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As according to De Waard and Milliams Model.

1 1 1
= +
𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑟
log(𝑉𝑟 ) = 5.07 − + 0.58 log(𝑃𝐶𝑂2 ) − 0,34(𝑝𝐻𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 − 𝑝𝐻𝐶𝑂2 )
𝑇 + 273
𝑈 0.8
𝑉𝑚 = 2.7 × × 𝑃𝐶𝑂2
𝐷 0.2
𝐶𝑂2 = 3 𝑚𝑜𝑙 %
Total Pressure = 100bara,

𝑃𝐶𝑂2 = 𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑂2 × 𝐹𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑂2 = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓𝐶𝑂2 × 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑂2 = 0.03 × 100𝑏𝑎𝑟𝑎
𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑂2 = 3𝑏𝑎𝑟𝑎
Fugacity Constant can be predicted using:
𝑓 = 10𝑃×(0.0031− 𝑇 )
𝑓 = 10100×(0.0031−55+273)
𝑓 = 0.764

𝑃𝐶𝑂2 = 𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑂2 × 𝐹𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃𝐶𝑂2 = 3 × 0.764

𝑃𝐶𝑂2 = 2.292𝑏𝑎𝑟𝑎

Assume 𝑝𝐻𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 𝑝𝐻𝐶𝑂2 ,

Flow-independent contribution denoting the reaction rate, 𝑽𝒓 :

log(𝑉𝑟 ) = 5.07 − + 0.58 log(𝑃𝐶𝑂2 )
𝑇 + 273
log(𝑉𝑟 ) = 5.07 − + 0.58 log(2.292)
55 + 273
𝑽𝒓 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟔𝟕𝒎𝒎/𝒚𝒓

Outer diameter = 24in = 0.6096m

Inner diameter = 23.23in = 0.59m,

Volumetric flowrate, Q:

𝑄 = 1500000𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑑
𝑄 = 1500000 × 0.0000018
𝑄 = 2.7

Cross sectional area, A:

𝜋𝐷 2
𝜋 × 0.592
𝜋 × 0.592
𝐴 = 0.273𝑚2
Liquid flow rate, U:
𝑈 = 9.89𝑚/𝑠

Flow-dependent contribution denoting the mass transfer rate, 𝑉𝑚 :

Provided Internal tubing diameter, D= 0.59𝑚

U = 9.89m/s

𝑈 0.8
𝑉𝑚 = 2.7 × 0.2 × 𝑃𝐶𝑂2
𝑉𝑚 = 2.7 × × 2.292

𝑽𝒎 = 𝟒𝟑mm/yr
Corrosion Rate, 𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 :
1 1 1
= +
𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑟
1 1 1
= +
𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 1.867 43
𝑽𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒓 = 𝟏. 𝟕𝟗𝒎𝒎/𝒚𝒆𝒂𝒓

Types of CI Concentration Efficiency (%) Inhibited Corrosion

Rate (mm/yr)

N. cadamba Bark extract 5mgL−1 91 0.1074

VSBH (𝐶31 𝐻47 𝑂4 𝑁2 𝐵𝑟) 400ppm 95 0.0895

Dried Zenthoxylum-alatum 2400ppm 98 0.0358

plant fruits

Polyacrylamide grafted 100ppm 94.4 0.10024

How CO2 Play a Role in Corrosion

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion

In the oil and gas industry, carbon dioxide corrosion is known as sweet corrosion, while
hydrogen sulphide corrosion is known as sour corrosion. When carbon dioxide is dissolved
into water, carbonic acid is formed. Electrochemical corrosion may be generated when metal
is in water. Dry carbon dioxide itself may not corrode metal under the condition of no
electrolyte (water). However, with the development of oil and gas fields, the water cut is
gradually increased. The carbon dioxide, after being dissolved into water and changed into
carbonic acid, may have a stronger corrosiveness. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into the water
phase, thus generating carbonic acid, which may chemically react with the pipe wall. Thus
carbon dioxide corrosion is generated. The carbon dioxide content in the water phase is
closely related to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide under the condition of gas-liquid
equilibrium. If there is no free gas, the carbon dioxide content in water will depend on the gas
phase carbon dioxide pressure. Therefore, the carbon dioxide corrosion rate should be
predicted as follows on the basis of the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in gas phase:

1. Serious corrosion of PCO2 > 0.2 MPa

2. Corrosion if PCO2 = 0.02–0.2 MPa

3. No corrosion if PCO2 < 0.02 MPa

When PCO2 = 0.05–0.1 MPa and formation water exists, the ratio of the molal concentration
multiplied by the number of electrovalence for Ca2+ to that for HCO3− can be used for
determining the corrosion rate as follows.

1. Low corrosion rate if Ca2+/HCO3− < 0.5

2. Medium corrosion rate if Ca2+/HCO3− > 1000

3. High corrosion rate if 0.5 < Ca2+/HCO3− < 1000

The carbon dioxide corrosion of pipe includes uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The
corrosion products are FeCO3 and Fe3O4.
Uniform corrosion: Under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, the water in pipe
fluid or the water in natural gas may condense and is adsorbed on the pipe wall to form water
film. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into water and a water film with a low pH value is formed,
thus generating hydrogen depolarization corrosion. The reaction is as follows.

Pitting corrosion: Carbon dioxide may not only cause the uniform corrosion of steel, but it
may also cause the local corrosion of steel. Local pitting corrosion, mosslike corrosion, and
mesalike pitting corrosion are typically characteristic of carbon dioxide corrosion, and the
mesalike pitting corrosion is most serious. This corrosion has a high penetrance and may
cause serious economic loss. It will lead to stopping production of oil and gas wells or even
the abandonment of the wells if maintenance and replacing string, and so on, are not done in
time during oil and gas well production. The carbon dioxide corrosion pits may often be
hemispherical deep pits with a steep edge (Figure 11-9). The reason the local filmless
mesalike pitting corrosion is generated is that the protective film that is formed on the metal
surface by corrosion products (FeCO3, Fe3O4, and so on) during corrosion reaction is often
either non-uniformly formed, or failed.