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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

1

CHAPTER 5 - MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR INTERNAL

2

CURING

3

Coordinator: O.M. Jensen (1) *

4

Co-author: P. Lura (1)

5

(1) Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

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7

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5.1. INTRODUCTION

9

This chapter presents a survey of different techniques for internal curing, i.e. internal

10

sealing and internal water curing. Mitigation of water loss to the surroundings by means of

11

internal curing is addressed, however, the focus of the chapter is the use of internal curing

12

water to control self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage during hydration [1,2].

13

This principle has been debated in the literature for several years [3] and has become

14

particularly relevant due to the increased use of high-performance concrete, HPC. Several

15

techniques may, potentially, be used to establish internal curing of concrete. In the following

16

some of these are presented and commented. Also techniques which at present are not

17

practical are presented in the chapter, since these may be the basis for useful further

18

development in this area. For internal water curing special emphasis is put on techniques with

19

proven applicability: use of saturated lightweight aggregate particles and superabsorbent

20

polymers.

21

A vast number of properties of the internal curing material and how it influences the

22

concrete are important for the use of internal curing techniques. These include water

23

absorption, uniformity and price of the internal curing material and its influence on other

24

properties e.g. concrete rheology. The chapter is not meant to give a full account of this, but

25

primarily to address the most relevant material properties with regard to internal curing.

26

5.2.

INTERNAL WATER CURING

27

5.2.1. Water for internal curing

28

Internal water curing of concrete requires some sort of water reservoir that can supply

29

water to the cement paste during the cementitious reactions. Cells and gels are examples of

30

water containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides a boundary to water, whereas a

31

polymer network incorporates water in its interstitial space with its affinity due to interaction

32

energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity.

* With contribution of K. Kovler (2) (2) Faculty of Civil and Environ. Eng., Technion - Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa, Israel

45

Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

33 In relation to concrete the water reservoir may be formed either before or after the start of

34 mixing. If encapsulated, liquid water is added to the concrete as particles, they must be strong

35 enough to withstand the mixing process. If the formation of the water reservoir occurs after

36 mixing, it must be completed before setting. Finally, after setting the stored water must be

37 freely accessible for the cement hydration, which means the water must be

38 thermodynamically and kinetically available for the cementitious reactions. This is described

39 in more detail in Chapter 3 (Mechanisms of internal water curing).

40 Despite these partly conflicting demands, several techniques may, potentially, be used for

41 internal water curing. Instinctively, water-absorbing materials may be thought of as the sole

42 group of candidates for this purpose [4]. However, as will be shown other materials may also

43 be used. In general, the water reservoir may function based on several different physical or

44 chemical principles:

45 - chemically bound water, e.g. crystalline water in ettringite,

46 - physically adsorbed water, e.g. water in superabsorbent polymers,

47 - physically held water, e.g. capillary water in fine pores, and

48 - unbound water, e.g. encapsulated water.

49 In the following, examples of internal curing water are presented based on this

50 classification.

51 5.2.2. Internal curing water in normal and recycled aggregate

52 5.2.2.1. Normal aggregate

53 Aggregate used in a normal concrete may contain water which can serve as internal curing

54 water. This water is physically held in natural porosities in the aggregate. Gritstone and

55 limestone may have a porosity of 25% [5]. If this porosity is water-filled and if the aggregate

56

57 concrete. As seen from Chapter 3 (Mechanisms of internal water curing) this is, potentially,

58 much more than needed for any concrete. This reasoning shows that water in normal

59 aggregate is certainly a factor which should be taken into consideration as a potential source

60 of internal curing water. This has also been pointed out by Hammer et al. [6].

61 The porosities in normal aggregate particles, however, may only be partly water-filled. In

62 addition, the spatial distribution of the water in normal aggregate particles is unfavourable;

63 only the fine aggregate fraction may be able to ensure internal curing due to depercolation of

64 the paste fraction [7]. The pore sizes distribution in the aggregate particles is a further

65 important element. Generally speaking, water moves spontaneously only towards a lower

66 energy level, i.e. from a coarse to a fine pore structure. The above mentioned pore size of 100

67 nm may be considered a rough guide for the lower limit of useful pores in aggregate particles.

