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Sika

Worldwide

Sika is a globally active company supplying the specialty chemicals markets. It is a leader in processing materials used in sealing,
bonding, damping, reinforcing and protecting load-bearing structures in construction (buildings and infrastructure construction)
and in industry (vehicle, building component and equipment production).

Sika’s product lines feature high-quality concrete admixtures, specialty mortars, sealants and adhesives, damping and reinforcing

Sika Facade Systems


materials, structural strengthening systems, industrial flooring and membranes. Subsidiaries in more than 70 countries worldwide
and approximately 12,000 employees link customers directly to Sika.

North American
Plant Locations
Sika Industry
30800 Stephenson Highway
Visit us on the
World Wide Web at: Sealing and Bonding in Facades –
Specification Guide
Lyndhurst, New Jersey Madison Heights, MI 48071 www.sikaindustry.com
Marion, Ohio (248) 577-0020
Grandview, Missouri Customer Service
Montreal, Quebec Sika Canada (800) 688-7452
601 - Delmar Avenue
Technical Service
Pointe Claire, Quebec, H9R 4A9
email: tsmh@sika-corp.com Proud Member and Manufacturer of Verified Components.
(514) 697-2610

SIKA warrants its products for one year from date of installation to be free from manufacturing defects and to meet the technical properties listed on the
current Technical Data / Product Data Sheet if used as directed within shelf life. User determines suitability of product for intended use and assumes all
risks. Buyer’s sole remedy shall be limited to the purchase price or replacement of product exclusive of labor or cost of labor. NO OTHER WARRANTIES
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED SHALL APPLY INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SIKA SHALL
NOT BE LIABLE UNDER ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.

© 2010 Sika Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

www.sikaindustry.com
Contents

Introduction
High-tech facades 5

Glazing Technologies
Four-sided structural glazing 6
Two-sided structural glazing 6
Bolt-fixed glazing 7
Total vision glazing 7

Structural Glazing SG
SG modular design 8
Joint design and calculation 10
Support beyond formulas 14
Facade system components –
Glass and Metal 15
SG silicone adhesive sealants 16

Insulating Glazing IG
IG modular design 18
Seal height calculations 20
IG secondary sealants 22
Gas-filled IG units 23

Weathersealing WS
Joint design 24
WS silicone sealants 24
Natural stone sealants 26
Total vision glazing 28
Fire-rated sealing 29

Vapour Proofing
Facade membrane systems 30

Ancillary Products
Surface treatment 32
Cleaner, primer 32
Spacer tapes 33

FFI Competence Centre FCC


Project service 34
Comprehensive quality
management 35
Project testing 36
Project procedure: workflow 37
Technical glossary 38

Peek & Cloppenburg Store, Cologne, Germany,


1 Renzo Piano Building Workshop
2 1 3

4 5 6 7 8 9

Sika’s Sealing and Bonding Solutions –


for Facades in every Climate High-Tech Solutions for Perfect Facades

Architecture thrives on Creative Facade Architecture With this application in mind, Sika supplies
change. On creative ideas a wide range of tried-and-tested, inno-
and bold solutions that fas- To strike the ideal balance between aes- vative facade products for every demand:
cinate and surprise us every thetic appeal and energy efficiency, archi-
8 tects are increasingly turning to glass for Sikasil®. Each of these sealants and
2 14 27 time. Curtain walls are a curtain wall construction. As transparent adhesives has highly specific properties
15 22 25 21 particularly severe challenge structural glazing walls, single or double that are precisely tailored to the particular
19
28
1
6 for planners, because they glazed or even double skin facades. Glass application. From structural glazing and
3
17 18 not only set the character of can also be combined with other materials insulating glass secondary seals through
7 the structure but must also such as natural stone, metals or plastic to weatherseals.
4 23 13 coated metals, giving planners a wide scope
meet stringent requirements. for creativity. SikaMembran® membrane systems
11 20 26 24
12 16 supplement ideally the sealants range for
But an immaculate optical appearance water/vapour proofing wide joints in both
9
isn’t the only crucial factor. Facades and curtain wall and ventilated facades.
windows must provide long-term durable
Projects on this page:
1 Peek & Cloppenburg Store, Cologne, Germany systems. This requires perfect adhesion
2 30 St. Mary Axe, London, UK between the components and highly
3 Zhang Jiang Hi-Tec Park, Shanghai, China elastic, weatherproof seals. These specifi-
4 New Exhibition Center Milan, Italy
5 University of Chicago, USA 10 cations call for high-tech silicone sealants,
6 Jiangsu Telecom Building, Nanjing, China which are tailored to meet highly specific
7 Crystal Tower, Manama, Bahrain demands and guarantee peak
8 Russia Federation Tower, Moscow, Russia
9 One Marina Boulevard (NTUC Building), Singapore performance in every respect.

Front page:
4 Drugstore Publicis, Paris, France 5
26 27 28 29

For structural glazing silicone adhesive sealants Sikasil® SG see page 16. For UV-resistant weather sealing between the glass panes with Sikasil® WS For the appropriate fin glazing silicone sealants Sikasil® SG and Sikasil® WS see page 28.

Four-Sided Two-Sided Bolt-Fixed Glazing Total Vision Glazing


Structural Glazing Structural Glazing
Optimum Transparency The dynamic loads are transmitted through Optimum Safety The Lightness of Glazing Frameless Appearance
the silicone adhesive. To support the
Structural glazing systems can be dead load of the glass, we recommend a Mechanical Fixing Mechanical Fixing Impressive Glass Heights
either two-sided or four-sided, with mechanical support that is not visible from In the two-sided structural glazing system, In bolt-fixed glazing systems, the glass Total vision glazing (fin glazing) impresses
each design having its own particular
the outside. only two mutually opposite glass or panel elements are fixed to cable systems or by its even frameless appearance
advantages. In general, for efficient
and energy-saving building manage- edges are bonded (horizontally or vertically) metal beams by metal fasteners. These and the huge glass sizes.
ment, double glazing is recommended. Advantages of this System to a frame with Sikasil® SG silicone adhesive. fasteners are embedded in holes in the
- Attractive appearance without visible The two other mutually opposite sides are glass pane with “glass cement”. Total vision glazing resembles two-sided
Frameless Appearance frames fixed mechanically like capped CW systems. The glasses can be single panes structural glazing where the top and bottom
Four-sided structural glazing is impressive - Thanks to its high elasticity, the silicone (e.g. laminated glass in the outer skin of glass edges are embedded in the ceiling
first and foremost because of its monolithic sealant can transmit the loads at all four Mechanical fixing of the glass element at two the double skin facade) or insulating units and floor slab. The vertical glass edges are
frameless appearance. All four sides of the sides more efficiently and uniformly sides does not affect the loads on the two with UV-resistant silicone edge sealing and structurally bonded to the glass fins.
large-format pane element are bonded
- Temperature distribution in the glass is bonded sides. Since excessive bending of even with argon filling (Sikasil® IG).
to an adapter frame with Sikasil® SG
ideal, since there are no cap profiles, the glass must be prevented, the minimum Advantages of this System
silicone adhesive sealants and have no
visible frame. These prefabricated glass which would act as shades. This reduces dimensions of the joint must not be changed Advantages of this System - Attractive appearance without visible frames
modules are subsequently attached to the the risk of glass breakage caused by compared to a four-sided system. - High mechanical safety - Thanks to its high elasticity, the silicone
support structure so that the facade gives thermal stresses - Lightweight glass constructions feasible sealant can transmit the loads more
the appearance of a flat glass surface. - The facade is more energy-efficient as Advantages of this System efficiently and uniformly
there are no external metal parts and all - High mechanical safety For the embedding of the metal fasteners - Temperature distribution in the glass is
joints are sealed - The silicone adhesive and the mechanical into the glass holes and perfect levelling ideal, since there are no cap profiles,
- Greater self-cleaning from level glass fasteners help distribute the dynamic forces of production tolerances please ask for the which would act as shades. This reduces
- Metal cap profiles can be used as design Sika® AnchorFix® series. the risk of glass breakage caused by
elements to make the facade seem less
severe
6 7
Adapter frame Stepped insulating glass unit

Weatherseal Secondary edge seal

Setting block Spacer tape

Mechanical support Structural glazing joint

Backing material Setting block

Structural glazing joint Weatherseal

Spacer tape Symmetrical double glazing unit

10 11

Stock Exchange; Johannesburg, South Africa Zorlu Plaza, Istanbul, Turkey The illustration shows a structural
glazing module prototype. This diagram
is not intended as a construction guide.

Structural Glazing – Sophisticated Architecture More elaborate, additional structural


elements may be needed to satisfy
national construction regulations or

and Innovative Technology


project-specific requirements.

