarded as individual critic of the first rank.
Wordsworth’s position as a poet in the history of English Literature is also well assured
and accepted. It has been pointed out by all critics that he was primarily a poet, dragged
into the field of criticism in spite of being reluctant himself. Neither by temperament nor by
training was he truly qualified to be a critic. Wordsworth has no systematic treatise on
criticism. He did not write many critical essays. His literary criticism is confined to the
prefaces and essays, which accompanied the various editions of the Lyrical Ballads and a
number of stray observations scattered in his letters.
He believed that there are four steps of poetic process.
1. Observation.
2. Contemplation.
3. Recrudescence.
4. Composition.
Observation is first and foremost requirement for creation of poetry. Without
observing natural background, we can not compose poetry. It is the need of poetry that we
should be aware of significance of poetry as well as different paraphernalia of nature. In
this poetic process, William Wordsworth has also remarked that one should not sit and
relax in cozy bedrooms rather one should be aware of this fact that mountains, fountains,
hills, rills, skyscraping peaks, chirping birds, daffodils, dew-drops, sepals, petals and lush
green fields and other beauties of nature. For example, in his poem “Daffodils” he has
pointed out ins and outs of the different Daffodils. He has also remarked that without
observing daffodils one should never think about writing of daffodils. In the same manner,
in his poem “Tables Turned” he has also pointed out the significance of observation in the
following manner:
“One impulse from the vernal wood
May teach you more of a man
Of all moral evil and of good
Than all the sages can”
Wordsworth also laid stress on contemplation. He believed that one must cogitate
and think over various observed materials. This concept of contemplation became
controversial issue or debatable point.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 264
S.T. Coleridge has criticized Wordsworthian dichotomy that spontaneity and
contemplation are two different phenomenon. The demand of spontaneity is that one
should start poetry without contemplation and cogitation. If we are really thinking about
observed material, it means that you are not spontaneous in your expression.
In order to elaborate the concept of spontaneity and contemplation, let’s quote the
example of
Urdu poet Jurrat and Insha-ul-llah Khan Insha. Once Jurrat was trying to create
second line of the verse, Insha asked him about his anxiety. He told that he has created
the following line.
------------------------------------------------------------
Insha proved his spontaneity without contemplation…..
----------------------------------------------------------------
Without laid stress on recrudescence which, seems to be practically impossible
phenomenon. With the passage of time, our intentions, thoughts remain changing. It is
really strange on the part of S. T. Coleridge that he has exposed various drawbacks of his
congenial comrade, William Wordsworth. Wordsworth also laid stress one re-creation of
the same of quality of emotions and passions, which were present at the time of
observation. It is an undeniable fact that time and tide wait for none. With the passage of
time our intentions remain fluctuating between happiness and unhappiness. Time is a
philosophical unit. Without perceiving importance of time we can not be conscious about
supremacy of time. A famous poet Shelley says that time is unfathomable sea. Its water is
saltish due to human tears. Time is horrible in storm and treacherous in calm. Coleridge
was right to say that time is the best physician, but Wordsworth has negated un-denying
factor of time.
“He loved to sit in the ‘long barren silence’ contemplating the submerged
feelings and images in his mind, taking hold of them when they rose to the surface”
Fourth step of poetic process is composition. In order to compose poetry
Wordsworth laid stress on four stages of poetic diction or language. Firstly, rustic
language must be used for poetry. Secondly, there should be the selection of the
language really spoken by men in vivid sensation. Thirdly, there is not essential difference
between language of prose and language of poetry. Fourthly, metre (verse and rhythm)
should used. His reasons for the choice of rustic life are:-
i. The rustic language is spoken by men in whose hearts the essential
passions find a better soil to attain maturity in.
ii. The passions of these men are incorporated with the beautiful and
permanent forms of nature, and the best part of their language is derived
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 265
from such communication with nature. It is bound to be noble and simply
grand.
iii. The expressions of the rustic folk are direct, clear, simple and impassioned.
They speak in an unrestrained manner, as they are uninhibited by social
vanity. Their language is impassioned, and expresses emotional excitement
in a better manner. Their language comes from the depth of their hearts’ it is
the natural language of the passions.
iv. Through such a language the basic truths about human nature can be more
easily reached, understood and communicated.
As a critic William Wordsworth also believed that metre teaches us and delight us.
Therefore poetry is regarded as metrical composition.

1. Wordswothian’s Doctrine
2. Poetic Diction
3. Poetic Language
It is fact that language plays vital role in metrical composition Wordsworth regarded
classical poet as pseudo-classical poet because Milton and Pope were using difficult
languages to impress the audience. The problem of poetic diction has been one of the
most controversial issues in literary criticism but, perhaps, the most important part in the
history of poetic diction is constituted by Wordsworth’s views on the language of poetry
and Coleridge’s criticism of those views. There are two traditions in the history of poetic
diction. One is that which pleads for a special language for poetry and the other is that
which pleads for spoken language. Wordsworth obviously belongs to the latter tradition. In
the latter half of eighteenth century, a campaign for a special language for poetry was
begun. The champions of this campaign were Addison, Johnson and Gray. It was to this
campaign that Wordsworth took a strong exception.

Addison remarked,
“A poet should take particular care to guard himself against idiomatic ways of

speaking of ‘speaking”.
Johnson declared that noble and graceful action is degraded if expressed in
ordinary and simple language. In this connection, he declares:

“Gold may be so concealed in baser matter that only a chemist can recover it

sense may be so hidden in unrefined and plebeian words that none but philosophers
can distinguish it”.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 266
Wordsworth regarded classical poets as doves while romantic poets were
regarded as eagles. William Wordsworth opined that villages are made by God and cities
by men. Therefore, one must be conscious to project the language of rustic people. In
order to compose poetry Wordsworth laid stress on four aspects of poetic diction or
language. Firstly, rustic language must be used for poetry. Secondly, there should be the
selection of the language really spoken by men in vivid sensation. Thirdly there is not
essential difference between language of prose and language of poetry. Fourthly, he said
metre should be used.
Brief synopsis of Wordsworthian poetic diction can be epitomized in the following manner:
i. The language of poetry should be the real language of men; it should have
no artificiality about it. By men Wordsworth meant the rustic folk and humble
people.
ii. A selection of such language should be used the language should be
purified of coarseness or oddities.
iii. It should be language of men in state of vivid sensation.
iv. The language of poetry is not essentially different from that of prose. It
should be noted that by ‘language’ Wordsworth probably means vocabulary,
not syntax and grammar.
Coleridge pointed out that rustic language is no more rustic one if it is trimmed, pruned,
refined and he was right to remark that Wordsworth is negating his own point of view.
To sum up, I can say that William Wordsworth has propounded different doctrine of
poetic diction.

WORDSWORTH AS A PIONEER OF ROMANTIC MOVEMENT


William Wordsworth is really herald, harbinger and torch bearer of Romantic
Movement. He needs no introduction because he is high priest of nature. He knows it very
well that nature is embalming, consoling, satisfying and thought provoking. Therefore, the
poet must be keen observer of sky scrapers, lofty mountains, fresh fountains, chirping,
birds, leaping waves lulling songs and other melodies voices.
William Wordsworth is really appreciable and praise-worthy critic of the first rank.
He deviated from the track of classicism and innovated the track of romanticism. Main
features of romanticism are subjectivity, Lyricism, imagery, simple language, negative
capability, escapism, pantheism, mysticism and appropriate usage of similies of
metaphors.
In the opening lines of “Preface to Lyrical Ballads” Wordsworth says:
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 267
“The first volume of these poems has already been submitted to general
perusal. It was published as an experiment, which, I hoped, might be of some use to
ascertain how far, by fitting To metrical arrangement a selection of the real language
of Men in a state of vivid sensation, that sort of pleasure and quantity of pleasure
may be imparted, which a Poet may Rationally endeavour to impart”
As a pioneer of Romantic Movement, Wordsworth believed that classical poets
were just like doves but romantics were just like eagles. As the eagle moves from one
place to another place in search of nature in the same manner, romantic poet should also
move from one place to another in search of beauties of nature:
“The principal object, then, proposed in these Poems was to choose incidents
and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them throughout, as fast
as possible, in a selection of language really used by men, and at, the same time, to
throw over them a certain colouring of imagination”.
Wordsworth was regarding Milton as a strange because Milton has not seen hell or
heaven. He asks how Milton dared to write without observation. It illustrates that
Wordsworth is conscious to preach supremacy of nature and natural objects in very
thought provoking way. Wordsworth is of the opinion that “The Preface to the Lyrical
Ballads” is an epitome of romanticism. He also believed that basic purpose of literature is
reflection of life and subjective exposure. In this literary treatise, William Wordsworth has
also pointed out various trends in romantic poetry. It is natural phenomenon that the
surroundings play vital role for molding the character.
Being a lover of greenery, Wordsworth was getting elevation and poetic rapture
from natural objects. It is unique idea that Wordsworth was motivated by S.T. Coleridge
but Coleridge himself was under the spell of his self-projection. No doubt, he regards.
Wordsworth as a pioneer of Romantic Movement yet some controversies are also
exposed through him, For example, Coleridge is right to remark that Wordsworth is not
conscious to follow his own doctrines:
“As poetry is most just to its own divine origin when it administers the
comforts and breathes the spirit of religion, they who have learned to perceive this
truth, and who betake themselves to reading verse for sacred purposes, must be
preserved from numerous illusions to which the two classes of readers, whom we have
been considering are liable.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 268
Concepts of poetic diction and process are not followed by Wordsworth himself.
Therefore, it is pointed out that physician heal thy wound. In this literary piece of art
Wordsworth is objectionable and contradictory in his remark. Sometimes it seems that
Wordsworth is contradicting his own point of view. Coleridge has rightly exposed demerit
of William Wordsworth as Romantic Movement that Wordsworth is talking about
contemplation after defining poetry in the following manner:
“I have said that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of feelings: it takes its
origin from emotion recollected in tranquility; the emotions is contemplated till, by a
species of reaction, the tranquility disappears and an emotion, kindred to that which
was before the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself
actually exist in the mind. In this mood composition generally begins, and in a mood
similar to that it is carried on…..”
Consequently, I can say that William Wordsworth is really wonderful pioneer of
Romantic Movement. His poetry is not related with classicism because he deviated and
de-tracked from the track of classicism.

