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Strain Energy

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Notes On Strain energy

Strain Energy

The external work done on an elastic member in causing it to distort from its unstressed state is transformed into strain energy which is a form of potential energy. The strain energy in the form of elastic deformation is mostly recoverable in the form of mechanical work.

Nomenclature

 c = distance from neutral axis to outer fibre(m) E = Young's Modulus (N/m 2 ) F = Axial Force (N) G = Modulus of Rigidity (N/m 2 )(m)

I = Moment of Inertia (m 4 )(m) l = length (m)

 M = moment (Nm) V = Traverse Shear force Force (N) x = distance from along beam (m) z = distance from neutral (m)

γ = Angular strain = δ/l

δ = deflection (m)

τ = shear stress (N/m 2 )

τ max = Max shear stress (N/m 2 ) θ = Deflection (radians)

Strain Energy Pure Tension and compression  Strain Energy Pure Torsion

Strain Energy

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Beams/Strain_Energy.html  Strain Energy Direct Shear  Alternatively allowing z to be a variable: Strain Energy Beam in bending

Strain Energy

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Beams/Strain_Energy.html  Illustrating the case when M is fixed and note related to x Illustrating the case when M is related, very simply to x Strain Energy due to tranverse shear stress

Consider a beam subject to traverse shear loading as shown. The beam is subject to stresses as a result of bending moments. It is also subject to stresses as a result of traverse shear load. These notes only relate to the stresses due to the traverse shear load.

Consider the beam as shown and specifically a slice dx wide.

The beam width is b

Strain Energy

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Beams/Strain_Energy.html There is a linear distribution of axial stress σ x at a section at a distance x along the beam = Along the slice dx the axial stress increases to (M + Vdx)z/ I . Thus along the slice dx there is a increase in axial stress of [(Vdx)z] / I.

The total increase in axial force over slice dx for the section of the beam from z 1 to the outer fibre of the beam is balanced by a shear force = τ xz

w dx as shown below. b

is width: For a rectangle b = constant: For other section b may be a function of x

Solving for τ xz The maximum shear stress is at the neutral axis when z 1 = 0 and the minimum shear stress is at the outer fibre when z 1 = c.

The equation for shear stress at any distance z from the neutral axis for a rectangular suction, with constant width b,subject to a traverse shear force V is as shown below. To obtain the strain energy substitute this equation into that derived for direct shear For the solid rectangle ( c = h/2, width = b, height = h, and length = x )subject to a traverse force V load along its length the strain energy = Using similar principles the strain energy for different sections subject to traverse shear can be identified as shown below

Strain Energy

http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Beams/Strain_Energy.html Comparing the strain energy due to direct shear in a beam and that due to bending:

For the simply supported rectangular section beam with a central traverse force of 2V of length l the strain energy due to bending and due to traverse shear as shown below. For a simply supported rectangular beam loaded, with single central load, The strain energy resulting from the bending moments is [l 2 /h 2 ]/3

energy. The traverse force shear energy can be neglected for most beams of significant length.

For a typical beam of l/h ratio = 10 the bending shear energy is 33 times the traverse force shear

Summary The strain energy in a member or component for each type is loading is shown below: Note :The constant K for the traverse shear option is shown in the section on traverse shear above. For a Structural section (K = 1)

1. Strain Energy Methods

2.

Very

Elasticity Theory

A powerpoint presentation of the appication of strain energy methods

detailed notes including reference to strain energy

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