Structural glazing modules Specialized Products Durable Construction Economical Construction Integrated Systems
are subject to extremely high
stresses. They must accom- High-modulus Sikasil® SG silicone Sikasil® SG silicone adhesive sealants Structural glazing facades have both A fully integrated structural glazing system
modate wind and snow loads adhesive sealants offer the best properties are used in structural glazing for bonding technical and economical advantages: is only possible if a number of conditions
for this purpose. Sika’s low-modulus the glass elements to the metal support - The factory-produced units can be are met:
as well as thermal expansion,
Sikasil® WS weatherseals accommodate frames. The elements may be designed as installed quickly and economically - Project-specific computation of the joint
and permanently transfer the the movements between the structu- single glazing or insulating glazing to - An efficient insulating facade slashes dimensions so that the system can be
forces to the support struc- ral glazing modules and durably seal them provide an insulating facade, which forms thermal losses, providing a much perfectly executed down to the last detail
ture, while also withstanding against wind and weather. The elastic seal the complete building envelope and improved energy balance - Factory bonding of the industrially
weathering over many years. can even reduce damage in small guarantees excellent corrosion protection. - High solar heat recovery can be taken manufactured glass modules with extreme
to medium-scale earthquakes and bomb Coated multifunctional insulating glazing into account in the energy balance positional accuracy
blasts. provides the necessary protection against - Acoustic insulation is improved by insula- - Frame construction exactly tailored to
the sun. Other variants include double ting glazing and elastic silicone sealant the type of facade
skin facades produced with single glazing - These easy to clean facades have low - Sealants and weatherseal gaskets of
elements. The elastic joints produced with maintenance and cleaning costs high-quality silicones, which meet the
Sikasil® SG silicone adhesives accommo- - Repairs can be carried out much more strictest construction regulations and
date movements of the construction economically by quick and easy module international standards
elements resulting from temperature exchange - Stringent quality control on all the
changes, moisture, shrinkage of construc- products used, from production through
tion materials, sound, wind and vibrations. to application
Permanently.

8 9
h

h joint bite
e joint thickness

12 12

Airport Barajas Madrid, Spain; Richard Rogers & Estudio Lamela

Joint Design – Correct Planning is Essential Calculating the Joint Bite h

In structural glazing, the adhe- Typical Stress/Strain Diagram of Joint bite h as a function of the wind Joint bite h as a function of the dead
sive joints should be planned Important Sikasil® SG-500 load in supported constructions: load in non-supported constructions:
and arranged according to opti-
cal requirements, but they Seven criteria must be observed: 4. The minimum joint bite is always 6 mm, a✕w G ✕ 9.81
irrespective of the calculated value. h= h=
should also take into account 2 ✕ dyn IV ✕ stat
1. The joint seal must be able to freely
dimensional changes in the ad- h= minimum bite of the adhesive joint (mm)
accommodate tensile and compressive 5. The joint thickness e should be at least h= minimum bite of the adhesive joint (mm)
jacent parts under the effect of movements between the joint edges. 6 mm.
a= length of the short edge of the glass pane or G= weight of the glass or of the element (kg)
of the element (mm); with irregularly dimen- Iv = length of the vertical adhesive bond (m)
temperature and the movement Three-sided adhesion of the sealant must sioned glass elements: longest of the short sstat = permissible stress of the adhesive for
capability of the silicone adhe- be avoided, because it inevitably results in 6. Always round the result up, never down.

w =
glass panes1)
maximum wind load to be received (kN/m2)
non-supported constructions (kPa)
Sikasil® SG-500: 10.5 kPa = 0.0105 N/mm2
sive. The joint design thus com- damage to the joint (see fig. on page 13). (100 kp/m2 = 1 kPa = 1 kN/m2) Sikasil® SG-500 CN: 10.5 kPa = 0.0105 N/mm2
sdyn = maximum adhesive stress for supported
bines shape with functionality. 7. The structural joints must not be constructions (kPa)


Sikasil® SG-20: 12.8 kPa = 0.0128 N/mm2
Sikasil® SG-18: 9.5 kPa = 0.0095 N/mm2
2. The joint bite h must not exceed subjected to external loads as a result of Sikasil® SG-500: 140 kPa = 0.14 N/mm2
Sikasil® SG-500 CN: 140 kPa = 0.14 N/mm2
15 mm for Sikasil® SG-18 and forces such as settlements, shrinkage, Sikasil® SG-20: 170 kPa = 0.17 N/mm2
Sikasil® SG-20. For bigger joints up to creep or permanent stress caused by Sikasil® SG-18: 170 kPa = 0.17 N/mm2
Example 2 (with Sikasil® SG-500):
50 mm, use Sikasil® SG-500 or gaskets etc. Pane dimensions: 3 m 5 1 m 5 12 mm
1)
If the sides of the glass panes are of varying length,
Sikasil® SG-500 CN. Density of glass: 2.5 kg/dm3
then the length of the longest side is used for the
calculation. Result: 14 mm
3. The ratio of joint bite h to joint thickness
e should be at least 1:1 and at most 3:1.
Example 1 (with Sikasil® SG-500):
Maximum wind load = 4.0 kN/m2
Pane dimensions: 2.5 m 5 1.5 m
Result = 21.43 mm
The joint bite is thus at least 22 mm.
10 11
Adapter frame

h
Glass pane

e
Structural glazing joint

Right joint dimension in its original state Besides tensile movements the adhesive bond also absorbs It is essential that bonding on three sides is avoided.
(h = joint bite, e = joint thickness) shear movements in all directions.

Calculating the Joint Thickness e

With all structural glazing constructions, 1. Deformation of the SG Structure 2. Total Movements 3. Calculation of the minimum Joint Example 3:
the adhesive bond is subject to consider- Please note that Thickness e Pane dimensions: 2.5 m 5 1.5 m
able shear movements. The joint thickness 1. All causes of movement must be (see example 1)
(glue line thickness) must therefore be
Iv,h = Iv,h ✕ [(f ✕ Tf) – (g ✕ Tg)] I Temperature difference aluminium frame: 60 K
taken into account:
I = Iv2  Ih2 e Temperature difference glass: 30 K
designed so that the movement capability - Thermal effects due to different 2c  c2
Calculation of the deformation of the long and short Maximum elongation: 12.5% (c = 0.125)
is not exceeded. coefficients of thermal expansion
panel edges to take account of the different expansion The calculated deformations of the long and short Result: e $ 6.56 mm
between the glass and the support and contraction of glass and adapter frame panel edges yield the total movements according to
Sikasil® SG silicone adhesive sealants are permitted
Criteria for Calculating the Joint structure. If the joint dimensions are (thermally induced movements in the shear direction). the formula above (Pythagoras’ theorem).
maximum elongation of 12.5% (c = 0.125). The total Since the ratio of the joint bite h (22 mm,
Thickness e to be the same for a complete Dl = total change in length of expansion and contraction must not exceed 25%. example 1) to the joint thickness e is supposed
Dlv, h = change in length (mm)
- Dimensions of the elements With these restrictions, the minimum joint depth e to be smaller than 3:1, a joint thickness of at
construction project, they must be lv = vertical length of the glazing unit (mm) v = vertical
h = horizontal can be calculated.
Maximum temperature differences to calculated according to the lh = horizontal length of the glazing unit (mm) least 7.33 mm has to be chosen. A standard
be expected dimensions of the largest pane Tf = average temperature difference of the frame This calculation complies with ASTM C1401. spacer tape thickness for this would be 8 mm.
(approx. 30 – 60 K) EOTA ETAG No.002 (2004) Annex 2 describes another
- Coefficients of thermal expansion of - Other causes, such as shrinkage, Tg = average temperature difference of calculation method based on shear modulus.
thematerials to be bonded subsidence or locally confined stresses the glass (approx. 30 – 60 K)
af = expansion coefficient of the frame material
Estimated value for joint thickness: (aluminium: 23.8 5 10-6 K-1, steel: 12 5 10-6 K-1) For support in joint calculations please
half of joint bite, at least 6 mm 2. Observe all tolerances. These ag = expansion coefficient of the glass
contact our Sika FFI Competence Centre.
9 5 10-6 K-1
include the tolerances for cutting glass,
and/or metal, and installation
tolerances

3. The application temperature must
be between +5 °C and +40 °C

4. Avoid three-sided adhesion of the


sealant so as not to restrict joint
12 13
movement
Aluminium L-profile

Adhesive joint

Glass pane

max. stress 1.00 N/mm2

max. stress 1.20 N/mm2 max. stress 0.90 N/mm2

Example for FE calculation: L-joints request special care due to high stresses in corners (left).
The use of a backer rod reduces the ultimate stress by more than 30% (right).
14

