• Reflec1s the very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP 203 2007)
and includes all major changes and additions.
• Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic.
• Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions.
• Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing SI units.
• All examples are worked out stepbystep ranging from
simple to advanced.
• Full reinforcement details for every example.
• Numerous design charts.
First Edition
2008
ii
4. CONTROL OF CRACKING
2. DEEP BEAMS AND CORBELS 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 290
4.2 Reasons for Controlling Crack Widths ..................................................... 291
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 205
4.3 Types of Cracks ........................................................................................ 291
2.2 Deep beams ............................................................................................ 206
4.4 Development of Cracks due to Loads ....................................................... 293
2.2.1 General ..................................................................................... 2{)6
4.5 Crack Control in the Egyptian Code ......................................................... 294
2.2.2.1 The Empirical Design Method .................................... 210
4.5.1 Categories of structures .........................., ................................ 294
2.2.2.2 Design Using the Strut and Tie Method ...................... 217
4.5.2 Satisfaction of Cracking Limit State........................................ 295
2.2.3 Detailing of Other Types of Deep Beams ................................ 218
4.5.3 Code Related Provisions ......................................................... 299
2.2.3.1 Bottom Loaded Deep Beam ........................................ 218
4.6 Liquid Containing Structures .................... ,............................................... 301
2.2.3.2 Continuous Deep Beams ............................................. 219
4.7 Design Aids for Calculating Wk •••......•.•••••••.••••••••••••••.•..•.•.•••••..•••••••••..••..• 302
2.2.3.3 Deep Beam Supporting Another Deep Beam.............. 222
Example 4.1 .................................: .................................................... 306
2.3 Shear Friction Concept ............ '" ............................................................. 223
Example 4.2 ...................... , .......... ;.................................................... 309
2.4 Short Cantilevers (Brackets or Corbels) ................................................... 228
Example 4.3 ...................................................................................... 315
Example 2.1 ...................................................................................... 232
Example 4.4 ...................................................................................... 317
Example 2.2 ...................................................................................... 238
5. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS
3. CONTROL OF DEFLECTIONS
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 242 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 324
3.2 LoadDeflection Behavior of RC Beams .................................................. 243 5.2 Types of Foundations ........ ,........................................................................ 325
3.3 Moment of Inertia of RC sections ............................................................. 244 5.3 Soil Pressure under concentrically Loaded Footings ................................ 328
3.3.1 Gross moment of inertia .......................................................... 244 5.4 Soil Pressure under Eccentrically Loaded Footings ................................. 330
3.3.2 Cracked Transformed Moment of Inertia ................................ 246 Example 5.1 ...................................................................................... 333
3.3.3 Effective moment of inertia Ie ................................................. 250 5.5 Gross and Net Soil Pressures .................................................................... 336
3.4 Code Provisions for Control of Deflections .............................................. 252 Example 5.2 ...................................................................................... 338
3.4.1 Limiting Deflection by SpanDepth Ratio (Approach One) .... 252 5.6 Design of Isolated Footings ...................................................................... 339
3.4.1.1 Beams and OneWay slabs .......................................... 252 5.6.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 339
3.4.1.2 Twoway slabs ............................................................. 253 5.6.2 Design Steps ............................................................................ 340
3.4.2 Calculation of Deflection (Approach Two) ............................. 254 Example 5.3 ...................................................................................... 347
3.4.2.1 Calculation of Immediate Deflection .......................... 254 5.7 Combined Footings ................................................................................... 353
3.4.2.2 Long Term Deflection ................................................. 2,55 Example 5.4: Combined footing with PC ......................................... 356
3.4.2.3 Permissible Deflections ............................................... 257 Example 5.5: RC combined footing resting directly on soil... .......... 368
3.4.2.4 Deflection of Continuous Beams ................................ 261 5.8 Strap Footings ...... ;, ................................................................................... 377
Example 3.1 ...................................................................................... 263 Example 5.6 ..................................................................... :................ 378
Example 3.2 ...................................................................................... 266 5.9 Raft Foundations ....................................................................................... 389
Example 3.3 ...................................................................................... 270 5.9.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 389
Example· 3.4 ..............................:....................................................... 275 5.9.2 Conventional Rigid Method..................................................... 390
Example 3.5 ...................................................................................... 278 5.9.3 Analysis of the Raft Using Computer Programs ..................... 397
Example 3.6 ...................................................................................... 284 5.9.3.1 Modeling of the Raft ................................................... 397
5.9.3.2 Modeling of the soil .................................................... 397
5.9.3.3 Analysis of the Computer Output... ............................. 401
Example 5.8: Raft using the Conventional method ......................... .403
iii
iv
7.4.3 Prestressing Reinforcement ..................................................... 528
Example 5.9: Raft design using computer analysis .......................... 420
7.5 Losses in Prestressed Members ................................................................. 530
5.10 Design of Pile Caps .................................................................................. 437
7.5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 530
5.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 437
7.5.2 Anchorage Slip Losses (A) ...................................................... 532
5.10.2 Pile Cap shapes ...................................................................... 439
7.5.3 Elastic Shortening Losses(e) .................................................... 533
5.10.3 Design of Pile Caps ................................................................ 440
7.5.4 Wobble Friction Losses (W) .................................................... 534
5.10.3.1 Design Using the conventional Method .................... 440
7.5.5 Curvature Friction Losses (F) .................................................. 535'
5.10.3.2 Finite Element Analysis of Pile Caps ........................ 444
7.5.6 Shrinkage Losses (sh) ...........................~ .................................. 538
5.10.3.3 Design using The Strut and Tie Method ................... 445
7.5.7 Creep Loss (CR) ...................................................................... 540
Example 5.10 .................................................................................... 446
7.5.8 Steel Relaxation Losses (R) ..................................................... 542
Example 5.11 .................................... ,............................................... 454
Example 7.1: Calculations of losses for a pretensioned beam ....................... 544·
Example 5.12 ..................................................................................... 462
Example 7.2: Step by step computation of losses in posttensioned beam ..... 548
7.6 Anchorage Zones ............................... :...................................................... 553
6. STRUTANDTIE MODEL 7 .6.1 Introduction ............ ~ ................................................................. 553
7.6.2 Stress Distribution .................................................................... 554
6.1 Introductior ............................................................................................ 471
7.6.3 Met!":nd:; of Analysis ................................................................ 557
6.2 Principle of Band D Regions .................................................................. .473
7.6.3.1 StrutandTie Method ..............................................•... 557
6.3 Components of the StrutandTie Model ................................................. .476
7.6.3.2 Beam Analogy ............................................................. 558
6.4 Design of the Struts ................................................................................... 479
7.6.3.3 Finite element method ............... , ................................. 559
6.4.1 Idealization of the Strut.. .......................................................... 479
Example 7.3 ...................................................................................... 560
6.4.2 Strength of Unreinforced Struts ............................................. .482
Example 7.3 ..................................................................................... 560
6.4.3 Strength of Reinforced Struts ................................................. .485
Examp'le 7 . .\. ...................................................................................... 564
6.5 Design of Ties ........................................................................................... 486
6.5.1 Strength of the Tie .................................................................. .486
6.5.2 Anchorage of Reinforcement.. ................................................. 486
8. FLEXURE IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS ..
6.6 Design of Nodal Zones ............................................................................. 487
6.6.1 Types of Nodal Zones .............................................................. 487 8.1 Introduction ............. ,............................ ,..............~ .................................. 572
6.6.2 Strength of Nodal Zones .......................................................... 488 8.2 Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Members Under Service Loads ........... 573
6.7 Applications .............................................................. ,............................. 490 8.2.1 General ..................................................................................... 573
Example 1 ................................·......................................................... 495 8.2.2 Allowable Concrete and Steel Stresses .................................... 575
Example 2 ................................................................ '" ...................... 503 8.2.2.1 Allowable Steel Stresses ............................................. 575
Example 3 ......................................................................................... 511 8.2.2.2 Allowable Concrete Stresses ....................................... 576
8.2.3 Calculations of Stresses at Transfer ......................................... 579
8.2.4 Calculations of Stresses ~~t Full Service Loads ........................ 580 .
7. INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 8.2.5 Summary .................................................................................. 582
Exampl~ 8.1 ...................................................................................... 583
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 520 Exanlple 8.2 ...................................................................................... 589
7.2 Systems of Prestressing ............................................................................. 521 Example 8.3 ....................................................................................... 595
7.2.1 Pretensioned Concrete ............................................................. 523 Example 8.4 ........................... :......................................................... 600
7.2.2 Posttensioned Concrete ................................................... :...... 524 Example 8.5 ...................................................................................... 606
7.3 General Design Principle .......................................................................... 525 8.3 Flexural Strength of Prestressed Beams .................................................... 609
7.4 Materials .................................................................•.......................... 526 8.3.1 Introduction .......................... :.......................... :........................ 609
7.4.1 Concrete .................................................................................... 526 8.3.2 Calculations of the Ultimate Moment Capacity ..................... 612
7.4.2 Nonprestressing Reinforcement ............................................. 527
v vi
8.3.3 Calculation of Prestressing Steel Stress at Ultimate fps .......... 614 9.3 Torsion in Prestressed Concrete ................................................................ 727
8.3.3.1 Calculation offps in bonded tendons .. ;....................... 614 9.3.1 General ..................................................................................... 727
8.3.3.2 Calculation of fps for unbonded tendons .................... 619 9.3.2 The Design for Torsion in the Egyptian Code ......................... 728
8.3.4 Maximum Limits for the Areas of Prestressing and non 9.3.2.1 Introduction ................................................................. 728
prestressing Reinforcing Steel ................................................. 621 9.32.2 Calculation of the Shear Stress due to Torsion ........... 729
Example 8.6: Mu using the approximate equation (Isection) .......... 624 9.3.2.3 Consideration of Torsion ........................... ,................. 730
Example 8.7: Mu using the approximate equation (Tsection) ........ 627 9.3.2.4 Check the Adequacy of the Concrete Section ............. 731
Example 8.8: Mu using the approximate equation (Rsection) ........ 632 9.3.2.5 Design of Torsional Reinforcement ............................ 731
Example 8.9: Mu using the strain compatibility method .................. 636 9.3.2.6 Code Requirements ..................................................... 732
8.4 Combined Flexure and Axial Loads ......................................................... 641 9.4 Combined Shear and Torsion .................................................................... 736
8.4.1 Stresses at service loads ........................................................... 641 9.4.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 736
8.4.2 Capacity at ultimate loads ........................................................ 641 9.4.2 Design for Shear and Torsion in ECP 203 ............................... 736
Example 8.10: Strain compatibility method for combined flexure and 9.4.2.1 Consideration of Torsion ............................................. 736
axial load ................................................................... 643 9.4.2.2 Adequacy of the Concrete CrossSection .................... 737
8.5 Proper Beam Shape Selection ................................................................... 649 9.4.2.3 Design of Transverse Reinforcement.. ........................ 738
8.6 Limiting Eccentricity Envelopes ............................................................... 650 9.4.2.4 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement....................... 739
Example 8.11: Upper and lower envelopes ...................................... 653 Example 9.3: Combined shear and torsion design(1) ....................... 743
8.7 Determination of the Prestressing Force and the Eccentricity in Flexural Example 9.4: Combined shear and torsion design(2) ....................... 750
Members ............................................................................................ 658
Example 812'. . D e termma . t'IOn 0 fP an d e comb'mat lOns·· .................. . 662 10 .CONTINUOUS PRESTRESSED BEAMS
Example 8.13: Determination of P and e combinations ................... 668
8.8 Reduction of Prestressing Force Near Supports ....................................... 677 10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 758
8.9 Deflection of Prestressed Beams ............................................................... 678 10.2 Tendon Profile for Continuous Beams .................................................... 759
8.9.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 678 10.3 Elastic Analysis of Continuous Beams ................................................... 762
8.9.2 Calculations of Deflections in the ECP 203 ............................ 679 10.3.1 Effects of the Prestress ........................................................... 762
Example 8.14 ..................................................... :.............................. 683 10.3.2 Support Displacement Method .............................................. 762
Example 8.15 .................................................................................... 686 10.3.2.1 Background ............................................................... 762
Example 8.16 .................................................................................... 691 Example 10.1 ....................................................................... :............ 768
Example 10.2 .................................................................................... 773
9. SHEAR AND TORSION IN PRESTRESSED 10.3.3 Equivalent Load Method ....................................................... 778
Example 10.3 .................................................................................... 783
CONCRETE BEAMS 10.4 Linear Transformation and Concordant Profiles ................................. ,.. 789
9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 700
9.2 Shear in prestressed Beams ....................................................................... 701 Appendix A: Design Charts for Sections Subjected to Flexure ..................... 791
9.2.1 Inclined Cracking ..................................................................... 701 Appendix B: Design Charts for Calculating ler and Wk ................................. 799
9.2.2 Effect of Prestress .................................................................... 702 Appendix C: Slope and Deflection Equations ............................................... 807
9.2.3 Shear Strength According to ECP 203 .................................... 703
REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 813
9.2.3.1 Upper limit of Design Shear Stress qumax ................. 703
9.2.3.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete qcu ................... 705
9.2.4 Shear Reinforcement Calculations ........................................... 712
Example 9.1: Shear design using the simplified procedure .............. 715
Example 9.2: Shear design using the detailed procedure ................. 720
vii viii
1
ARCHES, SPECIAL TYPES OF FRAMES AND
TRII,$SES >~
1.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the use and design of reinforced concrete arches and
trusses as supporting elements of systems that cover halls having relatively
large spans. It 'covers also the design and the construction of the saw tooth roofs
in which the light from the windows is directly reflected by the roof inside the
hall giving a uniform distribution of natural light.
1
Choosing the most economical structural system depends on many factors such
as the type .of soil, the architectural features of the building, and most
importantly the span that needs to be covered. Table 1.1 gives the suitable
o
structural system according to the span of the hall (short direction). For
example, simple girders are suitable for relatively short spans (710 m) while
frames are appropriate for medium spans (122Sm). In contrast, arches and
trusses are suitable to cover large spans.
Sec. AA
Table 1.1 Choosing of structural system according to the span
a simple beam subjected to uniform loads
Type of structure Span
Simple girders 7~lOm
Frames 12~2S m
Arch with a tie 20~40m
Concrete in compression
Trusses 20~40m
2 3
2
1.2.2 Design of the Arch with a Tie al
t
= 0.156 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (1.4)
2
f
One of the most convenient systems for resisting uniform gravity loads is the
twohinged parabolic arch with a tie. This system is externally statically b t3
determinate and internally once statically indeterminate. a2 = 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• (1.5)
80 Alie f
The equation of the axis of the arch according to Fig. (1.2) is given by:
t =Total thickness of the arch.
4f x b =Width of the arch.
y =   (Lx) ............................................. (1.1)
L2 I =Cross sectional moment of inertia.
Atie =Cross sectional area steel in the tie.
where f =The rise of the arch at the crown.
f = rise of the arch
The amount of tension in the tie varies considerably according thickness of the
L = span of the arch
arch, the steel in the tie, and the rise of arch f However, it is customary to take
the factor A equals 0.95. Thus, the horizontal thrust =the force in the tie
. wxU
The bendmg moment at the crown M == 0.05   ................................ (1.7)
8
f Hence, the critical section in the arch girder is subjected to a compressive force
H and a bending moment M. The tie beam, on the other hand, is subjected to an
axial tension force, H. It should be noted the bending moment induced in the tie
x beam due to its own weight is negligible. The span of the tie beam under its
L own weight is the distance between the posts.
Structural analysis of the system can express the value of the horizontal thrust
H as a ratio(A) from the simple beam bending moment. Assuming that modular
ratio between the steel used in the tie and concrete used in the arch is 10, one
can obtain:
W L2
H =A   ............................................ {1.2)
8f
where
1
A= .... ,............................................. (1.3) Photo 1.2 An arched bridge during construction
1+a; +a2
4 5
1.2.3 Layout ~f a Hall Covered by Arched Girders
In largespan big covered halls, reinforced concrete arches with ties are usually
used as the main supporting elements. In order to get relatively reasonable
dimensions of the arches, the spacing between arches should be in the range of
~ p PPT P? T T , J
10x2.S0=2S.0 m ~
5.0 ms to 7.0 ms. Hangers are provided in order to prevent saging of the ties
under its own weight.
Figure 1.3 shows the layout of the supporting elements of a hall that is 25.0 ms
wide, 36.0 ms long and 5.0 ms clear height. The main supporting element is
chosen as an arch with a tie spanning in the short direction arranged every 6. 0 ®  E
ms. ro E
m 0E
Q)
~
ro
U) @
The arch rests on reinforced concrete columns. These columns should provide a "0
U)
X
0
<:
reasonable bearing area to the arch. Outofthe plane of the arch, these columns 0
0
Q)
0
C\I
are connected together with the semelles, the wall beams and the top beams. en
The horizontal roof consists of horizontal continuous beams supporting the roof A
slabs. These beams transmit their loads to the curved girder of the arch through
a system of short members called posts. These short members serve also to
reduce the span of the tie and consequently reduce the moments due to its own
weight (they hangup the tie). @
E ,/
It should be mentioned that the girder of the arch is subjected to a compression o ~ <:0
EO
force and is susceptible to buckling. The arched girders are connected in the
<ri
(') 5 8 .a~
ox
o
II
<~ 00
U)
outofplane direction through continuous beams located at the level of the tie <ri U) (')
x (')
CD
as well as at the level of crown. These beams reduce the buckling length of the
girder outofthe plane of the arch. © 
The columns supporting the arches are connected in the outofplane direction
using a continuous beam at the top level of the columns and a wall beam at the
midheight. In case of a weak soil, semelles are provided at the foundation level
in order to connect the footings together to reduce the effect of differential @
settlements. Otherwise, they could be provided at the bottom end of the frame
leg to support the wall above and reduce the buckling length.
®
Plan
Fig. 1.3a A hall covered with arches (horizontal roof)
6
7
!=lAtlnnrt"rv beam
(250x550)
Tie Beam
:350x500)
E
o
B+
Lri
00 II
1:
.2'
Q)
.s::
~
13
Semelle
i,. " (250X600)
Sec. AA
Fig.1.3b A Hall covered with arches (continued)
.....
Slab
/Th=120mm
·,
~ Arch1350x1000) ~seCOndaiY_Beam ·
(200x550)
Tie Beam Post (200x200) Beam (250x500)
(350x500) \ connecting arches \
·
·
Beam (250X550L1
conhectin;:; columns
CD
Column
(350x1300)
I
I I I
I
I I i' I I
I II
9melle (250x600) I
/
Sec. BB
Fig. 1.3c A hall covered with arches (c(mtinued)
The dimensions of the arch system can be estimated according to Table 1.2.
Item Dimension E
c E
E 0
tg SpanJ25 :J
:0
0
bg 250400mm
Oxo C')
10
C')
ttie tt 2
Arch spacing 4~7m
~ '"
f
Roof Angle
Span /(6 + 8)
24 0 _ 320
E
til
(J)~
.00
cg
 ~
Q)
Q)
, .Q
'"=
til
(I)~
:g~
0. 0
lri
C\!
indirect lighting. The horizontal part of the roof consists of horizontal slab .0 0
10 C\! ;..
~IO Q).
supported on continuous beams. These beams are supported by the posts. The til X
0 0
"0
middle part of the roofis a curved slab supported also on continuous beams that
cO
oC\!
.....;..bJl
o~
= C.I
;..
co:s
<=
'o:t;
....
.....oil
r..
E
E
cO
Eg
:J~
o~
010
C')
4.~ ________ _
,",Vll'lvLv ~~ ~
__ 5" Sun f
Frame spacing
Frame Spacing /(2)
4~7m
North light ".,/ " ...
_/~Sunpath Roof Angle 24 0 _ 320
window
Column thickness (0.8 ~ 1.0) tg
Secondary beam thickness Frame spacing /(8 + 10)
Post spacing 2~4m
North Post dimensions 200x200mm
Ridge beam thickness Post spacing /(8 + 10)
South
One should note the difference between Sec. AA and Sec. BB. At Sec. BB
Fig. 1.5 Northlight window in sawtooth roof the inclined simple beams and the roof slabs are at the level of the frame. At
Sec. BooB, these elements are at the top level of the posts. As shown in Sec. CC,
1.3.1.1 Frames as the Main Supporting Elements the frames are connected together in the out of plane direction at three levels,
Figure 1.6 shows the gen~rallayout of a hall 20.0 ms wide and 33.0 ms long in namely at the girder level, approximately at midheight of the column (frame
which the north is normal to the short direction and is covered so that a uniform leg) and at the level of the foundations where semelles are provided to' support
distribution of natural light is provided. Reinforced concrete frames are utilized the walls. 200300mm
~.
as the main supporting elements and are arranged parallel to the short direction Note: As the rain water is accumulated at the
of the hall. . lowest point of the slab, it is essential to
The convenient slope of the roof slab lies between 20° and 30° with the choose the shape of crosssection of the
horizontal in order to be able to cast. concrete without the use of double girder of the frame in the form of a Yshape
~~S>7
shuttering. so that there is sufficient space for the rain
water and the necessary slopes for the gutter.
13
12
~N0?
I

lij/
<D
~ .co
rn ~o
.ctO
P ttl x
m (!)o
(]) ,to
'UN
;9
~ 0
ill
.....
1] 8
~
......
:.a <®
~
(])
8<
(])

