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308-7080-ST-51-127

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HALLIBURTON KBR

Procedure for Equipment Layout Considerations Covering


Onshore Facilities

Document Number 308-7080-ST-51-127

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

This document contains proprietary information belonging to Halliburton KBR and may neither be
wholly or partially reproduced nor be disclosed without the prior written permission or Halliburton
KBR.
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REVISION RECORD

Rev Date Description By Check. Review App


______________________________________________________________________

D1 26/01/00 Draughted JD
D2 21/02/01 Checked AWL
D3 18/05/01 Reviewed RT
D4 24/04/02 Issued for Use JD AWL RT IB

DOCUMENT RESPONSIBILITY

The Piping Department Manager is responsible for authorisation of revisions of this document.
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CONTENTS

1.0 PURPOSE

2.0 CODES & STANDARDS

3.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

4.0 GENERAL SITE LAYOUT PRINCIPLES

5.0 PRIMARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

5.1 Safety
5.2 Environment
5.3 Process
5.4 Fabrication & Construction
5.5 Operations & Maintenance
5.6 Cost
5.7 Appearance

6.0 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS

6.1 Plant Orientation


6.2 Hazardous Areas
6.3 Roads and Paving
6.4 Perimeter Fencing and Gates
6.5 Personnel Access/Escape
6.6 Buildings
6.7 Equipment
6.8 Piperacks / Tracks
6.9 Flare Stacks and Major Vents
6.10 Offsite Storage
6.11 Road & Rail Loading / Unloading
6.12 Firefighting Systems
6.13 Underground Services & Interfaces
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ATTACHMENTS

1 General Guideline Distances For Onshore Plant Layout


2.1 Equipment Spacing Chart (Metric)
2.2 Equipment Spacing Chart (Imperial)
3 Typical Block Plot Site Plan
4 Typical Gas Compression Plant
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1.0 PURPOSE

THIS PROCEDURE RELATES TO ON-SHORE PROCESS FACILITIES ONLY.

The purpose of this procedure is to formulate and maintain a consistent layout philosophy, within
the bounds of on-shore process plant design.

This procedure is intended to describe and define the methods of general plant layout principals to
create a safe, operable, maintainable and constructable plant, designed in accordance with
applicable relevant codes, standards and general engineering practices. It is intended to sufficient
information of a minimum technical level to enable the designer to proceed through the conceptual
and FEED phases of a project, leading to an acceptable plant layout for the detail design phase.

Aspects for determining the site location, such as environment, local infrastructure, requirements
dictated by Country, Client or local codes & regulations cannot be included, but this procedure is
considered to be flexible enough to be modified to incorporate specific requirements, as a particular
contract may dictate.

2.0 CODES AND STANDARDS

ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant & Petroleum Refinery piping


ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Pipeline code
ASME B31.8 Gas Transportation Pipeline code
API-500 Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Facilities
API-2510 Design and Construction of LP Gas Installations at Marine and Pipeline
Terminals, Natural Gas Processing Plants, Refineries, Petrochemical Plants
& Tank Farms
API-RP520 part 2 Recommended installation practice for pressure safety valves
API-RP521 Guide for pressure relieving & depressurising systems
NFPA30 Flammable & Combustible Liquids Code
NFPA 58 Storage & Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
NFPA 59 Storage & Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants
IEC-79 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres
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3.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

308-7080-ST-51-109 Procedure for the Development of Plot Plans (On-shore)


308-7080-ST-51-120 Procedure for Piping Design

4.0 GENERAL SITE LAYOUT PRINCIPLES

The general principal of a good site layout is to provide a safe and economical sequence of both
equipment and pipe work to satisfy process, operational & maintenance personnel requirements and
to provide an acceptable working environment.

The following information (not listed in order of importance) should be available to allow the plant
layout to proceed :-

Administration building, parking area, workshop, warehouse & laboratory sizes


Climatic conditions, wind direction and frequency.
Control room size.
Drainage philosophy.
Electrical & Instrument room sizes and HVAC requirements.
Electrical Sub-station and transformer requirements.
Equipment list with approximate sizes.
Incoming pipeline & utility service locations.
Maintenance philosophy.
Process requirements and preliminary PFD’s & UFD’s.
Safety philosophy.
Stated preferences on extent of modularisation or skidding of equipment and piperacks.
Storage tank requirements.
Surrounding infrastructure information, including road and railway details.
Future requirements.
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5.0 PRIMARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The primary design considerations to be taken into account when laying out the facilities are Safety,
Environment, Process, Fabrication & Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Cost and
Appearance.
Where these characteristics may conflict with each other, sound engineering principles must be
applied to provide optimisation.

5.1 Safety

All plants shall be designed in accordance with the relevant safety codes and regulations concerning
plant layout.

Many safety features will be built into the spacing requirements and other guidelines in the
following sections. However, good judgement should always be used where supplemental guides
are not available and the HSE group should be available for additional consultation.

The following are subjects (not listed in order of importance) which should be addressed with
respect to safety :-

Segregate high and low risk units.


Locate the higher risk units away from the areas of permanent personnel occupation.
Locate the lower risk units between the higher risk units and the areas of permanent personnel
occupation, to provide a buffer zone.
Separate flammable inventory from sources of ignition.
Consider the location of leaks of noxious gases.
The more hazardous equipment / units should be located downwind.
Provide bunding to hydrocarbon tankage and storage areas.
Ensure hydrocarbon gases cannot be trapped below ground level, in drains etc.
Locate equipment a safe distance from the edge of roads.
Minimise the effects of pool fires.
Minimise the requirement for personnel to be in hazardous areas.
Provide means of personnel escape in an emergency.
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Provide a minimum of two routes of escape from all areas, including elevated platforming longer
than 5m.
Provide for active and passive fire protection facilities.
Provide for safety equipment in appropriate locations.
Provide sufficient site and road access for emergency vehicles and equipment.

5.2 Environment

Also refer to section 5.7

The environmental / meteorological conditions at the site location are a prime consideration when
selecting and orientating the layout of the plant.

The effect a facility has on the environment is governed mainly by the process requirements and
equipment selection.

The layout should minimise the potential for environmental damage by providing containment and
suitable disposal means for any spillage or discharge of pollutants.

5.3 Process

Process requirements can dictate the relevant locations of equipment, valves etc., especially
elevations.

Equipment should be located to streamline the process flow and simplify piping systems, without
compromising piping stress and support requirements.
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5.4 Fabrication & Construction

Construction methods can have a large influence on the layout of the plant and location of
equipment.

The location of roads, piperacks, equipment & buildings all have an effect on the constructability of
the plant.

On most projects a representative from the Construction group should be available for discussion
and advice during the design of the layout, to ensure that the plant can be constructed in an
economic manner.

Craneage studies should be undertaken by the Construction group to identify the location of
construction cranes and any related foundation requirements.