80 and 100 Victoria Street London, UK; EPR Architects

Support Beyond Formulas Facade System Components –


Glass and Metal Frame
Finite Element Calculations High Speed Tests for Tensile Shear Strength as a Function of Velocity
Glass 3. Magnetron Coatings for lowE Glass However, since the composition of the coatings
Bomb Blast and Hurricane (soft Coatings) may vary greatly, the warranty requires that
Joint design becomes more complex, Resistance 1. Uncoated Float Glass These coatings contain precious metals individual tests be carried out for each project.
joint sizes get smaller and smaller, loads Sikasil® SG-500 Float glass is generally suitable for all bond- (such as silver) and are generally not resist-
and movements go to the extremes. Our For Sika as one of the market leaders in the ed glass facades. To reduce the risk of ant enough for use in structural glazing Adapter Frame
specialists in the FFI Competence Centre in automotive and transportation industry high damage from glass breakage, use tem- bonds. If necessary, strip off the coating
Switzerland accompany trends and speed tests are state-of-the-art tests at its pered or laminated glass (with polyvinyl around the bond. Adhesion should therefore The adapter frame is usually made of the
developments not only with sophisticated high-tech laboratories. Before any crash test butyral film, PVB or cast resins). Sikasil® SG be tested on the abraded specimens, since following materials:
tests but also with the latest methods of or bomb blast test we measure high speed silicone adhesives ensure excellent adhesion abrasion represents a modification of the
finite element calculations. impact on sealants and adhesives on small to tempered glass without additional tests. surface, and is subject to various param- Anodized aluminium
specimens. Based on these values we help Where laminated glass is used, we recom- eters. Always observe the glass manufac- Powder-coated aluminium
to optimize the joint dimensions. mend carrying out compatibility tests. turer’s instructions. PVDF-coated aluminium
Stainless steel
2. Pyrolytic Coatings for reflective Glass 4. Ceramic Coatings
(hard Coatings) Ceramic coatings are used predominantly Sikasil® SG silicone adhesives adhere very
Coated glass optimizes the thermal insu- in the spandrel area. At the edge regions of well to these materials, but Sika carries out
lation of the facade while providing a par- the glass, they cover colour differences additional tests to check this separately for
The higher the impact speed, the higher the adhesive’s ticularly attractive optical effect. Pyrolytic within the insulating glazing edge seal and every individual project.
tensile strength, the higher the design factor.
coatings (hard coatings) of metal oxides between the edge seal and the structural Sika® Aktivator-205 (Sika® Cleaner-205)
are ideal for structural glazing, since they glazing adhesive. The adhesive strength of optimizes adhesion on critical materials.
resist environmental conditions. Sikasil® SG silicone adhesives has been
For Sikasil® SG silicone adhesives, we only proven in numerous projects and tests ac-
Impact test machine with pendulum (ISO 11343) for offer a warranty for adhesion after we have cording to the European guideline for bonded
velocities of 1.10 m/s – 5.24 m/s at temperatures from
–50 to +80°C. As glass deforms with a max. speed of conducted individual adhesion tests. glass structures (EOTA ETAG No. 002).
4 m/s, this is the optimal range for simulating bomb
14 blast tests. 15
Sikasil® SG-18 SG-20 SG-500 SG-500 CN
Components one-part one-part two-part two-part
Curing system neutral neutral neutral neutral
Processing with guns from cartridges with guns from cartridges machine mixing machine mixing
or foil packs or foil packs
Installation of bonded elements after 2 to 4 weeks 1) after 2 to 4 weeks 1) after 3 to 5 days 1) after 3 to 5 days 1)
Maximum of joint bite [mm] 15 15 50 50
Skin forming time/pot life
~ 30 ~ 15 ~ 50 ~ 60
(23˚ C/50% rel. humidity) [min]
Permanently elastic range [°C] -40 to +150 -40 to +150 -40 to +150 -40 to +150
Shore A hardness 2) ~ 44 ~ 39 ~ 45 ~ 35
Tensile strength [N/mm ]
3) 2
~ 1.06 ~ 1.20 ~ 0.95 ~ 0.9
Modulus at 100%
~ 0.81 (50%) ~ 0.90 (100%) ~ 0.95 (100%) ~ 0.9 (100%)
elongation 3) [N/mm2]
Elongation at break [%] ~ 75 ~ 180 ~ 100 ~ 120
Design stress in tension [N/mm ] 2
0.17 0.17 0.14 0.14
1) Depends on joint dimensions and curing conditions, 2) ISO 868, 3) ISO 8339-A. These figures are intended as a guide and should not be used in preparing specifications.
For technical information about the products, please ask for the latest respective data sheets

15

Pfizer Headquarters, Walton Oaks, Surrey, UK

Sikasil® SG Silicone Adhesives –


Systems with Individual Advantages
Structural Bonding Sikasil® SG-500 Sikasil® SG-18 Standards and Guidelines In the USA
- Two-part SG system - One-part SG system
Sika has developed one-part and two-part - For machine application - Neutral curing A wide variety of local standards and guide- ASTM C 1184: a comprehensive SG adhe-
silicone adhesive sealants for structural - Neutral curing - Ready to process lines have become established worldwide. sive specification standard.
glazing and insulating glazing applications, - Fast vulcanization and through-cure - High mechanical strength The most important are:
and each feature specific advantages. - Excellent UV and weathering resistance - High modulus ASTM C 1401: a guideline for SG applica-
Which of these systems is best for a par- - High mechanical strength - UV-resistant and weather-resistant In Europe tions.
ticular application depends first and fore- - ETA certified and CE-marked
most on the specific requirements. Both EOTA ETAG No. 002-2004: a guideline on In China
systems offer maximum quality and maxi- Sikasil® SG-500 CN Sikasil® SG-20 the application and testing of SG adhesives,
mum safety in every respect. - Two-part SG system - One-part SG system which is adhered to in most EU states and GB 16776-2005: a comprehensive SG
- For machine application - Neutral curing takes local regulations into account. adhesive specification standard based on
In addition they are characterized by the - Neutral curing - Odourless ASTM C 1184.
following special properties: - Fast vulcanization and through-cure - Ready to process CSTB 3488: describes the French SG
- Excellent UV and weathering resistance - Extremely high mechanical strength regulations for adhesives. In countries without their own structural
High tensile strength - High mechanical strength - combined with high elasticity glazing standard, ASTM C 1184 or
High tear resistance - UV-resistant and weather-resistant EOTA ETAG No 002 are usually applicable.
High elastic recovery Ask Sika for the lastest SG Application
Low volume shrinkage on curing Guidelines

16 17
Glass pane Desiccant Spacer

Thermal Insulation Included

The facades are mainly responsible for the


energy balance of a building. The excellent
thermal insulating effect of bonded double or
triple glazed units with coated glass can save
much of the energy otherwise consumed for
heating or cooling. The air trapped between
the bonded panes is a poor heat conductor and
therefore forms a good insulating layer between
Primary sealant
the out-door and indoor air.

The insulating glazing edge seals are predo-


IG secondary edge seal
minantly made of bent aluminium or stainless
steel spacers filled with a desiccant, thermo-
plastic polyisobutylene (PIB) as a primary seal
and installation aid, and an elastic sealant as a
secondary edge seal. Only high-modulus silicone
is approved as a secondary seal in structural
glazing facades. Sikasil® IG silicone sealants

Insulating Glazing –
were specifically developed to meet require-
ments of insulating glazing and feature special
advantages:

UV and weathering resistance


Keeps Energy Costs Low
Durability
Material compatibility
Integrated Systems

In insulating glazing it is particularly impor- - The desiccant (molecular sieve) absorbs


tant that no water vapour should penetrate any moisture that penetrates through the
into the space between the panes, since it edge seal.
would condense as water on the cold pane.
To avoid this during the whole service life - The polyisobutylene primary seal serves as
of an IG unit, use a double-sealed edge an installation aid, sealing against moisture
seal system: and minimizing gas leakage in the case
of insulating glazing units filled with noble
- Aluminium, stainless steel, or plastic gas (e.g. Argon, Krypton).
spacers (low thermal conductivity) ensure
the necessary distance between panes. - The secondary edge sealant bonds the
panes together, provides the double glazing
with mechanical stability, and is also a
moisture barrier.