.~
P
..!:l
f:
1::
0
~
(])
;9
..!:l
c.>
+E0
M

~
(")
II 0
to E to
0
to ttl X
.S x
<0
<D
III 00
S ~
.....m
(])
:>.. 
m
(])
/
o t
co
S <DO EO
rn E""
ttl~ .=!~
tl:4 ~
LLO
x ox
00
rn to to
l< ~ ~
<8 
c.>
1;
(])
S
0
m'
><
rn
~
.< 
ciJ I I
ii:
I· 8x2,50=20.0 m
I
Plan
Fig.l.6b North light sawtooth system (Frames)
(North direction is normal to the span)
14
15
 y b Slab (Th.=100
I 200x200 200x300
D1' dOD ,/ DO
/
• \ • • • • • 1200
\ Sec. Beam
200x500 \ Frame
350x1400
..... Wall beam :c
~E
0')
250x500
·.c:o
au; Frame
.!!! 11
<.) Column
 RIC Footing
~.(,'<;.(,'<;.(,'<;.(,"
E
0
~
I I ....:' Semelle I
(250x500) I
I
" , PIC Footing
Sec. AA
Fig. 1.6c North light saw tooth system (Frames) (cont.)
~=n'W'"i"tdtt 'Z'i"n'W"'MW: ~.
Slab (Th.=100mm)
Ridge beam
200x300
, Secondary beam
200x500
,
r
Post /
I \.
\ Frame
200x200 350x1400
.....
" Wall beam
250x500
Frame
Column
I I
~,(,'{,(,'{,(,X,(,V
Semelle
(250x500)
~
I
I I I
Sec. BB
Fig.l.6d North light saw tooth system (frames) (cont.)
,
ents
1.3.1.2 Arches as the Main supporting Elent
Figure L7 shoWS the generallayout of a hall 28.0 ms wide and 36.0 IDS long in
which the north is normal to Ihe short direCtion and is covered so that a uniform
. distribution of natural light is provided. Reinforced concrete arches are utilized
as Ihe main supporting e\ements and are arranged parallel to Ihe short direction
beams.
• The inclined simply supported beams are supported on the
posts acting as compression members at one side and on the
posts acting as tension members at the other side.
• The posts are supported directlY on the arches and are
UI .c::
;.0 connected in the plane of the arch by the ridge beam.
U 0
0
u ;.0
~
CI)
00
<I.l
l:l
J!
.c::
;.0
I<
0
Z
CI)
1.0
...;
:!
19
18
N~ cp
t ~ ~ ~
i i i i
~
i
10x2.8=28.0 m
C?i ~ ~ ~
i i i J
® ~
!J B0
0
+>
I
~
® ~
'"
+>
II II II II II II
.e: II II II II II II
~ I II II II II II II
"€0 @
s:1
B
.~ II II II II II II II II II
§ ~ II II II 1/ 1/ II 1/ II 1/ 4
+>
00
:>,.
II II II II II II II 1/ II
'"
.e: @
u....ctI E
~
0
cO II II 1/ II II II II 1/ II
.... (')
u 1/ II II 1/ 1/ II II 1/ II
<8 0
cO \I II II \I II II II \I II
u x
·E <0
Q) @ 
S
0 0
II ~ .:t
0
0
......
00
II II \I II II 11..<: ~II II
ctI
r: II II II II II II~ ~II \I 118 x0l()
.<
1/ II 1/ 1/ 1/ II ~I\ 1/ II
(')
bi:J
~ @ 
1/ 1/ II II II II II II II
\I II II \I II II II II II
II II II II \I II II \I II
® 
PIan
Fig. 1.7b Northlight sawtooth system (Arches)
20 21
Ser.ondRrv
(200x550)

beam
BI (350x1200)
B+ (350x600)
tv
tv
E
o
r..:
Semelle
28.00m
Sec. AA
Fig. 1.7c Northlight sawtooth system (Arches) (cont.)
Girder
Post
200x200
Column
I\)
350x1400mm Wall beam
eN
(250x600mm)
RIC Footing
Sec. BB
Fig. 1.7d Northlight sawtooth system (Arches) (cont.)
Table 1.4 gives guide lines for choosing the dimensions of the system.
Table 1.4 Recommended dimensions for the frame system
1.3.2 North Direction is Parallel to the Span
Item Suggested dimensions
The concept of having the main supporting elements arranged in the short
direction of the hall is still valid in case the north direction is parallel to the tg Span/(l2+ 14)
span. Also, the windows have to be arranged to face the north direction.· If the Frame spacing 4+7m
short direction is not more than about 20.0 ms, it is recommended to use
frames. If, on the other hand, the short direction is more than 20.0 ms, it will be Ybeam spacing 4+6m
more economic to use trusses.
Roofheight (f) Ybeam spacing/2
Roof Angle 24 °  32°
1.3.2.1 Frames as the Main Supporting Elements
Column thickness @top (0.80 + 1.0) tg
Figure 1.8 shows the general layout of a hall 22.0 ms wide and 27.0 ms long in Column thickness @bottom (0.4 + 0.60) tg
which the north is parallel to the short direction and is covered so that a uniform
distribution of natural light is provided. Reinforced concrete frames ate utilized Secondary beam thickness Ybeam spacing /(8+ 10)
as the main supporting elements and are arranged parallel to the short direction
Ybeam thickness Frame spacing/(6+8)
of the hall.
The statical system can be summarized as follows: Post spacing 2+4m
• The frames are arranged every 5.4 ms in order to obtain a Post dimensions 200x200mm
reasonably economic system. Ridge beam thickness Post spacing /(8+ 10)
• A system of horizontal continuous beams (called the Y
beams) is supported on the frames.
• The inclined roof consists of a system of oneway slabs that
are supported on a system of inclined simply supported
beams.
• The inclined simply supported beams are supported on the
posts at one side and directly on the Ybeam at the other
side.
• The posts are supported directly on the Ybeams and are
connected in the plane of the Ybeams by the ridge beam.
These posts can be assumed to resist axial forces only.
24 25
.
N~
cp ~B ~i ~i ~i
i
[:
0
~
c.:s
~.
Q)
B

....0
~
c;;
t:d
 0
p..
.~
.........
,..c::'
0
~
B
Q)
 @
,..c:: Vbeam
_. ._
E
® IA
~
C)
0 .200/(300x800)
~ r..:
C\I
"
.....~ "<t
lli
x E
r
8 l{)
N
....
Q)
 @
'":>.
'"
Q)
g Sec. Beam
~
c.:s 200xSOO
.....
c8 Frame
.£
C)
Q)

(3S0x1600)
@
80
'"
.......
c.:s
~
~
......
? ~
ciJ
I .:beam Spacing.. I 0
I 4 8
I
4xS.S=22.0 m
14 . 1
Plan
Fig. 1.8b Northlight sawtooth system (Frames)
(North direction is parallel to the span)
_.. 
26 27
Detail2
Sec. beam
200x500
1400 eJ ,/ ;z:
Detail1
Frame
Vbeam
200/(300x800)
200
~~2S0 35OX1600
~I
N
00
sJo t
Frame ~~
t __ I
il E
.r::.o
«i..o
Wall beam
2S0xSOO
Column
Detail1

11
300
Detail2 :w,
200
Q) II
C3
fsoa
Section AA
Fig.1.8c Northlight sawtooth system (Frames) (cont.)
Slab (1 OOmm)
Ridge beam Sec.b
200xSSO ""
, ~ 200xSOO
~
"'
:
I
/
r
1
Vbeam
200/(300x800)
/ Post /
200x200 Frame girder . /
3S0x1600
N Wall beam
1.0
1 2S0xSOO
,
'1 1 /I 1 r 1 T I 1 1
semelle,,~
L
Trusses in reinforced concrete are seldom used and their shape is generally
chosen similar to those constructed in steel. cp cv ~i
One of the disadvantages of reinforced concrete trusses is that formwork of i i Truss
concrete and the detailing of reinforcement are complicated. However, in
,. 
special cases of sawtooth roofs in which the north is parallel to the span of the
hall, the truss may give a convenient solution. ,0
Figure 1.9 shows the general layout of a hall 20.0 ms wide and 25.0 ms long in
which the north is parallel to the short direction and is covered so that a uniform  
distribution of natural light is provided. Reinforced concrete trusses are utilized
as the main supporting elements and are arranged parallel to the short direction
of the hall.
FF®
• The inclined roof consists of a system of oneway slabs. At
the location of the trusses, the slabs are supported on the
diagonal members. Between trusses, inclined beams are A+ Sec. Beam
A
provided to support the slabs. The inclined beams are simply
supported at posts from one side and directly at the Ybeam
from the other side.
at Truss
200x500
H 8
 
• The posts are supported directly on the Ybeams and are
connected in the plane of the Ybeams by the ridge beam.
These posts can be assumed to resist axial forces only.

c
~
\ EndGable beam
I 250x800
1 4x5.0=20.0 m
Plan
Fig. 1.10a Northlight sawtooth system (Truss)
(Noth direction is parallel to thespau)
30 31
Top chord
Ridge beam Vertical members ;
Vbeam
Bottom chord
200/(300x900)
W
tv
~I ~
CD
.s::
•
III
Wall beam
lti
CD
II
(3
Sec. AA
Fig. 1.10b Northlight sawtooth system (Truss) (cout.)
w
w
Wail beam
Sec. BB
Fig.l.l0c Northlight sawtooth system (Truss) (cout.)
Approximate Analysis of RIC Trusses
Unlike steel trusses, reinforced concrete trusses are subjected to direct loading
from the surrounding slabs. Moreover due to the rigidity of the members
" ",:g connecting bending moments are induced. Truss members are mainly subjected
~E to normal force, and therefore bent bars are not used in trusses and the
/ 0::1
·0 i5
100
c!§Cl
reinforcement is distributed symmetrically
E ~~
E ~O
8 E ll!
The internal forces in the members of a truss are:
:::.
.0
cu c:
Ol
m3 0 I 1 The axial forces due to the concentrated luads at the joints.
cu ,....
Ci.i ..,J
_I
= 2 The bending moments and shearing forces due to the direct loads
LJ 't r
<:)
c:.l
'" on the members of the truss on which the slabs are supported,
,....
t '"'" and
<I>
,/" "E
0
.£:
0<1>
~
= 3 The bending moments and shearing forces due to the fact that in
'"
<I>~
S~
E~
oJ:>
:1::
s
.....
Q,)
reinforced concrete trusses, the joints are partially rigid.
~~ 00
m The internal forces can be obtained using the computer programs. It
'EE '"
;>.
>
Ol
'"
..= should be noted that the effect of the partial rigidity of the joints has to
_I .....
<:) be evaluated.
c:
u .....
I
<:)
E
::I
f_ U ~
1:':1 The approximate dimensions of the truss can be obtained from Fig. 1.10.
i5 cl
o Q,)
00
'"
l$ t =t =t = span
=
A
~
1:: t4
1 2 3 36
= (0.8 0.9) tl
 <:)
Z
't:S
0
.I
~
oil
~
II
!ij 0
/~~~~~~~I
1_ _.....fII_II"T"'"_ _
.. ""'"T'~_TI
OlO
.010
~g f
·32 C\I
a:
35
34
1.4 Vierendeel Girders
Vierendeel girders are similar to trusses except that they do not have diagonals
as shown in Fig. l.11. Moreover the connecting joints are rigid such that they N~ cp cp cp cp cp cp <? cp cp ~ ?I
develop moment. I. 10x3.535.0 m •
Vierendeel girders are often used in transfer floors of highrise buildings to ® .!!lo
,/

Co
support planted columns giving a wide space in the floor below as shown in E larce Eo
0
0
Cl.g ::JUl

00
x
Fig. l.12. They also can be used in sawtooth roofs when indirect sunlight is
required as shown in Fig. 1.13a and Fig l.l3b.
<ri
~~ o~
® 
A Vierendeel girder consists of a top chord. a bottom chord and vertical E
members. The system is externally statically determinate, while it is internally 0
0
<ri
indeterminate. Internally, it is 3n times statically indeterminate, where n is the
number of panels. @ 
E E
o:s E C~
The exact analysis of a Vierendeel girder is quite complicated. In the past, EO
@
~~<ri
Ql
!Xl 0 ::JC\I A
approximate solutions were used to calculate the force in the different members. <>
0
<0 ox
Ql
(J) 0
X 0°
...°
Nowadays, computer programs are used to compute the straining actions. In 0
C\I
such a case, the members are modeled as 2D frame elements, while the joints ® 
are modeled as rigid joints that permit moment transfer among members. E
0
0
<ri
Ivieren eelGir er
® 
' II JI IrOUX;j~pU mm II _II II  II II   '
Plan
100000000 1
I _m ""'" I
""Om", . ri Id·_ 
Columns
 
   L '  
Section AA
36
37
d
1
cp 0) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
I I
I I I ~I I
1Ox3.5=35.0 m
~i
?
I
~I DODD 00000
0 ,/
I 3.50m I VierendeelGirder
~~
(1\10
co
EO
Column 400x3000m m
C)( ::110
)( 400x1200
gg 00
010 Wall Beam
wC\l C\I
@
RIC footing
PIC footing
@ E E 1!;
(1\
E Co
<II
@> EC\I Section AA
~
m 0
0 ::I~
)(
c.i CD 00
)(
<II
en 0 O~
0
C\I
®Eo
~o
~ ~ieren selGir ~r
® ~OOx3( pOmm
® Column
400x1200
Wall beam
250x500
@) Semelle
RIC Footing 250x500
@
d Section BB
Plan
Fig.l.13b Vierendeel girder
Fig.l.13a Vierendeel girder
38 39
Summary
T
Figure 1.14 gives guidelines for choosing the appropriate structural system I!
when indirect light is needed according to the span and the direction of the
north.
lil
ti
>
f Vbeam
1.5 Expansion and Settlement .Joints en
c:
·iii
::2
In the construction of reinforced c..oncrete structures, two types of joints may be
considered namely, expansion jOints and settlement joints
r
1.5.1 Expansion .Joints
Expansion joints are provided to reduce the effect of temperature. Thermal <et 11 Frame with Vbeam (L < 20 m).
effects induce additional straining actions that lead to additional reinforcement 2 Truss l=20 40m)
l...
in the structural members. For example, continuous beams running over several
spans are affected by the stresses induced due to temperature. The ECP 203 AMain system parallel to the north
specifies the use of these joints when the dimensions of the building exceed 30
35 m in hot regions and 4045 in warm regions.
Span (L)
Expansion joints are achieved by a complete vertical separation in the super I tB
structure at the location of the joint. This is usually achieved by placing foam I
It should be mentioned that the requirements of the ECP 203 can be waived if
'mcD r 2 Arch with a tie(L=20  40m)
the designer carry out an analysis that takes into account the temperature k=dtl==:::j g ' 3 Vierendeel ( L=30  40m)
CJ)
effects.
...l
+B
BMain system normal to the north
40 41
T E
E
®
C\I
~
@
i 8
f',
~
E m
0 0 0
Ol
®~~
or
en
OlO
15x
0
10
0
toX c8 E~ ~
EO lU~ aDetail of Expansion Joints at the roof
10
::I~
o~
010
U:~ tID E
lU
Ol
(') .a
G
(')
1ij
3: Bituminous
material
~ ....
0 c
=
g
a
.Q
til
c
I~~
x
Ol
Ii ~
~
('II
~
e ~
I)~
~
('II
\""4
~
e !il
Ol
m 10
x
0
0 ~
M
f;I;l
.~
0 ~
0 0
Ol C\I
en
0~ 0 Ol~
18 Column Column
to E~
'It
0
lUX
U:~ Insulation
(')
e~
material
0
cO
E~
::IX tID
015
0(')
G
bTwo columns and the same footing
...
1
Fig. 1.16 Expansion joints details
42 43
1.5.2 Settlement Joints
This type of joints is related to height rather than length. If the loads of two
adjacent columns differ significantly, the differential settlement becomes large
and could affect the foundation. This is can occur in case of low rise building
adjacent to high rise building as shown in Fig. 1.14. The footings in this case 1 1
should be completely separated (20 mm apart) to allow the settlement of each high rise
column to take place independently. building Settelment
joint
high rise
building
Settelment
I joint
Low rise
~
/ ~ building
'' ''
.
,,<. L....J
OetailA
LJ
SectIOn 11
Photo 1.6 Settlement joints is provided between low and highrise buildings
Beam
Settelment
Plain Concrete joint
Raft DetailA
44
45
1.6 End gables
36m 36m
End gable consists of a group of columns supporting continuous beams instead ~econdary beam
of the typical frames used as the main system of the hall as shown in Fig. l.ISa.
~
The spacing between the columns is chosen in such a way that the area Of the I
E Wall area.:
enclosed walls should not be more than 2S30 m2 . This is to facilitate the
~
'i
<')
(2530 m")
construction of the brick wall, to reduce its buckling length, and to increase its
capacity for resisting wind loads.
Wall beam End gable
If a future extension of the hall is expected, another system is provided at the I E I I I I Column
"<t
end as shown in Fig. l.lSb. In such a case, a frame is used at the end of the
hall. End gable consists of a group of columns that are connected to the frame  M
I .I_
Floor Level
I I
_. r •
,
by dowels to reduce their buckling length and to allow for possible future \ . \ R.C. footiflQ.
'\semelle Plain Concrete
demOlishing the wall. The length of the dowels should not be less than the footing
development length of the steel bars (Ld) as shown in Fig. l.ISc. Moreover, Sec AA
compressible material should be provided to allow for the deflection of the
secondary beam
, Wall beam
I End gable
(Column,
I t
11
aPlan (future extension is not required)
36m 36m
Detail C
/ Main girder
I \
I .1 1
Maingirder
R
Wall area.:
Compressible Frame
(25:30m2)
matenal Column
dowels
Wall beam End gable
End gable
~ Column I E I I I Column I
Detail C
;r, Floor Level
I
I I .1.
I 1
8 B
Photo 1.7 A multistory reinforced concrete building bPlan (future extension is required)
46
47
Solution
AWrokshop
Since the span of the hall is relatively large, and indirect lighting is required,
RC frames are utilized as the main structural element. The spacing between the
frames is chosen as S.Om.
~__L________~ ~
a BStorage Area
/ / A simple girder spanning 8.0 ms is chosen for the storage area. The spacing
16m 8m between these girders is taken the same as that between the frames (S.Om).
Plan Secondary beams are provided to get reasonable slab dimensions (S.O x4.0 ms).
. Spall 8x1000
Glrder depth =   = =800 mm
10 10
0
s The layout of the workshop is given in the following set of figures.
r...: S
0
or)
Section
48
49
I ex5.0=30.0 m I I
/'
, !I
T
'I>
~
Beam
EndGable col.
250x500.........
~ Z
(200x500)
....
~
~
CXI
X
~ I\)
~
;... 8
;... .!!..
en
=
00
::;
0
3
Frame ~.;
(350x1300) ""'"
VI ....
1'==:1
 I.
..,==
0
~ m+ ®
'"
~ Column
....
a 1\3[[
(350x1100)"
C/)
'i en _
! I
CXI
~
CXI
o
..9
CD
<9.
a.
~ Beam
®
0
3 (200x500)
Column
(250x500N
o ® @ @ ~~ ~. ~
D~ 10001 liDO
I
\ • • • • • Simple Girder
Slab (Th.=120mm)
\sec. Beam
200x500 \ Frame
350x1300
(250xBOO) \
,
Column
Wall beam i (350i<1100)
:c
250x500 '" !3
.<:lo
VI
....... :a~ '1il' E
.c:o
011 tuLri
.2! II
0
I 18m 9m
I
Plan
Skylight
f T:l
Q)o
E~
<11 x
~O
LLIO
I
C'l
r
S r
r S S
'11 Irl
Irl ..f
Section elevation
52 53
Solution
AMain Hall
Since the span of the main hall is relatively large, RC frames are used as the
~
main structural elements. Posts supported on the girder of the frames are
utilized to support the skylight roof.
The spacing between the frames is chosen as 5.0m. i®