The layout should be designed so that large items of equipment, process columns etc. can be lifted
in to place, whether being delivered complete or in sections for site assembly. Consequently
construction laydown areas, partial erection of pipe racks, etc should be considered during the
design phase, to accommodate such a situation.

Consideration should be given to those items of equipment with extended delivery times, where late
site access to a particular area may be required.

Pre-assembled units (PAUs) may be utilised, which can be large independent structures, containing
various related items of equipment with the associated piping, valves and access platforms, on one
or more levels.

A simpler form of this methodology is to utilise skids, where the equipment, piping, valves and
platforms are mounted on to a single structural base.

Piperacks can similarly be pre-assembled in individual units (PARs), for installing together on site.

Pre-assembled control and electrical rooms may also be utilised.


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Pre assembled units, racks an skids save on site infrastructure costs and construction and
commissioning time, but the location of the pre assembly yards, transportation, lifting requirements
and site accessibility must be considered.

Installation of future equipment must be considered, as lifting over ‘live’ plant must be avoided.

5.5 Operations & Maintenance

Roads must provide sufficient access for both operation and maintenance vehicles, cranes etc.

Adequate space and access must be provided for operation and maintenance of equipment, valves
and instruments.

Distances from the control room to frequently visited items of equipment must be considered.

Space must be allocated for mechanical handling equipment, both permanent and temporary.

Laydown and access areas must be provided for equipment requiring regular maintenance.

On most projects a representative from the Operations and Maintenance group should be available
for discussion and advice during the design of the layout, to ensure that the plant can be operated
and maintained in an economic and safe manner.
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5.6 Cost

Cost refers to the initial engineering, equipment and construction costs and the quality of the layout
and the subsequent detail design work can have a significant effect in that respect.

Cost savings should never jeopardise safety or environmental considerations.

Engineering Design, Fabrication and Construction costs are one-time only and therefore a well-
engineered layout should not be compromised for an initial cost saving, if at a later date it would
complicate operation & maintenance (Life Cycle Costs). This last statement has to be equated to the
type of contract being undertaken.

5.7 Appearance

As a rule an attractively laid out plant, with equipment in straight lines, will also be an
economically laid out plant.

Preference should be given to having a single central piperack with a minimum number of side
branches, with equipment laid out on either side.

The appearance of a layout can be improved by grouping items of similar equipment, e.g. pumps,
heat exchangers etc. but this should not compromise economical pipe runs.

Buildings, structures and groups of equipment should form a neat, symmetrical balanced layout,
consistent with keeping the pipe runs to a minimum.

Columns and large vertical vessels of similar diameter should be arranged in rows with a common
centre line, but if the diameter varies greatly, they should be lined up with a common face. If
adjacent to a structure, the common face should be on the structure side. (e.g. piperack).

The centre lines of pump discharge nozzles should be lined up, as should the nozzles of exchanger
channel ends.
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Where there are duplicated streams, they should be made identical as far as possible and ‘handed’
arrangements should be avoided unless specifically requested for process reasons (e.g. mirrored
pipework). This principle should also be followed where there are similar equipment sequences
within the process steam e.g. columns, exchangers and pumps, which could have their layout
repeated for different columns, having a different process duty.

Identical plant arrangements for parallel streams or similar groups of process equipment can have
many advantages, not only in economies of design, but also for fabrication, construction and
operating reasons.

A simple layout appearance usually provides a simple operational and maintenance situation.

6.0 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS

This section elaborates on the primary considerations for specific subjects.

6.1 Plant Orientation

The orientation of the plant layout is most influenced by the prevailing wind and local
environmental characteristics. Topography may also be a consideration with respect to gravity
systems.

The prevailing wind should direct plant flare / vent plumes and any hydrocarbon gas discharge
resulting from leaks away from the occupied areas and the local infrastructure. Similar
consideration should be given to noxious smells from effluent treatment plant.

The orientation of the plant with respect to the import / export pipelines and utility services should
also be considered, to provide the most economic solution, whilst not jeopardising safety from any
possible hydrocarbon leaks.

Natural falls of the terrain should be considered with respect to drainage tanks and lagoons, to
potentially reduce civil excavation costs.
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6.2 Hazardous Areas

A hazardous area is a facility area where flammable gas is, or has the potential to be, present in
sufficient quantities such as to require special precautions to be taken.

The extent of hazardous areas shall be taken into account when laying out equipment. Refer to the
relevant code for development and extent of hazardous areas.

Hazardous areas are divided into Zones 0, 1, & 2, defined as follows:-

Zone 0 An area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for
long periods.
Zone 1 An area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur under normal
operating conditions.
Zone 2 An area in which an explosive gas-air mixture is unlikely to occur, and if it occurs, it
will only persist for a short period.

Non-hazardous areas are those which are not classified as hazardous by the above definitions.

6.3 Roads and Paving

Roads are provided for general plant vehicular traffic, maintenance, operations and fire fighting
access. A guide to road widths forms part of Attachment 1.

Normal segregation between adjoining process units is by a road system, which will also reduce the
risk and spread of localised fires.

Perimeter road systems, which are normally wider, should feed into the process unit road systems.

At least two sides of a process unit should be provided with access roads, for fire fighting purposes.

Perimeter and process unit roads should not have dead ends, as these may cause restrictions to
traffic and personnel during emergencies.
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Where regular vehicular traffic is necessary, the roads should be outside the hazardous areas.

All roads should be designed to accommodate the largest anticipated vehicle that will be allowed
access into the plant. Facilities for vehicle turning should also be considered.

Equipment must not be located on or near the edge of a road, refer to the equipment spacing charts
in Attachment 2 for the minimum distance allowable.

Within the process area a minimum amount of concrete paving should be supplied for walkways
interconnecting major items of equipment, platforms, stairways and buildings. In addition paving
should be supplied around pumps or other machinery where spillage is likely to occur during
normal operation.

For other items of equipment requiring infrequent maintenance, such as exchanger tube bundles,
column internals etc. it should only be necessary to ensure that there is adequate clear space for
access purposes and the area should be graded and surfaced with granite chips or similar material.
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6.4 Perimeter Fencing and Gates

Undeveloped sites are generally surrounded by security boundary fencing, with internally patrolled
road systems, the segregation distances being in accordance with international regulations &
standards requirements. These can vary considerably, even between oil companies within the same
country and consequently consultations with the client should always be undertaken at the
commencement of a contract.

Where boundary or perimeter fencing is required and national codes do not dictate otherwise, the
minimum distance from process equipment should be 15 metres.

Gates giving access to the perimeter roads should be provided on all sides of the plot, for
emergency access.

The gate location provided for the prime external road access should be provided with a security
gatehouse, to control in-coming and out-going traffic and personnel.

A secondary gate and fencing system may be provided to segregate the safe offsite areas from the
hazardous process areas, to reduce the risk of unqualified personnel gaining access to the working
plant.