18 Telefónica Headquarters, Madrid, Spain 19


16
Stepped Double Glazing Unit Influence of Glass Thickness on Seal Height

Stepped
Fig. 7 Glass deflection due to Climatic loads
double glazing unit

IG seal height r

Fig. 1 Only climatic loads Fig. 3 Residential fenestration


SG joint bite h are relevant for sealant Glass: 4/12/4 mm, p0: 12 kPa
height calculation Seal height: 6 mm

Symmetrical Double Glazing Unit

SG joint bite h IG seal height r

Symmetrical
double glazing unit
Standard High air pressure, Low air pressure,
external influences low temperature high temperature

Fig. 2 Climatic and wind load Fig. 4 Commercial glazing in high-


are relevant for sealant height rise buildings
calculation Glass: 6/12/6 mm, p0: 20 kPa

Silicone Seal Height – Effect of Environmental Loads on


Seal height: 6 mm

Simple Calculation of the Seal Height


Detailed Joint Calculation in non-stepped Configurations
according to EOTA ETAG 002-2004
Double Glazing Units
A) When the thickness of the outer glass Especially for small glass panes and non- methods (e.g. Plate method or Timoschenko
Calculation of Joint Non-stepped (symmetrical) pane  thickness of the inner glass pane: standard formats, for a precise calculation method). The deflection is influenced by
Dimensions in stepped Double Glazing Units of the IG sealant height there are 4 steps the pane thickness and their size
Configurations a✕w
r= to consider: (see Fig. 4 and 5). Small, thick panes
The IG seal height r for the inside pane In the case of double glazing units in 2 ✕ dyn require big seal heights (see Fig. 6, e.g. IGU
is calculated solely by taking the environ- mechanically supported structural glazing 1. Calculation of isochoric Pressure p0 0.75 5 0.75 m: minimum seal height of
mental loads into account when the smaller constructions, the outer glass pane is held B) When the thickness of the outer glass The isochoric pressure is a theoretical 18 mm).
inside pane is supported by setting blocks. onto the frame by means of the secondary pane  thickness of the inner glass pane: Fig. 5 Protective glazing pressure caused by climatic loads such as
It is advisable to have the seal height che- edge seal. The minimum seal height r Glass: 10/12/8 + 8 mm, p0: 20 kPa max. estimated difference of temperature 3. Real internal Pressure
Seal height: 6 mm
cked by one of our FFI Competence Centre. is calculated for two cases A and B (see a✕w DT and atmospheric pressure Dpatm and The increase of the cavity volume by the
r should be at least 6 mm. formulas on the right). r= the difference in altitude D H of production glass deflection reduces the isochoric
4 ✕ dyn
site of the IG unit and its installation site. pressure to the real internal pressure. The
r= height of the insulating glass
pump action caused by environmental
secondary seal (mm)
a= longest of the short glass edges of An average value for p0 of 16 kPa has to be loads is shown in the illustrations in Fig 7.
the project (mm) considered. For extreme changes of tem-
Support from our Important w= maximum wind load to be expected
perature or altitude, p0 has to be calculated 4. Total Load on the secondary Seal
(kN/m2)
FFI Competence Centre dyn = permissible adhesive stress for with the formula below. The sum of the climatic load of point 3
supported constructions;
For precise and reliable calculations SG adhesive bonding of an unsup- for Sikasil® IG-25:
and the wind load results in the final load
of seal height please contact our ported IG unit is not recommended 140 kPa = 0.14 N/mm2 2. Estimation of Glass Deflection on the IG edge seal (see Fig. 1 and 2).
FFI Competence Centre. because of excessively high stress Based on the value of p0 the deflection of
in the IG secondary edge.
in the IG secondary edge. The simplified calculations only the glass panes is calculated by various
If inevitable you should contact FCC
consider the wind load. EOTA ETAG
If inevitable you should contact FCC
Switzerland. 002-2004 clearly insists on the
Switzerland. consideration of climatic loads, i.e.
p0 = (T ✕ 0.34 kPa / K) + patm + (H ✕ 0.012 kPa/m)
Fig. 6 Protective glazing, increase of seal height
for small glass sizes and thick glass Glass: 10/12/8 + 8 mm, p0: 20 kPa
panes. Seal height: 18 mm
20 21
Product Name Sikasil® IG-16 Sikasil® IG-25 Sikasil® IG-25 HM Plus Sikasil® IG-50
Curing system neutral silicone neutral silicone neutral silicone polyurethane
Components one-part two-part two-part two-part
Processing with guns from cartridges machine mixing machine mixing machine mixing
or foil packs
Maximum of seal height [mm] ~ 15 ~ 50 ~ 50 ~ 50
Applications:
- Standard IG for windows and
X X X X
capped CW systems
- Symmetrical IG for SG X X
- Stepped IG for SG X 3)
X X
- IG in two-sided SG X X X
- IG for bolted curtain walls X 3) X X
- Gas-filled IGU X X X
Skin forming time/pot life
~ 25 ~ 35 ~ 110 ~ 30
(23°C/50% rel. humidity) [min]
Permanently elastic range [°C] – 40 to +150 – 40 to +150 – 40 to +150 – 40 to +90
Shore A hardness 1)
~ 45 ~ 45 ~ 60 ~ 50
Tensile strengthm [N/mm ]
2) 2
~ 0.87 ~ 0.90 ~ 1.12 ~ 1.5
Modulus at 100% elongation [N/mm ] 2) 2
~ 0.83 (50%) ~ 0.90 ~ 0.90 (50%) ~ 0.98
1) ISO 868, 2) ISO 8339-A, 3) If the IG secondary seal has a structural function, IG-25 has to be used. These figures are intended as a guide and should not be used in preparing specifications.
For technical information about the products, please ask for the latest respective data sheets. 17

Highlight Towers, Munch, Germany; Murphy / Jahn

Sikasil® IG Secondary Sealants – Sikasil® IG-25 HM Plus and SikaGlaze® IG-50 –


UV-Resistant and Extremely Durable Energy-Saving with Inert Gas Filling
Tailored Properties Sikasil® IG-16 Applicable Standards Inert Gas Filling Sikasil® IG-25 HM Plus
- One-part system, for the secondary With the ultra-high-modulus IG silicone - Two-part silicone secondary edge seal
The sealant is chosen according to the indi- edge seal The test requirements laid down in inter- Beside glass coatings the gap-filling with sealant Sikasil® IG-25 HM Plus it is possible - Can be applied by machine
vidual requirements of the insulating - Neutral curing national standards are designed to ensure inert gas is one means of reducing heat to produce Argon-filled IG units complying - Outstanding processing properties
glazing unit. Sika offers Sikasil® IG silicone - Ready to process the insulating glazing unit has a minimum losses. With an argon-filled cavity the with the European standard EN1279 part (dosing and tooling)
sealants for the secondary edge seals of - Outstanding tooling properties lifetime of 10 years. The climatic test usu- U-value of an IG unit can be reduced by 3 for argon-filled IG units. As the PIB layer - Extremely high mechanical strength
insulating glazing units. These sealants
- Excellent weathering and UV resistance ally includes cyclic conditioning of small 0.3 W/m2K. This means an oil saving po- in fact is the argon barrier, comprehensive - Excellent weathering and UV resistance
are characterized not only by outstanding
tooling and bonding characteristics, but - Suitable for stepped double glazing double glazing units and subsequent tential of up to 3 litres per year per square application know-how and quality control - Extremely high resistance to water and
also by unparalleled UV stability. This per- units in curtain walls testing of vapour permeability (dew point meter of glass facade and even 4 times during the IG production are crucial. For moisture
mits durable constructions with a uniformly temperature). more energy equivalents for cooling in the stability requested in SG facades - Structural capabilities
high quality of workmanship. Sikasil® IG-25 hot climates. For big glass facades this these IG units can be produced with rigid - Suitable for all kinds of curtain wall
- Two-part secondary edge seal The most important standards are: not only means a high potential of energy box-shaped spacer bars (aluminium or insulating glazing units
- Can be applied by machine EN1279, Glass in building – insulating saving but also a tremendous reduction stainless steel). This meant the bre-
- Outstanding processing properties glass units of carbon dioxide and hence the green- akthrough of argon-filled IG units into the SikaGlaze® IG-50
(dosing and tooling) - Part 1, generalities, tolerances, system house effect. structural glazing facades as shown in - Two-part polyurethane secondary
- High mechanical strength descriptions 2004 in Helmut Jahn’s Munich Highlight edge seal
- Structural capabilities - Part 2, moisture vapour penetration The high argon diffusion rate of the sili- Towers, glazed with 20000 m2 of IG sealed - Can be applied by machine
- Excellent weathering and UV resistance - Part 3, inert gas leakage rates cones has been the obstacle to the use in with Sikasil® IG-25 HM Plus. - Outstanding processing properties
- High resistance to water and moisture - Part 4, physical attributes of edge seals argon-filled IG units. Bending movements (dosing and tooling)
- Suitable for all kinds of curtain wall double - Part 5, evaluation of conformity of the glass panes due to changes of For gas-filled IGU in capped curtain wall - Very high mechanical strength
glazing units - Part 6, factory production control temperature and atmospheric pressure systems and conventional window systems - High resistance to water and moisture
(page 21, Fig. 6) and the non-elastic SikaGlaze® IG-50 polyurethane can be - Suitable for all kinds of capped curtain wall
ASTM E 773, ASTM E 774 behaviour of PIB (SikaGlaze® IG-5 PIB) used if the edge seal is not exposed to UV insulating glazing units
cause leakage of the primary seal and thus radiation.
EN13022 and EN15434: cause high gas loss rates in IG units sealed Ask your Sika sales representative for our
Standards for insulating glazing in SG with silicone. primary seal SikaGlaze® IG-5 PIB.
22 23
curtain walls.
Metal

Sikasil® WS-305 CN WS-605 S


Components one-part one-part
Weatherseal
Curing system neutral neutral

Skin forming time ~ 35 ~ 25


(23 °C/50% rel. humidity) [min]
Permanently elastic range [°C] –40 to +150 –40 to +150 Double glazing

Shore A hardness 1) ~ 15 ~ 20

nsile strength 2) [N/mm2] ~ 0.50 ~ 0.45


Modulus at 100%
~ 0.30 ~ 0.27
elongation 2) [N/mm2]
1) ISO 868, 2) ISO 8339-A. These figures are intended as a guide and should not be used in preparing specifications.
For technical information about the products, please ask for the latest respective data sheets.