"51
<'>0
., I
Iii
.co
~~
.,0
:o~
Item Suggested dimensions Chosen dimensions (!l0 "0
~l!J
.10
gC\l
w ill
tg Span/(12t 14) = 18/14 = 1.28 m == l.3m 
o
II @
.0
x
s s
~ 0~ .,~~
<0
Post dimensions 200x200mm 200x200mm x
.. m a:lg
~ ~
 @
/ L /
~
'.~~ ~s
cO
BOffice area E~
1ii~
Ox
0.0 u.~
::I~
o~
fQ
00
0 010 U'"
An inclined simple girder spanning 9.0 ms is chosen as the main supporting ~
10
~ ~ ~
Simple Ilirder
element for the office area. The spacing between these girders is taken the same 
250x90 )
@
as that between the frames (5.0m). Secondary beams are provided to get
reasonable slab dimensions (5.0 x3.0 ms).
. Span 9x1000
Glrder depth =   = = 900 mm
10 10  (£)
The layout of the car workshop is given in the following set of figures.
,.
I
8x2.25=18.0 m
·1·
I
9.0m .,
Fig. Ex.1.2a Structural system (plan)
54 55
Example 1.3: Structural system for a medical facility
Ir The figure below shows a medical facility that consists of two large halls
covered with horizontal roof. Hall (1) spans 18.0 ms while hall (2) spans 15.0
ms. Columns are only allowed on the outside perimeter. Clear height of the
t
8 ~ 0
s halls is 6.0m. It is required to suggest an appropriate structural system.
!
iii
!
~
~
rn
'" I WOS'v=
I t41l!84 JIl810
. l
tl
]s A A
00
.!! :s
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tnt:!, (1)
r 00
"ii
~
I
E
GI
&to
E
c:
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0
GIS
=g
Gl
Eox
GlIO
rn~
a__ t~o:e~ __ ~ _._.....1
b
~
C7.i
~
I WO'L=
t46!84 JIl810 WO'~
~t
0 (2)
'.... 0
Glen
E~ E
~ ~~ o
~ cO
::: 11.10
en
"ii
til
V o
~l
o
Eo ~
8lg
COx
I
0 '0
u; l§
0
0
0
C\I
D.. C\I V
go
rnC\l I~ 15 m I' 20m
V Cl
g Plan
c: '5
~ 0
11.
0
Eo
~
11.
CIlO
I
~
GlIO Q
I ~
.0 X
0 a:
~ ~
I~
Section AA
57
56
Solution
Hall (1)
Since the span of the hall is relatively large, and north light is not required, a
frame system with secondary horizontal beams is chosen. The spacing between
the frames is chosen as 5.0m, while the spacing between the secondary beams is A 
taken as 3.0 m.
C\l
Column thickness
Secondary beam
0.80 tg
t i' ~
\ Frame
AJ Column
300x800/1100
Hall(2) 400x1600
® B ~
expansion joint
CD Detail C
C\l
58 59
Example 1.4: Structural system for a textile factory
.1 The figure given below shows a textile factory that consists of two large halls in
which indirect lighting is needed. Hall (1) spans 20 m and Hall (2) spans 19.2m.
Columns are only allowed on the outside perimeter. Clear height of the halls is
S.Sm. It is required to suggest an appropriate structural system for the factory .
~~~ •
mg
~~
~~
'ai
E
Q)
fI)
Q)
S'
~
I
A
I (1)
+
S
~~
~ ~
"1
< Columns are not
0
C'l
0
0
Q)(')
E~
=
.."
0
l:l
C.I
cu
a
_'~I~~ed___ ~ _ b
~
.."
I e~
u.g ~
''
E ~
S ""<t
.a E
a:J V < ....cu
Ci5 §
<cJ cJ .."
.. a)
Cf.l
>.
....=
.." N
" mO'9==
llf<!!l>qlIlI>I:::>
cu
Cf.l
....'=
"'
C.I
....=
'"'
Cf.l
(2)
@ S
;:!i
Ia ,.Q
«")
~
0
0 g ~
~ f;r;l
0
• Cd
Eo
~
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.e
0 c
0
0 ....r..ten
:lCO
0 c·
o~
a: 'iii
\
00
(')
... .0::
..1 \ 19.2m \  24 m
 .... ,
> Plan
" ':
1 b Section AA
1
60 61
I
·~ Solution Hall(2)
1. c.•.••.. with
Hall (1) Since the north light is perpendicular to the span, a frame system
, secondary beams is chosen. The spacing between frames is taken as 4.0m
Since the .span of the h~1I is relatively large, and north light is required, a frame
system w~th Y bean.:s IS chosen. The spacing between the frames is chosen as
Suggested Chosen dimensions
4.8m, whIle the spacmg between the secondary beams is taken as 2.4 m to get a Item
system of oneway slabs (2.4xS.0 ms). The spacing of the Ybeams is chosen
equal to S.O ms. dimensions
4~7m 4.0m
tg Spanl(12~ 14) = 20/14 = 1.43 m == l.5m Frame spacing
200x200mm 200x200mm
Secondary beam Beam spanl(8~ 10) =Smx1000/1O =SOOmm Post dimensions
= 2400/8  300mm
Ybeam Span/(6~8) = 4.8/6 =0.80 m Ridge beam thickness Post spacing 1(8~ 10)
63
62
~ ~i ~'I 61c:4.0=24.00
~, ~,I tJ>,~I o;! OJ
0.42 4x5.0=20.00
~
I /1"1' I I I

\. .JO
6
I'!Ij
8
t(a. f
N @>
~
1>'1
;..
t.
..a.
8
UI
:r:.. N
CI
~
....
rJ'.l 0
,.f@ ~z
"'I Beam
=
....
l"I
,/ ~
200x500
0\
~
= ! 

~
....
tJ
f Il
~,.........
8x 0()
ex> c:
o
o 3
:13
~::tJ
0",
~(\)
0
0
~llJ
o(\)
x~3
.9
'"
.J ~(\) ~'":s:::
'" 8 .
5
ijlxn
.·No;
g 83
+ coII
~
COL.<§)
~
I~
e :::.:
I\:)
0
:::l
lsi: 0 (\)
Frame
(400x1500)

o ;a
S ~
,e
~
u.
~
00
8
t1!,
~ ~~ @> ~B
0
0
~ () @
ex> 0
1[ I 1~
0 o
o c:
m. I :::t
I\:)
g
~
()
8'
I\:)
0
8
8~
otT
o(\)
'
X '"
~3
@
0
~
/100mm
I
Sec. beam
200x400 L
Ridge beam
200x300 /
Ri~ebeam
200x300 L Sec. beam
l::UOxoUO
Slab (100mm)
'
,
~ ..!
1200 \ I
Post
Post
1\ Frame 200x200
\ Frame 400x1500
:cCl 400x1400 200x200 Wall beam
.(5
E Wall beam I
0\ .c: It) 250x500 I'
Vl 250x500
Frame ffi LO
Q) Column I
Column (3 II
400x800!1200 I
r R.C. footing
~ ~
y,
'"
• Plain conc.
Footing "" R.C. footing Semelle
Sec. AA
~
T
b
N I
I
~o
mo
.oil')
00
.x
mo
enC\l
1 16m 16m
WS·S=
Roof Ground floor plan
~
o
mO
E E~ E
First floor
al X
S
~
E ~o alo
mo
LLo
....8 ~ .oil')
1iig
1.0
$:C\I
Ground floor S
trl
~
Section
67
66
A: Structural System the First Floor
Since horizontal floor is required, a continuous frame system with secondary
beams is chosen. The spacing between frames is taken as 6.0m
all
Item Suggested Chosen dimensions
C? <V i~ CV ~ ,~ ~
CVi i I I I I <if
dimensions j• 10x3,O30,O m
.i
ta Span/(12+ 14) =16/14=1.14m ::::1.2m ® <:7
" .~
bg
Frame spacing
250+400mm
4+7m
0.35mm
6.0m @)
C!l
g
W I E8
,,10

00
x
010
(\I
@
Secondary beam Beam span/(8+ 10) = 6 m x 1000 110 =600 mm
Post spacing 2+4m 3m
Post dimensions 200x200mm 2POx200mm @
68 69
fj • ~j ~j
t
r
j7xS.O=42.0 ml
~ ~j ~i ~
_I
II I
I
I
,"".
I I , .
z
....~
<!CI
~
.~
~ B
~
i.h
r:T'
....
CI.l
"'I e
=
....
n 8
= I 08
..l
0
~
....
"'I
~
rI.I
~
~fu;\
fo"O
t
('C o
a I r   1'= = = ==11== = = II
ge
S'
"'I 3
....
= G
('C
"'I
Q
1L__ Jl!5;;~~O ®
" " e
Q
.....

~
~
e B
, , ,
! I ; ~, , , , ~~:!
®
....,
d~
r
s b_... Ridge Beam .Arch
._ ..
\JJQU 8
Th=120mm\ (200XSOO)\ (200x300mm) ~ (350x1300)
,
~1~~d~D
DO ~~"'
DDb0~
/v
I 'II
• •
./
"
•
I I I
r:r TieBeam /
end beam
250x500
I ~
(350xS50) 1:
.2'
.s:: 0E
Q)
....
to l
~ II
u
I I
..l Slab (Th.=100mm)
......
/
1500
~ ill
• • I
• • • •
1000
I Sec. Beam \ Frame I
200x550 350x1200
1:
Wall beam .~ E Wall beam
250x500 .s:: 0 250x500
....
I
U
til LI'i
.!!! II
Frame
Column I +8 I
 l
....~i
RIC Footing Semelle RIC Footing
I (250x500) I I
...t
PIG FootiTlg PIC Footing/
Fig. Ex1.5 c Sec. AA
Example 1.6: Arch with a Tie
It is required to design a sawtooth structural system for the factory shown in
2
the figure below. The material properties are!cu=30 N/mm2 and.t;,=360 N/mm .
2
Live load = 1.0 kN/m
2
Flooring load = 1.0 kN/m
2
Wind load = 0.7 kN/m
Clear height =7.5 m
3
Ywau=12 kN/m
Span =26.0m
@
s0 ~
j:Q
U)
~ E cj S
10 E ~
0\
~ 8 rJ.l «)
E
111 .ou
.!!I.e:
't:I
15 0
Q)
m wI::. 0
0
lrl
"Eo Q)C\I l""I
.  t')
=a EX
lo<
~
3: 0
111
~IO
L1.t') eil
Ii:
Ol
c
""&.
E
E
111
Q)
S
0
\. 26m
·1
~
Eo 0U)
11110
Q)U) E
co m
.ox EO a; ~
Q)o .2~
10
j=::g 0)( 3: ~ Plan
00
t')
Ol
~ S
&. II")
0
ii:: r.:
Section
73
72
Solution
The span of the factory is relatively large (>20 m) such that the choice of a
frame system leads to an uneconomical solution. Since the span of the factory N~
ali
is normal to the north direction, an arch with a tie is chosen as the main
structural system.
<VI • ~i CP'
I
0!
,
I
~ ~i ~i ~i ~i ~i Ii~
I
10x2.6=26.0 m
Assume the following dimensions: G
<II
Slab thickness ts = 120 mrri II II II II II~~II II ~g II II
Ridge beam = (200 mm x 300 mm) II II II II Ug f5 II 118 ~tll II
II II II II IIw""lI II "" II II
Secondary beam = (200 mm x 550 mm)
Post dimension = (200 mm x 200 mm)
CD 
II II II II II II
Span of the arch =26m II II II II II II
tg= span/25 ~ LOrn Girder (350 mm x 1000 mm) II II II II II II
ttie =0.5 tg =0.5m Tie (350 mm x 500 mm) ®   
Spacing between arches =6.5m A II II II II II II II II II A
Secondary beams spacing =2.60m I II II II II II II II II II t
II II II II II II II II II
The rise of the arch equals (f) = span = 26.0 = (3.25  4.33) = 3.5 m
68 68 E
0
cD
(')
II II II II II II II II II
0
\I II II II II II II II II II
{~= 8.5 =O.56m
on
<ri
x II II II II II II II II II
co
The thickness of the column equals 15 15 © 
span = 26 =1.3 m 0
1I.e 811 II ~
0
20 20 II II II II II II (')
®   
II II II II II II II II II
II II II II II II II II II
II 1\ II II II II II 1\ II
A
al+ Plan
Fig. Ex.l.6a: N~rthlight sawtooth system (Arches)·
74 75
Step 1: Design of solid slabs
8 Ridge Beam Assume that the slab thickness ts=120 mm
. . (200x300mm)
The total dead load of the slab and flooring load are equal to:
2
gs = ts xYc + flooring = 0.12x25+1.0 =4.0 kN 1m
I
1I
2
8 (350x500) wsu =1.4xg s +1.6xps = 1.4x4+1.6xl.O =7.2 kNlm
Column
I
(350x1300)
E w=7.2 kNlm'
IJlI IJI
It)
r..:
I
II I I I
5l
E
<Xl
ci I .\
RIC footin
E
~ I 2.6m
_14
2.6m
I· 2.6m
PIC footin 26.00m
Sec. AA
4.87kN.m
~ 4.87kN.m
Tie beam Wall Beam The slab is a oneway slab (2.6 m x 6.5 m) and continuous in the short
350x500 250x600 direction, thus the maximum moment is given by:
Column
350x1300mm Wall beam
M = wsuxI! 7.2x2.6 2
250x600 4.87 kN.m
u 10 10
Assuming 20 mm cover, the effective depth d =120  20 = 100 mm
6
4.87 X 10 = 0.0162
Semelle 30x1000x100 2
250x600 J..!
A
Sec. BB For small values of R, 0) can be approximated by 1.2R. Thus, the reinforcement
Fig. Ex.l.6b: Northlight sawtooth system (Arches) index w=0.019
77
76
As = {J)X feu xbxd = 0.019x 30 x 1000 x 100 =1584 mm2
fy 360 .
A 0.6 0.6
•• min =J;b d = 360 x 1000 x 100 = 166mm 2 <As .... £J.k
The beam is simply supported on the post (compression member) on one side
o Mu=130.34 kN.m
and on the hanger (tension member) on the other side.
N
.....
o
I
ts==120mm Mu = Wu xLxL' = 21.73x6.5x7.38 =130.34 kN.m
)
V)
V)
8 8
The reaction of the secondary beam is
/. 2600mm
/
Rb = Wu xL' = 21.73x7.38 = 80.21 kN
2 2
Since the secondary beam is an inverted beam, the section at midspan acts as
Crosssection of the secondary beam (acts as a rectangnlar section) rectangular section as previously shown. .
d = t  cover = 550  50 = 500 mm
6
R= Mu = 130.34xI0 =0.087
feu xbxd 2 30x200x500 2
From the chart, the reinforcement index (J) =0.112
78
79
f. .
A = {J)xE!1...xbxd::::
30
0.112xx200x500 = 933 mm 2
S fy 360
ASmill =smaller of
{
0.225JJ:: b d = 0.225Fo x200x500=342 mm2
fy 360
l' IiI J
, , 'ITI ,
wu=4.98 kNlm /
No slab load is transferred to the ridge beam. The cantilever part is considered
as shown in figure below.
2.80 Rr=12.95 Rr=12.95
A,~. =
post
0.225JJ:: b d = 0.225.J3Q x 200 x 250 = 171 mm 2
smaller of { Iy 360
1.3A. = 1.3 X 45 = 58.5 mm 2 f
80
81
Pow == 1.4 x Ye xb xt xhp = 1.4 x 25xO.20xO.20x2.75 = 3.85 kN
Step 4: Design of post (200x200 mm) The load acting on the post results from the reactions of the ridge beam and the
Posts in the arch with a tie system are subjected to tension or compression secondary beam
according to their locations as shown in the figure below Pu = po.w + Pb (secandry beam) + Pr (ridge beam) = 3.85 + 80.21 + 12.95 = 97 kN
Since the factory has no special system for resisting the lateral forces, it is
considered unbraced. The effective length factor k can be obtained from Table
610 in the code. The top and the bottom part of the column are considered
Tension post (200x200) case 1. Thus k=1.2.
(hanger) He = kxhp = 1.2x2.75 = 3.30 m
Compression post
The slenderness ratio A is given as A = He = 3.3 = 16.50
200x200 t pas' 0.2
Tie (350x500) Since A greater than 10, the post is considered long and additional moment is
developed.
2
15 = A? xt = 16.5 x 200 = 27.2 mm (note t5avg . = 15)
2000 2000
82 83
Using interaction diagram with uniform steel/y=360 N/mm2, and S=0.8 The total loads on the arch are the summation of the unif0rm and the
The point is below the chart use J.Lmin concentrated loads.
Since the column is long the minimum reinforcement ratio J.Lmin equals A: Uniform loads
Jlmin = 0.25 + 0.952 A, = 0.25 + 0.052 x 16.5 = 1.1 % 1. own weight of the arch
1.1 2
=1.4xyc xbxt =1.4 x 25xO.35x1.0 =12.25 kN 1m'
A",min =Jlmin X b xt =x200x200 =443 mm 2. own weight of the tie
100
Choose (4cf> 12, 452 mm2) =1.4xyc xbxt = 1.4 x 25x0.35xO.5 = 6.125 kN I m'
Step 4.2: Design of the tension post (Hanger) W .
ow
= w arch + wtie = 12.25 + 6.125 = 18.375 kN 1m'
The reaction on the tension post (T) B: Concentrated loads
= o. w. + Reaction from secondary beam + Tie weight
1. reaction from the post = 97 kN
2. reaction from the secondary beam =Pb=80.21 kN
Tie weight =1.4xyc xb Xt X post spacing
p" = PpOSI + ~ = 97 + 80.21 = 177.21kN
Tie weight =1.4x25xO.35xO.50x2.6 = 15.925kN
2.6 2.6
.. I .. ..I
 ('\r ('\r  r
post
I I
I I
> i i ~ Ppost=97
~
I I
I I
I 2.6 I Tie (350x500)
j i
'~~~beam
load to the tie
T = 3.85 + 80.21 + 15.925 = 99.98 kN
A = T = 99.98xlOOO = 319 mm 2
S Iy 11.15 360/1.15 To simplify the calculations of the bending moment, the concentrated loads 'on
the arch can be replaced by a uniform load as follows:
Choose (4cf>12, 452 mm2)
9xl77.21 = 61.345kN I m'
26
Step 5: Design of the arch and the tie
The total uniform load on the frame equals
Step 5.1: Calculations of the loads
84 85
"
The determination of the internal force in the arch can be performed using a
Wu = WOoW + Weq = 18.375 + 61.345 = 79.72kN/m' structural analysis program. As an approximation, the internal forces can be
The concentrated loads on the sides can be estimated by 0.6 Pu=106.33 kN obtained as follows:
Arch
Compression, C =1828.4
L=26m
I ~I Post
Tension, T=1828.
87
86
uP ' 1828.4x1000 0 WI =cwxqwxspacing =0.8xO.7x6.5=3.64 kNlm' (windward side)
== . = .174
feu xbxt 30x350xlO00 w2 = cl xqw X spacing = 0.5xO.7x6.5 = 2.275 kN 1m' (leeward side)
6
Mu = 336.8x10 =0.032 The columns are linked together with the archwithatie system. Such a system
2
feu xbxt 30x350x1000 2 . can be simulated by an equivalent link member subjected to either tension or
Assuming the concrete cover is 80 mm. Thus the factor S equals compression.
T
The column is subjected to an axial load in addition to wind loads on the walls.
A. Wind loads tr)
~ 00
Assuming the extension of the column to the foundation is 1.0 m, the height of ~
II
the column equals to:
h = clear height + extention of the column to the foundation = 7.5 + 1.0 = 8.5 m
a b
113.0 100.67
The system is once statically indeterminate. The unknown is the force in 'the
link member. Using the principle of superposition, one can obtain the
y deflection at the end of each column as follows:
The intensity of the wind load on the walls is given as 0.7 kN/m 2• Thus, the
pressure on the walls equals to:
88 89
WXh4 Txh 3
/).=±
8EI 3EI column
wall beam
/). = WI Xh4 Txh
+_ _
3
W_
/). =",2 Xh4 Txh 3 250x,600
1 8 EI 3 EI 2
_
8EI 3EI
waIToeam
250x600 /!. ,olu~
Neglecting the axial defonnation in the equivalent link member, the deflection a I
\0
of the first column /).1 must be equal to the lateral deflection of the second 0_ 
column /).2.
= /).2
~
/).1 'r:
C')
Xh4 Txh 3
w 2 xh
4 3
WI
.!.._+ = Txh

8 EI 3 EI 8 EI 3 EI 'r:
I(")
00
Simplifying the tenns gives the axial force in the link member (T).  r: Ik
0
\0
..s::
0_ 
T = 3xh (W2  WI) = 3x8.5 (2.2753.64) = 2.175 kN (compression)
16 16
2 2
~
MI = WI xh +Txh = 3.64x8.5 + (2.175)x8.5 =113.0 kN.rn oq
2 2 C')
II
2 2 .d'
M = xh w2
Txh= 2.275x8.5 (2.175)x8.5=100.67 kN.rn
222 ~
....
B. Vertical Loads I I
I I
The vertical loads on the column is the summation of the following:
1. Selfweight = 1.4xyc xbxtxh = 1.4x25xO.35x1.3x8.5 = 135.36 kN 1 r
0.35 +_·!·l·_·_·_· x
2. Weight of the wall beams: two wall beams are provided as shown in the TI i I
1.30
following figure.
= 2x1.4xyc xbxt xspacing = 2x1.4x25xO.25xO.6x6.5 = 68.25 kN
90 .91
Item XDirection Y Direction Step 9: Geometric coordinates of the arch
bracing condition unbl,"aced braced The formula for the construction of the arch is given by:
Ultimate load P u (kN) 1545.59 1545.59
y = 4· f· x· (L x) = 4· 3.5· x· (26  x) = 0.0207. (26xx2)
Short column if A<lO A<15 L2 26 2 •
Mu(wind) 113.0 0
Mtot = Mu+ Madd 222.95 0
I L=26m
I
It is clear from the previous table that the Xdirection is more critical than Y
direction. Using an interaction diagram with uniform distribution of reinforcing
steel and with/y= 360 N/mm 2 and S= 0.8, one gets:
~Mwind
Pu = 1545.59xlO00 = 0.113
feu xbxt 30x350x1300
~M.'dd
M ,O' = 222.95 x 10
6
=0.012 1 :
0.351·_·_·!"···3·········
30x350x1300 2
2 X
feu xbxt
T I" 1:30"1
The intersection point is below the chart. Use J.tnnn.
Since the column is long, the minimum reinforcement ratio J.tnnn is given by:
92 93
f::::2
\C
.j:>.
. zglSZO A
z~ZO 4g/S20
JrnI_5@Stm.
1~
2S1t512
o
g 5¢10/m
.....
~ 2S1t512
Sec. AA
16¢518
4S1t525 
~
. 4g/S25
~Ilr
I
[ r ]j
1300..
~I
I
I::... r= 2g/S25
Drr
. 2g/S25
rl
2 g/S 25
r 4S1t525 '4S1t525
.~
Post
\C 0'
o!
Vl 5¢8/m
J
2¢P12 'I II ~C')I
'\.,1
..... I
I IL L L L L
.. ,
~
I
I h ... J1 ... >.
I
2¢P12
I
Detail of ridge beam
~~~,~rnr~f
~~
Elevation
Reinforcement details of ridge beam [..2QQ.l
Post detail
Reinforcement Details of the Arch (cont.)
r
I
Example 1.7: Frame with the north direction is normai to span Solution
The figure below shows the general layout of a workshop that is covered by a Step 1: Propose the concrete Dimensions
structural system that permits indirect lighting. It is required to carry out a
complete design of the roof for such a system. Since the north direction is perpendicular to the sp~' a'itd the spa~ ~quals to
20.0 ms, a system of frames is chosen.
The material properties are /cu=35 N/mm2,/y=360 N/mm2 and/ysF240 N/IIlIll2
Assume the following dimensions:
= 100mm
Ridge beam = (200 mm x 300 mm)
~.~ ~.,!o \~...
I I~
The slab ultimate load Wu is given by:
2
wsu =1.4xgs +1.6xps =1.4x3.S+1.6x.5=5.7 kNlm
Section
96 97
G
~/
Ql
.a
QlO
:og
to X
Go
• 10
gC\l
w
®
Frame
II Column
<@)
B
A  I
I I r RIC Footing ~
.....
Semelle
(250x500)
,I
"
I· 8x2.50=20.0 m
·1
PIC Footina
Sec. BB
Il
700
Fig. Ex 1.7a Structural System (plan) Fig. Ex 1.7b Structural System (Sections)
98 99
Step 3: Design of the secondary beam (200 mm x 500 mm)
~ ,
w=5.7 kNlm' I
The beam crosssection is 200 mm x SOO mm (from step 1).
I· 2.5 m
·1· 2.5m
/
2.5m
./ w u,o,w = 1.4xYe xb xt = 1.4x2SxO.20xO.SO = 3.S kN 1m'
The spacing between the secondary beams is 2.5m, thus the total beam load is
Wu = wu,o,w + spacing X wsu = 3.5 + S.7 X 2.S = 17.75 kN I m'
':'"j.'
~
.
, .',' .
.....  ..
,
3.56 kN.m
The roof slab is a system of oneway slabs that are continuous in the short
direction, thus the maximum negative bending at the support equals to:
\ . 21
XL2 2
M = wsu =5.7X2.5 =3.56kN
u 10 10 .m
6
3.56x10 Rb=49.61
    = 0 .01 6 on frame
35x1000x80 2
From the chart with R=O.016, the reinforcement index 01= 0.0186
The inclined length L' is equal to
As = OJ x leu xbxd =0.0186x 35 x 1000 x 80 = 144.8 mm 2 /m'
Iy 360 L' = ..)2.5 2 + 52 = S.S9 m
100 101
The section at midspan is a Tsection and the width B is given by: 2 2
W xL
M ==u_, 3.525x2.5 = 2.20kN.m
u 10 10
16ts +b {16X100+200 = 1800 mm
_ L 5590 Rr =wu xL=3.525x2.5=8.8125 kN
B thesmaller of 7. S+b = 5+200=1318 mm
{
CL 7 CL 2500 mm
w u=3.525 kNlm'
B= 1318 mm.Using C1J curve and assume that c < ts
C1=d I ~ =4501
6
62.02x10 =12.27
II J II? I I II ,,
,
t 1:
V~ 35x1318 11__ 2.5 +1' 2.5 '1
i
i
The point is outside the curve, thus c/d)min = 0.125 andj = 0.825
i
~~q
0.91
a =0.8xc = 0.8xO.125x450 = 45 mm
= Mu = ~
62.02 x 10
6
. 1.84 RrS.812 RrS·812 I
A = 464 mm 2
s fy xl xd 360xO.825x450 \
To use the R·m, calculate R
0.225JiC 0.225£ 2
6
As min = smaller of fy bd = 360 x 200 x 450 = 333 mm R= Mu = 2.20x10 = 0.005
2
{ feu xbxd 2 35x200x250
1.3 As = 1.3x464 = 603 mm 2
Choose 3$16 (600 mm 2
)
From the chart with R=0.005, the reinforcement index OJ= 0.0058.
I~5~ I 100 2
but not less than 0.15 xbxd = 0.15 x200x250 =75mm
100 100
T 0
0
<"l
2
Thus, A s,mill=75 mm > As, use Asmin
2
Use 2$ 12 (226.2 mm )
:::.....j 200 I
102 103
' • •S'C""
Step 5: Design of the post (200x200 mm) Step 6: Design of the frame (350 mm x 1400 mm)
The factored selfweight ofthe'~~stdOO x 200 mm) equals to:
,.. ~
Post
Secondary beam
h =f t ridge clearance=i.~':Q.3"::'0'.3=1.9m
A 2 Xt
15=
11.42 xO.2 '. rom
2000 2000 = 0.013 m < 0.02m ~.~ ..~.~.~.~..~.~.~>~.,~,~,~,.~.~.~..~.~.~,.
,,<"" c,,""" c,,"""""" «"" «" c,,·
:
_'!J,
 .«~«~«««««« <~<~« «««<.
~
0(" 0(
I
M add = Pu xt5 = 61.92xO.02:== 1.23kN.m I
I
6
P" = 61.92xl000 = 0 044 Mu = 1.23 x 10 = 0.004
feu xb xt 35x 200 x 200 . , feu xb Xt 2 35x 200 x 200 2
The point is below the interaction diagram, use A smin .
f.J = 0.25 + 0.052 x A = 0.84%
Frame
reaction
from post
..... ..... ..... reaction from
200 66.92 66.92
Frame
'g
To simplify the caIculati0ns of the bending moment, the concentrated loads on
the frame caRbe replaceq into uniform load fis follows: . Equivalent loading system
106 107
Step 6.3: Calculation of straining actions =H = wu XL2 = 58.29x202 =186.44kN
The frame is twohinged and is once statiCally indeterminate. The horizontal Ha b 4xhxN 4x6.7x4.666
reaction at the base for uniformly loaded frame is given by
The vertical reaction can be easily obtained as follows:
XL2
H =H = wu
a b 4xhxN y = Wu xL + 0.6x Pu = 58.29x 20 + 66.92 = 649.81 leN
I h . a 2 2
where K =2.x and N = 2K +3
Ie L The moment at top of the column Mcol
The moment of inertia for the column is calculated using tavg = Ha x h avg = 186.44 x 6.7=1249.15 kN
3 The maximum moment at mid span of the frame can be obtained as follows:
I = b xt!g = 0.350 x 1.033 =0.0322m4
e 12 12
M _ wu XL2
3 3 mid  8 Meol
I = bxt = 0.35x1.4 0.08 m 4
b 12 12 2
M _58.29x20 1249.15=1665.3kN.m
mid  8
K = !.!..x!!:.. = 0.08 x 6.7 = 0.833
The bending moment, shear force, and normal force diagrams for the frame are
Ie L 0.0322 20
presented in the next page.
N = 2K +3 = 2xO.833+3 = 4.666
Step 6.4: Design of frame sections
66.92 66.92
wu=58.29 kN/m' The critical sections are shown in the figure below.
1 2
3 _+_3
XL2
Ha = wu
4xhxN 1 2
a
.. .. b
..
L=20
108
109
66.92 66.92
t ..L _, , ,, ,,t
wu=58 29 leN/m'
,
Step 6.4.1: Design of section 1 (350 mm x 1400 mm)
r Section 1 is a rectangular section that is subjected to the following factored
actions:
t'.. Reactions
lei Mu=1665.3 kN.m
186.44 Pu=186.44 kN (compression)
a b
~~ 186.44
".0..
According to the ECP 203; if (PuI!cu b t) is less than 0.04, the nonnal force can
649.81 20 be neglected.
649.81
Pu 186.44 x 1000
~ = = 0.0108 < 0.04 ........ neglect the nonnal force
feu xbxt 35x350x1400
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only.
Frames are usually heavily reinforced and the reinforcing bars are arranged in
1249.15 \:;'~~rrrl~,...,.aJ+, 1249;15
two rows. Therefore, the effective depth is given by:
d = t 100mm = 1400 100 = 1300 mm
Bending moment To use the Rffi, calculateR
diagram 6
R= Mu = 1665.3x10 =0.0804
feu xbxd 2 35x350x1300 2
, From the chart with R=0.0804, the reinforcement index (J)= 0.1028
•
Nonnal force f 35
diagram As = {J)xE!...xbxd = 0.1028xx350x1300 = 4546 mm 2
fy 360
Shearing force
diagram .
Use 10<p25 (4908 mm2)
110
111
Step 6.4.2: Design of section 2 (350 mm x 1400 mm) Buckling in the inplane direction
Section 2 is a rectangular section that is subjected to the following factored The frame is considered unbraced because the lack of any bracing system. The
actions:
effective length factor k can be obtained from the ECP 203. The top part of the
Mu= 1249.15 kN.m Pu=186.44 kN (compression) column is considered case (1) and the bottom part is considered case (3)
According to the ECP 203; if (Pu/leu b t) is less than 0.04, the normal force can (hinged base). Thus, k=1.6.
be neglected.
The height of the column is measured from the bottom of the beam to the base
Pu 186.44xlO00 (h *). However, it is customary to use the length used in the analysis h.
feu xbxt = 35x350x1400 = 0.0108 < 0.04 ........ neglect normal force
He = kxh = 1.6x6.7 = 10.72 m
The design is carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only. The slenderness ratio A is calculated using the average column thickness not
To use the Rro, calculate R the actual one, thus A equals
6
1249.15x10 = 0.0603 ..1= He = 10.72 =10.37
35x350x1300 2 tavg 1.033
Since A is greater than 10, the column. is considered long and additional
From the chart with R = 0.0603, the reinforcement index OJ= 0.075 moment is developed.
fcu 2 2
As =OJx xbxd=0.075x 35 x350x1300=331Omm 2 15 = ..1 xtavg = 10.37 x 1.033 = 0.0556 m 7 (t5av = 15)
fy ' 360
2000 2000
112 113
Assuming that the distance from the concrete to the c.g. of the reinforcement is
Step 7: Design for shear
80 mm. Thus the factor C; equals
The critical section for shear is at dl2 from the face of the column. Thus the
(; = t2xcover = 12002x80 =0.86 design force Qu equals to:
t 1200
Using interaction diagram with/y=360 N/mm2, a.=0.6 and S=0.8 (conservative) Qu =Y a Pedge w u (2.+ d) = 649.8166.9258.29X(1.2 +.!.2) = 510.02 kN
2 2 2 2
p=2.1
=~= 51O.02x1000 =1.12 N/mm 2
J1. = pxfcu x1O4 = 2.1x35x1O4 = 0.00735 qu bxd 350x1300
2
As = J1.xb xt = 0.00735x350x1200 = 3087 mm 2 (7<P25, 3436 mm )
Critical section
A; =a·As =0.6x3087=1852mm 2 (4<P25, 1963 mm2)
2 0.6 Pu==66.92
AS.lolal =A; +As =3436+1963 = 4939mm
Since the column is long the minimum reinforcement ratio is given by:
J1.min = 0.25 + 0.052 A, = 0.25 + 0.052 x 10.37 = 0.789 , use J.l.min=0.008
1
2
t2==1.20 /1 ,
As.min = 0.008xbxt = 0.008x350x1200 = 3360 mm < As.lol ...... ·o.k _._. '','' ''' 1··_· ._._._._. '''i''
l I _1....._
1
Pu == 1000 (0.35X35x(350x700) + 0.67x360xI960) == 3474kN > (649.8} ..... o.k
footing
2
Use 9<P25, 4415 mm >Asmin
4<1>12 Ya==649.81
~ [] 1 The presence of the compression force increases the shear capacity of the
beam, however, this force is relatively small that its effect can be neglected
(conservative)
I· 700mm
·1 qcu =0.24~fcu
1.5
=0.24~35
1.5
=1.15 Nlmm 2
114 115
5~25
~
~~25
Since qu < qcu, provide minimum amount of stirrups.
~ LI 4~25
,
Q
3 7f9l25 wi
Assume that stirrups spacing is 200 mm IllJIlH+I*
I WillJI II
A 0.4 0.4 2
:'I,min =xbxs =x350x200=117 mm
i y 240
4~25 ull
Ast,min is the area of two branches. For one branch, Ast=58 mm2 (<1>10=78.5 1400 300
mm2) CI.l 1 1 1 .
Choose <I> 1O@ 200 mm (5<1>1O/m') ; I!II~ ]~]g
J I\)
.~ ~
>' ~ I\) I\)
e '§: '§:
'§: ~ ~
I\) I\) I\) I\) I\)
01
~
(D
~
Q
S· 3
.,Cl'
n I
(D
S
(D
1400 300 ~
=
...... CI.l
I 1 I
I\)
I!I~ lJ]g
t:::1 CD 18
(D
..... ~
II' tv 101 I\)
~/.N~
I
== tv
t
fI> I\)
01
0
..... '§: '§:
......
.....
~~
~
=
I\)
01
~
I\)
L
I\)
'
I\)
......
I\)
I\)
01
 