WORDSWORTH’S THEORY OF METRE


William Wordsworth has propounded the concept of metre, in very thought
provoking manner. He is at every inch right to remark that metre delights us and teaches
us. In his famous critical treatise “Preface to the Lyrical Ballads” Wordsworth is right to
remark that poetry is metrical composition is based on metre because obviously metre is
the source of aesthetic pleasure. Without metre, poetry is tasteless, boring and
monotonous.
Metre can impart passion to words, where, the poet’s words / do not succeed in
conveying the proper depth of the passions, it helps to raise the reader to the necessary
level of emotional excitement.
Wordsworth is emphatic in his rejection of the view that metre conducive only to a
very small part of poetic, pleasure, and what it has to be accompanied by an appropriate
poetic diction in order to give a complete satisfaction. He feels that such opinions are not
doing full justice to the power of metre. Poems written upon humbler subjects and in more
naked and simple language than the poet’s own compositions have continued to produce
pleasure from generation to generation. It justifies the use of metre even while poetic
diction is rejected.
As a critic Wordsworth laid emphasis on four steps to compose metrical
composition.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 269
1. Observation.
2. Contemplation.
3. Recrudescence.
4. Metrical Composition.
Coleridge has criticized Wordsworthian thoughts. He is right to remark that
observation is essential for poetry but the concept of contemplation is spontaneity are
entirely different from contemplation.

Coleridge also pointed out that recrudescence is also impossible. With the passage
of time, our intentions, feelings, passions and thoughts remain changing. As far as
composition is concerned, especially metrical composition is concerned. It is based on
four aspects of poetic diction.
1. Rustic language must be used because villages are made by God and cities
are made by men. Villages are more akin to nature than citizens.
2. There should be selection of the language really spoken by men in vivid
sensation.
3. There is no essential difference between language of prose and poetry.
4. Metre should be used in poetry.
Coleridge appreciated first step of poetic language but he also remarked that
second step is contradictory. In the same way, Coleridge has misperceived third and
fourth point related with metrical composition.
Wordsworth’s theory of metre, then, is one of the core points of “Preface to the
Lyrical Ballads”. One of the glaring short-comings of the theory is that it invokes tradition
and authority for its defence. Coleridge rejects this very tradition while condemning poetic
diction. If poetic diction is artificial and is to be rejected, on the account, metre is equally
artificial. One can not reasonably accept one artificial device and reject the other.
Wordsworth does not offer a cogent defence for the use of metre in poetry.
Consequently, I can say that Wordsworthian theory of metre is really moot point.

SAMUEL TAYLER COLERIDGE: BIOGRAPHIA LITERARIA (CHAP 16, 17, 18)


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FANCY AND IMAGINATION
In Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s critical treatise “Biographia Literaria” he has
differentiated fancy from imagination in an artistic manner. Fancy is a literary device to
collect the events of the past while imagination is aesemplastic power, which dissolves,
diffuses and dissipates in order to re-create. Imagination has two kinds, primary
imagination and secondary imagination.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 270
S.T. Coleridge believed that primary imagination is owned by every sensible
human being while secondary imagination is possessed by every creative person. It also
shows that human beings are very lucky because they are creative in their capabilities.
Coleridge also remarked that imagination must be positive. In case of imagination,
Shakespeare says that nothing is good; nothing is bad, only thinking makes it so, it
illustrates that Coleridge is very conscious about differentiation between fancy and
imagination.

“Fancy, on the contrary, has no other counters to play with but fixities and
definities. The fancy is indeed no other than a mode of memory emancipated from
the order of time and space; and blended with, and modified by that empirical
phenomenon of the will which we express by the word Choice.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge is every inch right to remark that imagination is just like a
compound while fancy is just like a mixture. For instance, Coleridge has rightly pointed out
various ins and outs of imagination and fancy on scientific ground. It is pointed out rightly
that main end of imagination is speculation. According to John Lock says that mind of the
man is just like a tabularasa. If we are creative in our capabilities, we can utilize our
potentialities and capabilities for this purpose. Coleridge also propounded as individual
comparison between fancy and imagination.

As a critic of school of thought of romanticism, he has laid stress on various limits of


imagination. For example, he believed that there should be limit of imagination. If our mind
is flexible and aesemplastic, we are unlimited in our imagination, it would be very
dangerous phenomenon because excess of everything is bad. Coleridge believed that
poetry must be created with a particular scheme of reference. The poet must remain within
a certain circumference of microcosm. S.T. Coleridge has also remarked that imagination
should be based on observation. It is a matter of general observation that without
observation one can not be imaginative. Therefore the poet should be very conscious
about collection of observed material which may become the cause of creation of poetry.

Fancy is a device to collect the events of the past. In case of fancy the poet is not
using creative capability for this purpose. It is just collection the events of the past. The
poet was very conscious to reflect such type of ideas and thoughts which already existed.
For example, Milton has written. “Paradise Lost” just after studying. The Bible, Milton has
not seen Hell, he has not experience of observing the angels, then how he dared to write
“Paradise Lost” without observation. Coleridge says,
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 271
“Whatever more than this I shall think it fit to declare concerning the
powers and privileges of the imagination in the present work will be found in the
critical essay on the uses of the supernatural in poetry and the principles that
regulate its introduction; which the reader will find prefixed to the poem of “The
Ancient Mariner”.

Consequently, I can say that Samuel Taylor Coleridge is really conscious to project
the difference between fancy and Imagination.

S.T.COLERIDGE AS A CRITIC

It is generally believed that Coleridge is one of the greatest critics. According to one
school of thought, Coleridge is to be admired as a critic mainly for having made
penetrating observations on particular, works and authors. According to the other school
of thought, Coleridge’s reputation rests on his successful and suggestive treatment of
abstract literary problems. The two points of view are not mutually contradictory. They
reflect the preference of those who hold them for either practical or theoretical or
theoretical criticism, and it might even be argued that it is a sign of greatness in a critic to
have satisfied so many people on each count. The actual fact is that there is direct and
close relationship between the quality of his practical criticism and the quality of his
theoretical criticism. He is great in both fields.

As a critic Samuel Taylor Coleridge has criticized Wordsworthian doctrine of poetic


process and poetic diction. He immortalize himself be criticizing Wordsworthian poetic
diction and poetic process. William Wordsworth pointed out four stages of poetic process.
These are written as following:-

a. Observation.
b. Contemplation.
c. Recrudescence.
d. Composition.
Coleridge appreciated first step of poetic process. He said that without observation
we can not create poetry because observation is the source of poetry. Coleridge was right
to remark that observation is source of knowledge. Without observation poetry is very
difficult. Therefore it was the need of time that the poet should compose poetry on the
basis of observation. He said,

“If Mr. Wordsworth has set forth principles of poetry which his arguments
are insufficient to support, let him and those who have adopted his sentiments be set
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 272
right by the confutation of those arguments and by the substitution of more
philosophical principles.”

Coleridge also remarked that Wordsworth is not following his own doctrine up to full
extent. He also believed that Wordsworth is contradictory in his points related with poetic
process. For instance, it was not justified statement of Wordsworth that after observation
the poet should undergo contemplation. If the poet is really cogitating and meditating after
observation, it shows that there is no more spontaneity for creation of poetry.

The demand of spontaneity is that there should be creation of poetry just after
observation. It is really appreciable on the part of Coleridge that he is pointing out various
controversies. Wordsworth should not point out spontaneity and contemplation
simultaneously. In the same way recrudescence is also highly criticized by S.T. Coleridge.
It is generally remarked that recrudescence is practically difficult rather impossible. No
human being is so much conscious about memory that he can create the same quality of
emotions, passions, feelings and thoughts which were present at the time of observation.
Actually Wordsworth had negated the time factor. It is fact that the time is the best
changer and physician. With the passage of time, our feelings, emotions, passions and
thoughts are changed but Wordsworth seems to be less conscious about changing role of
time.

As a critic S.T. Coleridge has also criticized Wordsworthian concept of poetic


diction. Coleridge criticized that Wordsworth is contradicting his own views on poetic
diction. According to Coleridge, the persons in the most interesting of Wordsworth’s
poems are by no means taken from low or rustic life in the usual sense of these words.
Besides, the thoughts, feelings, language and manners of the persons in these poems are
not necessarily the result of their low or rustic life. Coleridge also points out that every man
is not likely to be improved by a country life or by country labours as Wordsworth thinks.