6.5 Personnel Access/Escape

When designing the layout of the plant, good access must be provided for operations and
maintenance, whilst always considering safety.

This can be achieved by providing personnel access aisles under piperacks and beside equipment
located adjacent to the piperacks.

Access to elevated floors in buildings or open structures shall generally be by stairways, ladders
shall normally be used only for occasional access, secondary escape or where stairs cannot be
accommodated.
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Open structures and buildings will normally require a secondary means of escape, generally at the
opposite end to the stairways and, ideally, leading away from the plant area to safety.

6.6 Buildings

For information on the location and distance restrictions of various buildings refer to the equipment
spacing charts in Attachment 2.

To avoid risk to personnel within a hazardous area, buildings should not have windows facing the
plant, unless they are explosion proof.

Fire, Ambulance and Administration buildings are of major importance, subsequently they should
be sited close to the perimeter of the installation and located away from hazardous areas. They
should also be protected from extreme environmental conditions e.g. wind damage, flooding etc.

Main Control buildings serving a total process plant ideally shall be located in a non-hazardous
area. If this is not practicable, for ease of operation or control, an alternative is to locate it centrally
between the units. This building then may be located within a hazardous area, when it should be of
a pressurised and possibly blastproof design. This solution is extremely expensive and should only
be undertaken after careful cost and engineering evaluation.

Local Equipment Rooms (or Unit Control Rooms) serving a smaller number of units should be
positioned centrally between those units. Similarly the design of this building will depend on the
hazardous / non-hazardous rating of the area in which it is located.

Electrical sub-stations may form part of, or be close to, control rooms and as such will fall into the
same criteria as the control rooms. Additionally good road access & entry to these buildings is
necessary for the installation and maintenance of the motor control centres (MCC) and other large
items of switchgear.

Transformer pens are usually located adjacent to the electrical sub stations and should be provided
with walls around three sides and a suitable foundation.
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Control rooms & sub-stations should be located to minimise the length of cable runs to the plant,
whilst still complying with the required safety requirements.

Compressor houses for process compressors should be designed to have natural ventilation, usually
by partial cladding from approximately 3 metres above ground level (Dutch barn type). The ridge of
the building should be vented, with automatic louvres and either forced or induced draught
extraction, to allow for escape of flammable gas, which might leak from the machines. A clearly
defined laydown zone for maintenance purposes should be provided at each machine and the
building may be furnished with an overhead crane to assist in the mechanical handling of the
compressor and driver major components. Access should be provided for both personnel &
maintenance vehicles.

Analyser houses may be required and are generally sited centrally within the plant. This enables the
analyser connections to be of minimum length. If the houses are sited inside a hazardous area it will
be necessary for the building to be pressurised, to avoid stray gases entering.

Pump houses may be required due to climate or client requirements. These buildings will nearly
always be within a hazardous area and therefore must be pressurised. To avoid unnecessary spillage
on the pump house floor, a retaining kerb should surround the pump bases. At least one roller
shutter door should be provided for maintenance facility access.

Fire pump houses should be located in a safe area away from process plant in an offsite area and
therefore should not be subject to hazardous area requirements. Good road access and entry to the
building should be provided, for both operation & maintenance purposes and runway beams may be
required for pump and driver mechanical handling. Where foam generation is required storage and
handling of foam making materials must be considered.

Air compressor houses shall be located in a safe area away from process plant and therefore should
not be subject to hazardous area requirements. Good road access and entry to the building should be
provided, for both operation & maintenance purposes and runway beams may be required for
compressor, driver and cooler mechanical handling. The building may be of a similar design to the
process compressor building, having only partial cladding to the upper part of the walls.
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6.7 Equipment

6.7.1 General layout

The sequence of equipment is generally defined by the process flow requirements, which
also frequently dictate relative elevations, thus indicating the need for structures. Other
process considerations could be the limitations of pressure or temperature drop in transfer
lines deciding the proximity of the equipment.

Maximum economy of pipework and supporting steel is an important factor in producing the
design of the plant. Equipment should be located to minimise runs of alloy pipework and
large bore pipe, without compromising the piping flexibility and support requirements.

Consideration should also be given to optimising the use of supporting structures in concrete
or steel by duplicating their application to more than one item of equipment and ensuring
that accessways, platforms etc. have more than one function.

When spacing equipment, consideration should be given to whether it is handling low or


high flash point hydrocarbon products. Equipment items, which could be considered a
possible source of hazard, should be grouped together and where possible located separately
from other areas of the plant, but this should not compromise economical pipe runs as this
will increase costs. By careful positioning of the relevant equipment, hazardous area
classifications may be simplified, thus influencing the plot size.

The same criteria applies to product / chemical loading & unloading areas, but the nature of
the goods being carried can cause a hazard, both noxious & toxic, in addition to any
potential fire risk. By using defined segregation distances & locations, refer to Attachment 2,
the risks can be reduced to an acceptable level.

Careful consideration must be given to equipment that can emit noxious smells e.g. waste
treatment units, they should not be located close to an area where personnel will be working,
or in the proximity of residential property. These items should be sited where the prevailing
wind will carry any noxious smells away from those sensitive areas.
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6.7.2 Columns and Horizontal Vessels

Generally this type of equipment is positioned in the process flow sequence, with sufficient
space allowed for maintenance and operations personnel.

Columns should be self-supporting without the benefit of external structures. Circular or


segmental platforms with side step off ladders should be supported directly from the column
shell.

Platforms on columns should be provided for access to all valves which require 2 handed
operation generally 3” and above, and relief valves, instrument controllers & transmitters,
manholes, blinds and spades on all vessels, unless they are accessible from grade. Access to
small valves which can be operated with one hand, and indicating instruments is acceptable
directly from a ladder.

Where process columns have internal trays etc., manholes with permanent access should be
provided at specific levels, for tray and distributor removal. For ease of removal, the
manholes should be positioned in a common segment, preferably facing to the back of the
vessel, away from the plant, into an open dropping area. The top section of a vertical
column may have items that require removal at some time and will therefore require a fixed
davit and platform on the top head. Similarly space must be provided for these items to be
lowered down to grade, again at the back of the column into a clear area.

Horizontal vessels should be located at grade, unless process considerations dictate


otherwise, and orientated with their longitudinal axis at right angles to the piperack.

Access platforms on horizontal vessels or drums should be kept to a minimum. Platforms


should not be provided when the top of the vessel is less than 2.4 metres above grade level,
otherwise there will be insufficient head clearance below the platform structure.

The height of all columns or vessels providing suction to pumps should be given special
consideration to ensure that there is adequate height to cover the pump NPSH requirements.
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Other factors influencing the height of this type of equipment are headroom clearance under
low level piping connections to the piperack and allowances for low level drain connections.

Consideration should be given to the saving of plot space by changing vessels from the
horizontal position to vertical position. Process approval of this must always be obtained.