(D
.,
~
<11
"§: a
'§:
01 01
II' Q I\)
01
S 3 I
(D
I ~
I I 01
"§:
Q
3
I\)
a
7¢P25
~ ~
r I ~
2¢P12
CI.l
CD
[~ h
I 2¢P12
~ ~
w I\)
e
~
I
w l e ~ 2¢P12
' ~ ~ Q
3
' ~ 4</P25
~ 
I\)

I\)
116
Example 1. 8: Frame with north direction parallel to the span
The figure given below shows the general layout of a factory covered by a
structural system that permits indirect lighting. The main structural system of
the workshop is reinforced concrete frames. It is required to carry out a
complete design of the roof of such a system together with the frame.
The material properties arefcu=30 N/mm2,h=400 N/mn'J? andhsF280 N/mm2
'iN
Ii:
,...t N
.,...
N
119
118
Solution
Step 1: Propose the concrete dimensions N~
Since the north is parallel to the span, a system of frames with Ybeams is
'chosen. cp ~B ~i ~i ~i
Assume the following dimensions
t5
Ridge beam
= 100 mm
= (200 mm x550 mm)
r

i .
@
bg =350 mm
Span =20m
tg = span/(12+ 14) = 1.6 m
E

 Vbeam
®
@
fA
tcol,top=(O.8 tg+tg) = 1.4 m 0
Il'i
C\I ~ 200/(300x800)

Il'i E
Spacing between frames = 5.0 m ~ ID
C\i
(350x1600)
@
is given by
gs = ts x25 + flooring = O.lx 25 + 1.0 =3.5 kN 1m 2
Assuming that the live load is equal to 0.5 kN/m2 , the ultimate load Wsu is given
r®
by JB
~I
4x5.0=20.0 m
wsu =1.4xg s +1.6xps =1.4x3.5+1.6x.5=5.7 kNlm 2 1
Plan
Fig. Ex 1.8a Structural system (plan)
120 121
The roof is a system of oneway slabs that are continuous in the short direction.
Thus, the maximum moment can be obtained as shown in the following figure.
Slab (100mm)
w=5.7 kNlm' ,
3.56 kN.m
Section AA 2 2
M = w.u xL =5.7x2.5 =3.56kN.m
u 10 10
Assuming 20 mm cover, the effective depth d = 100  20 = 80 mm
Taking a strip of 1.0 m width and using Rro curve, the value of R is given by:
Ridge beam Slab (100mm) Sec. beam
'"
200x550 " ' " 200x500 \ 6
R= Mu = 3.56x10 =0.0185
' 2
leu xbxd 30x 1000 x 80 2
I
r From the chart with R=0.0185, the reinforcement index (J)= 0.022
~. I· ~ 2
I Vbeam /
200/(300x800}
200x200
Frame girder./'
350x1600 ,....E
As =(J)x~xbxd
Iy
=0.022xx1000x80=132 mm 1m
400 .
N
0.15
I Wall beam E
U)
2
As,min =x1000x80= 120mm 1m <As ... o.k
ci 100
250x500
E
<Xl
N Choose 5ct>8/m'(250 mm2)
122 123
16t s +b {16XlOO + 200 =1800 mm
L 5590
B=thesmallerof 7 +b = 5+ 200 =1318mm
{ 5
CL 7 CL 2500 mm
B=1318 mm
Using CJ curve, and assuming a < ts
Cl=d/~
6
Mu =4501 62.01x10 =11.36
feu xB 30x1318
~=49.61
on post The point is located outside the curve, thus cld)min=0.125 and j=0.825
a = 0.8xc = 0.8xO.125x450 = 45 mm
Since a < ts (100 mm), the assumption is valid.
6
A = Mu = 62.01x10 =417.6 mm 2
s fy xJxd 400xO.825x450
~
R wuxL' 17.75x5.59 oo . ~:~';".,..:..,
... .;"'. ~~:
I
I
=2 2 =49.61 kN
~ T ml; '.::...:
b
The section at midspan is aTsection and the effective width B is taken as: :;/'>
0 ••
:I
124 125
Wu = W u•o.w + Wu X cantilever length = 3.85 + 5.7xO.25 = 5.275kN I m' T
I
Step 5: Design of the post (200 mm x 200 mm)
IfI11:.5 1 If' 11 Ii
wu=5.275 kNlm I The factored self weight of the post (200 mm x 200 mm) equals to:
11 \
Pow = l.4x25xb xt xh = 1.4x25xO.2xO.2x2.5 = 3.5 kN
11 2.5 The post supports loads from the ridge beam and from. the secondary beam.
Pu = po.w + ~ (secandrybeam) + Pr (ridge beam)
126 127
'M$.!!""""·
"j
Step 6: Design of the Vbeam (200/300 mm x 800 mm) The loads on the Ybeam result from the secondary beam and fro the post
Step 6.1: Loads and straining actions every 2.5 m, causing concentrated loads at these locations
The crosssection of the Ybeam is shown below. The effective crosssection of Pu =66.3+49.61=115.91 kN
the beam can be taken as (300 mm x 500 mm) or (200 mm x 800 mm). The last
choice is more economical because it permits larger depth. Post
Lateral torsional buckling of the compression flange might occur because the
upper part of the beam is not connected to the slab (part A). To avoid that, the
Secondary
ECP 203 requires that the unsupported length between the inflection points be
beam
less than
Ybeam
Secondary beam
The Ybeam is a continuous beam having more than three equal spans. The
, reactions and the bending moments can be determined using a computer
program or a simplified analysis. Using the simplified analysis, the bending
moments can be computed as the superposition of the bending moments due to
the concentrated loads and those due the uniform loads. Theses values can be
obtained in text books of structural analysis.
The value of the bending moment at the support due to the concentrated load is
The factored selfweight equals to (Pu x L 16.22), wh\le that at midspan is (Pu x L 15.89)~ On the other hand the
wu,o.w = 1.4x Yc x (b1 xt1 + b2 xt2 ) values of the bendmg moments due to uniform loads at the support and at mid
span are wL2/IO and WL2/12, respectively.
wu,o.w =1.4x2S(0.2xO.80+0.lOx0.50) =7.35 kN 1m'
2 2
M =,wu xL + Pu xL = 7.35x5 + 115.91x5 =111.55 kN.m
b(ve) 10 6.22 10 6.22
128
129
2 2
M = Wu xL + Pu xL = 7.35x5 + 115.91x5 = 113.71 kN.m 0.225.JJ:: b d = 0.225.J30 x200x750:::; 462 mm 2
a(+ve) 12 5.89 12 5.89 Iy 400
1.3A s = 1.3 x 454 = 590 mm 2
The maximum reaction at any interior support due to the concentrated loads
Use4<I>14 (615 mm 2)
and due to the uniform loads are equal to (2.15 Pu x L) and (1.1 Wu xL),
respectively. Since the bending moment at section 2 is very close to that of section 1, the
same reinforcement is used.
Ry = 1.1xwu xL+ 2.15xPu = l.1x7.35x5 + 2.15x115.91 = 289.64 kN
t t t t t wu=7.35 kNlm /1
l' I
a '17t I I I ,17' I I I ! i The shear on the Ybeam can be calculated as follows:
A
1
I
M.ve=1l1.55 kN.m
131
130
Step 7: Design of the frame (350 mm x 1600 mm)

