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Table of Contents

Acknowledgement ------------------------------------------------------------------------03

Incoming material & Alloy Blending---------------------------------------------03

Grid Casting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------06

Oxide Mill--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------08

Pasting--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------08

Curing--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 09

Formation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

Charging & Discharging----------------------------------------------------------------11

Batteries Properties----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12

Drying & Cutting--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

Assembly Section--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

Molding-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

Small Parts-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16

Separators---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16

VRLA & TUBLUR------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26

Quality Department-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17

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Chapter#1
Acknowledgement:
First and foremost I would like to express my thanks to Almighty ALLAH because of
His love and strength I was able to complete my internship report. I am highly indebted
to Mr. Shahid Nazir (Quality Manager) for providing me his valuable guidance. A
special gratitude I give to my mentor Mr. Anwar (Deputy Manager) for his constant
supervision as well as for providing me information regarding the internship plan. His
support and encouragement helped me a lot.
Furthermore I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of
staff for giving me an opportunity to learn in a nice and professional environment.

Mission and Vision:

Every company has its own mission and vision. PAL is trying to grow the battery market
by influencing and actively developing selected target markets. The goal of the PAL is to
maintain leading position in battery industry and it will be done by enhancing their value
through guaranteed performance, high efficiency, and unique operational flexibility. The
mission of the company is to make different factories for industrial batteries, motorcycle
batteries, automotive batteries, and appliance batteries and also to make their industrial
network stronger to get the leading position of all over the world.

CHAPTER # 02

1: Incoming Material:
There are two types of Lead used in PAL
1.1: Marketing Lead
1.2: 99.97% pure imported Lead
2: Alloy Blending Section(I) 3% Alloy:

There are 11 furnaces used in this section. Each which 9 furnace has capacity15 ton and 2
furnaces has 5 and 10 ton. We prepared the Lead in different types that is commonly used in
PAL.
(I) 3% (II) 4% (III) 6% (IV) Calcium Alloy
Marketing Lead should be tested from the laboratory. Lead should be in the furnace after
approving from the laboratory. After complete melting pull out the dross and check the
sample for Antimony and Tin. Master Alloy should be added as per requirement.
Temperature should be maintained in the range of 450˚C to 500˚C. After checking the
sample Antimony added as per lab instruction. Proper mixing should be done. Reduce the

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temperature to near about 350˚C and add the Tin as per requirement. Final sample should
be checked from the Lab and start unloading.
Uses:
It is used in grid casting to make the DCP
(II)
4% Alloy:
Marketing Lead should be tested from the laboratory. Lead should be in the furnace after
approving from the laboratory. After complete melting pull out the dross and check the
sample from the Lab. Add Antimony (Sn) as per Lab instruction. Temperature should be
reduced 350 before adding Tin (Sb). Took the final sample for test and start unloading.
Uses:
It is used to make the small parts.
Calcium Alloy:
Making the calcium alloy melted the 99.97% pure lead and increase Temperature to 600
and add the calcium .10 to.11% in it. After mixing reduced the temperature to 350 and
add Tin in it. After complete mixing start unloading.
Uses:
It is used for maintenance free battery.
(III)
Lead Refining:
Marketed Lead should be tested from the lab. After approving from the Laboratory Lead
should be loaded in the furnace. Turn on the furnace and maintained temperature 450 to
500. After achieving the temperature proper mixing should be done and pull out the
dross. Take the sample for test. After tested coat the furnace with caustic soda and
sodium nitrate. Coat must be done as per lab instruction and pull out the dross every coat.
Add caustic 25kg and mix 30 mints and add sodium nitrate 12.5kg and mixed it. Final
sample checked from lab. After approving final coat of sulpher should be done and start
unloading.
Uses:
It is used in oxide mill to make the lead oxide.
(IV)
Master Alloy:
Marketing Lead should be tested from the laboratory. Lead should be in the furnace after
approving from the laboratory. After complete melting pull out the dross and check
maintained in the range of 450˚C to 500˚C. Add the sample for antimony. Temperature
should be Antimony and Arsenic as per lab instruction. After complete mixing reduced
the temperature 350 and start unloading.
Uses:
it is used in 3% alloy to avoid the corrosion.