Equipment that contains catalyst or packing will require space for containers, pallets or
chutes and permanent lifting facilities should be provided for both filling and emptying of
materials. Access may also be required for vehicles to transport the containers to and from
the storage area to the vessels. Where vessels have a series of beds they should be provided
with access to each bed level.

Vessels with agitators and motors should be provided with a lifting facility, which will be
required to remove both motor and agitator, also adequate clearance and laydown space
should be provided locally.

6.7.3 Shell & Tube Exchangers, Vertical Reboilers and Plate Exchangers

Whenever possible exchangers should be located at grade level, to facilitate maintenance


and tube withdrawal.

When two or more shells are part of one unit they may be stacked, to minimise plot space.
Exchangers will normally be arranged so that the fixed end is at the channel end.

Process or piping layout may fix the required height of horizontal exchangers, however the
piping layout designer must also consider drainage of the equipment and associated piping.

All shell & tube exchangers require clear space for rodding out or tube bundle removal,
even fixed tube exchangers will require some form of maintenance work, such as tube
plugging etc. and will therefore require maintenance space. Space for tube bundle removal
should be left free, the exchanger channels preferably pointing towards an access area or
road and an approach should be left for mobile lifting equipment. Tube withdrawal for
exchangers may be by crane, tube bundle pulling equipment or by means of a pulling device
or combination of all.
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Where davits are supplied for head removal, adequate space should be provided for full
swing of the head.

Horizontal thermo-syphon reboilers require specific elevations relative to the parent process
column, this will be determined by the process group and shown on the P&ID’s. These
items are generally directly mounted off the side of the process column, keeping the pipe
work as short as is physically possible, as determined by stress analysis. Where the reboiler
is too large to mount directly on the column, a support structure should be positioned close
to the process column. Care must be taken to allow for the removal of any tube sheet etc.
and this may require additional platforming local to the reboiler, which should also be
utilised for instrumentation access.

Any exchanger containing hydrocarbons operating above 260oC (500oF) should not have
process equipment located above or below them.
Plate exchangers are generally small and are normally used where corrosive fluids are in the
process which require special facilities in terms of spillage. They are normally sited on a
paved floor for wash down and containment of any spillage collection. Consequently
additional space is required local to these items. Plates are generally added/removed from
the side of the unit and withdrawal space equal to 120% of the unit width should be allowed
on one side only.

6.7.4 Fin Fans (Air Coolers)

Some clients do not permit fin fans over piperacks – check prior to commencing layout
study.

Fin Fans are either positioned over pipe racks with access from a common access walkway
above the piperack, or located in a separate row outside the main equipment row, remote
from the central piperack, with a separate access walkway beside the units. Access to the air
cooler walkway should be by ladders at each end, with additional intermediate ladders if
walkways are over long.
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The access walkways should connect to local platforming directly under the units, for
maintenance of both motors & fans. The fin fan manufacturer, who may also supply the
necessary lifting equipment, often supplies this platforming.

Where there are many air coolers mounted along the length of the pipe rack, care must be
taken in positioning them relative to each other. If positioned too close to each other, re-
circulation problems may occur, where one set of fin fans exhaust air may be sucked into
the next fin fan air cooler inlet i.e. drawing in warm air instead of cool air.

There may be instances whereby the numbers & size of air coolers dictate the overall length
of the pipe rack.

Space should be considered for craneage access to remove or maintain the bundles.

Equipment with a low flash point should not be located underneath air coolers, unless
additional fire precautions are taken.

6.7.5 Cooling Towers

The area around cooling towers should be suitable for water basins and in the case of natural
draught cooling towers substantial foundations will be required. Forced draught cooling
towers can be extremely noisy, so consideration must be given to siting them away from
populated areas. These items require maintenance to fans and easy access to the water
basins for cleaning.
Chemical dosing & algae control facilities may also be required. Due to the nature of
cooling towers they should be sited down wind of process units, to avoid water droplets
restricting visibility or causing corrosion or ice formation on other parts of the plant. The
siting should also prevent entrainment of particles or vapour from adjacent vents or stacks.
Because of their size and formation of cloud cooling towers are normally sited in rows in off
plot areas.
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6.7.6 Fired Heaters

Fired heaters may be single or grouped units, sharing a common stack, with the exhaust
gases being controlled by individual dampers. Since they are potentially dangerous they
should located generally on the extremities of the plot, with suitable clear road access from
at least two sides.

The minimum spacing required between shells shall be 2 metres, or that dictated by the
appropriate safety code, with minimum headroom under the burner floor of 2.2 metres.
Vertical heaters are usually supplied with stub supporting feet and the necessary steel or
concrete legs can be designed to give the required height to the heater.

Generally a common platform for a group of heaters should be arranged at the burner
operating level with stair access & secondary means of escape. Normally all platforming
associated with the heater is supplied by the heater vendor. The height of the transfer line
from the heater will determine, to some extent, the height at which it enters the process
column, thereby fixing the relative heights.

The positioning of the heaters is also determined by the prevailing wind and they should be
sited upstream of the process unit, to avoid any flammable vapours being blown towards a
source of ignition.

The floor around the heater shall be paved and sloped to drain spillage away from
underneath the heater. No pits or trenches should be allowed to extend anywhere near or
under the heater.

Heaters should be arranged on a common centreline wherever possible and when air
preheating is required, space should be provided for the exchanger and fans, which will be
local to the heater.

6.7.7 Pumps
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Generally these items of equipment should be located in process flow sequence, spaced to
allow sufficient operating personnel and maintenance equipment space.

Pumps should be located at grade on prepared foundations within a paved area sloped to
allow spillage to be washed away from the pumps. Pumps located within a structure should
be provided with drip trays to collect any spillage.

Pumps should be close to and below the equipment from which they take suction. If, due to
plot layout constraints, the pumps have to be located further away, process group should be
consulted as they may have to recalculate line sizes.

Pumps can be either located in groups (pumpstations) or to the outside edge of the piperack.
All pumps should be located using the centreline of discharge as the reference and have
their longitudinal axis at right angles to the piperack.

Space should be provided close to the driver end, to give good access for maintenance and
allow a corridor for cabling to be run underground, to feed the motors. Maintenance space
over the pumps should be provided to allow for either mobile equipment or a portable ‘A’
frame, sufficient access for removal of the pump casing or motor.

Pump suction and discharge pipework must be adequately supported to keep nozzle loads
and moments within acceptable limits. These supports can be located on the pipe rack, if
the pumps are positioned under the rack. Or from a separate frame, which may have to be
provided for that purpose, when the pumps are located outside the rack.

Pumps in acid or toxic service should be located within a kerbed area to contain any spillage
and provisions for washing down should be provided. Space for a safety shower & eyebath
should also be provided.