Consequently, I can say that Coleridge is very towering critic of the first rank in
English Literature.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 273
SECTION-B

MATHEW ARNOLD: the Function of Criticism, the study of Poetry


MATHEW ARNOLD AS A VICTORIAN CRITIC
Mathew Arnold is a laudable critic of English Society. In his famous book “Essays in
Criticism” Mathew Arnold has criticized various aspects in his essay “The Study of Poetry”
and “The Function of Criticism”.
Arnold’s main significance as a critic main significance as a critic lies in his constant
support of the dignity of critical thinking, his attempt to lift the view of the English speaking
reader toward wider more cosmopolitan range, his re-application of classical criteria and
above all his courageous attempt to reassert the traditional value of literature.
Mathew Arnold believed that poetry is criticism of life under the condition fixed for
such a criticism by the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty. Poetry deals with moral
ideas because moral dogmas are ever sensitive, sensible, humble and gentle creatures.
Mathew Arnold pointed out that poetry is outcome of code of conduct morality, ethics and
goodness of heart and soul of the poet.
It has been objected that Mathew Arnold tries to measure poetry by an arbitrary
external standard. The first place among Mathew Arnold’s prose work must be given to
“The Essays in Criticism” which raised the author to the front rank of living critics. His
fundamental idea of criticism has a strong appeal. The business of criticism is neither to
find fault nor to display the critic’s learning or influence. It is to know “the best which has
been thought and said in the world” and by using this knowledge to create a current of
fresh and free thought.
Mathew Arnold is really fortunate enough to point out different aspects of criticism and
poetry but in so far as, he is critically a literary critic. He is mainly a critic of poetry and his
mark must be determined by such things as his lectures on translating “Homer” Cazamian
says, Arnold as a literary critic has clearly defined doctrines a scale of merits founded in
principle. With him a new school may be said to begin.
Arnold has some short-comings as a critic; we do not see any great critical effort at
work upon any English text – upon a single play of Shakespeare or poem of Milton, Keats
or Wordsworth. For example in the opening lines of the text, he says.
“Many objections have been made to a proposition which in, some remarks of
mine on translating Homer, I ventured to put forth: a proposition about criticism, and
its importance at the present day.”
Mathew Arnold can rightly be entitled as modern critic because his views about
poetry and criticism are based on logical discussion, coherent thoughts, squealed ideas
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 274
and touchstone method. He believes in impartial criticism. They really evaluate themes
and thoughts.

Arnold agrees with critics who give themselves, great labour to draw out what in the
abstract constitutes the characteristics of high quality of poetry. He believes that it is much
better simply to keep in mind concrete examples to take specimens of poetry of the very
highest quality and to use them as touchstone for judging the poetry before.
Mathew Arnold has also laid stress on fellowship of the best poets in the past. It is
very obvious phenomenon that everybody wants to become eminent and apple of eye of
the people. Everybody wants to be wanted, everybody loves to be loved and everybody
desires to be desired. Every person has his own touchstone, so touchstone method of
Mathew Arnold must be adopted.
There is no coherent theory of poetry in Arnold’s criticism. This would not have
mattered much if as in Johnson a certain incoherence of ideas were compensated for by
vigorous critical demonstration. Mathew Arnold has no aptitude for logical arrangement.
He cares little about presenting a live and definite portrait of the subject of this criticism.
A famous critic Christopher Gillie says, “Mathew Arnold as a critic remains
strongly influential on 20th century critical thought”. This influence does not come from his
studies of individual writers but from his studies of contemporary culture and of the
relationship actual and potential of literature to industrial civilization.

ARNOLD’S CONCEPT OF FUNCTION OF CRITICISM

Mathew Arnold earned the reputation of a quotable critic by creating famous


treatise “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time”. In the opening lines he says that
criticism is interior to creation but the creation of great works of art is not always equally,
possible. Even the tremendous natural power of the romantics was partially crippled by
the lack in the English society of the nineteenth century of a vigorous intellectual life such
as had nourished certain other poets.

“This makes Byron so empty of matter, Shelley is so incoherent and Wordsworth was
even.”

In the function of criticism Mathew Arnold has pointed out that criticism can be
enormous service to future creative writers, merely by performing its true business.
“Its business is simply to know the best that is known and thoughts in the
world and by in its turn, making this known to create a current of true and fresh
idea.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 275
Criticism must also be disinterested; it must refuse to lend itself to political and
practical consideration. While the practical man tends to see an object only in so far as it
seems likely to aid or impede his designs, the critic must try to view it more detachedly to
see it Mathew Arnold also pointed out that literary criticism should be the exercise of
disinterested curiosity.
“The Function of Criticism” contains many shrewd and wise recommendations
which distinguish this essay. The idea of a criticism which will be sincere, simple, flexible
and ardent is an inspiring one.
Mathew Arnold has rightly pointed out that criticism should be impartial and mild
one. The critic should not be harsh. He is very conscious about mild criticism.
Mathew Arnold has laid stress on criticism on impartial grounds. He is right to
remark that criticism is for positive purposes no for sarcasm. Nobody is so complete in this
world that one may be regarded as embodiment of perfection. Each and Every writer has
certain limitations, therefore, these limitations should be fulfilled and one must be aware of
this fact that literature must be didactic. We must utilize literature for improvement in life,
we should never misperceive it. Arnold agrees that the critical power is of a lower rank
than the creative but the man may exercise his creative power in other ways than in
producing great works of criticism. It should also be kept in mind that the exercise of the
creative power in the production of great work of literature is not possible in all ages and
under all conditions. Actually, Mathew Arnold says that some people are so creative that
sweep you of the foot on which you are standing.
To squeeze the fiber of debate, we can say that “The Functions of Criticism”
rendered by Mathew Arnold is very creative. His angle of thought is very appropriate.

ARNOLD’S ESSAY “THE STUDY OF POETRY”


Mathew Arnold believed that the future of poetry is immense because in poetry
where it is worthy of high destinies, our race as time as goes on will neither find shaken
nor an accredited dogma which is not shown to be questionable, not a received tradition
which does not threaten to dissolve. The pages of history reveal that in romantic age
Wordsworth believed that poetry is spontaneous over-flow of power feelings and thoughts
which are recollected in tranquility.
Arnold also believed that creative capabilities in poetry are criterion of judgment. If
the poet is creative he will project such type of news and views which will be very
informative, conducive to thought and stimulant to aesthetic pleasure. No doubt, each and
every writer has aesthetic sense with the help of poetry, the poet ventilate one’s bottled up
feelings, emotions and thoughts because the poetry is the name of catharsis of concealed
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 276
passions. The best poetry is what we want, the best poetry will be found to have power
of forming, sustaining and delighting on nothing else can the historic estimate is likely in
especial to affect our judgment and our language, when we are dealing, with the ancient
poets. For example Geoffrey Chaucer is very conscious about projection of social
paraphernalia but archaic language used by Chaucer is very obscure irritating and
confusing.
Mathew Arnold is much conscious about specimens of poetry. Actually he believed
that poetry is a criticism of life under the condition fixed for that criticism by the laws of
poetic truth and poetic beauty. He also knew it very well that only the best poetry is
capable of performing its task. So it is important that readers should learn to choose the
best in choosing the best the readers are warned against two kinds of fallacious judgment.
Firstly the historic estimate and the secondly, personal estimate.
Arnold believes that Milton and Shakespeare are real poetic classics. The real
estimate in the case of both these poets is the universally accepted.
Oliver says, “Behind the criticism of Mathew Arnold as behind some of his poetry,
lay the examples of Homer and Sophocles, Dante and Milton.
Consequently I can say that “The Study of Poetry” is very marvallous created by
Mathew Arnold.

THOMAS STEARN ELIOT: Tradition and the Individual Talent,


The Metaphysical Poets, Hamlet
THOMAS STEARN ELIOT AS A MODERN CRITIC
Thomas Stearn Eliot is a very towering, distinguishing and flowering pride of
modern criticism. In his renowned critical treatise and research work “Tradition and
individual Talent”, “Metaphysical Poets” “Hamlet” Milton-I and Milton-II, “What is Classic?”,
he has also remarked that one must study poets of the past in order to come to know
about the traditions of poetry. In this way, the poet will be will-versed and well-equipped
with the traditions and conventions of the poetic creations. For example, if any young poet
is not aware of different ins and should be aware of various conventional modes of
morality. Although there are some exceptional cases who are so genius that they adopt
new methods of poetry by innovations with the help of their individual talent, yet it is
generally observed that most of the poets have to associate individual talent with
traditional values.
“No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His
significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and
artists.”
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 277
As a modern critic T.S. Eliot has also remarked about depersonalization. It is in
this depersonalization that art may be said to approach the condition of science. I,
therefore invite you to consider as a suggestive analogy the action which takes place
when a bit of platinum. Platinum is introduced into a chamber containing oxygen and
sulpher dioxide. The analogy was that of a catalyst. For example when the two gases like
Oxygen and Sulpher Dioxide are mixed in the presence of a filament of Platinum, they
form sulpheurous acid. The mind of the poet is the shred of Platinum, it may partly or
exclusively operate upon the experience of the man himself but the more perfect artist, the
more complete, separate in him will be the man who suffers and the mind which creates,
the more perfectly will the mind digest and transmute the passions which are its material.
For example if a poet is not aware of Chaucer, Milton, Pope, Shakespeare and Edmund
Spenser, he will be unable to create real themes and thoughts of the poetry. Contrary to
him if a poet is participant of poetic symposium, it is obvious that he will be better poet.
Therefore T.S. Eliot has laid stress on mingling of “Tradition and Individual Talent” for
creation of poetry. No doubt poetry is outcome of individual talent, but social surroundings
also play significant role. It shows that T.S. Eliot is aware of different pre-requisites of
poetry.