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Chapter#3
Grid casting:
There are about 38 grid casting machines present in unit I and 24 in unit II
Different types and sizes of grids are prepared in the grid casting machine. The
production of grids casting is 180,000 in 8 hours. Grid machine has different parts where
lead alloy is melted first then it is poured in the mold part where grids are formed. Then it
is sent to the cutter to cut the scrap part. Then the final grids come out from the machine
by conveyer belt.
3.1-Parts of Machine:
3.1.1-Furnace:
Furnace is used to melt the lead where certain temperature is needed to melt the lead.
Here, (455-480)˚C temperature is needed which is generated by gas burner or electric
heater. A lead pump is used to transfer the liquid lead to the ladle through feed line and
dispense valve.
3.1.2-Feed Line:
It is a cylindrical shaped supply line which is used to transfer the melted lead to the
dispense valve.
3.1.3-Ladle:
Ladle pours certain amount of melted lead to the mold. In ladle, there are a electric heater
to maintain certain temperature which is monitored on a display board.
3.1.4- Mold:
The main function of the mold is to form a solid grid from melted lead. This mold part
has two parts, one is fixed part and the second is movable part. Both parts have
individually two heaters to maintain the temperature of mold. The movement of the mold
is controlled by the limit switch. The mold is sprayed with a chemical which is prepared
from Bentonite + Silica gel + Hot water. It increases the sharpness of grids by reducing
the flash and also the casting is easily removed from the mold
3.1.5- Conveyer Belt:
The formed grids are sent to the conveyer belt.
3.1.6- Cutter:
Then the grid is transferred to the cutter to cut the scrap part. Then the scrap part is sent
to the Furnace by conveyer belt and prepared grid is come out by another conveyer belt.
3.2-Problems in Grid Casting Machine:
Flashes, missing, Lug Hole, Breakages.
Solution:
Proper mold dressing and marking, control temperature variation, Antimony not up to.

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Operating Temperature Parameters

Machine Part Temperature (C)

Furnace 450-480

Feed Line 450-480

Ladle 450-480

Mold 170-180

Cooling water 60 max

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Chapter#4
Preparation of Lead Oxide:
Total 5 oxide mills are working in PAL which is 3 in unit I and 2 in Unit II. The
production of Lead oxide is 55 ton in 24 hours. The purpose of oxide mill is to convert
lead into lead oxide which will be later used in making the paste for the plates. Pure Lead
(99.97%) is used to manufacture the lead oxide. Lead is melted in Furnace chamber.
After melting then convert into the small bullets by the bullet casting machine. Small
shape bullets are stored in the silo through elevator bucket. These bullets are gone into
the ball mill through conveyer belt. In the ball mill during rotation of drum the bullets are
collided each other and make the powder. Air is being drawn in at the same time by the
mill drum which on striking the lead powder converts it into lead oxide powder which is
then sucked into the bag house. The bag house separates air and large lead oxide from the
fine lead oxide powder and stores it in the Cyclone to be used in paste making.
FLC which stands for free lead content is a test which is done on the oxide mill sample to
check how much free lead is present in the lead oxide powder, free lead is the lead which
is not converted into lead oxide. FLC of oxide mill should be 28±3%. This free lead is
left to be converted to lead sulfate during paste preparation process.

Chapter#5
Pasting:
Pasting is a most important part of plate preparation. Active material for grid which is
mainly creating reaction in a cell that is prepared in this section. Different types of active
materials are prepared for different types of positive and negative plates. Positive paste is
made for positive plate and negative paste is made for negative plate. These active
materials are pasting both side of the grid to prepare plate paste.
Paste Mixture for IPS:
Different chemical compounds are mixed together to prepare active materials for the
battery cell. Active materials are different for different plates. Different quantities of
compounds are mixed together to follow the different steps to prepare positive paste and
negative paste.
Positive Paste
Prima Flock Quantities of chemical compounds of positive paste are as follows.
Lead oxide (PbO) = 840 kg.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): 87Kg (Gravity of acid: 1.400, 45˚C).
Water = 105Kg
Prima Flock = 670 gm.
C.M.C = 840gm
Negative Paste
Quantities of chemical compound for negative paste are as follows.
Lead oxide (PbO) = 840 kg.
Prima flock = 670gm.
Water = 86 Kg.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): 61 Kg (Gravity of acid: 1.400, 45˚C).
Magna Oil = 3.2 Kg.