6.7.8 Compressors

Compressors and associated equipment should be located to minimise pressure drop in the
suction pipe work. Lube & seal oil systems, usually packages provided by the compressor
vendor, should be located at grade, local to the machine. The height of the compressor is in
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some instances determined by a) size of lube & seal oil packages, b) gravity flow from the
machine to the lube oil tank. A platform surrounding the compressor and driver should be
supplied, level with the top of the foundation and lube oil, drain and utility piping should be
located underneath. Lube oil (LO) and Seal oil (SO) rundown tanks are located above the
compressor to provide gravity feed during compressor rundown in the event of power
failure.

Laydown and maintenance areas should be provided at both the end and side of the
compressor and to the side of the driver. Generally a large structure will be required to
support the compressor inlet and outlet piping and this must be designed to ensure that the
access to the compressor and its laydown areas are not restricted.

Foundations for the compressor should be divorced from those of the compressor house and
associated equipment within it, to avoid transmission of potential vibrations.

Compressors driven by condensing steam turbines should be elevated, to allow the


condenser to be positioned under the turbine. In this instance an elevated floor will be
necessary with stair access and a secondary means of escape.

The majority of these considerations will also apply to reciprocating machines, except that
all pipe work should also be supported from independent foundations, with the design taking
pulsation into account. During the stress analysis phase, harmonic studies may need to be
carried out to establish design suitability. Special supporting techniques may be required
and pulsation dampers may have to be employed.

Multiple compressor sets are normally arranged with the compressor / drive centreline axes
parallel to each other and at right angles to the piperack, or with the centreline axes in line
and parallel to the piperack. Handing of the compressors is not recommended, mainly from
an installation and operation point of view.

Suction and interstage knock out (KO) drums should be positioned as close to the
compressors as possible, but outside the building. Associated coolers should be elevated to
allow them to drain back to their respective KO drums.
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Relative levels of compressors, knock out drums and coolers should be taken into account,
to ensure there are not any pockets in the suction pipework, where liquids could collect.

If compressors are not housed in a building then suitable acoustic enclosures should be
provided.

6.7.9 Power Generation

Consideration should be given to the relative location of the power generation unit and the
sub station / transformers to which it is connected, to minimise the length of high voltage
cabling.

The air inlet and exhaust stack locations of gas turbine driven power generation units should
be given particular attention. The units should be positioned such that gas turbine
combustion and ventilation air inlet filters take air from a safe, clean, cool location. The
exhaust discharge should be located to avoid re-circulation of hot exhaust gases to the
turbine air inlet, whilst ensuring that the gases are carried away from the plant by the
prevailing wind.

Adequate maintenance and operation space should be allowed around the units, particularly
for removal of the turbine and generator components, where crane access will be necessary.

6.7.10 Oily Water Separators

Oily water separators will be sized and designed by the civil group, however piping group
should locate the equipment, to suit the sloping drainage lines feeding into it. If the
distances are great, then it may be necessary to install an intermediate sump with a pumping
system, to avoid the separator inlet being too low. Ideally the separator should be located
centrally within the plant, however, due to the hydrocarbon content in the separator, it may
be necessary to position it away from the process units and the HSE group should be
consulted for their approval of the location. Consideration should be given to firewater
flows and rainfall, which should be diverted around the separator if possible and a separate
pond may be necessary to accommodate these flows.
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6.8 Piperacks / Tracks

Dependant on the type of process plant and the size and shape of plot available various
configurations of piperacks can be applied i.e. straight through type, T type, L type, U type or
combinations of them. The configuration of racks will also depend on how the process flows
between equipment, number of equipment items, quantity and size of the lines etc.

Pipe racks within process units are generally elevated and may link to other units, to form a process
plant network. They carry a series of pipes between equipment and the elevation should change at
changes of direction, they may comprise two or three levels.

The most hazardous services (process) should be routed on the lowest level, with utilities piping on
the intermediate level and electrical / instrumentation cable trays on the upper level. Large bore
piping should be located as close to the edges of the piperack as possible. Hot lines requiring
expansion loops, should be run on the outside of the edge of the piperack. This will permit the loops
to have the greatest width over the piperack and it will make nesting the loops of various lines
simpler.

Lines that require falls, such as relief headers, can be run outside the main rack on cantilevered
supports, where the elevations can be adjusted to suit the slope.

Valves, which have to be located on the piperack, should be grouped together, and a suitable means
of access provided.

Pipe tracks (sleepers) are generally for off-site installations, but if space and access permits
localised tracks may be run within process units.

There should always be an allowance for future plant expansion, but as widths of the piperacks are
normally determined very early in the contract, an allowance of at least 30% to allow for design
growth should be made.
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6.9 Flare Stacks and Major Vents

Vertical flare stacks should be located remote from the plant, within a sterile fenced area. They
should be positioned downwind of the plant, to reduce the effect of noise on the plant and
possibility of flame carry over towards the plant. The process group is responsible for calculating
both the height of the stack and the radiation zone.

Flare headers from the plant should slope towards the flare knock out drum (no pockets) which
should be located outside the flare stack radiation zone. The flare line from the knock out drum to
the flare stack shall slope backwards to the knock out drum.

Horizontal flares & burn pits should be located well away from plant facilities and enclosed within
concrete walls. All other requirements are similar to vertical flare stacks.

Open vents containing hazardous gases should be sited 3 metres above the highest platform, within
a horizontal radius of 7.5 metres and pointed in the direction of the prevailing wind. Where vents
discharge steam etc. care should be given to the effects of condensate fall out which may be
harmful to both personnel & equipment.

6.10 Offsite Storage

Offsite storage consists mainly of atmospheric tankage within bunded areas and transfer / booster
pumps positioned as close as is physically possible to the tankage, whilst remaining outside the
bunded areas. The pump suction lines should be kept as short as possible, taking into account
flexibility required for comparative settlement between the tank and the pump foundations. The
pump suction must not be higher than the tank discharge nozzles to enable the tank to be pumped
down to a low level without cavitation. Pockets in the pipe work should be avoided, otherwise
cavitation will occur and damage the pumps.

The grade levels of these facilities should be lower than the adjacent process units, to avoid any
piping / tankage catastrophic failures flooding the operating plant.
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Access & escape routes from tankage areas should be directed away from the inner area of
combined tanks.

Special consideration should be given to offsite storage tankage, due to the large volume of
inventory stored.

The safeguards required to reduce the risk of tank fires fall into the four categories below :-
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6.10.1 Safe design and construction of the tank and its appurtenances.

Storage tanks are classified into three groups, based on their internal design pressures, they
are :-

Atmospheric storage tanks with internal pressure from atmospheric to 0.03 barg. These
tanks are further classified as vertical or cylindrical tanks. Generally, vertical tanks are used
for storage of large quantities of liquid and cylindrical tanks are used for small quantities of
liquid. Vertical storage tank types have cone roofs, floating roofs and vapour dome roofs.
Cylindrical tanks have flat or dished heads and the longitudinal axis may be either
horizontal or vertical. They may be buried or positioned above ground level.