Weatherseal, double glazing/metal, joint width: depth = 2:1

18

Telecom Center Munich, Germany; Kiessler + Partner

Sikasil® WS Weatherseals –
Effective Protection Against the Elements
Perfect Appearance Dimensioning of Individual Colour Scheme Weathersealing of Bolted Water/Vapour Proofing Standards and Guidelines
Weatherproofing Joints Glass Facades Membranes
The quality and optical appearance of a In general For weatherseals and natural stone Because of the requirements for the
curtain wall are critically dependent on The joint edges must run parallel to a sealants, Sika offers project-specific colour To ensure the correct choice of a sealant Connections of the glass facade to the sealant, standards for weatherseals are
appropriate weather sealing. The individual - depth of twice the joint width, but at least matching services. In addition to the wide in bolted glass facades, Sika recommends concrete structure can be too wide for significantly different from those for
elements are ultimately subject to extreme 30 mm. This gives the backing material range of standard colours, Sika also offers checking the design and statics. This is wet sealing. For sound water proofing structural glazing applications.
movements due to temperature changes, sufficient grip individual special colours on request. necessary to ascertain whether the sealant Sika offers sophisticated vapour control
moisture (in the case of concrete), shrinkage For most sealants, the joint width must be Please note that special colours are subject only serves as a highly elastic weatherseal membrane systems (see page 30).
of construction materials (wood, concrete), - at least 4 times the expected joint move- to special delivery conditions such or whether it also acts as a structure- ISO 11600
sound, wind and vibrations, which may ment, which results from 25% movement as minimum order quantities and delivery stiffening element, in which case it must Weatherproofing Gaskets
affect the joints and adjacent elements. capability times. Your Sika sales manager will be also be taken into account in the static cal- ISO 11600 is the world’s first standard
The optimal ratio of joint width to depth is pleased to give you further details. culations. On request, our FFI Competence UV-resistant silicone rubber gaskets are to combine the classification of widely
The joints between the elements may be - 2:1 (see Fig. top right) Sikasil® WS-305 CN Centre carries out individual calculations suitable for use as structural glazing wea- different sealant grades and their tests.
effectively sealed with preformed gaskets - Ready-to-use one-part sealant and tests for each project. therseals. All gaskets (particularly However, national standards, such as ASTM
or alternatively with UV and weather resistant Project-Specific Adhesion Tests - Neutral curing non-silicones such as EPDM) have to be in- C 920 and DIN 18545 are also important,
silicone sealants. Sikasil® WS silicone - UV and weathering resistant dividually tested for compatibility according not only because of local practices, but
sealants preserve the quality and perfect For weather-tight sealing of a curtain wall, - Highly flexible to ASTM C 1087 or EOTA ETAG No. 002. also because of specific characteristics
optical appearance of the facade in the long it is essential to ensure optimum adhesion such as the abrasion test (DIN 18545) or
term, thanks to their outstanding advantages: of the sealant to the surfaces. Before the Sikasil® WS-605 S early movement capability (DIN 18540).
- UV and weathering resistance sealant is used, it should therefore be - Ready-to-use one-part sealant
- Improved impermeability to air and individually tested for perfect adhesion to - Neutral curing
driving rain specimens of the project material at Sika’s - Non-streaking on glass and metal surfaces
- Very good movement absorption FFI Competence Centre. - UV and weathering resistant
- Highly flexible

24 25
Natural stone

Sikasil® WS-355
Components one-part

Curing system neutral


Non-staining sealant
Skin forming time ~ 20
(23 °C/50% rel. humidity) [min]
Permanently elastic range [°C] –40 to +150
Double glazing
Shore A hardness 1) ~ 20

Te nsile strength 2) [N/mm2] ~ 0.47


Modulus at 100%
~ 0.28
elongation 2) [N/mm2]
1) ISO 868, 2) ISO 8339-A. These figures are intended as a guide and should not be
used in preparing specifications. For technical information about the products, please
ask for the latest respective data sheets.

19

Gansu Province Finance Bureau, Lanzhou, China

Natural Stone Sealing –


Perfect even in Sensitive Areas
Sealants Suitable for Natural They contain no volatile compounds that System-Compatible Primers Sikasil® WS-355
Stones could migrate into the pores of the natural - Weatherseal for natural stone facades
stone. We therefore describe them as Use Sika® Primer-210 to ensure long-term - Ready-to-use one-part sealant
Natural stones such as granite, marble and non-staining. These non-staining silicone adhesion to stones of all types. Exact - Neutral curing
sandstone are highly sensitive materials sealants are also recommended for glass instructions for applying primer and sealant - No staining on natural stone
when used on facades. Where an inappro- facades in order to reduce streaking on are given in our application guidelines. - UV and weathering resistant
priate sealant is used, there may be stai- glass panes and metal panels and to mini- - Highly flexible
ning of the joint edges or streaking, which mize the need to clean the facade.
greatly impairs the optical appearance of Applicable Standards
the facade. Sika therefore recommends
special system-compatible Sikasil® WS The worldwide most frequently quoted
silicone sealants ideally suited for use with standard for non-staining sealants is
extremely sensitive natural stone elements, ASTM C1248:
or connecting metal facades and curtain Standard Test Method for Staining of
walls to natural stone elements. Porous Substrates

Important
Since all natural stones are very
sensitive materials, a ‘on-staining
test’ should be carried out at our
FFI Competence Centre before any
natural stone sealing operation. This
is an essential precondition for non-
Using the wrong sealants causes staining of natural stone
staining warranty.
26 elements (see left specimen). 27
Sikasil® FS-665 FS-665 SL
Components one-part one-part, self-levelling

Curing system neutral neutral

Skin forming time ~ 15 ~ 30


(23 °C/50% rel. humidity) [min]
Permanently elastic range [°C] –40 to +150 –40 to +150

Shore A hardness 1) ~ 25 ~ 21

nsile strength 2) [N/mm2] ~ 0.60 ~ 0.75


Modulus at 100%
~ 0.39 ~ 0.32
elongation 2) [N/mm2]
1) ISO 868, 2) ISO 8339-A. These figures are intended as a guide and should not be used in preparing specifications.
For technical information about the products, please ask for the latest respective data sheets.

20 20

Isbank Towers Istanbul, Turkey; Swanke Hayden Connell Architects, Tekeli & Sisa CNOOC Building, Beijing, China; Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates PC

Total Vision Glazing – Fire-rated Sealing –


Perfect Views without Frames Only the Best is Good Enough
Total Vision Glazing or Please note that for durable adhesion Sikasil® WS-605 S Fire-rated Sealing Standards and Guidelines Sikasil® FS-665
Fin Glazing is Similar to of silicones the finish of the glass edge - Ready-to-use one-part sealant - Weatherseal for fireproof facades
two-sided Structural Glazing (grinding, polishing, etc.) is crucial. - Neutral curing Many casualties have been reported in A wide variety of local standards - Ready-to-use one-part sealant
- High flexibility serious fire catastrophes, not only because and guidelines have become established - Neutral curing
- UV and weathering resistant of fire but of smoke poisoning. The integrity worldwide. The most important are: - Non-sagging
The glass panes reach from head to sill For support in joint design review, - Available in transparent and other colours of the joints is inevitable and gives fire - UV and weathering resistant
with tremendous glass sizes. As very high joint size calculation and adhesion - For laminated and insulating glass brigades a chance to rescue people. Sika In Europe - Highly flexible
wind loads have to be considered in Asia, tests please contact our offers 4 hours fire-rated sealants both for EN 13501, parts 1– 5, Fire classification - Tested against BS476, part 20:
where fin glazing is very popular and FFI Competence Centre. Sikasil® GS-621 vertical joints in facades and for horizontal of construction products and building 4 hours fire-rated
widely used for glazing of shop fronts and - Ready-to-use one-part sealant floor joints between the facade and the elements - Classified DIN 4102, B1
entrance lobbies, the glass panes are - Acidic curing (acetic acid) floor slabs.
stabilized with glass fins. Sika offers a With Sika’s 2-part polyurethane series - High mechanical strength BS 476, part 20: Fire resistance tests
range of products for sealing the joints, Icosit® KC and SikaForce® the glass panes - UV and weathering resistant Sikasil® FS-665 SL
due to the variety of glasses used for fin can be embedded in the floor avoiding any - Available in transparent and other colours For fire-rated sealing of indoor DIN 4102: flammability classification - Fire-rated, self-levelling sealant for
glazing (monolithic, laminated, multipane stress concentration and glass cracks. - For monolithic glass joints please ask for Sikacryl® FS-265. horizontal joints
insulating glass). It can be overpainted and is 2 hrs fire rated In the USA - Ready-to-use one-part sealant
Sikasil® SG-18, SG-20, GS-630 against UL 2079. UL 94: Flammability Tests of Materials - Neutral curing
- Ready-to-use one-part adhesive sealant - Self-levelling
- Neutral curing UL 1479: Fire Tests of Through-Penetration - UV and weathering resistant
- Very high mechanical strength Firestops - Highly flexible
- Outstanding UV and weathering resistance - Tested against BS476, part 20:
- Available in black UL 2079: Tests for Fire Resistance of 4 hours fire-rated
- For laminated and insulating glass Building Joint Systems - Classified DIN 4102, B1