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K-Expander = 8.8 Kg.
Barium Sulfate = 600 gm
Sludge = 20Kg
Pasting Process:
At first pastes are manually poured in the hopper from mixture drum. On the other side,
bunches of grids are put in the belt roller which sends the grids into the cam roller or auto
lifter. When the pasting machine is turned on, then the pastes are pasting on the grid by a
roller and the pasting is finished in the finishing roller. Then the pasted plates are passed
into the oven by conveyer chain. Then it is sent into the receiving chain by passing roller
and the pasted plates are put in the skid.
Pasting machine:
The paste then comes to the hopper of the pasting machine. Important parts of the pasting
machine and their function are as follow.

Feed Zone:
Grids are fed into the machine by the help of their lugs. The speed of pasting can be
adjusted.
Pasting Zone:
The paste from the mixer comes into the hopper of the pasting machine which is pressed
into the plate by the help of a roller. Then the plates pass through 2 more pressing rollers
and for negative plate another roller with acid showering is used which fills any empty
spaces left in the paste.
Flash Drying Oven:
The pasted plates are gone into the oven to decrease the moisture content below 9%-10

Chapter#6
Curing:
There are 12 total curing chambers in unit one. In which six in PAL I five in PAL IV and
one in Tubular department.
The main purposes of curing are following:
Reduce free lead by forming lead sulfate and lead oxide.
Reduce moisture below 1%.
Harden the paste.
In curing chamber first process is solidify, second and third are drying. In solidify we are
increasing the humidity and temperature as per requirement. Solidify process takes 16
hours to complete it cycle. In drying process we are decreasing the humidity and increase
the temperature 70-80c. Drying process takes the 8 hours to complete it cycle.
Corrosive attacks on grids to make a strong bond between paste and grids.
There are total 13 curing chambers in the unit I and 3 in unit II. The pasted plates are
loaded onto the skids and the skids are placed in the curing chamber. A total of 16 skids
can be placed in a single curing chamber at a time. Positive plates are cures for 32 hours
and negative plates are cured for 28 hours while the plates of tubular battery are cured for
86-96 hours.
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When the skids are placed in the chamber, it is closed. For first cycle of 14-16 hours, the
temperature and humidity are kept high. They are reduced in the second and third cycle.
Purpose of high humidity (water spray) is to stick the paste to the grid because by only
providing heat the paste will shed. FLC of cured plates is below 3% for negative and
below 1% for positive. Lead sulfate should be around 14% for positive plates and 12%
for negative plates after curing. After curing the paste consist of PbO, Pb , Pb, Pb (small
amount) and moisture (≤1%).

Chapter#7
Formation:
After curing and conditioning, formation process is done for charging both the positive
and negative plates. Here, plates are dipped into the sulfuric acid mixer and the plates are
charged using rectifier. This process continues up to 18-22 hours. De-Mineralized (DM)
water is also managed in this section.
Objective of the formation is to convert the paste material into active material so that it
can be store a charge. That is why these batteries are also called storage batteries. The
positive and negative plates are inserted in a plastic Vat with dilute sulfuric acid (sp.
Gravity = 1.030-1.050) in it. The Vat has V-bars in which the positive and negative plates
are placed alternatively. First a reverse current is applied to produce a tag of plates with
the V-bars. Rectifier distributes the current across every container according to
requirement. The Vats are also connected with each other in series. During the charging
solution temperature is also increased and produced the fuming. We use SLI to reduce the
fuming.
Plate Charging
Plates are charged in a vat and all plates are aligned in this vat furnace. Following steps
are done for plate charging.
. Positive plates and negative plates are put together in this circuit.
. Plates are dipped into the sulfuric acid (gravity 1.030 - 1.050) mixed water.
. Plates are charged using rectifier. The lugs of positive plates are put in series connection
with the positive cable of rectifier and the negative plates are put in series connection
with negative cable of this rectifier.
Positive Reaction: PbSO4 + H2O PbO2 + H2SO4 +H+ +2e
Negative Reaction: PbSO4 + 2H+ + 2e Pb + H2SO4
Plates washing:
The basic purpose of washing is to decrease the PH value of Acid. The Standard PH
range of Acid is 5. After forming the plates, they are washed with excess fresh water to
remove acid from the surface. Positive plates can be washed in many ways but negative
plates need special care because they oxidize readily when combined with atmospheric
oxygen making lead oxide and releasing heat. That’s why they are put into water tub/tray
as soon as they are taken out from the forming Circuit.
Current requirement:
We have a formula,