Step 7.2: Calculation of the straining actions
Step 7.1: Dimensioning The frame is twohinged and is once statically indeterminate. The horizontal
reaction at the base can be estimated by:
From step 1, the dimensions of the frame girder are 350 mm x 1600 mm.
The thickness of the column at the top is taken as (0.81 tg) and at the bottom as uniform load
(0.40.6 tg). ,Thus, the thickness of the column at the top is taken equal to 1400
concentrated load
mm and at the bottom is taken equal to SOO mm. The own weight of the frame
equals to: where
The frame carries its own weight and the reaction of the Ybeam. The
concentrated loads are equal to the reactions of the Ybeam (289.64 kN). At the N=2K+3
edges the reaction can be estimated as 0.6 R y =173.78 kN. The height of the The moment of inertia for the column is calculated using tave
frame leg h is measured from the footing to the centerline of the girder. bXt!g 3
1= 0.350x1.2 = 0.0504m4
e 12 12
h = clear height +!.L + hi = 5 + 1.6 + 1.0 = 6.S0m 3 3
 2 2 I = bxt = 0.35x1.6 =0.119
The frame column has a variable moment of inertia. To simplify the b 12 12
calculations, an average column thickness measured at 2/3h is used.
2 2 K = ~x!!: = 0.119 x 6.S = 0.806
tavg =tl +(t2 t l ) = O.S +(1.40.8) = 1.2 m Ie L 0.0504 20
3 3
N =2K +3= 2xO.806+3 =4.61
, _
I
~ t.t.lVg=1.2
Ib . al=5•I b l=15
I
00
I a ~.I \ci
I
• <r) Ie II
I
I ..s:: II ..s:: Ie
wu XL2
J
I
I
I
I
Ha Ha=I 3xp" x(aixb)
I
a 4xhxN
 Hb b a _ 2xhxLxN lIb b
co
Reactions
\Q
M 101·d = 19.6x202
8 + 289.64x20
4 + 289.64x51602.6 = 2273.81 kN.m
Normal force
The bending moment, the shear force, and the normal force diagrams for the
frame are given in figure below. diagram
630.46 r ___ .
+
Shearing force
I diagram
134 135
Step 7.3: Design of the frame sections 235.67 X 1000
     = 0.014 < 0.04 ........ neglect the normal force
feu xbxt 30x350xl600
Step 7.3.1: Design of section 1 (350 mm x 1600 mm)
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only.
Section 1 is a rectangular section that is subjected to 6
R= Mu = 1602.57 X 10 = 0.067
Mu=2273.81 kN.m & Pu=235.67 kN feu xbxd 2 30x350x1500 2
If (P,1!cu b t ) is less than 0.04, the normal force can be neglected. From the chart with R=0.067, the reinforcement index (0::0.085
Pu 235.67 x 1000 f· ~ 2
A = {()xE!!.xbxd = 0.085xx350xI500 = 3346 mm
feu xbxt = 30x350x1600 = 0.014 < 0.04 ........ neglect the normal force s fy 400
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only. 0.225.Ji: b d = 0.225$0 x350x1500=1617 mm 2
Since frames are usually heavily reinforced, the bars are usually arranged in at As min =the smaller of fy 400
{
least two rows. 7 d = t 100 = 1600 100= 1500 mm 1.3As = 1.3 x 3346 = 4350 mm 2
2273.81x10 6
~.: = 0.096 Use 8<1>25 (3926 mm2) , see reinforcement details
30x350x1500 2
From the chart with R =0.096, the reinforcement index {()= 0.126
Step 7.3.3: Design of section 3 (350 mm x 1400 mm)
As = {()X feu xbxd =0.126x 30 x350x1500 = 4961 mm 2
fy 400 Buckling in the outofplane direction
The frame is considered unbraced in the outofplane direction because of the
0.225J.i:: b d = 0.225$0 X 350 X 1500 =1617 mm 2
lack of any bracing system.
fy 400
From Fig. Ex. 1.8b, it can be determined Ho=2.8. The effective length factor k
1.3As = 1.3x4961 = 6449 mm 2 is obtained with case (I) at top and bottom. Thus, k=1.2.
He =kxH o =1.2x2.8=3.36m
Use 9<1>28 (5541 mm2)
H 3.36
A =_e =   =9.6 < 10 (case of unbraced columns)
The stirrup hangers are taken as 15% of As , which gives 831 mm2 (3<1>20). b 0.35
The shrinkage bars should not be less than 8% from As with a maximum Thus, no additional moments are induced in the outofplane direction.
distance between bars of 300 mm. This gives 443 mm2 (8<1> 12)
Buckling in the inplane direction
The frame is considered unbraced because the lack of any bracing system. The
Step 7.3.2: Design of section 2 (350 mm x 1600 mm)
top part of the column is considered case (1) and the bottom part is considered
Section 2 is a rectangular that is subjected to case (3) (hinged base). Thus k=1.6.
Mu= 1602.57 kN.m & Pu=235.67 kN The height of the column is measured from the bottom of the beam to the base
If (Puffeu b t) is less than 0.04, the normal force can be neglected. (h *). However, it is customary to use the length used in the analysis h.
136 137
He =kxh = 1.6x6.8 =10.88 m
TI Step 7.3.4: De~ign of section 4 (350 mm x 800 mm)
The slenderness ratio A is calculated using an average column thickness not the This section is subjected to a pure compression force (PIl=804.24 kN) and can
actual one, thus A equals be reinforced with the minimum area of steel.
moment is developed. p = _1_ (0.35 X 30 X (350 X 800) + 0.67 X 400 X 2240) = 3540 kN > (804.24) ... .o.k
u 1000
M=1602.57 kN.m & Pu=804.24 kN
From the frame reinforcement details As=8cI>25, 3927 mm2 > As,min
Due to the fact that column sections are subjected to large normal force, it is
recommended to use compression steel between 40%60% of the tension steel 4<1>12
to ensure ductile behavior. Use the interaction diagram (a=0.6).
~1
'?:
Pu = 804.24x1000 =0.0547
feu xbxt 30x350x1400
l. c.
6
• • •
Mu = 1602.57 X 10 = 0.077
feu xbxt 2 30x350x1400
2
800 rnrn
Assuming that the distance from the concrete to the c.g. of the reinforcement is
80 mm; Thus the factor I;: equals
I· I
{; = t 2xcover = 14002x80 =0.89
t 1400 Step 8: DeSign for shear
Using a interaction diagram with fF 400 N/mm2, a=0.6, and 1;:=0.9 7
The critical section for shear is at d/2 from the face of the column. Thus the
p=1.9 design force Qu equals to:
Jl = px feu X 104 = 1.9x30x1O4 = 0.0057
Qu =ya
0.6P
u
w u(!2+~)=804.24173'7819,6(1.4+~)=602,04kN
22 22
2
As = Jlxbxt = 0.0057x350x1400 = 2793 mm 2 (8cI>25, 3926 mm )
2
A; = a· As = 0.6 x 2793 = 1676 mm 2 (4cI>25, 1963 mm ) =~ = 602.04x1000 = 1.147 N/mm 2
2
qu bxd 350x1500
AS.lolal = A; + As = 3926 + 1963 = 5889 mm
The presence of the compression force increases the shear capacity of the
Since the column is short, the minimum reinforcement ratio is 0.008.
girder. however, this fprce is relatively small and can be !leglected
A s.min = 0.008xbxt = 0.008x350x1400 = 3920 mm 2 < As.lol .......o.k (conservative),
l38 l39
1(")
Critical section
::II
0.6 PU=173.78j f:r shear
1 w u19.6 i 1(") ~
:0
fl I I aJ J J I I rr,
10
tOs&I .
 0    .. _._._._._._.I._._._._._._._.L. SZ¢P8 ~
I i i
1.4 
I
I  i u¢Pz ~ I
1
r ... ('f')
r
I
1d/2 GJ¢PZ I
~ L0
I ('f')
I
I
w/O~¢S U
z~¢PG Jo
I (\)
I CZl
I
I
I
z~¢Pz ~ f
I
I
sz¢Pv III:........ IL
I
~
:e.
co 0
E Q)
!3
(II
0 co co
{}.
co .:::
Ii ..
C\I
C\I
 Q)
Ya=804.24
=§,
C') t .. 10
C\I
=§,
C\I
..
=§,
C\I
..
=§,
C\I
..
=§,
C\I
..
=§,
co
C\I
=§, ....=.....
0
co C\I C\I C\I C\I 10 M
'"
m
I
==
qcu = 0.24
H.i
E!L
1.5
= 0.24  o = 1.07 N I mm 2
1.5
(Neglect the effect of Pu) I~ jl]I M
U
Q)
VJ.
'C
(II
.....
Q)
.....
0 co
I 009~
I =
Q)
E oS
qsu = qu  qcu = 1.147  1.07 = 0.61 N I mm 2 0 .13
2 2 :e.co ~
co
101m' (Ast=2x78.5=157 mm2) (10 mm diameter is chosen because of the
0 C\I C\I C\I C\I
Try <I> C\I .. .. .. .. C\I
=§, ~ ~ =§, ~ =§,
I' 1'' '
heavy reinforcement of the frame) C') C\I C\I C\I C\I (J) .......
.......I
It ~~I]1 u
(\)
CZl
I'
1':'
I 009~
I
0.61 157x280/1.15 {\J {\J
350xs gG~t
. sz_v
gG~g
~
Astmm' = OA xbxs = 0.4 x350x166 = 83mm 2 <A t (157 mm2) .....o.k ,
' iy 280 ! SGfI't jJ :0
~
gG~t
140 141
I 5¢8/m,
21P12 sl I 250 200
I 21P12 s1 21P12
I 0
.....
t!3
",11.
'> t'
Reinforcement details of ridge beam
~ 2\l'12 A
____
1 m 5¢8/m
~~~~~~,~
tt '>
."14
A ____
t
~
Sec.B B
2stJS12 o
4~14__ .. _ .. _ , \ 4stJS14 o
LO
\ 2stJS14 /
2stJS14 2~14
, 2stJS14 , ,
. 2~14 , , 2stJS14
Elevation Sec. AA
Reinforcement details ofYbeams
"~
.~
Post
g !lli11
LO
1/
4~12
~~t~2Fil~
~~
~
post detail
Ybeam
1.7 Arched Slab Systems
1.7.1 Introduction
Arched slabs are commonly used to cover relatively large spans. The spans can
range from 12.0 ms to 25.0 ms. The forces developed in the arched slabs are
mainly compression combined with small amount of bending moments.
Therefore, such a structural system is a very efficient reinforced concrete
structure. The advantages of using arched slabs can be summarized as follows:
• Permits covering large areas free of columns.
• Leads to shortening the construction period. earn
• Allows economical use of the construction materials because concrete
mainly subject to compression.
144 145
Ii
"
ts(crown)
The arched slab acts as a oneway curved slab as shown in Fig. 1.20. The rise of
the arch f is determined as a ratio of the span L. The recommended rise/span
ratio is about 114 to 118. The main reinforcement is provided in the span
direction and the secondary reinforcement is provide in the longitudinal
direction. The amount of secondary reinforcement is usually 20%~25% of the
cross sectional area of the main steel.
Brick wall
.E
Column Horizontal beam
Wall beam Secondary
reinforcement direction
Span (L)
Vertical
beam
direction
(SEC. A  A)
2
L
A~~~==============================~
E
«S
Cf)
.2l
~o
N
.~
Fig. 1.20 A segment of the arched slab
I
B~+I"================================~ The reaction of the arched slab at the support is inclined as shown in Fig. 1.21.
This inclined reaction can be analyzed in the vertical and horizontal directions.
Cf) Vertical beam It is customary to provide vertical and horizontal beams to resist these forces.
Tie
c~+.~============================== ..
Column Fig. 1.21 Supportiug beams of ,
the arched slab.
D~+.~=============================="
Arched slab
Reaction
Horizontal
Plan reaction
Fig. 1.19b Arched slab with a tie reaction
146 147
The vertical beam provides a support to the vertical component of the reaction 1.7.3 Structural Analysis of Arched Slabs
as shown in Fig. 1.22. It is analyzed as continuous beam supported on columns. Two types of arched slabs are commonly used; a) parabolic arched slab and b)
On the other hand, the horizontal beam provides a support to the horizontal circular arched slab. Parabolic arched slabs are more efficient systems because
component of the reaction. It is analyzed as continuous beam supported on the the centerline of the arch coincides with the line of pressure, resulting in zero
ties. If the tie is not provided, the horizontal beam will be directly supported on
columns. In such a case, the columns will be subjected to large concentrated bending moment.
forces at the top resulting in large bending moments. Two sections are usually considered when designing the arched slab, namely;
the section at the quarter point and the section at the support. The section at the
quarter point is subjected to both compression and bending moment, while the
section at the support is subjected to normal force (compression) only.
where
r isthe radius of the arch, and x and y are coordinates of any point on the arch ..
The radius of the arch may obtained using the rise of the arch / and the span L
Fig. 1.22 Vertical and horizontal beams of archedslab system by observing the triangle mno as follows
r2 =(LI2)2+(rfi .................................. (1.10)
f
n m
rf
r y r
",o~'_ _'" x
149
148
Section at the quarter point II
II I I II
The quarter point is subjected to a bending moment and a compression force.
The quarter point of the arch is obtained by bisecting the angle 9 to point 01 as
shown in Fig. 1.24. It is a well known geometric fact that the tangent slope (ex)
at point 0, must equal 9/2, thus
a=BI2 ............................................... (1.12)
..
HDL
H
.. WLL
II I I
L
o
b: Moments due to live load covering half of the slab
Fig. 1.24 Analysis of a circular arch at the quarter point 0 1
The critical load combination is the dead load covering the whole span and the
live load covering half of the span. Figure 1.25 shows the bending moment for \I I !
different load cases. I I I II
The values of both vertical and horizontal reactions due to dead and live loads
are given in Table 1.5.
" I I
(+
Table 1.5 Values of the reactions in circular arched slabs
Item Dead load covering the whole span Live load ~overing
H
half of the span ..
R, w DL xLI2 3W LL XLI8
L
R2 W DL xLI2 W LL XLI8
c: Moments due to combineddead and live loads
H 2
W DL xL /(8/) W LLXL2 /(16/) Fig. 1.25 Bending moments in circular arched slabs
151
150
= r sin (~)
For flat arches the nonnal force at the quarter point can be approximated by:
x .................................................. (1.17)
H
Pu =  ................. ;............................ (1.13)
cos a
y=.Jr 2 x 2 ................................................... (1.18)
However, the exact value of the compressive P u and shearing force Qu can be
obtained from simple structural analysis at point 01 as follows: Y1 == y(r f) .................: .............................. (1.19)
Pu = H cos a+Qsina ................................... (1.14)
XC ==L 12x .................................................. (1.20)
Qu = Qcosa H sin a ................................... (1.15) Carrying out the structural analysis, the moment at the quarter point 01 may be
obtained. For example, the negative mo~ent at the quarter point due to live
Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces, respectively, at the loads on half of the span equals to:
quarter point as shown in Fig. 1.26.
M<ve)LL == R2LL xc HLL Y1 ........................... (1.21)
Referring to Fig. 1.24 and from triangle omn, one can get the following relation: Where
R2LL ==W LL xL 18
B=sin1 LI2 .......................... ;................ (1.16) HLL ==W LL xL2/(16f)
r
Table 1.6 Values of the bending moments and the normal forces at the
Q quarter point of a circular arch.
152 153
M (ve)DL = k 1 X W DL X L2 .................................. (1.22) 1.7.3.2 Parabolic Arched Slabs
The equation of the axis of the parabolic arch according to Fig. (1.28) is given
M (ve)U = k 2 X WLL X L2 .................................. (1.23) by:
where
Pu = k4 xH ..................................................... (1.25)
f = the rise of the arch
L = the span of the arch 
Section at the Support
The section at the support is subjected to a normal force only. To obtain the
maximum forces (pU/,=), the whole span should be covered with both dead and
live loads as shown in Fig 1.27.
II I I I I I I I ! I I I II
R
max
Wu L
=   .................................................. (1.27)
2
p. =H J1+e{ J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1.31)
Pu,max = H max cos e + Rmax sin e ............................. (1.28) The exact value of the compression force can be obtained from simpl~
structural analysis as shown in Fig. 1.29 and is given by:
Noting that the angle of the tangent at the support equals e, one gets: Pu =H cos a+Qsina .................................. (1.32)
e = sin (L 1
:2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1.29) Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces at the quarter point.
154 155
Q
Section at the Support
H ~~~~ The section at the support is subjected to a nonnal force only. To obtain the
maximum forces (Pumax), the whole span should be covered with both dead and
live loads as shown in Fig. 1.30. .
H
II ! " ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! II
The values of both the vertical and the horizontal reactions due to dead and live
loads are given in Table 1.7 (Refer to Fig. 1.28).
H max =
W
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L2
(1.34)
Table 1.7 values of the reactions in parabolic arches Rmax =w u L ........................................... (1.35)
2
Item Dead load covering the Live load covering half
pu •max = H max ,cos () + Rmax sin () ...................... (1.36)
span the span
RI w DL xLI2 3w LL xLI8 where e is the tangent angle at the support and can be obtained by
differentiating Eq. 1.30, and substituting with x=O.
R2 w DL xLI2 W LL xLI8 I 4f
y = tan(} =  ...................................... (1.37)
L
H 2
w DL xL 1(8f) W LL xe 1(16f) Alternatively, Pumax can be obtained by
Moment(M) 0 ±w LL xL 164
2
P",max =~ H!.x + R!..x ..................................... (1.38)
156 157
Example 1.9: Design of a Circular arched slab
20.0m
A machinery room spans 20 ms is shown in Fig. EX 1.9~ It is required to carry
out a complete design of the roof that is covered by a circular arched slab. The ,
clear height of the room is 6.4 ms and the height of the crown is 4.0 IllS. The @
material properties are: /cu=30 N/mm2, fY =400 N/mm2, and fYst =240 N/mm2.
The weight of plastering and finishing materials may be assumed 0.60 kN/m 2 • 
The live load may be assumed 0.90 kN/m 2•

Solution
E
E~~
~ E Horizontal Beam
Step 1: Propose the concrete dimensions cu
III
0
250 x 900 mm .
as x
Ie r...
.9 0
1: ..,
The arched circular slab is the chosen as the main system with the following ~ (0)
dimensions: ® 
A A
Arched slab
t5 (midspan) = 100mm + Tie
4
250x250 \
t5 (quarter point) = 125mm
._ 
t5 (edge) = 150mm E co
./
0 EO
:;]1'
Vertical beam = (350 mm x 750 mm) cO OX
(0)
0
II ..,
(.)0
<0
Tie = (250 mm x 250 mm) @ 
Hanger =(250 mm x 250 mm)
Columns =(250 mm x 700 m)
The spacing between the ties = 6.0 m
B  
®
A '.
Plan
Fig. EX. 1.9a A Hall covered with an arched slab
158 159
OSLX09E
Step 2: Calculations of loads
In order to calculate the forces acting of the arched slab system it is necessary to
determine the radius of the arc. Referring to Eq. 1.11 anq triangle mno in the
figure below, one can get:
o 2 2
cO
E ..... r=( LI2i+f 10 +42 =14.5m
:::I X
15:5 2f 2x4
°N
From triangle mno the angle e equals
e =sm. 1 L 12
=sm
r
. 1 10
 = 4360
.
14.50
1
f;I;l k
~
,.Q
c:7\
E ~
~
0
ci
"I f;I;l n m
....bil
~
r4
r
WOv·g
o
E
E
~
n
1 L
I
Eo
r= alo
(1)<0
.a X
=0
allO
:;::"1
The self weight of the arched slab may be calculated using the thickness at the
quarter point (125 mm).
2
ow.=ycxtavg =25xO.125=3.125kN 1m
WO·v I
160 161
20
The factored dead load is given by: R2 x20 = 5.75x20x+1.44x1Ox5
. 2 R2 =61.1kN
2
WUDL = 1.4 (ow. + plaster weight) = 1.4x(3.125 +0.6) =5.21 kN 1m 20
RI x20 = 5.75x20x+1.44xlOx15 RI =68.3 kN
The dead load calculated for the horizontal projection is given by: 2
L' 5 22.07 2 To obtain the horizontal thrust H, the moment is taken at the middle hinge as
WUDL =W UDL X= .21x=5.75 kN 1m (H.P.)
L 20 follows:
Noting that the live loads on curved surfaces are always given on the horizontal
projection, the slab factored live load (w VU) is given by: (5.75+ 1.44) x 202
2
2 =80.88 kN
WULL = 1.6xw LL = 1.6xO.9 = 1.44 kN 1m 8x4
2
The total factored load Wu = WUDL +w ULL = 5.75 + 1.44 == 7.2 kN 1m OR
H x4 = RI xlOw u x1Ox5 = 68.3xlO7.19xlOx5 7 H=80.88 kN
Step 3: Design the arched slab critical sections
There are two critical sections; the first section is at the quarter point and the
second one is at the support. The point at midspan is assumed to act as a hinge wuu=1.44 kNlm'
due to its reduced thickness. Taking 1m width of the slab, the acting loads are tJ J I J J I II I J I J
shown in the following figure. WUDL=5.75 kNlm'
Step 3.1: Section at the quarter point (t$= 125 mm) I II I I I I I I I I I III
Quarter point y Quarter point
Step 3.1.1: Straining actions
To obtain the maximum moment at the quarter point, only half of the arch is
covered by the live load.
..
\
\ 80.88
lO\lll
wULL=1.44 kNlm' RI=68.3 t~I"I
~5.38 x=5.38 R2=61.1
I I I I I I I I I I I I ~\~~~~~~~~~~~~~
\
\
\
WUDL=5.75 kNlm' \
\
\
II J J I I I I I I II y
\
\
\
'\ 8/2
\
\
163
162
:II~I
."
I! The horizontal distance from the center of the arch is given by: H= 80.88 kN, and
Q =61.15.75x4.615 =34.6 kN
r,!
=rsin(~)=14.5XSin(4~.6)=5.385m
1.11
>:~ x
1'i a=~= 43.6 =21.8°
2 2
Xc =LI2x =105.385=4.615 m
Pu = 80.88 cos 21.8 + 34.6sin 21.8 = 87.94kN
The height of the arc (y I) at the quarter point equals to: Q' = 34.6 cos 21.8  80.88 sin 21.8 = 2.08 kN
y =.Jr2  X 2 = .J14.52  5.38 2 = 13.46 m Q=34.6
YI = i  (r  j ) = 13.64  (10.5) = 2.96 m
18.66kN.m Alternatively, the bending moment and the normal force may be obtained using
Table 1.6 as follows:
j 4
==0.2
L 20
From the table withjlL=0.2, one can determine that,
k 1=0.00384,k2=0.01745, k3=0.01361, 14=1.0872
· 2 2
Bending moment diagram M (ve)DL = kl XW UDL xL = D.00384x5.75x20 =8.84 kN.m
164 165
Step 3.1.2: Calculate the reinforcement
Step 3.2: Section at the support (t=150 mm)
The section at the quarter point is subjected to combined compression force and
bending moment. The thickness of the arch at this location is 125 mm. Step 3.2.1: Straining actions
3
_P_u_ = 87.99 X 10 = 0.023 < 0.04 . To obtain the maximum reaction at the support, the full arch is covered by the
feu b t 30x1000 x125 live and dead loads as shown in figure.
Thus the normal force can be neglected, and designed for moment only. Wu=WUDL+ WULL= 7.2 kNlm /
d =t., Cover =12520=105 mm I I I I I I I I I I I I1
R =
I
Mu
feu b d
2
= 18.8x10
6
30x1000 x105 2
=0.057
0) =0.07
"
L____________________ ~2~O~m~ __________________~
Rmax 
Equivalent load system and reactions
H= 90 kN.
Q = Rmax = 72 kN
Reinforcement details for the slab
Pu.max =90 cos 43.6 + 72 sin 43.6 = 114.8 kN
166
167
Step 3.2.3: Design for shear .
.
Accordmg to the ECP 203 , the slab shear strength is calculated usmg the
following relation:
,
qcu
=0.16~fcu
15
=0.16 (30 =0.715 N
~~,
Imm 2
Hmax=90kN
Q'  9.9xlOOO =0.07 N Imm 2 (verysafe)
qu  b xd 1000x130
As = 100
0.6 X1000 X150 = 900 mm 2 (top and bottom)
A.leachface =450 mm 2
Using the same reinforcement determined from the section at the quarter span
As,top=As,boF 5 cP 12/m'=565 m2 > (450 mm 2) Hmax=90 leN/m'
A IOlal = 2x565 =1130 mm 2 in the
tie
~
~
168 169
Step 4.2: flexural design
The factored weight of the vertical and horizontal beams equals:
Sec. 1:
ow. = 1.4x25x (0.35xO.75 +0.25x0.55)/106 = 14 kN 1m'
W S2
The total factored load on the vertical beam equals: Mu =   = 258 kN.m
12
Wu =Rmax+ ow =72+14=86kN 1m' 6
R = Mu = 258 X 10 = 0.05 0)=0.0613
In which Rmax is the vertical reaction obtained from the analysis of a strip of 1.0 1 I eu b d 2 30x350 x700 2
m width of the arched slab.
As = m leu b ~d =0.0613 30 x350x 700 = 1126 mm
2
Iy 400
IllOO~
w u =86 kNlm'
II Iii I I I III Choose 6 <I> 16 (As = 1206 mm2). The secondary reinforcement is chosen as at
least 0.10.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12.
I S=6.0
'I S=6.0
I Sec. 2
W S2
Mu ==309.6 kN.m
24 10 12 10
~~ ___________~
____________
~ __k 6
R = Mu = 309.6 x 10 =0.06 0)=0.0746
+12 +16 I leu bd 2
30x 350 X 700
2
4
~Bending
129
309.6 258 Iy
Choose 5 <I> 20 (As = 1570 mm
400
2
)
170 171
I)
,I
I,
I Q ==k q
u
Wu c
Lw u ( +
22
d) 86 (250
==0.6x86x6.0x  +700)
 ==268.75 kN
100022 _ M u == 270 X 10 = 0.05
6
__ (t) = 0.061
R  f cu b d 2 30 x 250 X 8502 .
=~== 268.7xlOoo =1.096N Imm2 f w 2
qu b xd 350 x 700 A = (J}E!b xd = 0.061x250x 850 =972 mm
s fy 400
Since qu> qcu, shear reinforcement is needed. The secondary reinforcement is chosen as 0.10.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12.
A 93.9
Thus, the area of one branch =1L =  _ = 46.95 mm 2
2 2 ,.....
\0
172
173
Sec. 2: Qu =k q Wu Lwu
(
2"c) =0.6x90x6.090x (0.25)
2 =312.75 kN
W S2 90x6 2
Mu =10 =l ( ) = 324 kN.m 312.75x1000 =1.47 N Imm 2
250x850
6
R = Mu = 324 X 10
= 0.074
I =0% (j)
feu b d 2 30 x 250 X 8502 •
qcu =0.24!tCU =0.24 (30 =1.07Nlmm
2
. 1.5 ~~
feu b
A S O)f X
d = 0 .074x250x850=1180mm
30 2
Since qu> qcu, shear reinforcement is needed.
y 400
1.07 2
Step 5.2: Design for shear Assuming a spacing of 125 mm, the shear reinforcement area is given by:
The crit~ca! secti~n for sh~ar is at th.e face of the middle support because the A =qslI xbxs =0.935 x 250x125=140mm 2
support ~s ill tensIOn (the tie). The cntical section is at section (1) as shown in sl fy I Ys 240/1.15
figure wIth code coefficient of kq =0.6.
A· 140
Thus, the area of one branch =E. =  = 70 mm 2
Qu =k q Wu L wu (%) Shear
2 2
Kq 2 Use ¢10@125mm ~ 8¢101 m '
Use 4> 10=78 mm
2
ASI min = 0.4 b xs = 0.4 X 250x125 = 39 mm <Ast ..... ok
. fy 240
V1
0
0
t o Step 6: Design of the tension tie (250 mm x 250 mm)
J
N t
V1 N
o
The tie is the main supporting element for the horizontal beam. The ECP 203
'ci
states the reaction for a continuous beam equals (1.1 WU S) as shown in the
II
":! figure below.
c::::. The selfweight of the tie results in a small value of the bending moment that
'ci
can be neglected due to fact that under its self weight the tie acts a continuous
~
beam supported by the hangers.
1 tn
"'ci"
175
174
loads Reactions Step 8: Design of the column (250 mm x 700 mm )
T
C)
\Ci
II
~
~
~.
II
0 ~
Q,l
~
Effect of Wind loads
From the figure, the height of the column Ho s given by:
CI) :l Q,l
;l
~ H 0 = 6.4 + 1.0 = 7.4 m
.
II \()
til .S
is 0 ~ '" Q,l
...
u The wind pressure is assumed as 0.7 kN/m 2 • The pressure on the walls equals
...... 0
\0 ,...; ~ I
(windward side)
0 II Ww =cw xqw xspacing =0.8xO.7x6.0=3.36 kN 1m
E<
C)
\Ci
II column
1
til
"<t · I column
'" r:II vertlC
\()
..q
0
• 0
~
~
\()
..q .c: M asonry wall
\()~
t
o '
beaill
Z i
~
\()
\()
is
Step 7: Design of the hanger (250 mm x 250 mm) C'i
176 177
In order to determine the bending moments in the columns due to wind load, an Effect of vertical loads
exact analysis could be carried out. In such an analysis, the arched slab is
assumed to act as a rigid link member connecting the columns as shown in the The vertical loads on the column are the summation of the following
figure. The shown system is analyzed under the" effect of the wind load and the 1. Selfweight =1.4xyc xbxtxh =1.4x25xO.25xO.7x7.4=45.3 kN
bending moments in the columns are obtained.
2. Weight of wall beam
As a conservative approximation, the bending moment in the column could be
obtained by considering the case of a cantilever column subjected to uniform = 1.4 x Yc xb xt xspocing = 1.4x25xO.25xO.6x6.0 = 31.5 kN
wind load.
3. Wall load = 1.4 x Yw xb xS x (h "":'tIVaJlbeam tvelticaJ bemn)
I'
        L=20 ..·11 Pu = 45.3 + 31.5 + 228.7 + 567.6 = 873.1 kN
wu=86kNlm'
! I I
0.45
I ~J I
I0.60~O.50 I ~I I
0.50.50 I~
a 92kN.m
1
R=0.45 WU L
1
R=1.1 WU L R=1.0wu L
1
The moment of a cantilever member subjected to uniform load is given by: 6.0 . j. 6.0 .j
M "_ w IV xh
2
3.36x7.42 =92kN.m Statical system and loads on the vertical beam
wind  2
2
The ultimate load case is given by: However the ultimate vertical load should by reduced as stated by the code as
Mu =0.8 (1.4xM DL +1.6xM LL +1.6 M wind ) follows:
Since MDL and MLL are equal to zero Pu =0.8 (1.4xPDL + 1.6 X PLi.. +1.6 Pwind )
178 179
Step 8.2: Calculation of the reinforcement
 It is clear from the previous table that the column is subjected to biaxial
bending.
The column is considered unbraced in both directions because there is no lateral
resisting system. The unsupported length in the Xdirection is 7.4 ms and the Since M ~ (1877)
. > M : (24.6) .. I than Yd'
. ,Xdirection is more cnhca .
 lrectlOn
unsupported length in the Vdirection is 3.5 ms. The calculations of the a (0.65) b (0.20)
additional moments can be summarized in the following table. The load level Rb equals to:
Mu(wind) 117.8 0
f1.min = 0.25+0.052 A = 0.25 +0.052xI6.91 =1.13%
2
M101al Mu+ Madd 187.7 24.6
As,min
=rmlD
II . xb XI = 1.13 x 250x700 = 1976 mm
100
Choose (12 <1>16, 2412 mm2) distributed uniformly.
~Mwind ~117.8
24.6~69.9
1 !
( 0.25 t·_·t·_·t·_·_·_·x
T '"0.70 "'
181
180
~~~~nJ
~j 1:\"/..'6~~
I 250 I
Sec. CC
......
00 01 i0
i ~~~~MJ
~j
N 59S8/m C\I C\I
c c I 250 I
5¢8/m
CD Sec. BB
09S8/m CD
6S11S16
3s?lS18
3s?lS18
350
A 1 1 I A
(01 (01 , (0
~ ~ = ~ L.....: I 2s?lS18
2s?lS18
""" C\I C\I",," 3s?lS18
700
C 3gl:S18
10¢8/m 10¢8/m
n
N
.·11 ~I I .~
~
~ 311616
6000
211612
I..... I",
511620
C,l,m" "",700
2*12
o
~~ 10~8/m
~
11 I l
I I TIE 250x250
.." t
6000 110 11\)]
IT IT
[2~16
[5~16""12 5418 ""12 I 350
Sec. 22
I
1
2
properties are/cu=25 N/mm2, and/y=360 N/rom , and /Yst=280 N/mm2. Neglect
the effect of wind on the design of the columns. The building may be assumed
as unbraced in the inplane direction ami braced in the outofplane direction.
Data
2
D.L. =1 N/m (not including own weight)
L.L. = 0.5 N/m2 C:~~
mm ~
en
0
Clear height= 5.0 m 3
Solution TiL
V200x200
Step 1: Propose the concrete dimensions
The parabolic arched slab is the chosen main system with the following Column
dimensions: V250x60 2
ts (midspan) = 100mm A " Horizontal Beam
200 x 750mm
ts (quarter point) = 120 rom
ts (edge) = 140 rom Plan
184 185
16
The selfweight of the arched slab may be calculated using the thickness at the R2 x16 =6.16x16x+0.80x8x4 R2 =50.88 kN
quarter point (120 mm). 2
ow.=ycXtavg =25xO.120=3.0kN 1m 2 16
Rl x16 = 6.16x16x+0.80x16x12 Rl =54.08 kN
2
The total factored dead load including plaster weight wuDLis given by:
To obtain the horizontal thrust H, the moment is taken at the middle hinge as
WUDL =1.4 (ow. +plasterweight)=1.4x(3.0+1.0)=5.60kN 1m 2 follows:
The value of he horizontal projection (H.P.) of this load is given by: (W + WULL )XL2 (6.16+ 0.8)X16 2
L' 17.6 2
H = UDL 2 = _ _ _=2___ = 87.46 kN
WUDL =1. 4 w DL x=5.60x=6.16 kN 1m (H.P.) , 8f 8x2.4
L 16
The same result can be obtained by taking moment of forces at the crown.
Noting that the live loads on inclined surfaces are always taken on the
horizontal projection, the slab factored live load wuuis given by: H x2.4 = Rl x8w u x8x4 = 54.08x86.96x8x4 ~ H=87.46kN
2
W ULL = 1.6xw LL = 1.6xO.5 = 0.80 kN 1m
The total factored load Wu =w UDL + W ULL = 6.16 + 0.80 = 6.96 kN 1m 2 (H.P.) Wuu= 0.80 kNlm'
I J J I J I ! I I I I I
Step 3: Design the arched slab critical sections
wUDL=6.16 kNlm'
Taking 1m width of the slab, the acting loads are shown in the following figure. II I ! ! I I I I I I I II
Quarter point
Step 3.1: Section at the quarter points (t= 120 mm)
186 187
26.24 kN WULL= 0.80 kNlm'
Also, it can be obtained directly from Table 1.7.
2 2 Pu
M =+W ULL xL = + 0.8x16 ±3.2kN.m a=16.7
u  64 64 87.46
The maximum positive moment at 02 equals
Mu =R 1 x4(W UDL +wuLL)x4x2.0H XY2
H
Mu = 54.08x46.96x4x2.087.46x1.8 = 3.2 kN.m
4.0
3.2kN.m R
02 sc<::~()
~01 The section is subjected to compression and bending moment. The thickness of
~ 3.2 the arch at this location is 120 mm.
~=
3
At point 01, the corresponding normal and shear forces can be obtained as: Thus the normal force can be neglected, design for moment only.
fy 360
Q =50.886.16x4 = 26.24 kN
A . =0.6bd=0.61000X100=166mm2·
To obtain the tangent angle at the quarter point, the equation of the parabola is snun fy 360
differentiated as follows:
Choose 6 <II 101m' (As = 471 ~2)
_ 41·x ·(Lx) 4x2.4.x (16x)
Y  L2 = 162 =0.0375 Due to the fact that half of the arched slab is subjected to negative moment and
the other half is subjected to positive moment, the main reinforcement (6 <II
Y' = tan a= 0.0375 (162x) 101m' ) is provided at the top and bottom. The secondary reinforcement is
chosen as at least 0.2 As. Choose 5 <II 81m'. The reinforcement is arranged
Substituting with x=4 tan a=0.30 a=16.7
staggered to avoid congestion of reinforcement.
Pu = 87.46 cos 16.7 + 26.24 sin 16.7 = 91.31 kN
189
188
5 <f> 81m'
y' = tan a = 0.0375 (162x)
6 <f> 10 1m' Substituting with x=O tan a=0.60 a=30.96
The corresponding normal force and shear at this section can be obtained as:
. Pu = H cos a+Qsina
....Hmax
16m
Rmax=55.68 kN
Equivalent load system and reactions
Step 3.2.2: Design the reinforcement
The section is SUbjected to pure compression (Pu =108.22 kN) and (Mu =0).
16
RrruJX = 6. 96X T = 55.68kN Assume that the total minimum area of steel of equals to 0.6%.
0.6 2
HrruJX x2.4=55.68x86.96x8x4 7 As = 100 x 1000 x 140 = 840 mm (top and bottom)
Hmax =92.8 kN
di~Of'"leren
ObtaIt·.n thd t~gent angle at the support, the equation of the parabola is
2
e As/each/ace =420mm
late as lollows:
Using the same reinforcement determined from the section at the quarter span
y = 0.0375 (16 x ~x 2) As,top=As,bot= 6 <P 1O/m'=471 m2 > (420 mm
2
).
190
191
A lotal =2x471=942mm 2 The factored weight of the vertical and horizontal beam equals to:
p" =0.35 feu Ae +0.67xfyXAs ow. =1.4 x 25x (0.25xO.6 + 0.20xO.5) = 8.75 kN 1m'
Pu = (0.35 x25xI40x1000+0.67x360x942)/l000 = 1452 kN The total factored load on the beam equals to:
Since the applied compression force is less than the section capacity, the section
is considered adequate. W u =R max +ow =55.68+8.75=64.43kN 1m'
JS,.
+12
:A +16
:A
100.7
134.2
tie
Critical
sections
Sec. 1
=_w_S_2 = 64.43 X 52 = 134.23 kN.m
~
12 12
6
R = Mu = 134.23 X 10 = 0.071 (J) =0.089
750 1 feu b d 2 25x250 x550 2
192 193
feu 0.98
As =m b xd =0.089 25 x250x550=850mm 2 qsu =1.22=0.73 N Imm
2
fy 360 2
Choose 5 <I> 16 (As = 1005 mm2) A = qsu xbxs
The secondary reinforcement is chosen as 0.10.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12. sl fy I Ys
Sec. 2 Using <p 8 and for two branches ASI = 2x50 = 100 mm 2
Qu =k q w u Lw u (~+~) ~
6
2 2 193.3 X10 = 0.079 OJ= 0.101
25 x 200 x 700 2
194 195
step 5.3: Design for Shear
The critical section for shear is at the face of the column because the tie is in
Loads Factor Bending Critical tension. The width. of the column is 250 mm. The critical section is at section
k moment sections (1) as shown in figure with code coefficient of kq :::0.6.
Qu =k q Wu Lw u (%)
0.250)
Qu =0.6x92.8x5.092.8x ( 2 ::: 266.8 kN
....
C'l
I
...
. ,
I
Shear
....+
\0
\II
tie 0
C'l
«)
T
\II
C'l
0
....
o
I
c
tri
II
t:l
....
C'l
1
>n
+ c3
"':
00
\0 r
0 C'l
~I
c
tri
II
t:l
Sec. 2
6
R = Mu = 232xI0 (0=0.124
1 feu b d 2 25 X 200 X 7002 = 0.0946 7 Qu 266.8 X 1000 ::: 1.9 N I mm 2
qu ::: b xd 200 x 700
A s  ffeuy b X d = 0 .124 360
25 X 200 X 700 = 1203 mm 2
E
(j)
197
196
1
.,
":\1 ":.
. '.",.
~
:;:I
~
A =1.4X200XI25=145mm2 "'J ;J
.vI 280/1.15 In
tI)
.9
~'"
~
0 u
. branch =_J1
Thus, the area of one A. = _145 = 72 mm 2 ...:
,..... '"'
0
2 2
\0
0 ~
"'"
<:::>
ori
II
Use ¢10@ 125mm 7 8¢101 m' tI)
A slmin =O.4
.
b 0.4
Iy Xs =x200xlO
280
0 = 2 8mm 2 <Ast .....0 k
1 In
""=
0
.. 0
~
In
..q
II
E<
'"
Step 6: Design of the tension tie (200 mm x 200 mm) Step 7: Design of the hanger (200 mm x 200 mm)
The tie is the main supporting element for the horizontal beam. The reaction is The weight of the hanger equals to:
transferred to the tie. For continuous beams with equal loads and equal spans,
the ECP 203 gives the reaction at intermediate supports as (1.1 WU S), as shown ow H = 25xO.2xO.2x2.4= 2.4 kN
in the figure below.
The weight of the tie equals to: Hanger
T =1.1xH max xS =1.1X92.8x5=51O.4kN
oW T = 25xO.2xO.2x2,667 = 2.667 kN
Choose (6 <I> 18+2 <I> 16) (As= 1929 mm 2) _ T = 7.1xlOOO = 22.6 mm2
As  Iy IUS 360/1.15
. 2
Choose 4 <I> 101m' (As =314 rom )
198
199
Step 8: Design of the column (250 mm x 600 mm)
Step 8.2: Calculation of the reinforcement
Step 8.1: Calculate applied loads
The unsupported length in X direction is 6.0 ms and the unsupported length in
The ~olumn is subjected to an axial load in addition to bending moments y direction is 3.4 ms. The calculation of the additional moment can be
resultmg from the slenderness effect. Since wind load is neglected the fOllowing summarized in the following table.
load case is considered .
1 I I I I I I II' I I J J J
J II J J
lj
Mtot = Mu+ Madd 43.6 0
It is clear from the previous table that the column is subjected to a uniaxial
I
R=O.45 WU L
I
R=l.l Wu L =354.4
I
R=l.Owu L
bending moment as shown in the figure.
~43.6kN.m
y
I
I 5.0
• f. 5.0
I 1
0.25
I
I
I·_·_·_j·_·_·l·_·_·_·_·_?C
Loads and the reactions of the vertical beam
T I" 0.60
I
200
201
vertical column
or
\0
ci I 
Team 7 I
N
'<t
~
0
~~S
I.C5
0
~ I ~ ~ ~
tn
Il
~r:Q
0
 I
~ <XI
i
(')
tn
N
o
II
..c><
~ co
semelle ...... o i
C\I
I
I B B <XI
j
i
(')
Since the column is long, the minimum reinforcement ratio Ilmin is given by:
fJmin = 0.25+0.052,.1. = 0.25 + 0.052x16.0 = 1.1082%
.
1.1082
As min = PlIlI'n xb Xt =  x 250x600 = 1623 mm
FI <XI
202 203
T""
I
T""
o
Q)
C/)
C\I
'.
iC\I
J
J:
t
~·f
G.
co
8<0
I
~ 0
0
on
C\I
c: ~
0
E C\I
::J
(5 w
0
I
@ ~
=
c i=
I
1 Q:I 1
2
 ~
I ..,.
t
!';r;l
S
Q:I
2
f
2
I
1