68 The most important element, however, is the total aggregate porosity. In the self-

of

content is 75 vol-%, such aggregate will contain up to 190 l of internal curing water per m

3

69 desiccating concretes where internal curing is particularly relevant – HPC – dense rocks are

70 used because the aggregate strength is the limiting factor for the strength of such concretes.

71 The dense rocks, such as quartzite, granite or bauxite, may contain virtually no porosity, and

72 no internal curing water will thus be induced from the aggregate. In these cases it may be

73 necessary to selectively induce internal curing water through a special additive. These

74 substances will be addressed further on.

75

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

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5.2.2.1. Recycled aggregate

Recycled aggregate consists of stone particles with mortar from the original concrete

attached to them. The volume fraction of this mortar may amount to 20 to 60%, and results in

a significantly higher water absorption of recycled concrete aggregates compared to

conventional aggregates [8].

The relatively high water absorption of recycled aggregate, however, may be difficult to

utilize for internal water curing. The cement paste fraction of recycled aggregate will,

typically, have a fine and tight pore structure which cannot supply water to the coarse pore

structure of a hydrating cement paste at early ages. In addition, the stone particles in the

recycled aggregate, whose porosity can potentially contain internal curing water, are partly

covered with cement paste which hampers the exchange of water. This means that both the

kinetic and the thermodynamic availability of water in recycled aggregate are hampered.

For this reason, recycled aggregate may be less useful than normal aggregate for internal

water curing. However, some experiments have shown promising results for recycled

aggregate [9]. In addition to the above mentioned reservations recycled aggregate will

typically have adverse effects on the mechanical properties of the concrete, such as e.g. a

lowering of the elastic modulus.

5.3.

SUBSTANCES FOR INTERNAL WATER CURING

5.3.1. Substances with chemically bound water

A large number of chemical substances contain chemically bound water. This water is held

by primary chemical bonds within the molecular structure. To serve as a potential candidate

for internal water curing the water content of the substance must be high and the water must

be easily given off as the surrounding relative humidity drops. In addition, the chemical

substance must be compatible with the cementitious system.

Some substances which commonly occur in cement pastes do to some extent have such

and ettringite,

32 . They contain about 50% water by weight which can be released if the relative

humidity is lowered. However, only a part of the water is released at high relative humidities,

and these substances are also linked to deleterious reactions in the cement paste. No attempt

C 3 A( CS ) 3 H

properties, especially the calcium-aluminates. Examples of these are C AH

4

19

to utilize this technique has been identified.

5.3.2. Substances with physically adsorbed water

5.3.2.1. Bentonite clay

Some natural types of clay such as bentonite have a high specific surface, often exceeding

2 /g, and this enables them to adsorb several molecular layers of water between their

platelet structure [10]; such water is held by secondary chemical bonds and the bentonite may

swell up to 14 times its volume as a consequence of this water uptake. If the relative humidity

in the surroundings is lowered, this water is reversibly released. Potentially, bentonite or other

layered clay minerals may be used as a water reservoir for internal water curing. However,

this requires at least one important problem to be solved: In high ionic media such as in

cementitious materials these clays agglomerate and form a compact structure [11].

100 m

47

Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

117

5.3.2.2. Superabsorbent polymers

118

A superabsorbent polymer, SAP, is a polymeric material which is able to absorb a

119

significant amount of liquid from the surroundings and to retain the liquid within its structure

120

without dissolving [12], see Figure 5.1. SAPs are principally used for absorbing water and

121

aqueous solutions. With the present polymer types the theoretical maximum water absorption

122

is approx. 5000 times their own weight. However, the absorbency of commercially produced

123

SAPs is around 50 g/g in dilute salt solutions such as urine, and in high ionic solutions such as

124

cement paste pore fluid the absorbency may be below 20 g/g [13]. The absorption of water in

125

the SAP is based on secondary chemical bonds, and the water is so loosely held that all of it

126

essentially can be considered bulk water.