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Load = weight of plate * no.of plates * 16.5
1000

Chapter#8
Charging and Discharging Properties of a Battery:
The function of lead acid battery is fully based on simple chemical reaction. When two
dissimilar metals are immersed in an acid solution, the electric energy converts into
chemical energy and produced a voltage. Lead acid batteries are charged and discharged
based on this simple reaction.
Fully charged:
During fully charged position of the battery, positive plates are covered with lead dioxide
(PbO2) and negatives plates are covered with spongy lead (Pb). Electrolyte contains
water (H2O) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Discharging:
During discharged position of the battery, current flows in the cell from the negative to
the positive plates. Electrolyte separates into hydrogen (H2) and sulfate (SO4) and the
free sulfate combines with the lead (both lead dioxide and spongy lead) and becomes lead
sulfate (PbSO4). At last the free hydrogen and oxygen combine to form more water for
diluting the electrolyte.
Fully Discharged:
During fully discharged position of the battery, both plates are fully sulfated and
electrolyte is almost diluted to the water.
Charging:
During charged position of the battery, the chemical reaction is reversed that took place
during discharging. Sulfate (SO4) leaves the positive and negative plates and combines
with hydrogen (H2) to become sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Hydrogen bubbles form at the
negative plates and oxygen (O2) appears at the positive plates. Free oxygen (O2)
combines with lead (Pb) at the positive plate to become lead dioxide (PbO2).

Battery Properties:
Basically battery is of two types, primary and secondary. Primary battery has dry cell
which is not rechargeable and secondary battery is rechargeable.
Basic parts of Lead acid Batteries
Lead acid battery is the most popular battery all over the world because of its
recyclability, flexibility and casting efficiency. Here, some basic parts of lead acid
batteries are described.
Antimony:
Antimony is a poisonous chemical compound but it is very essential element to make
lead acid batteries. Without antimony, lead cannot be formed as solid. Grid is an
important part of lead acid batteries. 3.2% antimony lead are used to prepare grid and
also used in small parts section where bush pin, inter, middle and angle post are
manufactured.

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Cell:
A typical lead acid battery is organized into cells. Generally a lead acid battery has six
cells and each cell normally produces 2.1 V. Each cell contains multiple positive and
negative plates with electrolyte.
Plates:
Two types of plates are used in battery cells. Positive plates are made of antimony
covered with active layer of lead di oxide (PbO2). Negative plates are made of lead
covered with active layer of sponge lead (Pb).
Separators:
In a cell, plates are separated by thin insulators. Insulators allow the electrolyte to pass
freely between the plates and it separates the negative and positive plate from touching
each other to remove short circuit.
Electrolyte:
The electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O). The electrolyte
creates chemical bond with active materials of the grid to generate electrical pressure
which produce the voltage.
Battery Case:
The battery case holds and protects all of the internal components and also contains the
electrolyte. A container should be sealed and should have the capacity to remove
electrolyte leakage.
Vent Cap:
Vent cap releases hydrogen gas when the battery charges. Some vent caps are attached
with battery and some are not attached with battery.
Battery Function:
The basic functions of a battery are starting, running and turning off engine. Battery
provides energy to operate lights and accessories and to start the engine. It also services
as voltage stabilizer to protect voltage sensitive circuits and particularly digital circuits. It
is the main source of electrical energy in vehicles. Battery powers some major electrical
systems which are:
 Starting,
 Ignition,
 Charging,
 Lighting and
 Accessories.