I:Q
U
~
Q:I
J,.,
~
;;... Photo 2.1 Corbels supporting beams in a stadium
1 1
 ~ f f
~
2.1 Introduction
I
0 0
0 C\I 0 C\I
0 0 ~
<0
~ <0 co
~ This chapter will discuss the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams and
C\I
~
..,.
·r I corbels (short cantilevers). The behavior of these members is different· from
shallow (slender beams). In deep beams and in corbels, plane sections before
J~
bending do not remain plain after bending. In order to fully understand the
behavior of these members, the subject of shear friction will be presented.
Another approach for designing these members is the Strut and Tie Model that
~H will be presented in Chapter Six of this volume.
~:.....J I
I 1
205
204
2.2 Deep beams Deep beams may be loaded at their top surface as in the case of a transfer girder
supporting the load from one or more columns (Fig. 2.2a). The loading may
2.2.1 General
take place at the bottom surface as in water tank wall loaded by the action of the
Deep beams are beams of relative) hi h d . suspended tank's floor (Fig. 2.2b). Loads may also act along the height of the
deep beams OCcur as transfer girde!s Agtran:~tht~~pan ratIO. Most typically, wall as shown in Fig. (2.2c). The wall in this figure approximates the case of
one or more columns transferring it ~o oth e~ glr er supports the load from wall supporting successive floor slabs and transferring the loads to columns at
also occur in tanks and walls supported er co umn~ (Fig. 2.la). Deep beams
. on co lumns (Flg.2.lb). ground floor level.
(a) (b)
Transfer
girder
Fig. 2.2 Types of loading of deep beams
206 207
Elastic analysis of deep beams indicates that the usual assumption that plane Figure 2.4a shows a deep beam that is supporting uniformly distributed load
sections before bending remain plane after bending is not valid for such acting at the lower face of the beam. Vertical stirrups must be provided as
members. Thus, flexural stresses are not linearly distributed even in the elastic hangers to prevent local failure and to transfer the effective acting load to a
range. Typical stress distribution is shown in Fig. (2.3a). The cracking load of a higher level. If such a beam is provided with stirrups that are able to deliver the
deep beam is about 1/3 to 1/2 of the ultimate load. bottom load to the upper part of the beam, the beam will be behave nearly like a
Traditional principles of analysis and design of ordinary reinforced concrete top loaded beam.
beams are neither suitable nor adequate to determine the strength of reinforced
The crack pattern in Fig. 2.4b clearly shows that the l~ad is transferred upward
concrete deep beams. The cracking pattern of a uniformly loaded deep beam is
by reinforcement until it acts on the compression arch, which then transfers the
shown in Fig. (2.3b). After cracking a major tedistribution occurs and the elastic
loads down to the support as shown in Fig. 2.4c.
analysis is no longer valid. Deep beams loaded at the top behave mainly as a
tied arch as shown in Fig. (2.3c).
.. Tension
.. a) Loading pattern b) Cracking pattern c) Arch mechanism
(e)
Fig. 2.4 A bottom loaded deep beam
The tiedarch mechanism, shown in Fig. (2.3c), brings designer attention to the
fact that longitudinal tension reinforcement acting as a tie that is fully stressed
over neady the whole span. Therefore, sufficient anchorage at the supports and
continuity of reinforcement bars without curtailment are essential requirements
for top loaded deep beams.
208 209
2.2.2 Egyptian Code's Provisions for Deep Beams A: Design for Flexure
The Egyptian Code's provisions for deep beams are applied to deep beams The longitudinal reinforcement should be provided to resist the tension force
loaded at the top or at the compression faces. If loads are applied at the bottom that resulting from the applied bending moment. The tension force at any
of a deep beam, the Egyptian Code requires using vertical reinforcement that is section is gi ven by:
able to transfer the load to a height equals at least half the span. This. vertical
reinforcement should be added to that resulting from the design of the beam as
if it is a top loaded deep beam.
Tu = M u ...................: ........................... (2.3)
Yel
In deep beams plain sections do not remain plain after bending and the design Where Mu is the applied ultimate moment, Tu is the developed tension force at
methods developed for shallow beams can not be applied. The Egyptian Code the critical section, and Yet is the lever arm and is given by:
presents two methods for designing deep beams. These methods are:
• The Empirical design method Yct =0.86 L::::;0.87d For simply supported beams.
• The Strut and Tie method YC1 =0.43 L::::;0.87d For continuous beams at midspan.
Y el = 0.37 L::::; 0.87 d For continuous beams at interior support.
2.2.2.1 The Empirical Design Method
The empirical design method applies to beams having the following ratios of The reinforcement can be obtained by dividing the developed tension force by
the span (L) to the effective depth (d): the steel yield stress as follows:
where L is defined with reference to Fig. (2.5) as the smaller value of the The distribution of this reinforcement differs from that of the slender beams.
following: The flexural reinforcement is placed near the tension edges. Because of the
L = 1.05 Ln ............................................ (2.2a) greater depth of the tension zone, it is required to distribute such steel over a
certain height of the crosssection (See Figs. 2.7 and 2.8).
L
.
=L 0
................................................ (2.2b)
I
The tiedarch mechanism of deep beams dictates that longitudinal tension
reinforcement acting as a tie is fully stressed over nearly the whole span of
simply supported deep beams. Therefore, sufficient anchorage at the supports
d and continuity of reinforcement bars without curtailment are essential
requirements. Recommendations for the detailing of deep beams are given in
Figs. 2.7 to 2.10.
The Egyptian code requires that the actual area of steel As in any section should
be greater than Asmin given by:
L
I. 11.:L~:1,1.
1
Fig. 2.5 Definition of a deep beam
210 211
0.225 JJ: ~.!J.b d Nominal Ultimate Shear Stress
A Sflltn. = smaller 01· f y. fy ........................,(2.5) The applied shear stress is given by:
{
1.3 As
qu = b:Ug ~qumax .......................................... (2.7)
'{0.25 b d (mild steel) } Where b is width of the beam, and g = the smaller of d or Ln
100
but not less than
0.15 b d (high grade) The value of the nominal shear stress qu should be less than qwnax given by
100
The design for shear in deep beams is of special importance. The amount and in which
spacing of both the vertical and horizontal web reinforcement differ than those
used in shallow beams, as well as the expressions that to be used in design. bd =1/3 (2+0.4(Ln Id))~1 ................................ (2.9)
The critical section for shallow beams is taken at a distance d/2 from the face of
If q u ~ q u max' the dimensions of the section should be increased
the support, and the shear plane is inclined more and closer to the support.
However, in deep beams, the critical section for shear is to be taken as: It interesting to note the Od is less than or equal to one. This could wrongly
imply that the maximum shear strength is less than shallow beams. However,
Uniformly distributed ~ x = 0.15 Ln ................ (2.6a) this requirement is intended to prevent bearing failure in deep beam rather than
Concentrated load ~ x = 0.5 a ..................... (2.6b) controlling shear failure.
In either case, the distance x should not exceed the distance d/2 as shown in Fig Shear Strength provided by Concrete
2.6 .. If both uniform and concentrated load exist on the beam, design the most
The nominal ultimate shear provided by concrete is given as follows:
critical one.
• No axial load
i i
q cu =bdc XO.24!iU ~0.46~CU ............................ (2.10a)
! Critical sections ! ! Critical sections !
Yc Yc
V~
I I
V~
I I
Where
i
.
i
i
i
i
i
i bdc = 3.5  2.5 M u ~ 1.0
I i i Qu d
I i  i
i i l ~2.5
i
~
I
~
I Mu : is the ultimate moment at the critical section.
i i
I
i
QII: is the ultimate shear at the critical section.
i
.i
Ln The factor b dc is a multiplier for qcu in shallow beams to account for the higher
b) Concentrated Load x < dl2
a) Unifonn Load x < dl2 resisting capacity of deep beams due to arching action.
212 213
• Axial compression (Pu )
where
P
0;, = (1 + 0.07 AU ):::; 1.5 ILJJIIIIIlllllllllllllJIIIllll
c
~t
• Axial tension (Tu)
®
3
qou = ode X q 0.24 ~cu ............................. (2.lO c)
.....
®
Yo H
where 0, = (1 0.3 Tu ) 4
Ac
A limiting value is placed by the code on qcu by the equation:
214 215
2.2.2.2 Design Using the strut and Tie Method
The Egyptian Code permits the use of the Strut and Tie Model (explained in
If, on the other hand, the value of q u exceeds q cu' web reinforcement should be
detail in Chapter 6) to design the beams in which the ratio of the effective span
provided to resist the ultimate shear stress q su • For deep beams in the ranges of to depth satisfies the following conditions:
the Lid ratios considered, diagonal cracks will be at a slope steeper than 45°.
Consequently, both horizontal and vertical web reinforcements are required. In A., Simply supported beams
fact, for such Lid ratios, horizontal reinforcement could be more effective than 1.2S::;'Lld ::;'4.0
vertical reinforcement. The horizontal bars are effective because they act more
nearly in the direction perpendicular to the diagonal crack. B Continuous beams
The ECP203 gives the following equations for calculating the web 2.S ::;, Lid ::;, 4.0
reinforcement for deep beams:
The model consists of compression struts in the concrete and tension ties in the
qsu =qu  q;u .......................................... (2.l2a)
steel reinforcement and truss nodes as shown in Fig. 2.8. The detail of the
application of the method for the case of deep beams is explained in Chapter 6,
qsu =b;, xqsllv +0" xqsuh ........................ (2.12b) together with illustrative examples.
in which
ll(Lllld) p
0" = 12 .................................... (2.13a)
Truss node
°v _l+(Lllld)
12
.
..................................... (2.13b)
Av x(fy IrS>
qsuv = ................... : ............. (2.13c) Compression
Sv xb Compression
strut
q,u" =
A" x(fy Irs> .
................................ (2. 13d)
strut
Sh xb
It can be concluded from Eq. 2.12 and Eq. 2.13 (as stated above) that horizontal
reinforcement is more effective than the vertical web reinforcement.
Equation 2.12b has four parameters (Av. Sv. All. SII). It is customary to assume the Tie force, T
value of these parameters and calculate the value of the shear carried by the
reinforcement qsu. The value of qsu in Eq. 2.12b should be greater than required
shear stress qsu given by Eq. 2.12a. Thus, assume three of these parameters to
obtain the fourth unknown.
Figure (2.7) shows the recommended reinforcement detailing of a simply
Fig. 2.8 Strut and tie model for a deep beam
supported toploaded deep beam.
217
216
2.2.3 Detailing of Other Types of Deep Beams
2.2.3.1 Bottom Loaded Deep Beam
Figure 2.9 shows the reinforcement detailing of a bottom loaded deep beam. As
mentioned before, a bottom loaded deep beam could behave nearly like a top
loaded one if provided with vertical stirrups that are able to deliver the bottom
load to the upper part of the beam. It should be mentioned that these vertical
stirrups should be added to those required as shear reinforcement. The Egyptian
Code does not give special recommendations for the design of the bottom
loaded deep beam. However, it implicitly recommends designing them as
shallow beams.
®
@
®'
~
:r
~ @
c
218 219
 ,  ,.
IA . " _._ _.   v.uv L.. v.vv L. ~
 , JfL I As
I I
+vel
Ll
CD , As(vel/2
L?
IS! As(ve)/2
L!,\
tv
tv
o rE ___CD ~
@
1 The main bottom steel should cover the whole span. rIh @ @
2 Onehalf of the main top steel should be located at a height (0.8H< 0.8l)
and should cover the total length of the beam.
3 Span variations and variations in loads should not be more than 20%. @ @
4 In case of span variations, (l) is the bigger span.
 , 1'
IB
I U.<lU L U.<lU L U.VU L. U.<lU L
\ I
As (top)
I
,
@
0.80 I J:
«0.8 .)
DAD H
«0.4 L)
CD
@ @
1 The main bottom steel should cover the whole span.
2 Onehalf of the main top steel should be located at a height (0.8H< 0.8l)
and should cover the total length of the beam.
3 The vertical steel should be designed to deliver the bottom load to the @ @
upper part of the beam.
4 Span variations and variations in loads should not be more than 20%.
5 In case of span variations, (l) is the bigger span. Sec. AA Sec. 88
LJW
Fig. 2.10b Reinforcement of a bottomloaded continuous deep beam
2.2.3.3 Deep Beam Supporting another Deep Beam 2.3 Shear Friction Concept
Special provisions are needed when loads or reactions are introduced along the There are many situations in reinforced concrete stru..:tures where it is necessary
full depth of a beam for example, when deep beams support each other, as to transfer shear across planes of weakness such as interface between concrete
illustrated in Fig. (2.11). cast at different times. Shearfriction concept provides a simple but poweiful
model to investigate situations such as those shown in Fig. (2.12).