28 29
Product Overview

Standard System Self-bonding System (2-sided)

SikaMembran® Outdoor Universal FJ-25 SB2


thickness [mm] 0.6 0.6 0.35

m-value 52000 98000 71000

sd value [m] 30 60 25

System adhesive SikaBond® TF-Plus N SikaBond® TF-Plus N 2 sides self-bonding


Standard widths of 10/15/20/25/30/35/40/45/50 10/15/20/25/30/35/40/45/50 5.0/7.5/10/15
25 m rolls [cm] higher widths on request higher widths on request higher widths on request
Main applications Connecting joints in concrete and brick constructions in ventilated facades Capped curtain wall systems

22 23

GLA City Hall, London, UK; Foster & Partners Adia Building, Abu Dhabi, UAE; Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates PC

Vapour Proofing with Membrane Systems

Water Vapour in Buildings is obviously reversed in tropical regions A secure connection to the structural
with a hot, damp climate outside but with formwork, yielding durable waterproofing
Along with wind-driven rain, water vapour cool, air-conditioned rooms inside. of the joints, is obtained by the quick
alone can also become a major problem and easy bonding of the membranes
in the structural framework. If the air is According to German Standard DIN 4108 between the envelope fabric and the struc-
cooled to below the dew point, the excess “Thermal Insulation in Buildings”, a struc- ture, with the very tolerant and efficient
moisture condenses as liquid water within tural element must be designed so that elastic adhesive SikaBond® TF-Plus N.
the structure. an unacceptable quantity of condensed
water is not produced inside the structure; For comprehensive information please
A “moisture transport mechanism” of this for instance when water vapour diffuses ask for our brochure “SikaMembran®
kind where water migrates through struc- moving from inside to outside and meets Systems – Membranes for intelligent
tural members in the form of vapour is a material with a very high vapour diffu- Sealing of Facades”
particularly apparent in climates like that of sion resistance and/or a layer of thermal
Western and Central Europe and other similar insulation.
climatic regions in the winter months.
There is more water vapour in the atmos-
System Solutions
phere in heated rooms than there is in the
outside air, and their difference in concent- With SikaMembran® system solutions,
ration is balanced by vapour diffusion from facades can be protected effectively and
the inside to the outside. This phenomenon fully in line with their requirements, both
for curtain walling in glass and for concrete In ventilated facades SikaMembran ® provides
structures. an adequate vapour barrier throughout the
whole year’s climatic conditions. Water vapour must
For wide gaps between the curtain wall and concrete structure SikaMembran® not be trapped in the structure.
is the best solution.

30 31
Surface Treatment Products Recommendations for Cleaning and Priming common Materials

Product Application Surface Cleaning agent


Sika Cleaner P
®
Cleaner for all types of plastics and Float glass* Sika® Aktivator-205 or Sika® Cleaner P**
powder-coated metals
Sika® Cleaner G & M Cleaner for highly contaminated glass Pyrolytically coated glass Sika® Aktivator-205 or Sika® Cleaner P**
and anodised aluminium
Ceramic-coated (enamelled) glass Sika® Aktivator-205
Sika® Aktivator-205 (Sika® Cleaner-205) Cleaner/activator for anodized aluminium,
stainless steel, and many powder coatings Stainless steel Sika® Aktivator-205

Sika® Primer-210 Primer for porous vitreous surfaces Anodized aluminium*** Sika® Aktivator-205 or Sika® Cleaner G & M

Sika® Mixer Cleaner Cleaner for two-part mixing machine Polyester powder-coated aluminium Sika® Aktivator-205

PVDF-coated aluminium Sika® Aktivator-205

* Including tempered, toughened, laminated and tinted types


** Sika® Cleaner P only where Sika® Aktivator-205 is not acceptable for aesthetic reasons, for surfaces highly
contaminated with oil and grease use Sika® Cleaner G & M
*** On good quality anodized aluminium, Sika® Cleaner P or G & M is mostly sufficient, but project-specific
testing necessary

Important
Sika® Cleaner-205 has been renamed
to Sika® Aktivator-205

Sika® Ancillary Products –


for Complete Structural Glazing
System-Oriented Execution Pretreatment for Optimum Architecture thrives on Compatible Spacers Standards
Adhesion change. On creative ideas Sika Spacer Tape HD has mechanical
®
Compatibility tests for sealants with
Perfect structural glazing execution and bold solutions that fas- properties perfectly adjusted to meet the accessory materials are specified in
requires careful coordination of details. Thorough cleaning of the glass and metal cinate and surprise us every curtain wall requirements. They provide ASTM C 1087 and EOTA ETAG No. 002.
Sika therefore offers a wide range of surfaces is essential for reliable bonding of the essential UV resistance and durability,
time. Curtain walls are a
ancillary products for preparing substrates the Sikasil® SG silicone adhesive sealants. and are the perfect installation aids for Note: Technical information about the
and processing sealants. These auxiliaries Therefore Sika supplies special products particularly severe challenge structural glazing elements. The open cell products can be found in the data sheets
integrate into the whole facade product with optimized adhesion to a wide variety for planners, because they structure of the Sika® Spacer Tape HD is that can be obtained on request from our
system and are carefully matched to of materials. Our FFI Competence Centre not only set the character of permeable to air humidity and thus incre- sales offices or from our homepage
Sikasil® silicone sealants. They will round will carry out thorough tests on the project the structure but must also ases the speed of vulcanization of one-part www.sika.com.
off your structural glazing job. materials to determine the best primer to Sikasil® SG adhesive sealants. These PU
meet stringent requirements.
use on the metal frame employed. Based foam tapes have been thoroughly tested
on our experience and the test results, we for compatibility with all Sikasil® silicone
will make specific product recommenda- sealants, and a warranty to this effect is
tions for each structural glazing project. provided.
Sika® Spacer Tape HD is available
Glass does not usually need in the standard thicknesses of 4.8, 6.4,
to be primed where Sikasil® silicone 8.0 and 9.5 mm.
products are used.

New Exhibition Center Milan, Italy;


32 4 Massimiliano Fuksas 33
Recommended Quality Controls during Structural Bonding

Sikasil® SG-18, SG-20 Sikasil® SG-500, SG-500 CN


Skin forming time Visual control of the mixing quality
(butterfly test or marble test)
Tack-free time Quantitative check of the mixing ratio
by weight
Adhesion test on original materials Pot life
(glass, support frame)
Measurement of Shore A hardness Adhesion test on original materials
(glass, support frame)
Mechanical properties on H-test Measurement of Shore A hardness
specimens according to ISO 8339
Mechanical properties on H test
specimens according to ISO 8339