Chapter#9
Drying and Cutting:
Two types of ovens are used for drying the positive and negative plates.
Inert gas oven (IGO):
This oven is used for negative plates since they are sensitive to atmospheric oxygen.
There are total 10 IGOs in unit I and 3 in unit II. Plates are put in trays which are then
inserted in the IGO. One tray contains 900 negative plates. Two trays can be dried at a

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time in the IGO. 90 minutes are taken to dry two trays in the IGO. Methane is burned
which produces hot air, oxygen is reduced in this air to make it inert and is then used for
drying. However the IGO’s present in unit II has a capacity of 5 trays and also has less
process temperature. They use a demister tray along with water bath as well.
Four types of temperatures or temperature zones are present:
PROCESS TEMPERATURE:
This is the one which the hot gas has before going towards plates. It is set by the user.
AUTODRY TEMPERATURE:
This is the temperature of gas when the gas has been passed through the plates and taken
the moisture out. It is slightly lower than the process temperature.
AUTOCOOL TEMPERATURE:
This is the temperature of water bath present at bottom. Hot gas when takes moisture out
of the plates discharges this moisture in the water bath. After the plates come out of the
IGO, their PbO content should be less than 5% and moisture should be less than 0.50%.
PbO content is checked by dissolving 5g paste taken out of the grid and dissolving it in
lead dissolving compound and is then boiled. After cooling it is titrated against
ammonium molybdate.
PbO percentage = (ammonium molybdate used).(0.8)
Tunnel drying oven (TDO)
As the name indicates this type of oven consist of a tunnel into which the plates move by
the help of a conveyer belt. Temperature range depends upon the thickness of plate but
usually it is between 140-150 C. four TDOs are present in PAL. The first zone dries the
plates from outside after which the air exhaust takes the steam out of TDO. The next zone
dries the plates from inside and the next air exhaust takes the further steam out. 1200
plates can be placed at a time in TDO conveyer belt to be dried. It takes 15-18 minutes
for a plate to enter and leave the TDO.
When the plates come out of the TDO, the Pb content should be between 85-90% while
the moisture content is below 0.5%.
Cutting:
There are total 6 cutting machines in unit I and 3 in unit II. Cutting machine has two jobs,
first to cut the plate panel’s feet and secondly to clean the lugs of the panel. MCB grids
panel are cut into 8 parts while other plates are usually cut into two. 50000 plates can be
cut in 8 hours by the automatic sensor cutting machine.

Chapter#10
Process of Assembly Section:
There are thirteen steps of assembling a battery. After completing this process, batteries
are completely assembled. The steps of assembling battery are described here.
Separating:
Creating a group with PVC separator envelope, positive and negative pasted plate, that
process is called separating. This group is created according to coupling. In some
batteries, positive plates remain in separator envelope.

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STACKING:
This is when plates are stacked together and separators are placed between opposite
plates. The lugs of positive and negative plates are opposite to each other.
GROUP BURNING:
After separating, the Lugs of positive plates are joined and the negative plates are also
joined by melting lead stick with the help of oxyacetylene gas torch. At the same time the
main posts, inter middle posts and angle posts (left and right) are also joined is the
process of connecting the lugs of plates together to make a series connection. Battery
man puts the cells in the compartments of the battery container.
Quality control personnel check the layout of cells in the compartments.
Indicating Positive Plate:
After group burning only the positive plates are indicated by color. So, everyone can
identify the positive and negative plates.
Cell Insert:
After indicating the positive plates, the joints of positive plates and the joints of negative
plates are checked properly. Then the cells are inserted into the plastic container
Short and Polarity Test:
In the plastic container, a group of positive plates remain beside a group of negative
plates. Here, the arrangements of cells are checked properly and manually polarity is
checked. Then two probes of short testing machine are used for short testing. One probe
is held in positive side and another probe is held in negative side. If any how the positive
and negative plates are shorted then the alarm will ring otherwise alarm will not ring.
Inter Cell Welding:
In inter cell welding, here is done resistance spot welding by inter cell welding machine.
There are holes punches in the partitions of plastic containers. At the time of inter cell
welding two inter posts are set in the two sides of hole. The high current is passed
through the inter cell welding tips. When the electrons flow through the tips, they get air
resistance and then temperature is generated there. The inter cell welding tips hold the
inter posts with pressure, so the lead is melted and an inter post is joined with other. Then
after a few time it will be solid.
Shear Testing:
In shear testing, the joint of inter cell welding are tested. Here, strong force is applied to
the joint of inter cell welding. If the joint is weak, then the joint will be separated.