Low pressure storage tanks with internal pressure from 0.03 barg to 1 barg. These tanks are
used to store volatile liquids partially under their own vapour pressure. Such tanks may have
the shapes of spheres, spheroids or cylinders.

Pressure vessels with internal pressure of above 1 barg. These are used for storing liquified
petroleum gases (LPG), such as propane and butane. These tanks generally have the shape
of cylinders with dished heads (bullets) or spheres. The siting of bullets and spheres is
critical by the very nature of the product being stored and they should be located in a safe
area, away from other process plant and hydrocarbon storage facilities. Generally a distance
of 75 metres away from process plant & 60 metres from other storage facilities is
recommended and they should be orientated such that they point away from any plant
installation.

Where appropriate stairs on the tanks should provide easy operator access and escape routes
to and from the tanks and accessways from these should be directed away from the area,
towards a safe location.
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6.10.2 Adequate spacing between tanks and other installations.

Factors determining tank spacing include :-


Possibility of damage to nearby buildings, tanks or process areas.
Amount of flammable material contained in the tank or tanks.
Volume contained in the unit under consideration and adjoining tanks.
Burning and ignition characteristics of the stored liquids.
Adequate access and room for fire fighting operations.

Reference should be made to the relevant NFPA, API and any particular Client requirements
for tank spacing. In all cases, local codes must also be reviewed for any requirements, which
may be different from, or more stringent than, the recommendations in the standard codes.

6.10.3 Containment of flammable liquids in case of a tank rupture.

Containment should be provided around tanks so that any accidental discharge will be
prevented from endangering other important facilities, adjoining property, or waterways.
This can be accomplished by either providing drainage facilities to carry the spill to a
remote impounding area, or by providing bunds around the tanks to contain the spill. The
volume of the spill is generally assumed to be equal to the greatest amount of liquid that can
be released from the largest tank, plus 10%. However, reference should be made to the
relevant NFPA, API and any particular Client requirements for containment parameters. In
all cases, local codes must also be reviewed for any requirements, which may be different
from, or more stringent than, the recommendations in the standard codes.

Bund heights and capacities of enclosed areas should be established as early as possible in
the design, to establish overall plot sizes throughout the whole offsite area.

Bunds can be made with reinforced concrete in the form of a wall, where space is at a
premium, however, there is a height limit that is practicable and this is generally between
1.2 metres to 1.7 metres.
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Alternatively, bunds can be made of earth having sloped sides to suit the particular soil,
these are often cheaper, but will take up more space. Some means of stabilising the slope
against rain erosion etc. must be provided. A minimum 1 metre wide walk way around the
top of the bund and access stairs shall be provided at two positions diametrically opposed.
These stairs can be constructed of either concrete or steel.

Wherever possible, bund heights should be restricted to 1.8 metres, to allow operators to
look over the bund without climbing stairs, this will also assist fire fighting access from
outside the bund. Grading local to the bund should be provided for vehicular traffic entering
the bunded areas and ramps should be provided on both sides.

When two or more tanks are located within a common bund, intermediate lower height
bunds should be added to prevent spills from endangering the adjacent tank.

Generally tanks & spheres containing the same inventory can be sited within the same
bunded area, as long as the maximum volume by code is not exceeded.

Each individual bunded area should be provided with a sump within its interior. This must be
designed for full firewater flow conditions and should be drained to the main site oily water
drainage system, via a block valve located in an underground valvebox located externally to
the bund,. It should be assumed that only one bunded area at a time is affected by this
firewater capacity requirement, to keep the drain piping to a reasonable size. In areas where
heavy rainfall can occur, this capacity requirement should be considered.

6.10.4 Provision for fire protection or fire suppression system.

The needs of fire fighting personnel and equipment should be given careful consideration
when laying out tankage and the maximum advantage taken of the site features, to provide
ready access from as many points as possible. Reference should be made to the relevant
NFPA, international & client codes. In all cases, local codes must also be reviewed for any
requirements, which may be different from, or more stringent than, the recommendations in
the standard codes.
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A clear roadway surface must be provided around every tank group, adjacent to the outside
toe of the bund, unless easy access is readily available for the fire fighting equipment from
an adjacent permanent roadway.

Offsite storage areas shall be covered by a firewater ring main system, generally run above
ground, outside the bunded areas. Sufficient hydrants shall be sited around the off-site areas
to enable the whole storage areas to be covered with 30 metre long fire hoses. Where
specialised fire-fighting apparatus is provided, such as firewater monitors & foam units,
they should be sited outside bunded areas and upstream from the prevailing wind.

Tankage may be provided with fixed firewater deluge, or fire suppression foam, nozzle
systems on the roof and / or down the sides of a tank. The safety group should determine the
selection and layout philosophy for this type of equipment and its specific requirements.

6.11 Road & Rail Loading / Unloading

Raw materials & products may be transported to and from the plant by either road or rail, and in
some cases by sea. Reference should be made to the relevant international & client codes and
regulations for the transport of goods, both hazardous & non-hazardous. In all cases, local codes
must also be reviewed for any requirements, which may be different from, or more stringent than,
the recommendations in the standard codes.

Road & rail loading / unloading areas are generally located close to their storage facilities, but
situated on the edge of the site, downwind of the process plant. The proposed routes of road & rail
tankers etc. to loading/unloading areas should be established as early as possible, to determine
overall road & rail networks and locations of weighbridges, ticket offices, marshalling areas, gate
houses etc.

As a preliminary guide, at least 15 metres should be maintained between loading bays & pump
stations, vehicle marshalling & checking areas. There should be at least 30 metres between loading
bays and the boundary fencing and a minimum of 60 metres to any process equipment.

Loading areas should be fenced & segregated from the process plant, with loading bays running
parallel to each other, with an island between. This allows simultaneous loading from each side of
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the island into different tankers. Traffic flow should be through the bays, to avoid the need for
vehicle reversing. The layout of access roads / rails to & from loading bays should be designed to
allow smooth traffic flow and avoid crossing traffic. There should be adequate space provided for
vehicle parking away from plant roads.

A suitable fire fighting system should be installed and two, separate and opposite, access routes
provided for fire tenders. The loading / unloading bay areas should allow for free & safe access for
personnel around all agreed differing sizes of tanker and the adjacent islands. Due to the possibility
of spillage, the whole area should be paved, sloped away and should have the facility for wash
down with a suitable drainage system. The islands should be kerbed, to provide protection for the
loading / unloading equipment.

Islands for road tanker bottom loading arrangements should be designed such that there is safe
access to the loading equipment & the vehicle connections.

Islands for road & rail tanker top loading arrangements will require an elevated structure, level with
the tanker top and a roof to prevent ingress of water during filling. Individual islands may only
require small platforms, but where there are multi-stations, common overhead platforms should be
furnished with stair access & secondary means of escape.