127

Most SAPs are cross-linked polyelectrolytes. Because of their ionic nature and

128

interconnected structure, they absorb large quantities of water and other aqueous solutions

129

without dissolving. SAPs have found a widespread use as a high-tech material e.g. for contact

130

lenses, breast implants, fire fighting, drug delivery, in baby diapers and as soil conditioners.

131

Today’s world production exceeds 500,000 tons per year of which about 85% is used for baby

132

diapers [14].

133

 
 

134

Figure 5.1: Superabsorbent polymers are swellable substances which can absorb many times

135

their own weight of liquids by forming a gel. The absorbed liquid is not released even under

136

moderate pressure [12]. The picture shows a dry, collapsed and a swollen suspension polyme-

137

rized SAP particle.

138

A description of the use of SAP for internal water curing can be found in the literature

139

[2,13,15]. Compared with lightweight aggregate SAP has some peculiarities. SAP can be used

140

as a dry concrete admixture since it takes up water during the mixing process. Furthermore,

141

the use of SAP permits free design of the pore shape and the pore size distribution of the

142

hardening concrete, however, the pores introduced by the SAP in the concrete may preferably

143

be selected in the range 50-300 µm.

144

5.3.3. Substances with physically held water

145

A large number of naturally occurring or artificially produced materials are potentially

146

useful as a container for internal curing water due to a significant internal, open porosity. As

147

described below, these materials have widely different composition and pore structure, but

148

still they have some common features which will be addressed here. Many of the materials are

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

149

used as general lightweight aggregates in concrete. The specific purpose of using them for

150

reservoirs of internal curing water has been researched experimentally for some years [16].

151

To act as an internal water reservoir an initially dry material will need water saturation. By

152

submersion, the porous particles will by themselves take up water, however, complete

153

saturation may take many hours or days since the air in the particles will delay the water

154

ingress [17]. An accelerated water uptake can be achieved by evacuating, boiling or by

155

applying a high pressure, however, from a production point of view these methods have

156

limitations.

157

If the dry material is added to the concrete mixer only partial saturation may be achieved.

158

In addition, particles of cementitious materials may be partly sucked into the pore structure of

159

the material together with the water. This will improve the bond with the surrounding paste

160

structure, but it will also to some extent offset the internal curing effect. This is due to

161

lengthening of the water transport path and due to reduction of the volume available for

162

storage of the internal curing water.

163

The primary mechanism responsible for holding the water in these materials is physical

164

capillary forces. As previously mentioned, only pore sizes above approximately 100 nm are

165

useful for storage of internal curing water. In smaller pores the water is held so tightly that it

166

is not available for the cementitious reactions.

167

168

5.3.3.1. Pumice

169

Pumice is a porous volcanic rock which resembles a sponge, see Figure 5.2. The porous

170

structure is formed by dissolved gases which are precipitated during the cooling as the lava

171

hurtles through the air. All types of magma may form pumice. The connectivity of the pore

172

structure may range from completely closed to completely open. A representative value for

173

the absorption of pumice is 0.27 kg/kg [18].

174

 
 
 

175

Figure 5.2: Left: 5 cm-size pumice stone particle. Smaller particles provide a more efficient

176

water curing. A wide range of pore sizes are seen. Right: For internal water curing mm-size

177

particles . Right: Scanning electron micrograph of a fracture surface of a pumice aggregate

178

particle. The open porosity of this aggregate has been measured to 40%.

49

Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

179

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5.3.3.2. Perlite

Perlite is a naturally occurring silicious, glassy rock which contains 2-6% combined water.

When quickly heated to above 900°C, the crude rock expands 4-20 times its original volume

as the combined water vaporizes and creates countless tiny bubbles. This results in a bulk

3 , and a water absorption of 200-600%. Perlite has found

multiple uses such as for filtration, as an abrasive and within horticulture to provide aeration

and moisture retention. However, perlite is primarily used within the construction area for

example as concrete aggregate and as a cavity-filling insulation. Disintegration of perlite

particles has been observed during mixing due to their high porosity and consequently low

strength [18]. This may have adverse effects on the concrete. Fully saturated, the water

density in the range 30-400 kg/m

content of perlite may be 4.5 kg/kg [18].

5.3.3.3.