Automatic Heat Sealing:


In the automatic heat sealing machine, the lower part of plastic cover and the upper part
of plastic container are melted to attach with one another.
Pole Burning with Terminal Bush:
There are two main posts or poles in the battery. For pole burning, a burning guard is
kept on the ring post and ring post is kept on the terminal bush and then the pole is burnt
by melting lead stick with the help of oxyacetylene gas torch. The positive and negative
electrical connections are connected to these two poles of the battery.
Leak Testing Machine:

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By leak testing machine, a positive air is fitted to the six cells of the battery and then
pressure builds up for five to six seconds. If the pressure leaks or drops more than a
certain level in a certain time, then the alarm will ring. If the battery is leaked, then air
tight tested device is used.
This leak testing process is also applied to the two adjacent cells, so that internal leakage
of a battery can also be identified. If the battery has no leakage, then pass sticker is
tagged on the battery container.

CODE PRINTING:
Cleaning terminals put the vent plugs and packing.

Chapter#11
Molding:
Molding is used to make the containers of the battery. A total of 45 machines are present in
PAL. These containers are made in many different size and shapes. Material for the part is
fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mould cavity, where it cools and hardens to
the configuration of the cavity/mold. At PAL different types of batteries are manufactured,
so different containers and covers are needed. In motorcycle batteries, small size
containers and small raised covers, in IPS batteries, medium size containers and medium
raised or dome covers, in mini bus or truck batteries, large size containers and large
covers are used. Here, the containers and covers of old batteries are collected and reused
these to make new container and cover.
Two types of polymers are used:
POLYPROPYLENE (PP) a thermoplastic polymer which has intermediate crystalline
and a melting point of 130 C. a thermoplastic is a material that becomes moldable and
pliable above a particular temperature. PP is tough and flexible. In PAL it used to make
the containers of most of the batteries including dry charge, motorcycle and tubular
batteries.
ACRYLLONITRILE BUTADYENE STYRENE (ABS) is another thermoplastic with
a melting point of 105 C. due to its high impact resistance and toughness it is used in
making the containers of maintenance free solar cell batteries. It is also hard as compared
to PP.
Types of Containers:
There are various types of plastic containers manufactured in plastic section. These are:
NS190, N40, N70, N120, N90A NS190, N340
NS70L, NS50L, N120, N70Z, NS48L, T120S, P180S, P190S, P140S, NS100R, NS100L,
CNG50L, IPS GOLD 850, 1250
Labeling and Printing:
According to the battery type and customer demand, container labeling and printing are
also managed in the plastic section. Normally, the labeling and printing of the container
are done according to the battery type or battery name or company name. But some time
customer order different labeling and printing. This type of order is also managed in this
section the labeling and printing of the batteries.

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Chapter#12
Small Parts of Battery:
The small parts are casted in small parts casting section which is controlled by assembly
section.
In small parts casting section 3% and 4 % lead is used. There are four types of small parts
like as ring post, main post, inter middle post, inter post, angle post and lead stick. The
names of different types of posts are given.
T Post:
The different T posts are as follows.
N100, N120, N150, N200, N40, N70
BUSHES:
NS40, N40, N70, N100, N50
RODS:
ICC:
N40
N70
N120
N150

Chapter#13
Separators:
The purpose of separator is to provide insulation between positive and negative plates.
They also absorb the electrolyte and participate in the cell reaction. Four types of
separators are used.
PVC separator is used for exported battery.
 1 - PVC glass wool separator
 2 - White paper glass wool
 3 - Pulp paper glass wool
 4 - AGM separator is used for VRLA.
Paper thickness 0.5mm imported from Japan.
Glass thickness 0.4mm to 1.00mm imported from Thailand.
The thickness of Paper glass is 0.9 mm to1.5 mm.
The thickness of PVC glass wool is 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm.

Chapter#14
VRLA and Tubular:

VRLA:
Valve regulated lead acid batteries (VRLA) is a comparatively new technology of
maintenance free batteries. As the name suggests they use a valve with rubber plugs
inside instead of a vent plug which opens up when the pressure exceeds a certain limit.