6.12 Firefighting Systems

Process plants should be provided with a suitable firewater ring main system, generally
underground. Reference should be made to the relevant NFPA, international & client codes. In all
cases, local codes must also be reviewed for any requirements, which may be different from, or
more stringent than, the recommendations in the standard codes.

Sufficient hydrants should be sited around the process units to enable the whole plant to be covered
with 15 metre fire hoses. High structures that cannot be reached from grade may require fire towers
with firewater monitors. If this is not practicable some form of fixed spray system (e.g. a spray
curtain) may be required. When a foam system is required, the siting of the foam making equipment
package should be considered.
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Fire fighting/alarm systems within control rooms, buildings etc. are generally designed by
civil/structural/architectural groups and are therefore outside the scope of this procedure.

Firewater tanks should be located in a non-hazardous area, local to the fire pump house.

6.13 Underground Services & Interfaces

Generally civil group should design and supply all non-pressurised underground piping systems,
such as surface water drainage, oily water drainage etc., but both piping & civil groups should
mutually agree the pipe routing & manhole locations etc. Drain hub locations should be determined
by piping group, to suit the equipment being served.

All pressurised underground piping systems should be designed and supplied by piping group, with
similar pipe routing agreements taking place, between the civil and piping groups. Also any
requirements for electrical and instrument underground trenching or cable routing should be
controlled by the piping and civil groups, in co-ordination with the other groups involved.
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ATTACHMENT 1
GENERAL GUIDE LINE DISTANCES FOR ONSHORE PLANT LAYOUT
Personnel access Min. 800mm wide x 2200mm high
Platforms & break landings Min. 1000mm square
Stairs Min. 800mm wide
Max. of 16 treads between break landings
Ladders Max. rise between platforms 9000mm
Min. ladder width 380mm
Road dimensions Main refinery roads min. 6000mm wide
Plant roads min. 4000mm wide
Min. inside radius 6000mm
Road overhead clearance Major roads min. 6000mm
Plant roads min. 4000mm
Railway overhead clearance Min. 8000mm
Process equipment Space between vessel face to face min. 2000mm
Vessel to boundary fence min. 15000mm
Manhole centreline from platform min. 1050mm max. 1500mm
Exchangers Max. height to centreline to top shell 3000mm when stacked 2
high
Road transportable 2920mm wide x 12300mm long x 4570mm high without police
equipment escort
Process pipe racks Min. 6000mm wide. Yard bent spacing 6000mm min. 3000mm
between rack levels
Headroom clearance Min. 4000mm
Fired heaters Min. distance to process equipment 15000mm
Min. distance to burner management 15000mm
Min. stack height 6000mm above highest platform within a
30000mm radius

Pumps Min. 1500mm from centreline of pipe rack to face of pump base
Pumps above auto ignition Min. 3000mm from centreline of pipe rack to face of pump base
Space between foundations Min. 1000mm
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Storage tanks See NFPA codes


Bund wall heights Min. 1200mm max. 1700mm (dependant on wall construction)
Min. 15000mm between loading bay pumps
Road loading bays Min. 30000mm between loading bays to boundary fences
Flare stacks Calculated radiation area and stack height
Vent stacks Min. 3000mm above platform within 75000mm radius
Shell & tube exchangers Min. 2000mm height to shell centreline

(Project specific codes and standards to take preference over these figures)

For specific detail design requirements regarding access to valves, instruments etc. see the procedure
for Piping Design 308-7080-ST-120
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ATTACHMENT 2.1

EQUIPM ENT SPA C ING C HA RT

Notes :
A : Can be reduc ed to a minimum of 60 m
by inc reas ing height of f lare.
OFFSITE PROCESS B: Boilers , pow er generators , air
FA CILITIES UNITS c ompres s ors .
C: Monitor loc ations s hould be s elec ted
to protect s pec if ic items of equipment.
D: Greater than 260 o C.
MA IN PLA NT SUB-STA TION

E: Les s than 260 o C.


FIRE TRUCKS & RA IL LOA DING

F: The diameter of the larges t tank.


A DMIN. BUILDING

G: Double the diameter of the larges t


FIRE PUMPS & STA TION

tank.
FLA RE -A -

H: Max imum 75 m, minimum w ill vary .


LOW PRESSURE STORA GE TA NKS

M: Minimum to s uit operator or


HIGH PRESSURE STORA GE TA NKS
UTILITY PLA NTS -B-

A TMOS. STORA GE TA NKS

maintenanc e acc es s .
1 NA : Not applic able
COOLING TOWERS

MA IN PLA NT THROUGH ROA DS

2 M
BOUNDA RIES & PUBLIC ROA DS
FIRE HY DRA NTS & MONITORS -C-

3 M NA
4 15 30 M
5 60 60 45 M
MA IN PLA NT CONTROL ROOMS

6 45 30 30 60 M
PROCESS UNIT BA TTERY LIMIT

7 45 60 30 60 45 15
8 75 75 60 75 75 75 F
PROCESS UNIT SUB-STA TION
HY DROCA RBON COMPRESSORS

PROCESS PUMPS A BOV E A UTO IGNITION -D-


MA IN PIPEWA Y S

9 75 75 60 75 75 45 75 G
PROCESS PUMPS BELOW A UTO IGNITION -E-

10 75 75 75 75 75 45 75 G G
120 GROUND FLA RE

11 M 15 8 15 15 15 45 45 45 NA
12 M 30 15 30 45 30 60 60 60 M NA
13 15 15 15 30 15 30 H H H 2 2 M
14 30 15 15 45 15 15 45 45 45 3 30 10 NA
HEA T EXCHA NGERS

15 M 30 M 60 30 30 60 60 60 M 30 15 10 NA
DESA LTERS

PROCESS UNIT CONTROL BUILDINGS

16 60 45 60 45 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 M 10 M 100
REA CTORS

17 M M 15 45 30 30 60 60 60 M 60 15 10 M NA NA
EQUIPMENT HA NDLING NON-FLA MMA BLE

18 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 75 15 60 15 10 30 NA 15 M
TOWERS & DRUMS

19 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 10 30 NA 15 M M
20 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 15 30 NA 15 10 8 M
A IR COOLERS
UNIT PIPERA CKS

21 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 8 30 NA 15 M M M M
UNIT ISOLA TION V A LV ES

22 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 10 30 NA 15 8 8 5 M M
23 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 5 30 NA 15 M M 5 M M M
FIRED HEA TERS

24 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 10 30 NA 15 M M 5 M M M M
25 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 15 60 15 M 30 NA 15 5 5 5 3 5 3 3 M
26 60 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 3 60 15 M 30 NA 5 5 5 5 M M M 3 M NA
27 M 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 M 60 15 10 30 NA M 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 5 NA
28 75 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 75 30 60 15 15 30 NA 15 15 15 8 15 15 15 15 15 8 15 M
29 NA 45 60 60 30 30 60 60 60 3 60 15 M M NA 8 15 10 15 15 15 15 15 10 M 8 15 M
30 45 M M 15 M M 60 60 60 3 15 15 M M NA M M M M M M M M M M M M M M
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