Liapor and Leca are brand names for an expanded clay clinker which is burned in a rotary

kiln at approx. 1200°C. They are produced from special types of clay which expand during

heating due to development of gases from organic material in the clay. This results in ceramic

particles with a dense shell surrounding a porous core, see Figure 5.3.

The total porosity of the expanded clay clinker may be as high as 90%, however a large

part of the pores are closed, and for that reason not available for water absorption. Based on

mercury intrusion porosimetry the typical pore size of the open porosity is around 400 µm,

and most of the pore volume is in pores with a size above 100 µm. For this reason all the

absorbed water in these expanded clay clinkers may be considered freely available as internal

curing water [19,20]. The absorbed water in Leca and Liapor may for example be 0.17 kg/kg

Expanded argillaceous materials

[17,19].

be 0.17 kg/kg Expanded argillaceous materials [17,19]. Figure 5.3: Left: Cut cross section of a 1
be 0.17 kg/kg Expanded argillaceous materials [17,19]. Figure 5.3: Left: Cut cross section of a 1

Figure 5.3: Left: Cut cross section of a 1 cm-size Liapor particle. The skin zone of the particle

has a lower porosity than the core. Right: Scanning electron micrograph of a fracture surface

of Liapor showing numerous pores from µm-size and upwards. The total porosity has been

measured to be 45% whereas the open porosity is 40%.

Stalite is a brand name of another type of expanded argillaceous material (shale). It is

produced by processing crushed slate in rotary kilns at temperatures up to approximately

1150°C. During the heating, the rock becomes plastic and evolves gases which are entrapped

as small unconnected voids in the stone [21]. Compared with other lightweight aggregate,

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

212

Stalite has a relatively fine and less continuous pore system – some of the pore water is held

213

down to at least RH=70%. Consequently only a part of the water held in Stalite will be useful

214

for internal curing [6].

215

216

5.3.3.4. Diatomaceous earth

217

Diatomaceous earth originates from the skeletons of prehistoric single celled algae,

218

diatoms, which synthesized shells for themselves out of silica. When the diatoms died the

219

shells settled on the bottom of sea or lake beds and fossilized. The amorphous silica (opaline)

220

content in diatomites ranges from 25 to 100 per cent. The diatom particles have an average

221

size of 5-20 µm in diameter and, generally, exhibit either radial symmetry or line symmetry.

222

The open porosity of the diatoms depends on the type, but may be around 50-70% leading to a

223

water absorption of about 1 kg/kg, see Figure 5.4 [22,23].

224

Diatomaceous earth has multiple uses within e.g. filtration, drilling mud thickener,

225

chromatography, as catalyst carrier and insecticide. Diatomaceous earth has been tested in

226

relation to concrete technology. Diatoms are highly reactive towards lime owing to their high

227

content of amorphous silica and high specific surface area. However, the use of diatoms in

228

concrete is hampered by their particle shape which has an unfavourable effect on the paste

229

consistency and causes the water demand of concrete to increase [24,25]. Diatomaceous earth

230

has previously been suggested as a source of internal curing water [26].

231

 
 

232

Figure 5.4: Scanning electron micrograph of pennate (i.e. line symmetric) diatoms in a cement

233

paste matrix. The open porosity of these particles has been measured to 68% [22].

234

5.3.3.5. Wood-derived powders and fibers

235

Kraft and thermomechanical pulp fibers as well as cellulose and wood powders – which

236

vary in size and morphology – have been investigated for use as internal water curing agents

237

in cement-based materials. A water absorption of 1-3.3 kg/kg for these wood-derived powders

238

and fibers has been reported. Further information on the technique can be found in the

239

literature [27].

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

240

5.3.4. Substances with unbound water

241

5.3.4.1. Microencapsulation

242

Microencapsulation is a technique by which parcels of a gas, liquid, or solid are packaged

243

inside tiny spheres of a second material. The capsules may be as small as 1 micron [28]. Many

244

different capsule wall materials have been developed as well as techniques by which a

245

substance might be encapsulated. The process may consist of dispersing fine droplets of the

246

active material in an aqueous medium. The droplets are subsequently encapsulated by a

247

polymer formed by a production technique called interfacial surface polycondensation, see

248

Figure 5.5.