A
"
v
/ ~
Castinsitu
@
"
" " 7'
7'
:r
®
"
" "
~
7'
7'
, I" 7'
~+ve)
I
®
' . . . . . .4 •••••• I. :
(b) Corbels
Fig. 2.11 Deep beam supporting another deep beam
Fig. 2.12 Applications of shear friction concept
223
222
Typical examples are reinforced concrete bridges in which the deck is castin Shear displacement
':" ~
situ concrete slab supported on precast girders as shown in Fig. 2.12a. Another
example is corbels supporting crane girders.
L
 Q
UIllllllJ 
Q
The basis of this model is explained in Fig. (2.13). When shear is applied to an
initially cracked surface, or a surface formed by placing one layer of concrete on
top of an existing layer of hardened concrete, relative slip of the layers causes a
separation of the surfaces as shown in Fig. (2.13a). If there is reinforcement
across the crack, it is elongated by the separation of the surfaces. The elongation
of the reinforcement means that it is stressed in tension. For equilibrium of the
free body diagram at the interface, a compressive stress is needed as shown in
Fig. (2. 13b). Figure 2.13c shows aggregate interlock at crack interface.
224 225
Shear IS transmitted across the crack by: Table 2.1: Values of J.1 according to surface condition
1. Friction resuJting from the compressive stress. Crack Interface Condition JI.
2. Interlocking of aggregate protrusions on the cracked surfaces combined 1 Concrete cast monolithically 1.20
with dowel action of the reinforcement crossing the surface. 2 Concrete cast against hardened concrete with surface 0.80
. . . intentionally roughened
The shear stresses on the concrete face are assumed to be related to the
3 Concrete cast against hardened concrete not 'intentionally 0.50
compressive stresses by a coefficient of friction !t. The maximum capacity is roughened or concrete anchored to structural steel by headed
assumed to be reached when the reinforcement crossing the crack yields leading studs or bars.
to a shear resistance of:
strength. Equation (2.14) states that the resistance to slip is equal to the nonnal
force times the coefficient of friction J.1.
Tests have shown that shearfriction capacity is also a function of the concrete
strength and the area of contact. As the concrete strength and the area of contact
increase, the aggregate interlock mechanism becomes more efficient aI?d the
shear friction increases. Hence, there is an upper limit qn the shear resistance
due to friction:
Aif = Qu +~ .................................... (2.17) The steel must be placed approximately uniform across the shear plane so that
s JI. Iy I Ys Iy I Ys
all parts of the crack are clamped together. Each bar must be anchored on both
The values given by the Egyptian Code for the coefficient of friction (JI.) are sides of the crack to develop the yield strength. .
given in Table 2.1. The ultimate shear (Qu I A) shall not exceed the following limits:
226 227
The structural action of a short cantilever can be idealized as a truss made up of
2.4 Short Cantilevers (Brackets or Corbels) a compression strut and a tension tie as shown in Fig. (2. 16a). The inclination of
Corbels or brackets are short cantilever members that project from a column or the strut determines the tension in the tie by a simple force polygon. Since the
a beam to support another beam or heavy concentrated load. The importance of tension tie supports a constant tension force, sufficient anchorage of bars should
these members is clear in precast buildings where corbels support beams and be provided beyond the corbel interface with the column. Failure of the strut
girders. Therefore, the total safety of these types of structures depends on the and tie model could occur as a result of yielding of the tension tie; failure of the
ability of the corbels and brackets to transfer the load safely to the columns. compression strut, or failure of the end anchorage of the tension tie.
Steel bearing plates or angles are commonly used in the top surface of the A direct shear failure could also be a possible mode of failure along the face of
brackets to provide a uniform contact surface and to distribute the reaction. the column as shown in Fig.(2.16b). Local failure under the bearing plate could
Short cantilevers are defined by the Egyptian Code as cantilevers whose shear occur. Finally, if the corbel is too shallow at the outside end, there is a danger
spanto depth ratio (aid) is 1.0 or less (See Fig. (2.15». This small ratio that cracking may extend through the corbel as shown in Fig. (2.16c). For this
changes the pattern and distribution of stresses similar to the case of deep reason, ECP 203 requires the depth of th~ corbel to be O.Sd at the outside edge
members. In corbels, a large horizontal force develops due to shrinkage and of the bearing plate.
creep of the supported elements such as beams that are connected to the corbels.
The code provisions apply to short cantilevers in which the depth at the outside
edge of the bearing area is not less that (O.Sd) where d is the depth m~asured at
,_=,,Nu Shear friction )<=l, Nu
column face. Short cantilevers are designed to support beams transferring
reinforcement
vertical reactions Qu ' Horizontal force (N u) caused by restrained shrinkage,
creep in prestressed beams and expansion or contraction effects. Therefore, it is
advisable to consider a minimum horizontal force, Nu = 0.2Qu'
(a) (b)
~ d/2
t d
(c)
Fig. 2.15 Definition of a Corbel according to the Egyptian Code Fig. 2.16 Failure modes of corbels
229
228
The Egyptian Code requires that reinforcement be arranged as shown in P The bending moment is calculated as follows (refer to Fig. 2.15). The flexural
(2.17). The main tension reinforcement is calculated to resist a moment (M u )lg. reinforcement Afis calculated using regular sectional analysis.
at
column face and a normal force (N u) . Mu =Qu a+Nu (t+lld) ............................ (2.20)
The area of steel required to resist the tensile force (N ;::: 0.2Q ) is given by..
U Il .
The shearfriction reinforcement (A.j) calculated using the shearfriction concept
is given by: .
A  Nu .
I! I I ....................................................... (2.20)
y Ys Ai! = Qu +~ .................................. (2.21)
s Jl (/y 1YS) Iy I Y.
 
,
Main steel, As
3. Vertical Stirrups
Corbels should also be provided with vertical stirrups that satisfies the
minimum requirements of the ECP203.
230 231
Example 2.1
Solution
A transfer girder is to support two columns, each having a factored load of
Step 1: Check the applicability of the empirical method
7500 kN as shown in the figure. Its clear span is 7.0 m. The girder has to carry
also a factored uniform load, including its weight, having a value of 206.5 1.05 x clear span = 1.05 x 7.00 = 7.35m
kN/m'. The material properties are feu = 25 N I mm 2 and fy = 360 N I mm 2 •
Lett = smaller of { CL.to CL. = 7.8 m
Design the beam using the empirical design method presented in the Eep 203
:. Lejf = 7.35m
7500 kN 7500 kN Assume the distance from the bottom fibers to the center of the tension
reinforcement = 100 mm ~ d = 6000 100 = 5900 mm
E
:. Yet = 5.13m
E
o
o
o
CD
I F=2.275 2.8
·1
7.00 m   _ _ t.lq.891
232 233
. w X L2 I 206.5 X 7.35 2
Mmax(atIDldspan)= u +PuxL = 8 +7500x2.275 7500 7500
8
w u =206.5 kNlm'
= 18457 kN:m
1~457x106. = 11493mm 2
5130x 360'/1.15
0.
225
.JJ:: 0.22555 x650x5900=11984 mm2 .\ R
A.min =smaller of fy 360 .
{
l.3A. =1.3x11493=14941mm 2
Q=8006kN
8258.8 r,,....;.,'"_
But notless than 0.15 b d = 0.15 x 650x5900 = 5752 mm 2
100 100 .
()
8258.8
Use 20 <I> 28 mm(=12315 mm2), arranged in three layers. Shear diagram
Assume that the top steel equals 15% ofthe bottom steel
Use (As) 4 <I> 25 mID. Step 3.2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions
Step 3: Shear design Average shear stress at the critical section is given by:
Step 3.1: Straining actions at the critical sections Qu (g is the smaller of d (5900 mm) or L eff(7350 mm))
• The Cntical section for shear is at O.5a from the face of the support
qu = b xg
but not more than d/2 from the face of support. 3
= 8006 x 10 =2.09N /mm 2
o a /2 = 0.5(2500400) = 1050mm qu 650x 5900
o d /2 = 5900 = 2950mm
2 Maximum allowable shear stresses, q umax = ad x 0.7 .Jlcu / Yc ::;; ad x 4
x = 7.35  2.8  2x 1.05 = 1.225m (CL distance) . 1 L
2 ad =3(2+0.4:)
• At the critical section for shear, the straining actions are:
. 735
ad = !(2 + 0.4 7.0) = 0.825
3 5.9
R = 206.5 x ' + 7500 = 8258.88 kN
2
q umax = 0.825
.
x 0.7.J25/1.5 = 2.35N / mm 2 < 0.825x 4 ..... +o.k
Q = R w u x = 8258.88  206.5 x 1.225 = 8006 kN
Since the average shear stress at the critical section is less than the maximum
allowable shear stress, the concrete dimensions are adequate.
M u = R x w u X 2 12 = 8258.88 x 1.225  206.5 x 1.225 2 /2 = 9962 kN .m
234 235
Step 3.3: Calculation of shear carried by concrete
qsu =1.13= 360 [0.182(226)+0.818(400)] ~ S" = 152.8 mm
b~(' =3.52.5(M u IQu d ) > 1.0 650x1.15 200 s"
< 2.5 Take Sh = 150 mm (satisfies code requirements)
9962
~/e = 3.5  2.5 x ( ) = 2.97 > 2.5 ~ ode = 2.5 Note: q su (provided) = 1.15 N 1mm 2 > q su (required) = 1.13 . ~ O.K.
8006 x 5.90
The concrete shear strength qcu is chosen as the smaller of: Check the s(ltisfaction of the minimum web reinforcement
1. qcu =~/e X 0.24 Jfcl/ 11.5 =2.5xO.24·h511.5 =2.45N Imm 2 A",min = 0.0015 b s" = 0.0015x 650x 200 = 195 mm 2 <Av .... ok
The average shear stress at the critical section is more than the shear can'ied by
concrete. Web reinforcement (vertical and horizontal) needs to be designed. 4 ~ 25
(11  Lid) (1 I  5
7.0)
9
Oh = Il = . =0.818
12 12
~16@150mm
(1 + L~)
°_+ ( 1 LII / d) _ 5.9
(Horizontal)
v
12