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Instead of paper glass wool separator they use an absorbent glass mat (AGM). The lid is
attached to the container body using epoxy which makes a permanent bond. The epoxy is
then oven dried. Based on the electrolyte used there are two types of VRLA’s.
GEL VRLA’S uses gel as electrolyte. The gel contains 10kg and 1kg silica gel. These
are charged in 11 steps with two discharges in 4th and 11th step. A total of 134 hours is
taken to charge gel VRLA’s. Gel electrolyte has long life then liquid because it holds the
acid within the electrolyte and don’t let it evaporate.
ELECTROLYTE VRLA’S uses the normal acid like the one used in dry charge. The
only difference is that the plates are charged within the VRLA and the AGM absorbs the
acid for use.
Tubular:
The main advantage of the tubular battery over normal dry charge battery is long backup
cycles or discharge cycles. The reason for this is the use of special type of positive plate
and the active material. This positive plate is closed in the gauntlet. The gauntlet is the
filled with the mixture whose composition is as follow:
Grey Lead 100 kg and Red Lead 15kg.
Red lead increases the absorption properties so it helps in providing greater current
density. After the positive plate gauntlet is filled with this mixture, soaking is done for
1.5 hours to harden the mixture. Then it is dried and cured. When cells of tubular
batteries are placed in the container they are charged inside the container by circulating of
specific gravity 1.060-1.2060 for 22 hours.

Chapter#15
QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT:
Quality Assurance (QA) department is an independent department of PAL. This
department is not included under supply chain. QA department of PAL reports to General
Manager (GM) of Research and Development department in head office and also to the
Chief Executive Officer about the quality of product.
Functions of QA Department:
Checking and controlling quality in every stage as –
 Incoming material,
 In process and
 Finished product.
 Holding the product by raising NCPR, which products are failed to meet the
standard,
 Passing the incoming material,

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 Collecting the standard sample,
 Conducting different test of material or, product,
 Providing Batch Number of material or, product and
 Accepting and passing daily activity note.
Testing of Incoming Material and In Process Material:
When incoming materials of battery come to the store of RBL after purchasing, then QA
department brings a sample of that material and tests it according to the manual. If the
result of test is perfect, then those materials can come to the production floor. QA
department also tests the in-process materials of all sections with a sample base test.
Alloy Blending Section:
QA department tests the melted lead of the smelting section and identifies the quantity of
pure lead and antimony lead. RBL follows OES test process to identify the quantity of
lead.
Grid Test:
QA department takes 5 pieces of grids as sample after every four hours (two times per
shift) and tests some properties of grid. This department checks the weight of grid,
identifies the crack of grid, checks the feather and identifies the missing part of grid etc.
If the qualities of samples are good all the grids of these four hours will be passed
otherwise, all the grids will be recycled.
Lead Oxide Test:
QA department takes sample of lead oxide powder after every two hours. Then the
apparent density, mesh size and quantity of Free Lead Content (FLC should be around
28%) are tested according to the procedure manual. For lead oxide, titration test is used.
Pasted Plate Test After Pasting:
After every hour, 5 pieces of pasted plates are checked. If the qualities of pastes are good
and pastes are attached properly with the grid, then the pasted plates will pass.
In curing chamber, the temperature of automotive plate is 60˚C and humidity of
automotive plate is 80%. After completing 36 hours curing time, FLC and moisture of
pasted plates are tested in a sample base. FLC can be maximum 3% and moisture should
be less than 1%.
Formation Section:
In formation section, the voltages of positive plate and negative plate are measured in the
vat under electrolyte by cadmium test.
Charged Plate Test After Washing and Drying:
After washing the positive plate, percentage of lead die oxide in positive plate is tested.
The range of lead die oxide in positive plate is around 87% - 95%. After drying the
negative plates in Inert Gas Oven (IGO), percentage of lead oxide is tested. The range of
lead oxide should be below 3%.
Assembly Section:
QA department tests the small parts and also performs different tests in assembly section.
Short and Polarity test:
In assembly section, QA department performs short and polarity test of a battery per
hour. The arrangement of polarities of battery is manually checked and any short
connection between positive and negative plate is also tested here.
Shear Test and Leak Test:
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In assembly section, QA department also performs shear test and leak test of a battery per
hour.
The joint of inter cell welding are tested by shear test. The internal leakage of each
battery cell and the leakage of battery container can be identified by doing leak test.
Finished Battery Testing:
QA department also tests finished battery in a sample base. For some faulty results of
finished battery, finished products of this batch will not hold or reject but QA department
will inform it to Engineering and Technical department. Here, different tests of finished
battery are described.

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