249

The core material is released from the microcapsule e.g. due to mechanical rupture of the

250

capsule wall, dissolution of the wall, melting of the wall or by diffusion through the wall.

251

Microencapsulation is used in many different products, examples are: Inks for carbon-free

252

copy paper, chemicals for multi-component adhesives, taste masking of drugs, and pesticides.

253

In relation to cementing materials microencapsulation of water has been previously used.

254

With this technique it was possible to prepare a dry mix of water-filled wax capsules and fast-

255

setting grouting cement. The capsules were crushed and the mixture hardened when an anchor

256

element in a one-step operation was inserted into the mixture. These micro-capsules consisted

257

of 33% shell and had a size of 1-2 mm [29].

258

 
 

259

Figure 5.5: Scanning electron micrograph of a microencapsulated ink embedded in a self-

260

copying paper.

261

Another example within concrete related materials is fly ash cenospheres. These are

262

hollow fly ash particles which are produced accidentally together with normal fly ash. If

263

water-filled, the capsule wall could have beneficial pozzolanic properties whereas the water

264

might serve as internal curing water. However, no method to induce the water into the

265

particles or to ensure its proper release when needed seems to be available.

266

Microencapsulated water is a delicate material with regard to internal water curing. The

267

capsule wall has to be both chemically and physically strong enough to remain intact until

268

setting. Thereafter it should allow the release of water.

269

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

270

5.3.4.2. Emulsified water

 

271

A colloid is a dispersion of small particles of one material in another. If both materials are

272

liquid the colloid is termed an emulsion. Many examples of emulsions both natural and

273

artificial can be given, one being milk which is a dispersion of fats in water. An emulsion

274

needs to be stabilized by an emulsifying agent which forms a protective film around the

275

dispersed phase. In the case of milk this emulsifier is a protein, casein.

276

Within concrete technology a similar technique is used to improve the frost resistance of

277

concrete. This is done by introducing 10-250 μm spherical air-voids into the fresh concrete,

278

which is enabled by an air-entraining agent. The air-entraining agent produces a foam by

279

lowering the surface tension of the liquid and forming a stabilizing film in the liquid-air

280

interface.

281

It may be possible to form water inclusions in a similar way, i.e. an emulsion of water in

282

water. The emulsifying agent will have to be rather special, since a natural interface between

283

two different phases does not exist in that case. It has not been possible to identify an existing

284

technique like the one described.

 

285

5.4. COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES FOR INTERNAL WATER CURING

286

So far the realistic possibilities for internal water curing of concrete are found within

287

superabsorbent polymers and substances with physically held water, i.e. mainly lightweight

288

aggregates. For comparison, Table 5.1 sums up relevant data for materials in these two

289

groups. It should be strongly noted that the data are only a rough guide; they may depend

290

significantly on the specific material type and usage. As an example the water content of Leca

291

may vary between 0.07 and 0.29 kg/kg depending on how it is allowed to absorb water [6].

292

293

Table 5.1. Examples of water content and useful porosities of different candidates for internal

294

water curing. The figures are only meant for rough comparison since they depend on many

295

factors, e.g. particle size. Also, it should be noted that not all the water may be available for

296

internal curing.

Material

Water content

Useful porosity

 

[kg/kg]

[-]

 

Superabsorbent polymer Pumice Perlite Expanded clay (Leca, Liapor) Expanded shale (Stalite) Diatomaceous earth

15

N.A.

0.27

40%

4.5

90%

0.16

40%

0.06

5%

1

70%

297

5.5. INTERNAL SEALING

 

298

Internal sealing of concrete refers to techniques where the water loss from the concrete is

299

mitigated by the addition of a special curing agent. Dhir et al. have suggested that

300

mechanisms active in internal sealing may include lowering of the chemical potential of the

301

pore water or blocking of the surface pores [30]. Dhir et al. have examined a series of

302

substances that potentially may function in this way [30-32]. Some of the additives did lead to

303

a significantly reduced water loss due to drying. However, they also promote hydration, and

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Internal Curing of Concrete RILEM TC 196-ICC: State-of-the-Art Report – June 2007

304 consequently the reduced water loss may to some extent be due to this rather than the

305 mechanisms given above.

