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BIOLOGY PAPER 1 (Theory) Time allowed: (2 hours 30 minutes)
Answer all questions in this paper
1. Figure 1 is a diagram of a microorganism. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

a. Identify the microorganism. _______________________________________________________[ 1 mark]

b. State the part labeled A. ___________________________________________________________[ 1 mark]
c. How is the part mentioned in 1 (b) above used by the microorganism?
_________________________________________________________________________________[ 2 marks]
2. Examine the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.

a. Name the disease that is caused by this parasite in man. _______________________________[ 1 mark]
b. Mention any two adaptive characteristics of the worm for survival.
___________________________________________________________________________[ 2 marks]
c. Mention any three signs and symptoms associated with the parasite on its human host.
___________________________________________________________________________[ 3 marks]
d. Describe any two ways through which the parasite infestation can be controlled.
___________________________________________________________________________[ 4 marks]
Explain why:
a. mammalian testes are located hanging outside the body
_________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
b. four months after fertilization ovary can be removed from a human female without terminating pregnancy.
_______________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
3. a. List four rules to be followed in constructing a dichotomous key.
___________________________________________________________________________[ 4 marks]
b. State two advantages of using a cover slip when preparing a specimen for observation under a light
____________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
c. How is the low power objective lens manipulated to focus a specimen for observation under a light
microscope? (2 marks)
__________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
4. Fig. below shows the transverse section through a portion of a leaf

(a) (i) Identify the cell structures labelled A and B.

A. ___________________________________[1 mark] B___________________________________ [1 mark]
(ii) Identify the tissue labelled E.________________________________________________________ [1 mark]

(b) (i)State the function of the tissue labelled D.

____________________________________________________________________________ [1 mark]

(ii) Name the substance found in the wall of cell C.___________________________________ [1 mark]
c. Suggest why plants sometimes stop photosynthesizing on very hot, dry days.
__________________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
d. Explain why photosynthesis in the leaf may be reduced if it suffered from a magnesium ion deficiency.
____________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
e. Name the part of the chloroplast where the following occur:
i. Carbon dioxide fixation________________________________
ii. Photolysis_________________________________________[2 marks]
5. The figure below shows graphs showing how enzyme activity varies with pH for three digestive enzymes
labeled A, B, and C. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

a. What is the optimum pH for enzyme A?_______________________________[1mark]

b. Under what pH range does enzyme B work?___________________________[1mark]
c. which enzyme is likely to work in the stomach? Give a reason for your answer.
In an investigation to find the effect of pH:
State what factors should be changed.________________________________[1mk]
Name two factors which should be controlled.

Mention two enzymes in the human digestive system which are secreted in an inactive form.
___________________________________________________________________________[2 marks]
Apart from digestion, mention any two processes that are controlled by enzymes.

Fig. below shows a developing fetus inside the uterus.

(a) Name the structures labelled A, B and C.

A____________________ [1mk].B________________________[1mk]C_________________________ [1mk]
(b) (i) Name two useful substance which passes from the mother to the fetus.
___________________________________________________________________________________ [2mks]
(ii) Name one waste substance that passes from the fetus to the mother.__________________________ [1mk]
(c) (i) The mother contracted gonorrhoea during pregnancy.
List two symptoms of this disease.
(ii) State the method of birth control which can prevent the spread of gonorrhoea.

Give a reason why the image is not formed when light is focused on the blind spot of the eye.
The diagram represents part of the human skeleton.

A. Name the part labeled P

Name the bone that articulates with the part labelled Q
What type of joint is formed between the part Q and the bone mention in above

Define genetic engineering
Discuss how genetic engineering can help humans to produce large quantities of insulin
Discuss five potential advantages of genetic engineering in agriculture, with
reference to the development of plant varieties resistant to pests and drought
Discuss five potential problems that could arise from irresponsible use of
genetic engineering

(b) (i) State two functions of DNA molecule.

c. Differentiate between sickle cell anaemia and sickle cell trait. (2 marks)

(ii) Explain why people with sickle cell trait have an adaptive survival advantage over normal individuals in
malaria endemic regions. (2 marks)

12 The diagram below represents a model used to demonstrate breathing in mammals.

(a) Name the mammalian structure represented by the parts labelled D and E. (i) D .......................................... ..
(1 mark)

(ii) E .......................................... .. (1 mark)

(b) State the observation made when the string is pulled downwards. (1 mark)

(c) Explain the observation in (b) above. (2 marks)

(b) Distinguish between a tendon and a ligament. (1 mark)

(b) How is the low power objective lens manipulated to focus a specimen for observation under a light
microscope? (2 marks

Figure 8 shows part of the female human reproductive system. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

a. Name the parts labelled R and T

b. State two functions of part marked S

c. (i) Mention the contraceptive method shown by the letter M

(ii) Explain the contraception method mentioned in c (i) works.

The diagram below represents a section through the mammalian ear. Study it and answer the questions that

(a) Name the structures labeled H and J (2mks)

(b) State how the structures labeled H, M and N are adapted to their functions (3mks)




(c) State what would happen if the structure labeled K was completely damaged (1mk)


(d) Name the fluid contained in structure N (1mk)


(e) Apart from hearing, state the other role performed by the human ear (1mk)


Define the term transpiration stream.

State any two ways in which transpiration is important to plants.

Describe how the transpiration stream is brought about.

Figure 6 shows levels of some hormones during the menstrual cycle. Use it to answer questions that

During which period is fertilization most likely to occur?

Give a reason for your answer.

State any two things that may happen to the wall of the uterus between day 5 and day 10.

Explain why levels of progesterone increases from day 16 to day 20.

Describe the four principles of Mendelian genetics.

Figure shows a biological process taking place in the body of a person. Use it to answer the questions that

a. Name the
__[1 mark]

b. State any one enzyme which is involved in the process.

c. Give two ways in which the process is important to the human body.

The figure below an experiment that was set up to investigate the movement of water in plant tissues.

a. What would be observed in P after 1 hour?

b. Give a reason for your answer in a above.

c. Which set up is a control.

d. Name any one variable which was kept constant.

a. Name the parts marked X and Y.

b. State the function of the part marked Z.

Describe the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis at the stated stages.
stage Chromosome behavior during mitosis Chromosome behavior during



Describe any five problems of the human reproductive system and how each problem can be prevented. .
Your answer should be in essay form.
Describe an experiment that can be carried out to fins the effect of physical activity on pulse rate. Your
essay should include procedure, results and conclusion.