It is fact that man is a social animal. We can not live alone, isolation is extinction of
humanity. We are bound to live in social setup. Therefore, the poet should be aware of
this fact that historical sense plays vital role in human life. If we compare several
representative passages of the greatest poetry, we see how great is the variety of types of
combination and also how completely any semi-ethical criterion of sublimity misses the
mark. It is very unique desire of this people especially of the poets that they demand
encouragement, motivation, historical perspective and historical sense.

Consequently, we must believe that T.S Eliot is marvellous critic of modern era.

T. S. ELIOT’S CRITICISM ON METAPHYSICAL POETS


Thomas Stearn Eliot has rightly evaluated metaphysical school of thought. It is
rightly propounded that metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals with facts
which are lying beyond physical vision. Our views, emotions, passions, thoughts and
feelings are expressed through poetry. Therefore T.S. Eliot has rightly remarked about
association of sensibility as well as dissociation of sensibility.

According to association of sensibility, we can not feel unless we think, and we can
not think unless we feel. It illustrates that feelings and thoughts should be mutually
coordinated and associated with each other. It is not medicated idea but it is typical literary
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 278
thought that feelings are output of heart, while thoughts are related with mind. T.S. Eliot
has appreciated metaphysical poets like Cowley. Crashaw, Herbert, but especially he paid
homage to John Donne. He has praised Donne’s poem “Valediction Forbidding Mourning”.
For instance, Donne is requesting his wife to be tolerant and patient. She should not shed
so many tears that they may not be the flood of tears. In the same way T. S. Eliot is so
much impressed because of Donne’s metaphysical conceit “Tempest of Sigh”. Such type
of selection of words rendered by Donne is really marvellous.

Scientific speculations of John Donne are also eulogized by Eliot. He is right to


remark that Donne is de-tracking the tradition of Patriarch and innovated new images of
metaphysical conceits, far-fetched thoughts and geometrical idea of love and so many
scientific dimensions of love. For instance, in his first Holy Sonnet, he is requesting
omnipotent God Almighty to be magnet and make his heart iron and draw him. It is also
scientific idea that circle of geometry is completed only at the moment when one leg of the
compasses should be static while the other should be rotate round first one.

“Thy firmness makes my circle just.


And makes me end, where I begunne.”
In Eliot’s famous essay “The Metaphysical Poets”, he says.

“Thus Cowley develops the commonplace comparison of the world to a chess-


board through long stanzas (To Destiny) and Donne, with more grace, in A Valediction,
the comparison of two lovers to a pair of compasses. But elsewhere we find, instead of the
mere explication of the content of a comparison, a development by rapid association of
thought which requires considerate agility on the part of the reader.”

On a round ball
A workman that hath copies by can lay
An Europe, Alfrique and an Asia.
T. S. Eliot has rightly remarked that in Metaphysical poetry traditions Donne is
upbraiding the sun. Perhaps, T.S. Eliot was quality conscious; therefore, he has
appreciated Donne’s poetry. T.S. Eliot is also aware of this fact that it is certain that the
dramatic verse of the later Elizabethan and early Jacobean wits expresses a degree of
development of sensibility which is not found is any of the prose, good as it often is, if we
except Marlowe a man of prodigious intelligence, these dramatists were directly or
indirectly affected by Montage.

Consequently, I can say that T.S. Eliot is not partial to analyze Metaphysical poetry
rather he is impartial to evaluate metaphysical poets.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 279
1. HAMLET BY T.S. ELIOT
2. Discuss Objective Correlative with Reference to Hamlet
In critical summary of the essay “Hamlet”, William Shakespeare is evaluated by
Thomas Steam Eliot. In his famous essay “Hamlet” T. S. Eliot has exposed debatable
points. He begins the essay by pointing out that critics have never admitted that Hamlet
the play is the primary problem and Hamlet the character only secondary. Hamlet the
character holds a special temptation for what Eliot calls the most dangerous type of critic.

It is only writers of the modern times such as Professor Stoll and J.M. Robertson
who have focused attention on the play and away from the character. Stoll has rightly
called attention to the fact that a play should be seen in its entirety rather than in the light
of its leading character in the interpretation of a work of art relevant historical fact
regarding the work have to be presented to the reader.

“The Hamlet of Shakespeare will appear to us very differently if instead of


treating the whole action of the play as due to Shakespeare’s design. We perceive his
Hamlet to be superposed upon much cruder material, which persists even in the final
Form.”

It is also historically proved that Thomas Kyd a University wit wrote drama Hamlet
from which Shakespeare got the idea or inspiration. It is general blame on Shakespeare
that he was plagiarist and he was addicted to plagiarism. T.S. Eliot also pointed out that
Hamlet is an artistic failure. There are so many reasons behind this criticism. First reason
is that Hamlet is over-projected than typical hero. When officious father is planning that
they should confirm Hamlet’s madness, if he is really mad he will slap Ophelia but if he is
not mad, he may be passionate to her.

Now Hamlet is listening this conspiracy, therefore, he comes with knocking knee
and drooping tongue. It is fact that Hamlet is master-piece and T.S. Eliot has regarded
Hamlet as Monaliza of English Literature because Leonardo Davinci and William
Shakespeare achieved global fame by their master-pieces. Shakespearean Hamlet and
Davinci’s Monaliza are summom bonnum.

Historical paraphernalia shows that Monaliza was painted in thirteenth years. While
painting her smiling face, he used to request his special musicians to commence a specific
tune to get inspiration for painting. Contrary to this appreciation and equation of Hamlet,
T.S. Eliot says that Hamlet is an artistic failure. It seems to be professional jealousy
between T.S. Eliot and Shakespeare that T.S. Eliot is regarding Hamlet as artistic failure
due to some personal bias. If we analyze Hamlet’s character we criticize him because he
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 280
is so strange that he does not reveal to Ophelia that he is posing madness. He is
putting an antic disposition on.

One of the striking phrases introduced and made current by T.S. Eliot in the history
of English criticism is objective correlative; indeed he calls it a notorious term. In 1919,
Eliot put forward his bold view that Hamlet is an artistic failure. Reason for this was that
Shakespeare had failed to find the proper objective correlative for Hamlet’s feelings.

Core and crux and nucleus of the matter is that T.S. Eliot is meritorious, laudable
and flowering pride of modern era.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 281

AMERICAN LITERATURE
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 282
SECTION-A
ROBERT FROST
ROBERT FROST AS AN AMERICAN POET

Robert Frost is very appreciable American poet. He got global name and fame by
writing marvellous poems such as, “Home Burial”, “Tuft of Flowers”, “Birches”, “Mending
Wall”, “An Old Man’s Winter Night”, “After Apple Picking”, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy
Evening” and “The Road Not Taken”.

Robert Frost needs no introduction; he is very unique American poet. He was very
distinguished poet because of his lucid style. He uses different symbols to illustrate his
point of view. President Kennedy called Robert Frost “The great American poet of our
time.”

In his famous poem “After Apple Picking”, he propounded a moral lesson that one
should reduce one’s sleep because sleep is equal to death. Allama Iqbal rightly says;

Robert Frost wants to depict unique idea of constant struggle. It is obvious that
sleep is natural desire but excess of everything is bad. It is really thought provoking idea
that one should never put off till tomorrow what we can do today;

“The woodchuck could say whether it’s like this


Long sleep, as I describe its coming on,
Or just some human sleep”
“The Stopping woods at Snowy Evening” is a poem of superb craftsmanship.
On a surface reading, it appears to be simple, descriptive record of close minute
observation, a series of homely but vivid pictures. On a critical scrutiny of the poem, layers
of meanings unfold before us; the poem achieves its climax of responsibility in the last
stanza, the promises to be kept and the obligation to be fulfilled;

“The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,


But I have promises to keep
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep”
Robert Frost’s rhythm in poems the word-music of stanzas, the expressive phrases,
the distinctive rhyme scheme, the efficacy of the repetition of the last lines continues to
make him, one of those poets that combine popular appeal with true artistic merit. These
qualities make the poet get a certain place in honoured, and treasured poets of English.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 283
In Frost’s poem “Home Burial”, blank verse is loaded with a tremendous
capacity for expressing subtle shades and nuances of feelings and emotions, which he
mouths in these
characters’ speech. Every word of their speech reveals a further shade of their personality
or character. Home Burial depicts very convincingly the plight of a person who can not
accept the facts of his condition. The young mother in the poem can not reconcile herself
to the fact that she has lost her motherhood. Perhaps, all unknown to herself or her
consciousness, as through in a dream, she reaches the spot near the window from where
the grave of her young one is visible and starts weeping. Her husband’s loving and
supporting arms offer her no consolation. He tries to bury the past and live for the living.
The wife can neither comprehend nor follow this. The poem also catches our attention
because of its achievement in the field of technical skill. Let us examine the following
lines:-
“Not you; oh, where’s my hat! I don’t need it,
I must get out of here, I must get air
I don’t know rightly whether any man can”
“Mending Wall” is perhaps one of the most widely quoted poems of Frost. It is a
dramatic lyric or a monologue. The most striking aspect of Mending Wall is its thought
content. In fact is this aspect of the poem that instantly appeals to us, more than any other
thing in the poem. The thought of the poem is immediately relevant to modern man, more
than any other thought. One of the most controversial and baffling problems of our age is
the kind of relationship that should exist among nations. In our age, there is a latent,
profound paradox. Geographical divisions between countries are constantly giving way to
the growth of the world as one large community and the promotion of the feeling of
internationalism.
This poem expresses Frost’s philosophy of brotherhood and tolerance, of honest,
living against the neighbour’s dogmatic ‘the twin virtues assertion’ that…..
“Good fences make good neighbours’
Frost shows a strong disinclination towards city life. He has written no poems of
friendship. He has written love poems, but misunderstandings are a constant theme in
them. His poetry has a curious anti-social quality. Almost every poem in “North of Boston”
deals with the theme of alienation, of man’s isolation from his fellow-man. Many of his
poems are about the sense of isolation, the feeling of loneliness which regards not as a
peculiarly American dilemma but as a universal situation. Sometimes he approaches this
problem in an optimistic manner as in ‘Our Hold on the Planet’.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 284
A critic has thus enumerated the distinctive qualities of Frost’s poetry;
(1) Frost’s tenderness, sadness and humour;
(2) His seriousness and honesty
(3) Sorrowful acceptance of things as they are without his exaggerating them or
explaining them away;
(4) His many poems in which there are real people with their real speech and real
thoughts and real emotions;
(5) Subtlety and exactness; and
(6) A classical under-statement and restraint.
To sum up, we can say that Frost has been described variously as a symbolist, a
spiritual drifter, a home-spun philosopher, a lyricist, a moralizer, a preacher, and a farmer
who writes verses.