306 Melbye [33] has also suggested an innovative technique for internal sealing. By adding a

307 paraffin emulsion to the concrete mixture, enhanced water proofing of the concrete was

308 achieved, and by adding a polyethylene oxide the water retention of the concrete was

309 improved. A combination of these two techniques is suggested to be especially useful to

310 prevent plastic shrinkage during shotcreting.

311 To describe the above principle the term “self-curing” has been suggested in the literature

312 [30]. However, this term is very broad – as mentioned by Mather [34] most concretes should

313 be considered self-curing. In order to indicate the physical and chemical mechanism the term

314 internal sealing is preferred.

315 REFERENCES

316 [1] Bentz, D.P. and Jensen, O.M., “Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking”, Cement

317 and Concrete Composites 26 (6) (2004) 677-685

318 [2] Jensen, O.M. and Hansen, P.F., “Water-entrained cement-based materials – I. Principle and

319 theoretical background”, Cement and Concrete Research 31 (4) (2001) 647-654

320 [3] Philleo, R., “Concrete Science and reality” in “Materials Science of Concrete II”, (American

321 Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio 1991) 1-8

322 [4] Kaplan, S., “Sorbent material for spills and other liquid pickups”, Report C-133, April 1991,

323 http://www.buscom.com/archive/C133.html, February 2003

324 Neville, A.M., “Properties of concrete” (4

325 Hammer, T.A., Bjøntegaard, Ø. and Sellevold, E.J., “Internal Curing – Role of Absorbed Water in

326 Aggregates”, in Ries, J.P. and Holm, T.A. (eds.) “High-Performance structural lightweight

327 concrete”, American Concrete Institute Special Publication 218 (2004) 131-142.

328 [7] Geiker, M., Bentz, D.P. and Jensen, O.M., “Mitigating autogenous shrinkage by internal curing”,

329 in Ries, J.P. and Holm, T.A. (eds.) “High-Performance structural lightweight concrete”, American

330 Concrete Institute Special Publication 218 (2004) 143-154.

331 [8] RILEM TC-37-DRC, Demolition and recycling of concrete, Recycled aggregates and recycled

332 aggregate concrete, Second State-of-the-art Report, 1985

333 [9] Sato, R., Kawai, K. and Yusuke, B., “Mechanical performance of reinforced recycled concrete

334 beams” in International workshop on recycled concrete, 26 September 2000, Japanese Society for

335 the Promotion of Science, JSPS 76 committee on construction materials, 127-146

336 [10] Torikai, Y., Sato, S. and Ohashi, H., “Thermodynamic properties of water in compacted sodium

337 montmorillonite”, Nuclear Technology 115 (1) (1996) 73-80

338 [11] Lindgreen, H., personal communication (2002)

339 [12] Buchholz, F.L. and Graham, A.T. (eds.) “Modern superabsorbent polymer technology”, WILEY-

340 VCH, New York (1998)

341 [13] Jensen, O.M. and Hansen, P.F., “Water-entrained cement-based materials – II. Implementation

342 and experimental results”, Cement and Concrete Research 32 (6) (2002) 973-978

343 [14] “Absorbent polymers”, http://www.amcol.com/fctbook/absor.htm, February 2003

344 [15] Friedemann, K., Stallmach, F. and Kärger, J., “NMR diffusion and relaxation studies during

345 cement hydration – A non-destructive approach for clarification of the mechanism of internal post

346 curing of cementitious materials”, Cement and Concrete Research 36 (2006) 817-826

347 [16] Weber, S. and Reinhardt, H.W., “A new generation of high performance concrete: Concrete with

348 autogenous curing”, Advanced Cement Based Materials 6 (2) (1997) 59-68

349 [17] Lura, P., “Autogenous deformation and internal curing of concrete”, Ph.D. thesis, Delft University

350 of Technology, Delft (2003)

[5]

[6]

th

ed.) Prentice Hall, Harlow (2000)

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351 [18] Zhutovsky, S., Kovler, K. and Bentur, A., “Autogenous curing of high-strength concrete using

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