M e tric m e a su re m e nt

General Notes :
E quipm ent s pac ings listed above identify the rec om m ended s afety dis tanc es between equipm ent
as s oc iated with refinery, c hem ic al, and petroc hem ical plants .
Thes e s pac ings should be read in c onjunc tion with national and loc al regulations . E x c eptions to
these s hould be by c lient s pec ific ation only .
A ll dim ens ions s hown are to the fac e of equipm ent and are m inim um dis tanc es .
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ATTACHMENT 2.2

EQUIPM ENT SPA C ING C HA RT

Notes :
A : Can be reduc ed to a minimum of 200 f t.
by inc reas ing height of f lare.
OFFSITE PROCES B: Boilers , pow er generators , air
FA CILITIES S UNITS c ompres s ors .
C: Monitor loc ations s hould be s elec ted to
protec t s pec if ic items of equipment.
D: Greater than 500 o F.
MA IN PLA NT SUB-STA TION

E: Les s than 500 o F.


F: The diameter of the larges t tank.
FIRE TRUCKS & RA IL LOA DING

G: Double the diameter of the larges t


A DMIN. BUILDING

FIRE PUMPS & STA TION

tank.
FLA RE -A -

H: Max imum 250 f t, minimum w ill v ary .


LOW PRESSURE STORA GE TA NKS

M: Minimum to s uit operator or


HIGH PRESSURE STORA GE TA NKS
UTILITY PLA NTS -B-

A TMOS. STORA GE TA NKS

maintenanc e ac c es s .
1 NA : Not applic able
COOLING TOW ERS

MA IN PLA NT THROUGH ROA DS

2 M
BOUNDA RIES & PUBLIC ROA DS

FIRE HY DRA NTS & MONITORS -C-

3 M NA
4 50 100 M
5 200 200 150 M
MA IN PLA NT CONTROL ROOMS

6 150 100 100 200 M


PROCESS UNIT BA TTERY LIMIT

7 150 200 100 200 150 50


8 250 250 200 250 250 250 F
PROCESS UNIT SUB-STA TION

HY DROCA RBON COMPRESSORS

PROCESS PUMPS A BOV E A UTO IGNITION -D-


MA IN PIPEWA Y S

9 250 250 200 250 250 150 250 G


PROCESS PUMPS BELOW A UTO IGNITION -E-

10 250 250 250 250 250 150 250 G G


400 GROUND FLA RE

11 M 50 25 50 50 50 150 150 150 NA


12 M 100 50 100 150 100 200 200 200 M NA
13 50 50 50 100 50 100 H H H 5 5 M
14 100 50 50 150 50 50 150 150 150 10 100 30 NA
HEA T EXCHA NGERS

15 M 100 M 200 100 100 200 200 200 M 100 50 30 NA


DESA LTERS

16 200 150 200 150 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 M 30 M 100
PROCESS UNIT CONTROL BUILDINGS
REA CTORS

17 M M 50 150 100 100 200 200 200 M 200 50 30 M NA NA EQUIPMENT HA NDLING NON-FLA MMA BLE
18 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 250 50 200 50 30 100 NA 50 M
TOW ERS & DRUMS

19 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 30 100 NA 50 M M
20 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 50 100 NA 50 30 25 M
A IR COOLERS

UNIT PIPERA CKS

21 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 25 100 NA 50 M M M M
UNIT ISOLA TION V A LV ES

22 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 30 100 NA 50 25 25 15 M M
23 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 15 100 NA 50 M M 15 M M M
FIRED HEA TERS

24 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 30 100 NA 50 M M 15 M M M M
25 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 50 200 50 M 100 NA 50 15 15 15 10 15 10 10 M
26 200 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 10 200 50 M 100 NA 15 15 15 15 M M M 10 M NA
27 M 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 M 200 50 30 100 NA M 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 15 NA
28 250 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 250 100 200 50 50 100 NA 50 50 50 25 50 50 50 50 50 25 50 M
29 NA 150 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 10 200 50 M M NA 25 50 30 50 50 50 50 50 30 M 25 50 M
30 150 M M 50 M M 200 200 200 10 50 50 M M NA M M M M M M M M M M M M M M
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Im p e ria l m e a su re m e n t

G eneral Notes :
E quipm ent s pac ings lis ted above identify the rec om m ended s afety dis tanc es between equipm ent
as s oc iated with refinery , c hem ic al, and petroc hem ic al plants .
Thes e s pac ings s hould be read in c onjunc tion with national and loc al regulations . E x c eptions to
thes e s hould be by c lient s pec ific ation only .
A ll dim ens ions s hown are to the fac e of equipm ent and are m inim um dis tanc es .
PROCEDURE FOR EQUIPMENT LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 301-7080-ST-51-127
COVERING ONSHORE FACILITIES Page 40 of 41

ATTACHMENT 3

PR EMERGENCY
E ACCESS BOUNDARY FENCE
W VAI
IN LI
D N G

FUTURE STORAGE CRUDE STORAGE CRUDE STORAGE CRUDE STORAGE

INCOMING
PIPELINES

GRADE PIPE TRACK

FIREWATER AREA PRODUCED WATER AREA OFF-SPEC. AREA

PARKING

GATE-
HOUSE MAIN CONTROL
ROOM

MAIN
ACCESS
UTILITIES AREA DEHYD./ REGEN. AREA SUB-STATION POWER GENERATION EMERGENCY
ACCESS

DRAINS AREA
HIGH LEVEL PIPERACK

FUTURE PROCESS TRAIN PROCESS TRAIN 2 PROCESS TRAIN 1 COMPRESSION AREA

TO FLARE
ATTACHMENT 3
(For Separation Distances see Attachment 2) TYPICAL BLOCK SITE PLAN
PROCEDURE FOR EQUIPMENT LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS 301-7080-ST-51-127
COVERING ONSHORE FACILITIES Page 41 of 41

DISTRIBUTION MANIFOLD
LINES TO & ESV’S PIPE RACK
WELLS

Road

DROPPING
ACCESS STAIRS
ZONE PIPE
BRIDGE

TEMPORARY PIGGING
LO & SO
CONSOLES

FACILITY
INTER & AFTER AIR COOLERS
INTERSTAGE K.O. DRUMS
GAS COMPRESSOR

AIR
INTAKE

EXHAUST
STACK

OVERHEAD
CRANE

COMPRESSOR FUEL GAS LET-


BUILDING DOWN STATION ACCESS STAIRS
PIPE RACK

GRADE TRACK

PREVAILING
WIND
INLET MANIFOLD

PERIMETER FENCE

INCOMING PIPELINES

ATTACHMENT 4

TYPICAL GAS COMPRESSION PLANT

(FOR SEPARATION DISTANCES SEE ATTACHMENT 2)