ROBERT FROST’S SYMBOLISM


Robert Frost is very famous because his symbols are exemplary, appreciable and
marvellous, unprecedented. Robert Frost believes that symbol is the device to project
one’s themes and thoughts related with American culture and nature. It is very unique idea
that symbols are much thought provoking because through symbols one can illustrate
one’s point of view in different manner. It also observed that Robert Frost was highly
conscious about projection of American nature and culture in very marvelous manner. It is
also pointed out that Frost is very skillful to use symbols in very individual and appreciable
manner. It also indicates that Frost desires to create the interest in the minds of the
readers by using various symbols.

For example, in the poem ‘Mending Wall’ is the symbol of separation. He is right to
remark that “good fences make good neighbours”. It is really thought provoking idea that
in American nature and culture people are as bust as bee. They honour their liabilities, so
everybody is engrossed in one’s own business. Therefore Frost says that some people
are mechanical minded. Another symbol used in Tuft of Flowers is symbol of nature.
Nature consoles us, embalms us and satisfies us.
Report Frost is fortunate enough to be torch-bearer, herald and harbinger of
symbolism because his symbols are very innovating. It is really marvellous idea on the
part of Robert Frost that his propounding about symbolism and imagery are very informal,
archetypal and informative. His craze and crave to innovate different type of imagery and
symbolizing attitude is very different from other writers especially from Britishers. It is
thought inspiring that just after seeing greenery; he is over-joyed to know because the
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 285
greenery is the symbol of life, without verdure and we can not satisfy our visual sense.
It indicates that greenery is the symbol of optimistic movement.
According to Christopher Gillie, symbolism is a name of primarily associated with
a school of French poets writing in the second half of 19 century. The movement grew out
of the work of Baudelaire (1821-67) and is above all associated with Paul Verlaine (1844-
96) and other American writers.
Robert Frost has followed the above said concept of symbolism. He believes that
symbols are the devices to project various intuitive designs of the poet. For instance, in his
poem “Home Burial”, the poet is philosophizing the symbol of death. No doubt, extinction
of life is very akin phenomenon because death has no calendar but pre-mature death of a
baby is very heart rendering, blood tickling and sensational for the parents especially. It is
rightly remarked that human‘s life is spun on weaver’s shuttle. Life conceals the matters
but death reveals the facts. It is also remarked that:-
“God, what a woman! And it’s come to this,
A man can’t speak of his own child that’s dead.”
In Frost’s poetry, symbol are crystal clear transparent and extra-ordinary visible.
For example, in “Birches” the branches of the Birches are swinging up and down. It is
really thought provoking scenario that he is much conscious about various ups and down
of human life. Perhaps, Frost was well-equipped and well-versed with this diction that the
quality of tear and smile remain constant in this world. When one body starts smiling the
other starts weeping and vice versa. In this poem the poet believes that full experience
grows out of a balancing of opposed forces ideal and the real. This poem is a meditation
on the best way to leave earth for heaven.
“When I see birches bend to left and right
Across the lines of straighter darker trees,
I like to think some boy’s been swinging them.”
“The Road Not Taken” is a symbolic poem created by Robert Frost. It is symbolic
exposure that virtue is very pleasing and it makes the man very virtuous but contrary to
this, vice is very attractive, tempting and magnetic, but in this world majority is going on
the path of vice. Very few people have conscious to be virtuous; otherwise, majority is
going to be morally bankrupt, frivolous, foppish and snobbish. Therefore, Frost avers that
two roads diverged before him and he could not follow the both. He is wavering and
vacillating between two extremes of virtue and vice.
Frost is using the symbol of conflict in the mind of people about virtue and vice. No
doubt, everybody wants to enjoy heaven but nobody wants to die. It illustrates that Frost is
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 286
very conscious about options of human beings. It also shows that the writer is aware of
various ins and outs as well as pros and cons of human life. Actually, Frost is also well
versed and well-equipped with the idea of options of human life. No doubt, all human
beings have their own liabilities. Some people want to be under the spell of vice while
others want to be virtuous. This conflict between virtue and vice is main symbol of this
poem “The Road Not Taken”
In the poem “Mending Wall” various symbols are introduced which are really
thought inspiring. It is fact that in metropolitan atmosphere, people are extravagantly
preoccupied and exhaustively busy in their professional liabilities. So Frost is at every inch
right to remark that “Good fences make good neighbours”. All this is really symbolic and
based on imagery.
“He only says “Good fences make good neighbours.”
In the symbolic poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” symbols of miles
promises and sleep have deeper meanings “Promises” and “Miles to go” imply
responsibility.
Sleep symbolizes death, the simplest and the calmest word have been used, but it is very
meditative poem and symbolic creation of profound significance.
Fredrick Carpenter wrote “The Fault of Mr. Frost lies merely in this that he is a
poet only; his criticism of life is merely poetic. He has not used the cosmic imagination
which creates its own word. Frost’s symbols are really innovative, creative and based on
potentiality.
To put it in nutshell, we can say that Robert Frost is very famous rather a man of
cosmopolitan approach because of his archetypal and innovative symbols.

FROST’S CONCEPT OF NATURE


Natural backgrounds like mountains, fountains, hills, rills and other beauties of
nature are used by Frost as subject matter of poetry. He believed that nature elevates
human thoughts. Natural backgrounds of Frost are somewhat different from William
Wordsworth. Actually, Wordsworth believes in pantheism but Frost, perhaps, does not
believe in pantheism. Frost believes in cascades, cataracts, melodies birds, chirping
voices, black colored clouds, sky scraping hills and flowing rills, and other beauties of
nature.
In his poems, Pasteur, Mountains, Mending Wall, Tuft of Flower, Birches, Bereft,
The Road Not Taken, Neither too Far Nor Deep, The Span of Life, West Running brook,
An Old Man’s Winter Night, nature is visible up to full extent.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 287
In his poem “Tuft of Flower” the poet is as happy a daisy to know that Tuft of
Flower was welcoming him with open arms and smiling face but the grain-cutter went
away. It illustrates that nature never betrays the man. Only those people remain happy in
their lives who contact with nature. The more we are away from nature, the more
frustrated we are.
In the poem “Bereft” somber clouds are described by Frost. No doubt, flowers are
lovely and love is flower like. The poet is standing on frothy shore and he is putting his
elbow on restive door.
“Somber clouds in the west were massed,
Out in the porch’s sagging floor”
In the poem “After Apple Picking”, Frost is mentioning apples and garden of
the apples, apple-cider, ladder in the garden and branches of the tree. The poet is dosing,
he wants to sleep, because sleep is natural extinct. Natural paraphernalia, of hanging
apples and other fruit is also embalming and consoling. This poem brings out the poet’s
enjoyment of the scenes, sights, sounds, and scents of nature.
“Essence of winter sleep in on the night,
The scent of applies; I am drowsing off”
Nature in Frost’s poetry is very eminent. In the poem “Birches”, natural objects are
described in very thought provoking manner. Birch is a typical ever green tree which is the
symbol of life because greenery symbolizes nature.
“When I see birches bend to left and right
Across the lines of straighter darker trees
I like to think some boy’s seen swimming them”
In the poem “Fire and Ice” Natural objects of fire and ice are described. Fire
is the symbol of anger and ice is the symbol of apathy and icy feelings.
In the poem “An Old Man’s Winter Night” chilly atmosphere is shown in which an
old man is trying to survive. Atmosphere of the night is very marvellous for other people
but horrible for the old man. It is also unique idea of Frost that nature is very consoling,
embalming and it gives solace.
“A farm, a countryside, or if he can,
It’s thus he does it of a winter night.”
Human nature is exposed in “Mending Wall”, it is fact that “Good fences
make good neighbours”. It means that in American culture materialism is dominant.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 288
In the poem “The Road Not Taken” Frost narrates that two diverged in
from of him. He wanted to travel in both of them but obviously he had to follow one of
them. One is the path of virtue and the other one is vice. He could not travel on the path of
vice. Therefore, he adopted less travel path.
“Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both”
In the poem “Home Burial” the child is buried and the mother is compelled to
exposing her filial love. She is not shedding crocodile tears rather real tears are oozing out
of her lachrymal glands.
“God, what a woman! And it’s come to this,
A man can’t speak of his own child that’s dead”
A famous critic opines “Robert Frost is a poet of the customary in man and
nature, not the exploiter of the remarkably arresting and wonderful”.
In nutshell, we can say that Frost believes that man should live in harmony with
nature and not go against nature or natural processes.