Project Service – Triple-tested Quality


Individual Consultation and Support
FFI Competence Centre our FFI Competence Centre provide project - problems on site by specially trained
Systematic Project Workflow 1. Sealant Tests According to Standards
service and support for structural glazing engineers and Guidelines 3. Quality Control in Sealant Application
Each structural glazing project is indivi-
R&D has always taken pride of place at projects on all continents – from planning Development of complete ready-to- dually tested and approved at our Silicone adhesives used for structural gla- For every project, it is essential that the
Sika. At each of our FFI Competence Centre through to execution. We place great - install solutions for integrated structural FFI*) Competence Centre in Switzerland. zing must withstand extreme demands on customer should carry out factory produc-
in Switzerland, we combine R&D with a importance on interdisciplinary cooperation glazing systems and difficult processing The customer usually receives design ap- their load-bearing capacity and durability. tion controls, with evidence of the mecha-
very special service: individualized struc- with our partners in the glass industry and conditions proval and information for joint dimensio- Sika offers one- and two-part systems nical strength and adhesion to various
tural glazing project service and support. with curtain wall manufacturers. Development of new products in associati- ning within three working days and the lab that conform to the European guideline substrates (see table above). Precise
This project service is Sika’s response to - on with the customer report within the time listed in the table on for bonded glass structures (EOTA ETAG details on the tests can be found in our
page 36. Work can then begin on bonding
increasing distinctive-ness of the buildings Our Service After testing and approval of the project,
the elements. Sika gives a warranty on
No. 002). The specified tests include, for guidelines for structural glazing appli-
and facade projects. Innovative uses of - warranty for the adhesion of Sikasil® example, UV/water immersion at 45 °C cation. Sika service laboratories advise
tested and approved projects.
new silicone sealants for facades and - Individualized technical service and sup- silicone sealants for 1000 h and exposure to NaCl/moisture customers as to how to perform best these
windows are in demand; but there is also port with new designs and SO2/moisture. They also comply with controls and train staff. Of course the test
a growing need for technical support in - Complete structural glazing system tests Sika FFI Competence Centre American standards ASTM C 920 and specimens can also be sent to our FFI
project planning and execution. At our including joint design, joint dimensioning, C 1135, and Chinese standard GB 16776. Competence Centre for testing and appro-
FFI Competence Centre we develop new adhesion and compatibility tests with n FCC Switzerland val. All test specimens must be kept for the
products and processing technologies, test original materials 2. Quality Control in Silicone Sealant full warranty term.
known structural glazing methods, and use - Support with performing external tests Production
the results to optimize our technical ser- - Applicator training at the FFI Competence Important As a company certified to ISO 9001 and
vice and project service. The specialists at Centre and in the factory: ISO 14001, Sika has developed a quality
Production of double glazing units with Sikasil® SG adhesives should only be control system that identifies any deficien-
silicone secondary edge seals, structural used for structural projects if Sika cies at the production stage, and guaran-
bonding with silicone *) FFI stands for Facade, Fenestration, Insulating Glass has first given written approval for tees that only perfect goods leave the
Practical assistance with all processing the particular project. plant. As a prerequisite for the CE marking
Sika’s facade silicone production is regu-
larly supervised by external auditing
34 35
institutions.
Duration of Adhesion and Compatibility Tests

Duration of Tests, incl. Report Action Form Performed by


One-part Adhesive Sealants Sikasil SG-18, SG-20
®
Design Phase
Adhesion tests with sealant bead 33 days
Step 1 Project manager (customer) or responsible Sika persons send all relevant de- Project Customer
UV/water immersion test with H-test specimens 55 days sign details (drawings - including bonding situation) and project details (wind information
loads, max. temperatures, glass/panel sizes) to Sika (ch-fcc@ch.sika.com or
Compatibility test 33 days Fax +41 58 436 5407) for inspection
Two-part Adhesive Sealants Sikasil SG-500, SG-500 CN
®
Step 2 Sika Design Sika Design Sika
- checks joint details assessment assessment
Adhesion tests with sealant bead 33 days - checks joint dimensions
- assesses the materials used
UV/water immersion test with H-test specimens 33 days - recommends the correct sealant for these applications based on all the
Compatibility test 33 days details known

All Weather Sealants Test Phase

Adhesion tests with sealant bead 33 days Step 3 Project manager sends all substrates and ancillary materials to Sika for Project tests Customer
testing. The number and sizes of the samples are described in the leaflet “curtain walls”
Compatibility test 33 days “Project Submittal Information”
Non-staining Sealant Sikasil WS-355
®
Step 4 Sika conducts the following tests: Lab report Sika
- Adhesion tests to all substrates (glass, facade panels and frame materials)
Non-staining test 45 days - Testing compatibility with all materials that our adhesives and sealants come
into contact with
- Based on the results, Sika makes recommendations for cleaning and, if
necessary, priming the surfaces. The results and recommendations are sum-
marized in a laboratory report. A guarantee can only be given if all submitted
samples are compatible and the adhesion is sufficient

Project Tests – Application Phase

Safety Down to the Last Detail Step 5 Sika instructs the applicator on all matters of the applications:
- Adhesive application
- Quality control during application
Sika

- Help with machine application


Sika also helps with the correct application of its products (e.g. weathe-
Checking Design Drawings into contact with Sikasil® SG silicone rsealing) on site. After successful instruction, the customer receives a
adhesives. Only compatible materials training certificate from Sika
Our FCC check joint design and dimensi- ensure that there is no negative effect on Step 6 The customer applies the Sika products as instructed and diligently carries Quality Customer
ons. This ensures that the anticipated wind either the adhesion behaviour or the out the recommended quality controls during processing. The quality control control
loads and different thermal expansions of mechanical properties of the silicone ad- is documented on the appropriate Sika forms. If desired and agreed, the
the substrates are not outside the stressing hesives. The results are provided as a customer sends the test specimens to Sika. Mechanical properties are
limits for our silicone adhesives. report. We use the results obtained to ake measured in one of the FFI Competence Centre
We subsequently provide technical service recommendations on surface treatment,
Warranty Phase
in the selection of appropriate silicone e.g. cleaning and priming, of the sub-
sealants for structural glazing, insulating strates used. Step 7 Once application of the products is complete, the customer sends all Customer
glazing and weatherseals. documents to Sika for inspection
Step 8 Sika provides a limited guarantee on Sikasil® silicones. Templates are Sika
Adhesion and Compatibility Technical Customer Support For details please ask the local Sika sales manager available
Tests on request
The quality and optical appearance of
Adhesion tests according to national and facades also depend on professional work-
international guidelines and standards, manship. We therefore advise our project Detailed Project Stages Note: Detailed information and descriptions
and our own test methods ensure perfect partners to use Sikasil® SG silicone of the practical activities, such as cleaning
adhesion of our products to the substrates adhesives and sealants. We will demon- Individual project testing is carried out and priming the surfaces or applying the
used in any one project. We also test the strate how to use them professionally, and according to a reliable and practicable sealants, can be found in the “structural
compatibility of all materials that come help with any practical problems. system, which forms a solid basis for glazing application guidelines”. The forms
successful project execution. used for the various stages are available
from our homepage www.sika.com.

36 37
Properties and Application Characteristics of One- and Two-Part Sikasil® Silicone Sealants Terminology

One-Part Systems Two-Part System Elastomer


Generic term for synthetic and natural
Ready-to-use grade. Already contains cross-linker and catalyst Basic compound and cross-linker are mixed during application polymers with rubber-elastic properties
Supplied in cartridges or foil packs, can be used immediately Supplied in drums and pails, components must be mixed by
machine Atmospheric Humidity
In general: the relative humidity (invisible
Easy to use (“field glazing in two-sided structural glazing, repair Execution under controlled conditions in the factory resulting in
water vapour in the air) that plays an
glazing, weatherseals) higher quality of the bond
important role in the vulcanization of one-
Require atmospheric moisture for vulcanization at room No atmospheric moisture required for vulcanization part silicone sealants
temperature
Vulcanization starts at the surface and continues inwards Once the components are mixed, curing begins uniformly Polymer
relatively slowly through-out the joint with a gradual increase in viscosity Substance in which one or more types of
molecule are linked together
Curing rate depends on relative air humidity, temperature and Curing rate depends virtually only on the temperature
joint depth (see graphics)
Minimum time span between bonding and assembly of the Minimum time span between bonding and assembly of the
Polymerization
Chemical reaction in which small molecules
structural glazing elements: 2 to 4 weeks depending on air structural glazing elements: 3 to 5 days, depending on frame
link up to form molecular chains (polymers)
humidity and joint dimensions materials
Joint bite limited to maximum 15 mm, otherwise curing takes too Should be used for thicker silicone adhesive sealant layers Cross-linking
long and there is a risk of cracking Greater joint bite than 15 mm possible, since considerably higher Three-dimensional interlinking of polymer
curing rate and lower volume shrinkage on curing chains to form a polymer network. It is the
Efficient factory prefabrication of structural glazing elements reason why silicone sealants harden
possible. Elements are faster to transport and install 75.732 mm
Vulcanization
Method for converting rubber from a predo-
minantly plastic (pasty) state into an
elastic state by cross-linking. The bridges
to adjacent molecules are formed by means
Neutral silicones are used for structural glazing ... ... and are also ideally suited for weatherproof joint sealing
of vulcanization agents (cross-linkers)