12
=0.182 or 0,. =10" =10.818=0.182
JO~2B
6~28 14~28
qsu _ If' [0,,
b (A,,) +u,,()
s: A" ] ~ ® CD
rs s" s"
Try vertical bars of diameter 12.0 mm (2 branches) and horizontal bars of
diameter 16.0 mm (2 branches). CD=:jJ
and A" ::=: 400mm 2 ®
Assul'Il:e s v = 200 mm (satisfies code requirement)
Reinforcement details
236 237
I Example 2.2 Step 3: Area of main reinforcement:
The bending moment acting on the bracket equals to:
Determine the required reinforcement for the bracket shown in figure according
to the following data: Mu = Qu·a + Nu(t+ /::id)
Bracket dimensions (b x t) =300 mm x 800 mm and d =750 mm, M u = 500 x 0.4 + 100(0.8 + 0.05  0.75) = 210kN .m,
2 2
feu = 25 N I mm and fy = 240 N lmm
Mu =0.67/cu h.ar(d af 12)
Factored vertical load Qu =500 kN Yc
25
Factored horizontal load Nu= 100 kN M =210x10 6 =0.67xx300xal x(750af 12)
u 1.5
af 88 >0.1d
., 6
400 ______2_10_x_1_0__ _ _ _ _ =1425mm 2
1 Qu= 500 kN
(75088/2)x 240/1.15
E
. o.o5il
I
o
o
Nu = 100 kN A
n
=~=
Iy 1Ys
3
100xl0 =479 mm 2
240/1.15 
b
I' . I
.....  AI xf).
Y.,
+~
LO
E Aif= Qu
~~/
s f.lly1ys Iylys
For monolithically cast concrete f.l =1.2 c
500 3 03
 500xlO
A if + 100x1 2476
 mm
2 O.67 x fcu
s 1.2x 240 240/1.15 1.5
1.15
The area of the main reinforcement is the largest area obtained by evaluating
Step 1: Check the bracket dimensions: three equations:
To be classified as a corbel, the distance a should not exceed the effective The first equation
depth.
As =An +AJ
d =750 mm > a (400 mm) ++ok.
2
Step 2: Check the ultimate shear friction value: Then As =479+1425 = 1904mm
;~ ::;;O. 15f eu but not more than 4 N/mm2 The second equation
2
500x103 As = An +'3 AsJ
= 2.22::;;0.15x25 =3.75 N Imm 2 O.K.
300x750
. 2 2
then As =479+x2476=2130mm
3
238 239
The third equation
5$25
A = 0.03 feu bd =0.03x 25 x300x750=703mm2
S fy 240
Hence, the area main reinforcement is obtained from the second equation.
This area has to be distributed over 2/3 of the effective depth, i.e. over a
distance equals to (2/3x750) = 500 mm. 1/
'~
7 Close_d_s_t.til'
6$12/m
Choose closed stirrups (two branches) having a bar diameter = 12 mm and
spaced at 166 mm.
The available area of horizontal stirrups = 113x2 x(5001166 +1) = 906.7 mm2 >
826mm2 O.K.
Reinforcement Details
Step 5: Find the area of the vertical stirrups
Assume that the spacing of the vertical stirrups is 200 mm.
0.4 b 0.4 2
As, =p.rrun b s =x xs =x300x200=1OOmm
fy 240 '
240 241
CONTROL OF DEFLECTIPNS
3.1 Introduction
The Egyptian Code is based on the limit states design method. The limit states
(states at which the stru'.":ture becomes unfit for its intended function) are
divided into two main groups: those related to collapse and those that disrupt
the use of the structures but do not cause collapse. These are referred to as
ultimate limit states and serviceability 'limit states, respectively. The major
242
serviceability limit states are excessive deflections, undesirable vibrations and
excessive cracking. Deflection control will be thoroughly presented in this yielding of reinforcement D
chapter. Control of cracking will be discussed in chapter four.
The adoption of the limit states design method in recent years, accompanied by to the ultimate load
the use of higher strength concrete and highgrade steel, has permitted the use g service load
of relatively shallower members. As a result, deflection calculations gained .3
more importance than they were few decades ago. Excessive deflections of
beams and slabs may cause excessive vibrations, damage to the appearance of
the structure, poor roof drainage, and uncomfortable feelings for the occupants.
cracking Load      I
Also, such deflections may damage partitions and cause poor fitting of doors
and windows. Therefore, it is very important to maintain control of deflections. uncracked
The Egyptian code presents the following two approaches for controlling stage Cracking stage
deflection:
• Control of deflection by limiting the span/thickness ratio of the member.
o
• Control of deflection by calculating the deflection and set limitations to Midspan Deflection 11
its value.
The first approach indirectly controls the deflection by setting an upper limit for
spantothickness ratio. It is simple to follow without the need for deflection
calculations. However, if smaller members are required, the second approach
should be followed by calculating the deflections and comparing the computed
values with specific limitations imposed by the code.
243 244
Maximum
tension
cracking Loa
cracking stage
19>1. >ler '
tension
uncracked stage
a Negative bending moment bPositive bending moment
Ie=Ig
Midspan Deflection 11 Fig. 3.3 Determination of the distance Yt in simple and cantilever T beams
1\
Fig. 3.2 Moment of inertia in concrete beams
3.3.2 Cracked Transformed Moment of Inertia
For design purposes, the calculation of the gross uncracked moment of inertia, , When the applied moment exceeds Mer. the developed tensile stress exceeds the
I g, can be carried out by neglecting the crosssectional area of steel tensile strength of concrete producing cracks as shown in Fig. 3.4. The
reinforcement (e.g. Ig for rectangular sections = b e/12). For normal developed cracks will cause the moment of inertia to drop to a value less than
reinforcement ratios, the error in calculating Ig does not exceed 10%. the gross moment of inertia I g• Since concrete is weak in tension, it will crack
below the neutral axis and its contribution to the rigidity and strength will be
The ECP 203 gives the following formula for calculating the cracking moment:
neglected. On the other hand, the concrete in the compression zone acts
effectively and contribute to the section rigidity. The actual cracked section is
fetr· I g
Mer =   ................................................ (3.1) nonhomogeneous and consists of the compressed concrete above the neutral
Yt axis and the reinforcing steel bars below the neutral axis. The non
where !clr is the concrete tensile strength (N/mm2), Ig is the gross moment of homogeneous section can be replaced by an imaginary homogenous section
inertia neglecting the effect of reinforcement (mm4), and Yt is the distance from called the transformed section.
the neutral axis to the extreme fiber in tension for the uncracked section (mm).
To obtain the transformed section of a reinforced concrete beam, the area of the
"In the ECP 203, the concrete tensile strength!c,r is given by:
reinforcing steel bars As is replaced by an equivalent area of concrete equals
nAs, in which n= E/Ee is the modular ratio (the modulus of elasticity of steel I
fetr =0.6.,JJ:: ...........................................:... (3.2) modulus of elasticity of concrete). The moment of inertia of this transformed
For rectangular sections, YI equals to half the section thickness. For T sections section is called the cracked transformed moment of inertia Ier.
the reader should pay attention to the direction of the bending moment. Thus,
for T section in cantilever beams the distance YI is measured from the top fibers
Fig.3.3.a and for Tsections in simple beams it is measured from the bottom
fibers as shown in Fig.3.3.b.
245 246
bx Z2 /2n A., (d  z) =0 .............................. (3.3)
Having determined the neutral axis distance z, the cracked moment of inertia Ier
can be computed as
cracked bxz
3
2
zone Ier =3+ n As (d  z) ............................. (3.6)
• • • As
Using the previous set of equations, design chart was prepared to facilitate the
Uncracked section Cracked section determination of the Ier for singly reinforced section (refer to the Appendix).
Fig. 3.4 Cracking of concrete section under applied loads For doubly reinforced section, the compression steel displaces the stressed
concrete and has a transformed area of (n1)As Referring to Fig. 3.5 and taking
The neutral axis is located at distance z from the compression face. The location the first moment of area about the top fibers gives:
of the neutral axis can be easily determined by taking the first moment of area
about the center of gravity of the section (c.g.). It should be noted that the bxz 2 /2+(n1) A; (zd')n As (d _Z)2 =0 ............. (3.7)
center of gravity coincides with neutral axis (no normal force). The previous equation is a quadratic equation in z and can be solved directly.
b b Te value of z can be directly obtained from Eq. 3.8.
I 1• I (nl)A's
.'Jz I
I
I
wh<1re
al =bl2
. bf aJcJ ................................... (3.8)
bJ+.J
z = 4
2 aJ
I
bl =n As + (n1) A's
•••• As
._.~~"\~
• I
nAs Cl =[(n1) As d' + n As d]
1._._._._ . .:
The cracked moment of inertia equals
Cracked section
linear stress
distribution Transformed section bxz··
3'
2 " 2 .
'.
Icr=3+nAs (dz) +(n1)As (zd) ...................... (3.9)
Fig. 3.5 Determination of the neutral axis and cracked transformed Design aids for calculating the cracked moment of inertia for rectangular
moment of inertia calculations sections with tension steel only are given in Appendix.
247 248
ill Tsections, the neutral axis could be located inside or outside the flange as 3.3.3 The Effective moment of inertia Ie
shown in Fig. 3.6. Therefore, hand calculations should be carried out as Sections located at tension cracks have their moment of inertia approximately
explained in the illustrative examples. equal to the transformed cracked moment of inertia Ier. However, between
cracks the moment of inertia could be approximately taken equals to I g •
B
Referring to Fig. 3.4, it is clear that a cracked reinforced concrete beam behaves
as a beam with variable moment of inertia. To simplify deflection calculations,
..... J7''
neutral
the cracked RC beam is assumed to have a constant moment of inertia (called
the effective moment of inertia Ie).
The effective moment of inertia has a value less than Ig but is greater than Icr•
n As  •••
axis The most widely accepted formula for estimating the effective moment of
inertia was developed by Branson and IS adopted in the Egyptian code. This
empirical equation, presented graphically in Fig. 3.7, was based on statistical
Neutral axis inside the flange z<ts Neutral axis outside the flange z>ts analysis of deflections measured from test data, and is given by:
Ie
Figure 3.6 shows variation of the effective moment of inertia With the applied
moment Ma. In this figure, the horizontal axis refers to the applied bending
moment and the vertical axis refers to the moment of inertia that should be used
in deflection calculations. It is clear that if the applied moment is less than
cracking moment of the beam; deflection is calculated using the gross moment
Photo 3.2 Reinforced concrete building
249 250
of inertia Ig. On the other hand, if the applied moment is greater than the 3.4 Code Provisions for Control of Deflections
cracking moment, deflection is calculated using the effective moment of inerr
Ie. It is interesting to note that the value of the effective moment of inert::
approaches the cracked moment of inertia as the applied moment increases. II The Egyptian code presents two approaches for controlling deflection. The first
is indirect by setting an upper limit for spantothickness ratio. In the second
approach, the computed member deflections are compared with specific
I limitations imposed by the code.
~
I
The values listed in Table (3.1) are valid when using high grade steel 400(600.
In the case of using other types of reinforcing steel, the values mentioned in
Table 3.1 should be divided by factor~, given by:
f=0.40+
iy .................................... (3.14)
650
Where h is the yield strength 'of reinforcing steel in N/mm2•
251 252
Tsections
The limiting values listed in Table 3.1 are also valid for Tsections by
multiplying the values by the reduction factor 0 determined from the either Eq. Also the slab thickness should be greater than troin
3.15 or Fig 3.8. a
for simply supported slabs
35
8 = 0.71 +0.29 (:);::: 0.8 ..................................... (3.15) a
tmin = for slab continuous frorp. one side ............... (3.17)
40
a
for slab continuous from two sides
1.00 B 45
V
~ where a is the short direction.
c.o 0.95
, .., V
..~
~
....
0
~
0.90 3.4.2 Control of Deflection by Limiting its Value
.s 0.85 /
:=
.~
0.80
..,,100"" Calculations of deflections are carried out in the following cases:
~
:= • Values of spantothickness ratios given in Table 31 are not satisfied.
't:I
0.75
~ • Span of the beam is more than 10 ms or length of the cantilever is
0.70 greater than 2 ms.
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
• The member is subjected to heavy or uneven loads or located in
(bIB) ratio abnormal type of building.
Fig. 3.8 Modification of LIt ratio for T sections 3.4.2.1 Calculation of Immediate Deflection
Deflection of reinforced concrete members can be calculated using the simple
3.4.1.2 Twoway slabs Resting on Rigid Beams structural analysis expressions. Examples of these expressions are given in Eq.
3.18, the rest is given in appendix A. It interesting to note that the deflection of
For twoway slabs resting on rigid beams, having spans of less than 10 meters, a uniformly loaded simple beam is five times the deflection of a uniformly
subjected to uniform loads that are not heavy and attached to nonstructural loaded beam with fixed ends.
elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections, the deflection
calculations can be waived if the slab thickness is grater than t calculated using w L4
for fixed end beam with uniform load (w )
the following equation: 384EJe
5w L4
. a(0.85+~)
for simple beam with uniform load (w )
384EJe
. 1600
t = 20 > 100 mm ................... (3.16) P L3
...... (3.18)
/).= for simple beam with point load at midspan
15++IOPp 48EJe
bla
W L4
for cantilever beam with uniform load (w )
Where 8EJe
a is the smaller dimension of the slab, b is longer dimension of the slab., /3 p is
P L3
the ratio between the length of all continuous ed~es to the total perimeter, andh for cantilever beam with point load at edg (P)
is the yield strength of reinforcin,g steel in N/mm 3EJe
253
254
Where Ie and L are the effective moment of inertia and the beam span,
"·r·'
""'<',."
.• :,,
!
;:s•. ~.'.
,~
where ~DL is the deflection due to dead loads including the own weight of the  E
member and the weight of the finishes and ~LL is the deflection due live loads.
0
CI) /' A's=O.5Jl is
Due to the combined effect of creep and shrinkage, the deflection increases with 100
~
time. The factors affecting longterm deflection include humidity, temperature, 0 80 IL:::::. longter In deflection
curing conditions, ratio of stress to strength, the age of concrete at the time of ....s::
Cii
60 ///
., A's=As
loading and compression steel content. If the concrete is loaded at an early age, CI)
E 40 Immeat te aenectlOn
its longterm deflection will be increased. The creep deflection after about five .;:
years can range twothree times the initial deflection. It should be noted that
CI)
a. 20
more than 90% of the longterm deflection occurs at the first five years after the >< 0
w
initial loading. o 100 200 500 600
300 400
cr"""~f
concrete Fig. 3.10 Effect of compression reinforcement on longterm deflection
beam ' stram a ter
curvature creep
after creep Based on experimental results, the ECP 203 specifies that additional longterm
deflection due to creep ~reep is calculated by multiplying the dead load
deflection ~DL by the factor a. For a singly reinforced section this factor is
equal to 2. The reduction factor a for sections with compression steel can be
computed from the following relation: (A' ) .
a = 21.2 A: ;: : 0.6 ............................. (3.~1)
Fig. 3.9 Effect of creep on deflections, curvature and strains. ~Iotal =~creep +~DL +~u ......................... (3.23)
255
256
ri
i • The ECP 203 requires that the immediate deflections due to live loads
=(1+a)I1 DL +l1u ................. :........ (3.24)
1110lal
i
I
only for beams and slabs supporting or attached to nonstructural
elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections, to be limited to:
3.4.2.3 Permissible Deflections
i 11 <~ .................•................................ (3.26)
As mentioned before, deflections of roofs and floors may cause cracking of ! LL 360
brick walls and malfunction of doors and windows. Moreover, deflection due to
accumulated water on the roof may cause additional deflections allowing it to
I
! • The ECP203 requires that for beams and slabs carrying nonstructural
hold more water. The ECP 203 imposes the following deflection limits: elements that are likely to be affected by deflection such as curtain
walls, the part of the total deflection that occurs after the execution of
• The total deflection of members in ordinary buildings under the effect of the floor finishes and partitions and that results from all loads including
all loads including the effect of temperature, shrinkage and creep, the effect of temperature, shrinkage and creep to be limited to:
measured from the support level should be limited as follows:
L
1 For beams, oneway labs and twoatslabs: I1p = I1LL + a 11,,,,, ~ 480 ................................ (3.27)
Jk\I
Simple beam One end continuous beam
I
£
L=O.76Lb
Continuous beam
Cantilever beam
Fig. 3.11 Definition of L in deflection calculations Photo 3.3 Beam deflection during testing
257 258
Table 3.2 Maximum permissible deflections \ Deflection Calculations \
I
Type of member Deflection to be considered Deflection
Calculate the total deflection under the
limit effect of all loads including the longterm
effect !:ito/al and check the following limits:
Beams and slabs in ordinary Total deflection (measUred from the L 1250 for
~ L/250 for beams and slabs
buildings level of the support) under the beams & slabs
~ LI450 for cantilevers
effect of all loads including the I.
L 1450 for
Calculate other types of
effect of temperature, shrinkage and
deflections and check the
cantilevers
creep satisfaction of code limits
I
Beams and slabs supporting Immediate deflection due to live LI360
I
i
!
260
259
For a beam with concentrated negative moment MI at beam end the deflection
3.4.2.4 Deflection of Continuous Beams
equals
3xL2
For continuous spans, the ECP 203 calls for a simple average value for the Ll = MI ....................... ··················· (3.31)
effective moment of inertia obtained from Eq. 3.10 as follows: I 48 Ec I;
I; = 0.50 Iem + 0.25x (lei + I e2 ) ........................ (3.28) Referring to Fig. 3.13 and by using the principle of superp~sition, one can
concluded that the mid span deflection Ll for a continuous beam IS
where I~ is the average effective moment of inertia, Iem is the effective moment 2
of inertia at midspan and leI and Ie2 are the values of the effective moment of Ll = 5xL [M O.lx(MI +M 2 )] •••••••••••••••••• (3.32)
inertia calculated at the negative moment sections. Figure 3.13 shows the 48xEc I; m
application of Eq. 3.28 for the calculation of the average effective moment of
inertia for an interior span of a continuous beam. The value of the effective where MI M and M2 are the bending moments at end 1, midspan, and end 2
moment inertia at midspan Iem is calculated form Eq. 3.10 using the maximum respectiv~ly. To calculate the dead load deflection for example, one should use
moment Mam. On the other hand, the values of leI and Ie2 are calculated from the dead load moment Mm,DL at midspan and at the two ends (MI,DL and M2,DL)'
Eq. 3.10 suing the maximum negative moments Mal and Ma2.
Fig. 3.13 Calculation of the effective moment of inertia for continuous beams
For continuous beams in which the exterior support does not prevent any
rotation (brick wall), the effective moment of inertia can be approximated by
5xL2
Ll= ,Mo ......................................... (3.30)
48 Ec Ie
Photo 3.4 Deflection of a simply supported beam during testing
261 262
Example 3.1 Step 2: Calculate the cracking moment and the applied moment
The cantilever beam shown in the figure below carries an unfactored dead load 7:
/.clr = 0 •6"leu = 0.6..j35 = 3.55 N I mm
2
of 11.5 kN/m' and an un factored live load of 6 kN/m'. The beam is located at a
typical floor and supports walls that are not likely to be damaged by deflection. 9
. = fetr.lg =3.55x6.4x10 x1=56.79kN.m
It is required to calculate the immediate and the longterm deflections. Does Mer 400 106
the beam meet ECP 203 requirements for deflections? Y t
From the appendix, the maximum deflection for a cantilever beam carrying
Solution uniform load equals to:
6x(2.2x1000)4 = 0.11 mm
8 x 26030 x 6.4 x 109
Uncracked section
263 264
"

Step 3.2: Calculate the longterm deflection Example 3.2
The total deflection due to all loads including the effect of creep equals The simple beam shown in the figure below is located at a roof f a building
and it does not support any partitions. The unfactored dead load is (including
!::"total =(I+a)!::..DL +!::..u own weight) 15.0 kN/m', and the unfactored live load is 9.0 kN/m' . Check
whether the beam meets the ECP 203 requirements for deflections.
Since A's=O then a=2 feu =25 N/mm2 •
• Since the beam is located at a floor and support walls that are not likely to
be damaged by deflection, then
6.0m
!::.. < L < 2200 _ 6 11
LL(allowable)  360  360  . mm
Since !::..LL (0.11 mm) < !::..LL(allowable) (6.11 mm), the code limit is satisfied.
250mm
I• •I
o
o
\0
4<l>16
••••
Beam Section
./
,
.. ~
.\
.,.1'
,/f(/" ";
.~:(
' ..
!
IIi
Uncracked section
Original section
Transformed section
Taking the first moment of area for the transformed section about the N.A.,
gives:
Step 2: Calculate the cracking moment and the applied moment
250x z x~ = 8040 (550  z)
2
fetr = 0.6.J7: = 0.6.[i5 = 3 N I mm 2 125 Z2 + 8040 z  4422000 = 0
_ W total L2 __ 24x6 2 I
3
= 250x158.68 +lOx804x(550158.68)2 =1.56x10 9 mm
4
Ma 8 8 = 108 kN .m ... > Mer (cracked section analysis)
cr 3
Since Ma > Mer then calculate Ie
Step 4: Calculate the effective moment of inertia
2
Step 3: Calculate the cracked section properties if
E c = 4400V J cu = 4400.[i5 = 22000 N I mm
267 268
Step 5: Calculate the deflection Example 3.3
Step 5.1: Calculate the immediate deflection The T beam shown in figure is subjected to an unfactored dead load of 20
kN/m' and an unfactored live load of 8 kN/m'. The beam supports partitions
W DL = 15 kN/m' =15 N/mm' that are sensitive to deflection. Calculate the immediate deflection and check
WLL =9 kN/m' =9 N/mm' ECP 203 requirements, knowing that 30% of the liveJoads are permanent loads.
The concrete strength is 20 N/mm2 •
The maximum dead load deflection for simple beam at mid span equals
The total deflection due to all loads including the effect of creep equals:
I I! I
!:1total = (1 + a) !:1VL +!:1 u '
Y=250.2 mm
o
o00
Al
y,=400mm
Y2=60mm
Uncracked section
269 270
Al = 200 x 800 =160000 mm 2 Step 3: Calculate the cracked section properties
~ = (1250  200)x120 =126000 mm 2 As = 3<I> 22 = 1140.4 mm2
Assume that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression
 = 160000x400 + 126000x60 =250.2mm force. Transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete
Y 160000 + 126000
gives:
3 3 nAs=1O x 1140.4 = 11404 mm2
Ig = 200 X 800 +160000x(400250.2)2 + (1250200)x120
12 12 Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm, d=80050 =750 mm
+ 126000 x (250.2  60)2
12_5_0_ _
1 _ _ _ 11_1_ I
L 1250
=..:;...:....::...1
11
1250
Exact calculation for the c.g. Quick estimate for the c.g.
120
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