ARTHUR MILLER
ARTHUR MILLER AS DRAMATIST
Arthur Miller can rightly be entitled as marvelous and unique American dramatist,
because he knows ho w to create passions, feelings, emotions, thoughts, love-themes,
tragic-endings and laudable style. In this praise worthy drama “Death of A Salesman”,
Arthur Miller has narrated that a particular salesman. Willy Loman is dreaming to get
material benefit at any cost. He is not religious minded because he is highly materialistic in
his views and news. Real problem with his personality is that he is not practical in his
approach. He is just like John-A-Dreamer but he is not believing in the following beautiful
quotation:-
“Fortune lies in labour’s shell.
All is well that ends well. And
We are not here to dream to drift.
We have to work hard and loads to lift.
Shun not struggle, it is God’s gift.”
Willy Loman is such a strange person that he is living in fool’s paradise. He is
expecting that his sons, Biff will be big boss in future but he is failed in mathematics. In
this way, Willy Loman is shattered.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 289
“Willy: Get out a here!
Bernard: If he doesn’t buckle down he ‘II flunk math! (he goes off.)
Now with the passage of time, Willy Loman is expecting that Biff will be
cosmopolitan player of foot-ball but this dream is also shattered. Another problem of Willy
Loman is that he is jealous of his own brother. He remains saying that his brother Ben
went into the forest and returned with riches.

It is also height of tragedy that Willy Loman is an incorrigible, dreamer, he is


dreaming throughout his life when he was a young salesman. He dreamed someday he’ll
have his own business and he will never have to leave home anymore. Willy a highly
fanatic; elegant to the American dream of success is the alpha and omega of “Death of A
Salesman”. As an American dramatist Arthur” Miller believes that sex is a basic instinct
but human being should struggle to control it. Sex should not control human being, human
being should control sex.

Happy remains happy, he is enjoying exhilarating pleasure because Happy seems


to be headonist. He wants to remain in spell of mirth; therefore, he is not over-conscious
about various proceedings of business. He enjoys care free life. He remains enjoying
rivalries with his girl friends. Perhaps, he believes that love is a natural passion. He is also
aware of this fact that flirtation is a stigma on the face of humanity even then he is
indulging in such acts.

Arthur Miller also remarks that human being is somewhat emotional internally. It is
fact that emotional decisions are wrong but some people indulge in emotions intentionally.
Some people are really passionate in their behaviour. They are really irrational and
illogical. Willy Loman and Happy are involved. It is height of stupidity on the part of Willy
Loman that he is old haggard even then he is indulging in lecherous pursuits. It is height
of bewilderment that a husband of a caring wife and sincere better-half like Linda, is
indulging in such type of passionate links.

As an American Dramatist Arthur Miller has also pointed out that fate and chance
play vital role in human life. Some people are so conscious about their social status that
they remain dreaming throughout their lives to get material power and pelf but they are
practically zero. It is the crying need of time that all human being must be pragmatic and
practical in their approach. In this way, dreams will be finished and addicts will not exist
anymore. While narrating his story, Willy Loman says:-
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 290
“Oh, yeah, my father lived many years in Alaska. He was an adventurous man.
We’ve got quite a little streak of self-reliance in our family. I thought I’ go out with
my older brother. . . . . .”

Willy’s dreams are akin to those of any twentieth century citizen. Willy’s sensitivity
is the guarantee of his failure and the seeds of Willy’s doom are embedded in the very
atmosphere of which he is physically a part, but to which he does not really belong.

If we keep in mind, the main events of the play we see Willy moving from failure to
failure with every event. Death of a Salesman has as its crux, the common American myth
of being well-liked, of being commercially successful by having a lot of property like-a
good house, a popular brand of car and a job fetching a handsome salary. There were
times when enterprise, courage and hard work paid, but now Willy’s time, virtues have
vanished and utility is the only criterion and accumulation, the only goal. It is
salesmanship; it is the appearance that counts.

A beautiful aspect of Arthur’s writings is that he remains realistic and his


characters are of real flesh and blood. Miller himself said and justified this in the play that:-

“I can’t live apart from the world.”

To sum up, we can say that Arthur Miller is an archetypal and realistic dramatist.

CHARACTER SKETCH OF WILLY LOMAN by ARTHUR MILLER


Willy Loman is pivotal character of the play “Death of A Salesman”, Other
characters are rotating round him. He is very strange of odd behaviour. He seems to
neither be thoroughly gentleman nor saint like figure rather tragic hero should be a man of
a hammartia. Willy Loman is so unfortunate that his dreams are not materialized, but he is
fortunate to be married to Linda.
In the opening pages of this drama, he says to his wife, who is busy in the kitchen
that his car derailed once again.
“And then all of a sudden, I’m going off the road! I’m tellin’ ya, I absolutely
forgot I was driving. If I’ d’ ve gone the other way over the white line I might’ve
killed somebody.”

Willy Loman is such a strange person that he is typical day-dreamer. He does


nothing but looks busy. He is dreaming and desiring to get material benefits at any cost.
Therefore, he is not struggling physically, but he is comparing his inaction with active life
of Ben. Ben entered the forest and returned with riches. Contrary to him, Willy Loman is
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 291
expecting that Biff and Happy should be such happy as daisy but he is not doing
anything practically. It illustrates that Willy is doing all work, willy-nilly. It is also rightly
remarked that each and every human being dreams for better future. Willy has meritorious
services as a salesman, He remained working throughout his life but he was not
contented. Perhaps, he believed that aim, if reached or not. He is a man of struggling
nature; therefore, he has managed to run a calm and cool life. He is owner of one wife two
sons. He is very caring and loving father. He is conscious husband also.

The other side of the picture is that Willy is horrible man. Just imaging, even in his
old age he is indulging in sexual pursuits. One must be redeemed in one’s old age. It is
really condemnable on the part of Willy Loman that he is emotionally involved with Miss
Francis. In Boston, this emotional act took place which can be regarded as passionate
exposure of Willy Loman.

Willy is so unfortunate that he is caught red handed by his own sons. He takes this
matter to his heart and he becomes guilty conscious. It is really worth condemning for the
father that he is exposing emotional act before his children, therefore, he can not tolerate
this humiliation. He remains bewildered, confused and lost. The very steps he takes to
insure his success, lead him to his failure. One of the major reasons of his failure is his
misplaced faith in the power of personality. The second possible reason is his
extraordinary concern for the well being of his sons. He wants them to remain adolescent
(mentally mature) as he himself is. Third reason is the society.

Willy himself is aware of his emptiness; he is always haunted by a sense of


inadequacy and inferiority. He lives from moment to moment always fearing that he may
die at any time. The edifice of his life is hollow and shallow. It is really appreciable,
because he is neither angelic nor satanic. To quote Miller, “Willy is a baby ……..Willy is a
victim.”

To sum up, we can say that Arthur Miller has exposed various qualities of a modern
era especially American commercial culture—Willy Loman.

PLOT CONSTRUCTION OF “DEATH OF A SALESMAN”

Plot construction of the drama “Death of a Salesman” is really marvelous and


appreciable. Various events and incidents are inter-connected. All the characters are
rotating round Willy Loman, the hero of this drama. It illustrates that Arthur Miller is well-
versed and well equipped with the technique of plot construction. In the opening act of this
American drama, we come to know that Mr. Willy Loman is expressing his disappointed
himself by various actions.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 292
When the plot this drama proceeds, we come to know that Linda is encouraging
Willy Loman. Happy and Biff for their better future. But it is an undeniable fact that man
proposes but Allah Almighty disposes. It illustrates that fate, chance and co-incidence
plays vital role in human life. Therefore, one must be struggling, laborious, caring and
loving. Willy Loman is so mentally pre-occupied and careless that he remains meditating,
cogitating and contemplating.

“And then all of a sudden, I’ m going’ off the road! I’m tellin’ ya, I absolutely
forgot I was driving. If I’ d’ ve gone the other way over the white line I might’ve
killed somebody,”

The plot of this drama is really sequent, balanced harmonized and well-knit. For
example, in the opening pages of this drama, Linda is shown very affectionate mother and
loving better-half. So she remains the same character till the ending of this drama, she
remains advising all the members of the family. In the same manner Willy Loman is shown
careless, friendless and strange character, therefore, he remains the same all over the
drama. It is rightly pointed out that handsome is that handsome does, Willy Loman can be
entitled as a code hero because he does not fulfill all the requirements of the hero. He is
very epicurean in his taste. He is not man of proper etiquettes. He is the least concerned
with proper brought up of his kids, Father should never be careless. Willy Loman is so
dunce, absent minded that he does not know how to drive the car. He does not know how
to deal with people. Willy is such a strange character that he is coquette with a girl Miss
Francis. He is sugar dady, flirt, frivolous and debacherous, that he leaves no stone
unturned to enjoy sexual or illicit with Miss Francis.

In the ending of this drama, we come to know that Happy is happy in his life, he is
care free guy. He is not conscious about domestic liabilities. He is even stigmatizing his
father and vice versa.

In this drama Arthur Miller has shown, in American culture the people are as busy
as bee. Everybody has his own liabilities, priorities. Generation gap is increasing in
American culture. Sex is a forbidden taboo.

A famous critic says, “Death of a Salesman” is the most debatable statement of


man as must face himself.