Sikasil® Silicone Sealants in Detail – Fungicide


Chemical compound that inhibits microbial
growth
Technical Glossary
Tailored Sealant Systems for Typical Properties of Neutral - Resistant and flexible even with extreme Curing Rate of Sikasil® Silicone Sealants
all Applications Sealants temperature fluctuations from –50 °C to
+150 °C Curing characteristic of one-part silicones Curing characteristic of two-part silicones
Sealants are classified according to their - A wide range of adhesion properties for - Low shrinkage in vulcanization
curing mechanism into acidic (which emit a variety of applications - Long-term resistance to continuous rainfall
Thickness of cured sealant [mm]
acetic acid on curing) and neutral systems - Outstanding adhesion and bonding
(which emit oxime or alcohol on curing). power to glass and metal surfaces Sealant Composition
For facades, solvent-free, non-corrosive - Early load-bearing, thanks to high initial
neutral technology is used almost elasticity Sikasil® silicone sealants generally
exclusively. The exceptions are all-glass - Reliable and non-corrosive to sensitive consist of the following components:
structures, which can also be sealed with materials when used in movement joints, - Silicone polymer
acetic-curing sealants. expansion, construction and connection - Silicone plasticizer
joints - Silicone cross-linker
- Application-specific curing time with - Silicone adhesion promoter
- different vulcanization rates and - Reinforcing fillers (e.g. fumed silica)
optimum curing - Possibly non-reinforcing fillers, such
- Uniform long-term elasticity as silicates, chalks, etc.
- Good elastic recovery - Optionally, additives such as emulsifiers,
- Durable and extremely strong pigments and fungicides
Curing rate of one-part silicones such as Shore A hardness in the vulcanization of two-part
- Outstanding weathering and ageing Sikasil® SG-20 or Sikasil® WS-605 S silicones, such as Sikasil® SG-500 or Sikasil® IG-25, as
resistance a function of time
- Extremely good UV and oxidation stability
- Good chemical resistance and
non-yellowing

38 39
Some relevant
Internet Links:

www.aia.org

www.archinform.de

www.architecture.com

www.architectureweek.com

www.emporis.com

www.eota.be

www.glassfiles.com

www.riba.com
24
www.uia-architectes.org
Glass Cube; Gehringswalde, Germany IFLEX Park, Bangalore, India

Mechanical Properties to ISO 8339 or ASTM C1135, which are Movement Capability Terminology Weathering and Ageing than sealants. A continuous coating may
Architecture thrives on
more similar to actual joint geometries and The movement capability is the total elon- Resistance therefore tear if the dimensional change of
Sealants are classified (e.g. according to are therefore usually used for structural gation and compression that a joint sealant Adhesionchange. On creative ideas the sealant is greater than the elasticity of
ISO 11600) by their mechanical properties. glazing tests. undergoes during service. In the case of Tendencyand of abold solutions
solid surface to stickthat
to a fas- the coating. Elastic sealants in settlement
silicone sealants according to ISO 11600, second cinate and surprise usor every
phase, which may be a liquid Silicone sealants have better weathering joints must therefore never be completely
Tensile Stress or Modulus Tensile Strength it is between 20 and 25% of the initial a solid film and ageing resistance than other joint coated. Only sealants subject to low move-
time. Curtain walls are a
This is the quotient of the tensile force This is the quotient of the maximum meas- width. According to ISO 9047, classification sealants. Their physical properties do ments up to approx. 5% can be coated
measured at a particular elongation and ured force and the initial cross section 25 is based on elongation and compression
particularly severe challenge
Adhesion Loss not change, even after years of outdoor completely. Sealants coming into contact
the initial cross-section of the test speci- of the test specimen. cycles with an amplitude of ±25%. for planners,
Undesirable because
separation of the adhesionthey weathering. with coatings must be compatible with
men. For classification as a low-modulus bond, e.not only setof athe
g. separation jointcharacter of them (in conformity with DIN 52452 part 4).
sealant according to ISO 11600 (e.g. ISO Elongation at Break Adhesion the structure but must also Compatibility with Coating
11600 25 LM), this must have a modulus This is the quotient of the change in length Adhesion Value
meet stringent requirements. Materials
of less than 0.45 N/mm2 at 20 °C accor- measured at the instant of tearing and the Silicone sealants adhere very well to many Force between an adhesive bond, or the Chemical Resistance
ding to ISO 8339. initial measured length of the test speci- substrates. The adhesion depends on the force necessary to separate the bond
men. type of material to be bonded, the stresses, Silicone sealants are usually compatible Vulcanized silicone sealants have good
Important: In comparisons of data, the the type of adhesive bond and surface Cohesion with coating materials (powder paints, li- resistance to weak acids and alkalis, polar
shapes of the test specimens are impor- Shore A Hardness treatment. The surfaces must be absolutely The integrity of substances as a result of quid paints and varnishes) on the construc- solvents and salt solutions. Silicone sealant
tant. Measurements with dumbbell This is the penetration hardness of poly- clean and grease-free. Before the start of chemical bonding or physical intermolecu- tion materials, but this should always be swells to a greater or lesser extent in
specimens according to DIN 53504 and mers. It depends on the modulus of elastic- sealant application on any construction lar forces tested. However, standard silicone sealants solvents such as ketones, esters, ethers,
ASTM D 412 give much higher values ity and the viscoelastic properties of the projection, always carry out adhesion tests cannot be painted with liquid coating ma- aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydro-
than those on H-test specimens according material. Higher Shore A values ensure a on the surfaces in question. Cohesive Fracture terial (paints or varnishes). Streaking and carbons. It is restored to its original shape
harder material. High-modulus structural Undesirable material fracture, e. g. in the running usually occurs during application. after evaporation of the solvents.
glazing silicone sealants usually have joint
Shore A values of over 30. The values for Important: Most of the coating materials
weatherseals are usually between used in building construction and in almost
15 and 25. all window constructions are less elastic 41
40
Basic Rules

Low-modulus silicone sealants must not be


used for structural glazing bonding

Acetoxy-curing silicone sealants are incom-


patible with alkaline substrates such as
mortar and concrete, and with corrosion-
sensitive metals such as lead, zinc, copper,
brass and ferrous metals

Fungicide-containing sealants must not be


used for the production of aquaria

Standard silicone sealants must not be used


for sealing settlement joints and expansion
joints between porous natural stone (e.g.
granite, marble, sandstone, etc.). There is
a risk of staining.

Standard silicone sealants can cause envi-


ronmental stress cracking in contact with 25
pre-stressed acrylic and polycarbonate
construction elements Extension of State Department, Berlin, Germany; design of glass facade: James Carpenter Design Associates

Silicone sealants do not adhere to poly-


ethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene

Contact with organic elastomers (such


as EPDM and Neoprene) can not only cause
discoloration of the sealant but can also
reduce its mechanical strength and cause
High and Low Temperature Silicone sealants are extremely heat resis- adhesive failure Gas and Water Vapour Thermal Conductivity Microbial Resistance
Behaviour tant. In dry air up to +150 °C, all grades Permeability
retain virtually their full elasticity. Special The thermal conductivity of silicone Unlike organic sealants, silicone sealants
The stress/strain value (modulus) of sili- silicone sealant grades are even heat re- Special Solutions – At room temperature, the gas permeability sealants depends on the nature and the are not attacked or degraded by microbes
cone sealants – unlike organic sealants – sistant up to +250 °C. It is important that Restrictions on Use of silicone sealants is about ten times amount of fillers used. It is in the range (bacteria or fungi). However, microbes can
remains practically constant over a wide silicone elastomer should be fully vulcanized higher than that of natural rubber. At from 0.15 to 0.25 W K-1m-1 at room accumulate on the surface of dirty silicone
temperature range from –30 to +80 °C. before it is subjected to high temperatures, Please note the incompatibilities mentioned 100 °C to 150 °C, the permeability values temperature (DIN 52612). sealants, particularly in warm and moist
The tensile strength increases at low tem- and that the curing by-product has evapo- here. Sika has developed special products are approximately the same. The water conditions occurring in bathrooms and
peratures. Silicone sealants are thus ideal rated completely. Heat resistance can be to cover most problems. Further information vapour permeability according to DIN kitchens. This causes discoloured patches
for compensating for joint expansions further enhanced by subsequent annealing is provided in the data sheets. We will be 53122, climate D, film thickness 2 mm, Physiological Characteristics on the sealant surface without its mecha-
occurring as construction elements cool at slowly increasing temperature and with pleased to advise you on any type of applica- is approx. 20 gm-2d-1. nical properties changing. For warm and
to low temperatures. The tensile stresses good ventilation. tion problem and find a solution. All silicone sealants emit by-products on moist applications, therefore, a fungicide-
in the joint flanks are not increased, and curing. They may be acetic acid, alcohols containing sealant should be used.
there is reduced risk of loss of adhesion Coefficient of Expansion or oximes, depending on the sealant
and consequent adhesive fracture. Below Shelf Life grade. We therefore advise users to read
–50°C, there is partial crystallization of The coefficient of cubic expansion of the data sheet and safety data sheet in
the silicone elastomers and the sealant If stored in the original sealed containers at silicone sealants depends on the nature advance. In general, they should be ap-
hardens. At –123°C (the glass transition temperatures below 25 °C, silicone sealants and the amount of fillers used. It is in the plied in a well-ventilated room. Vulcanized
temperature) embrittlement occurs. have a shelf life of at least 12 months, and range 4 5 10-4 K-1 and 8 5 10-4 K-1. silicone sealants are non-toxic. Special
some grades at least 18 months. The coefficient of linear expansion is ap- grades are available for contact with foods
proximately a third of the cubic expansion, and drinking water.
i. e. from 1 5 10-4 K-1 to 3 5 10-4 K-1.

42 43