Core and crux of the matter is that “Death of A Salesman” is well-knit plot when
events are well-fabricated.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 293
William Faulkner
MAIN THEMES OF “THE SOUND & THE FURY”
In the novel “The Sound & The Fury” William Faulkner says the role of the parents
are not conscious about filial love which is based on sincerity, true passions and true
feelings. But in this novel, there is eminent broken-home situation. Mr. Compson and Mrs.
Compson are both quarrelling with each other. But husband and wife are proud of the
aristocracy of their families. The result is horrible that children have gone to walls. They
have no emotional compatibility and passionate links with one another. Even they become
vengeful. Especially, Quentin is very sensitive by nature. Caddy becomes sexually pervert
and nymphomaniac. She hatches illicit relations with some boys especially Dalton Ames.
As a novelist of American literature, theme of social segregation and split up
personality is prominent. As a novelist of social milieu, William Faulkner also remarks that
all human beings have different liabilities but the liability of the parents is very delicate and
sensitive. He believes that proper grooming and proper brought up of the children also
play vital role.
In this novel William Faulkner has pointed out that Mr. Compson and Mrs.
Compson are sailing in the same boat, they are quarrelling with each other for nothing.
Themes of emotional attachments are also crystal clear in this novel. It is really
emotional exposure that Caddy is attached with Dalton Ames. Just after listening about
this passionate link, Quentin becomes hot-tempered. He wants to penalize the seducer.
Quentin is so impulsive, neurotic and sensitive that even in the hostel, he is not satisfied. It
is also obvious from the contents of the novel that Quentin and Caddy are going to be
rebellious and revolutionary. It is really height of neurotic fit on the part of Quentin. Even
he lectures his parents that they are not fully responsible for proper grooming and proper
brought up of their heart. Quentin takes this matter to his heart and he remains over-
worried, frustrated, confused, depressed and psychologically oppressed. It is also
depressing on the part of Quentin that he delivers moral sermon to his parents and says
that:-
“I heard her go upstairs. Then she called Quentin and Quentin says What?
Through the door. Good Night ‘Mother says. Then I heard the key in the lock, and
mother went back to her room.”
A critic explains Quentin’s decision to end his life: “At first all Quentin’s
desire seems to focus on Caddy as the maiden of his dreams. But as his desire becomes
associated with night and unrest . . ...
Consequently, we can say that the themes of “The Sound & The Fury” are really
marvellous, real and thought inspiring.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 294
FAULKNER AS AN AMERICAN NOVELIST
William Faulkner can rightly be regarded as distinguished novelist. He believed that
each and every human being has some liabilities and responsibilities which may differ
from man to man, place to place that all human beings have some complexes, especially
the children are very complex in their personalities. Children’s psychology is exposed up
to full extent. Therefore, Faulkner has also pointed out inner chemistry of Quentin, Caddy,
Jason and Benjy.

As novelist, he is right to remark that broken-home situations lead to frustration,


confusion and congestion. Mr. Compson and Mrs. Compson remain quarrelling with each
other for nothing. They are proud of their family line and pedigree. Both are lucky enough
to be associated with rich families. Therefore, they have deteriorated their own family.
Especially Quentin and Caddy are escaping from the bitter realities. They think that the
mother and father are so illiterate that they remain quarrelling in front of them.

As a novelist Faulkner seems to be psychologist. He has grip and grasp on neurotic


and psychic approach of human being. William Faulkner is really conscious about this fact
that nature varies from man to man and place to place, therefore Quentin’s temperament
is entirely different from Dalton Ames rather he is entirely different from other characters.
He is so hypersensitive that he commits suicide. It also illustrates that Faulkner is aware of
anthropologic and misanthropic. It is very strange on the part of Caddy that she is totally
and typically promiscuous girl. She is so nymphomaniac that she is the least concerned
with virginity, chastity and piety. It is also condemnable on the part of Caddy that she
becomes sadist. She is so vengeful against her parent and she hatches illicit relations.

It is also praise-worthy on the part of William Faulkner that life like characterization
is introduced in very unique manner. There is no description of genii, elves, fair, ghost and
other super natural character. All the characters are related with flesh and blood family. As
it is rightly remarked,

“As I am a man so nothing human is alien to me”.

It rightly indicates that William Faulkner is aware of biological traps. Caddy is so


love thirsty and sex thirsty creature that she is shown very crazy girl, she also intentionally
desires to stigmatize her family because she is very lecherous girl. Probably, she is under
the spell of American culture. She also knows it very well that there are so many slips
between cups and lips. Therefore, she is typically girl of epicurean taste. It is typical
epicurean taste of Caddy that she wants to enjoy her life by real zest and enthusiasm.

As a novelist William Faulkner is expert in creating lucidity and clarity of thoughts, e.g.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 295
“Once a bitch always a bitch what I say. I say you are lucky if her playing out

of school is all that worries you.”

It is also remarked that William Faulkner is well versed and well equipped with so
many themes and thoughts of American culture. Language of the novel is very simple,
flow of thoughts is visible. There is no particular ambiguity in the writing of this novelist. A
reader of common caliber can also perceive it.
A famous critic Warren Beck is of the opinion, “In such a story the fragmentary, only
feebly or morbidly associated, becomes conclusively thematic.”
Consequently, we can say that William Faulkner needs no introduction. He is really
towering writer of American Literature.

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN “THE SOUND & THE FURY”


In this novel Faulkner achieves a stream of consciousness effect simply by shifting
from present to past, reality and making of scene is that the earlier scene is passing
through Quentin’s memory. For example, when Quentin is knocked out by Dalton Ames
the narration shifts back to the picnic scene. It is then revealed indirectly that while
remembering the past and perhaps confusing it with present. Quentin tried to his Gerald
Bland and was knocked out by him.
It is human nature that we have a sigh about the past. We plan our future but forget
present situation. In this novel “The Sound and the Fury” remarked rightly that broken-
home situation leads to quarrel, confusion, congestion and suffocation but Mr. Compson
remains unmoved. In the same manner, Mrs. Compson is also careless mannered. Both
husband and wife are over-conscious about their children but they are practically zero,
They have only lip service Mrs. Compson enjoys her own clubs and pubs while Mr.
Compson has his own liabilities. Both are doing nothing but looking deadly busy. Both are
sailing in the same boat. It is also appreciable on the part of William Faulkner that he has
propounded true picture of American nature of culture. It is also remarked that William
Faulkner knows very well about psychoanalytical therapies.
The technique of stream of consciousness is really appreciable and it is adopted by
James Joyce, Robert Browning and Virginia Woolf. This technique is also adopted by
William Faulkner. ”The Sound & The Furry” is really marvelous novel. It is replete with
stream of consciousness. It is also unique idea that psychology is scientific study of mind
and behaviour. It is also unique thought that William Faulkner is really conscious about
superiority of intellectual, wisdom and other good aspects of human life. It shows that
novelist is aware of so many technicalities, oddities and stupidities of the society in which
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 296
he himself was dwelling. In American culture, probably, all this happens. Miss Caddy is
revengeful and she is determined not to be humble, gentle and submissive to her parents.
It also illustrates that Faulkner is aware of various technicalities of the prevailing
era, especially in American nature and culture. In this novel stream of consciousness is
transparent when we come to know that Quentin is over-worried. It is also observed that
Faulkner is really appreciable because he is reflecting various ins and outs, parameters
and infrastructure of American society. For instance, in American culture people are as
busy as bee. People have their own liabilities and as a result everybody is frustrated
inwardly. Quentin is so over-sensitive, creative that he leaves no stone unturned to reform
his home but he himself is the victim of his sensibility.
Consequently, we can say that “The Sound & The Fury” is really praise worthy
novel based on stream of consciousness.

PERSONAL ELEMENTS IN “THE SOUND & THE FURY”


In the novel “The Sound & The Fury” William Faulkner is highly conscious about his
personal life. Faulkner is very subjective in his approach; he believes that literature is
exposure of life with the help of words. He is so self conscious that this novel seems to be
self reflection. It is also pointed out that all human being are somewhat esteem.
One critic is of the opinion that William Faulkner is really self-conscious. It is also
pointed out that Quentin seems to be personal projection of the writer while Caddy is also
one of his kith and kins. William Faulkner is also aware of this fact that self reflection is
main source of catharsis. If we are really fortunate enough to reflect our whims, follies,
oddities, moral bankruptcy, frivolities and snobbery in our creations, we remain satisfied.
Personal elements in “The Sound & The Fury” are crystal clear. First three sections
contain monologues by three different characters Benjy, Quentin and Jason while the
fourth section represents the objective point of view of all knowing speaker.
In the last section of the novel, Faulkner gives up subjective narrowness, and
adopts the third-person mode of narration. This third-person mode is necessary. We as
readers now need absolute objectivity. We now need chronology. We need the pace of a
story told in a straightforward manner. We need the kind of whole world which we had
previously been denied. We came for a story and had to put up with bits, glimpses, flashes
and parts and now we need something easily comprehensible. we get an account of a
break fast at Compson’s table. We get everybody, fully rendered, minute by minute, word-
by-word narrative.
William Faulkner is also aware of this fact that subjectivity and self conscious leads
to creation but one should avoid from our and out subjectivity as well as objectivity. It is
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 297
also unique idea that William Faulkner is highly self-conscious. He is exposing his
personal likings and disliking aptitude, behaviour. It really marvellous that Faulkner is
aware of technique of the Stream of Consciousness.
A famous critic Christopher Garrard says that William Faulkner is very subjective
analytical in his approach. In nutshell, we can say that William Faulkner is a writer of
personal glimpses.

SECTION-B
Eugene O’Neil
1. LONG DAY’S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT” AS A LONG PLAY
2. PLOT CONSTRUCTION OF THE PLAY “LONG DAY’S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT
In this long play “Long Day’s Journey into Night” is really a long play full of working
capability of American culture, dreams and desires of working class-various difficulties
faced by the characters and some ambiguities in this drama. If we analyze “Long Day’s
Journey into Night” on logical grounds, we come to know that there are so many events
which are well-fabricated, inter-connected and dove-tailed.
One critic says that there is skill in the union of psychological study and striking
technical experiment. It is also quoted that LDJN has no plot of story like the Greek and
Elizabethan tragedies and consequently, no concatenated (chain) series of episodes, full
of action and reaction, yet the audience does not feel this absence of plot construction
because the dialogues are so informative and absorbing that the reader remains spell
bound.

“LDJN” is different from Senecan and Shakespearean drama. Actually O’Neill was
an iconoclast. It presents a striking technical experiment under the psychological impact of
Freud and Jung with reference to Oedipus complex, Electra complex, retrospection and
introspection.
In “LDJN” James Tyrone and Mary Tyrone are emotionally involved with each
other. They are very sacrificing for each other in the beginning of this drama, but in the
end, everything ends in fiasco. She becomes dope and she suffers from dipsomania.
In “LDJN” in Act I Edmund is patient of consumption and Dr. Hardy a quack, is
trying to treat the patient. James Tyrone curses his son. It illustrates that James Tyrone is
not a man of tolerance and forbearance. In Act II, Mary’s addiction is causing a lot of
anxiety. Addiction of morphine is very dangerous especially for ladies because of Mary’s
Caesarian, the doctor some tranquilizers especially morphine to reduce her pain.
In Act III Mary’s image of James Tyrone has totally changed. She is no more
admirer of him. She has found real nature of the man. Edmund’s serious nature of his T.B.
is confirmed in Act III and he is advised to go Sanitarium.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 298
In Act IV, James Tyrone Jr. confesses in the end that he has never liked his
younger brother Edmund and has been jealous of him throughout his life. Act IV shows
Mary’s special fascination for the past and her unhappiness. She dreams her life before
her marriage. It is fact that we remain planning about our future, we forget our present,
and we remain cogitating, contemplating about the past.
The epitome of the matter is that “Long Day’s Journey into Night” is a marvelous
drama with thought provoking incidents and tragic events.
1. Eugene O, Neill was Tremendously Influenced by Strindberg and Ibsen; he
borrowed realism, naturalism and expressionism from them. Elaborate?
Eugene O, Neill was really impressed by Electra complex, superiority complex and
introspection. It indicates that O’Neill is highly conscious about reflection of American
working class who live from hand to mouth. In this way O’Neill has reflected human
passions especially human attachment before marriage. Therefore, James Tyrone and
Mary Tyrone passionately link with each other and they are exchanging emotional
dialogues.
James Tyrone is very self-conscious to reflect his inner desires. Realism,
naturalism and expressionism are crystal clear in “Long Day’s Journey into Night”. It is a
concept based on realism that one must be realistic in order to face bitter realities of life.
No doubt realities are bitter and dreams are fascinating. Therefore, James Tyrone is very
typical embodiment of reality based on American nature and culture. No doubt America is
super power, but working class remains worried and frustrated. In this way, O’Neill has
exposed his deep-rooted perception and observation. It is fact that life of showbiz is very
artificial and glamorous. Very few people know how to acclimatize with the situation.
Obviously James Tyrone is also sailing in the same boat. Therefore, he can not adjust his
own self with changing circumstances. So his personal life is totally disturbed. He is a man
of split up personality. It is also obvious from the dialogues of James Tyrone and Mary
Tyrone that both are facing broken-home situation because of financial worries. It is fact
that worries kill the man, so one must try to be carefree. It is fact that worries kill the man,
so one must try to be carefree. It is also remarked that Eugene O, Neill knows how to
reflect various socioeconomic problems of American society.
When the plot of this drama proceeds, we come to know that Edmund is victimized
by Tuberculosis. In this way, miseries are multiplied. No doubt, James Tyrone, Mary
Tyrone and Cathleen and James Tyrone Jr, are dreaming and desiring to materialize their
dreams.
The term expressionism denotes a movement in the fine arts that originated in the
beginning of 20th century in Europe to emphasize the objective expression of inner
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 299
experiences through the use of conventional characters and symbols especially in art
and drama.
‘LDJN’ is one of O’Neill’s master-pieces in the presentation of expressionism
especially by including therein a dominant element of autobiography. There are some
symbols like fog, ghost and poison etc. That contributes to the technique of expressionism
in this play. Tyrone himself is a great exponent of O’Neill’s technique of expressionism but
next to Mary. He plays cards with his son Edmund and gives expression to his emotions in
such a pathetic manner that he begins to weep. This is how “Long Day’s Journey into
Night” provides the meaning of the term expressionism.
While discussing the theme philosophy and symbolism, Sophus Keith Winter, in its
development the play revolves round four dominant themes, the father, the mother the
home and the poet dramatist’s basic philosophy.
The epitome of the matter is that “Long Day’s Journey into Night” is a drama of
marvelous archetypal expressionism, naturalism and realism O, Neill seems to be expert
of these literary experts.
1. “Long Day’s Journey into Night” as Social Satire
2. “Long Day’s Journey into Night” American Social Document
“Long Day’s Journey into Night” can rightly be entitled as American social
document because James Tyrone and Mary Tyrone are struggling to bring up their
children in very caring and loving manner but because of their poverty, they are suffering a
lot. Whole family is disturbed on emotional grounds. Even their elder son Edmund is
suffering from consumption (T.B.), this T.B. has multiplied their miseries. Asad Ullah Khan
Ghalib rightly says;

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Tyrone is so poor in his luck that he remains struggling throughout his life.
But he could not achieve his dreams. He was dreaming to be hero but he remained minor
characters. In this way, he is inwardly shattered James Tyrone is such a pathetic and
pitiable character. He is so disturbed personality that he is entitled as neurotic. Alienation
means separation from one another. Alienation is one of the social problems. Mary is the
most affectionate mother of two sons and the most beloved wife of James Tyrone, but she
is the most prominent symbol of detachment.
“LDJN” contains some elements of religious symbolism as well. Tyrone is staunch
believer in the Catholic church of his mother-land. For the first time in the play, he is seen
professing his orthodoxical view in favour of his sons;
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 300
“Shut up, both of you, there is little choice between the philosophy you
(Jamie) learned from Broadway loafers and the one Edmund got from his books. They
are both rotten to the core. You have both flouted (violated) the faith you were born
and brought up in the one true faith of the Catholic Church . . . and your denial
(disbelief) has brought nothing but self-destruction.”
“LDJN” is an American dream because the writer has pointed out that hungry man
is an angry man. Probably, America has two classes; rich class enjoying day by day and
poor class is suffering day by day. This Tyrone family suffers so much that they become
pitiable creature.

In this social document, Mary Tyrone becomes semi-mad, she appears doorway.
Jamie breaks the silence by saying “The mad scene, enter Aphelia. So he slapped Jamie
across the mouth with the back of his hand. No doubt, partners are more than blessing.
It is a social document because there is discussion of various social characters.
There is discussion of a social character Dr. Hardy a quack. Edmund can be heard
coughing….
“Edmund can be heard coughing as he goes upstairs, Mary says nervously to
Tyrone, “You must not mind Edmund, Remember he is not well,” Jamie is genuinely
concerned over Edmund’s disease of consumption (T.B.). But he just says that Edmund
is damned sick. Tyrone gives Jamie repeatedly a sharp warning glance and says” Dr.
Hardy thinks it might be a bit of malarial fever Edmund Caught when he was in the
tropics, If it is, quinine will cure it.”
Consequently, we can say that “LDJN” is a typical social document of American
culture.

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ELEMENTS IN “LDJN”


Subjectivity is crystal clear in “LDJN”. It is unique fact that most of the literary
people are subjective in their trend. O’ Neill is also sailing in the same boat. He is also
autobiographical in his bent of mind. There are some incidents which are related with
personal experiences “LDJN”.
Eugene O’Neill himself was born in a hotel room; he spent his early childhood in
hotel rooms, trains and backstage. Although he later deplored the nightmare insecurity of
his early years and blamed his father for difficult rough and tumble life the family laid a life
that resulted in his mother’s drug addiction. Eugene O’Neill had theatre in his blood.
Prof M. Khalid Fareed MA-ENGLISH 301
O’Neill was educated at boarding schools and Betts Academy in Stamford. His
summers were spent at the family’s only permanent home modest, over-looking the
Themes River in New London. O’ Neill was born into theatre, his father James Q’ Neill
was successful touring actor.
Whatever is happened in personal life of O; Neill is present in “LDJN”. He is really
autobiographical in his expressions. For example, James Tyrone is an actor just like his
father. As O’Neill himself was highly interested in theatrical work, in the same manner
James Tyrone is also interested in profession of acting.
There is subjective tinge in his expressions. It is really astonishing that O’Neill is so
objective that “LDJN” seems to be out and out autobiography. As Edmund has gotten T.B.
was present in O’Neill’s family. It is the unique equation between the writer and the writing
that Mary Tyrone becomes addict as O’ Neill’s mother is also drug-addict. “LDJN” is also
autobiographical drama because O’ Neill is highly self-conscious. He is very conscious to
expose his bottled up feelings. It is also observed that every bottled up exposure needs
bubble up, therefore, O’ Neill is aware of the basic purpose of literature is reflection of life.
Eugene includes himself among the haunted and he makes no attempt except for
changing name to disguise the autobiographical nature of the play. James Tyrone is an
immensely actor, embittered because he has sacrificed the chance of greatne