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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT

(MAY 2014 – AUGUST 2014)

PETRONAS Penapisan (Terengganu) Sdn. Bhd., (PPTSB)


IYLIA SYAHIRA BINTI MOHAMAD KHIR
14794
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

VERIFICATION STATEMENT

I hereby verify that this report was written by IYLIA SYAHIRA BINTI MOHAMAD
KHIR (I/C No.:921027-10-6320; Matric ID: 14794) and all information regarding this
company and projects involved are NOT confidential.

Host Company Supervisor’s


Signature & Stamp

Name MOHD MUZANI BIN MAHDUN @ MAHDUM

Designation PRODUCTION ENGINEER,

REFINERY PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

Host Company’s PETRONAS PENAPISAN (TERENGGANU)

SDN BHD, PP(T)SB

Date 14 AUGUST 2014

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With the Name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

First and foremost, I would like to praise and thanks Allah S.W.T for His blessings and
the strength He granted me, I am able to complete my last phase of industrial training for
fourteen (14) weeks. I would like to give gratitude to my Host Company, PETRONAS
Penapisan (Terengganu) Sdn Bhd (PPTSB) for giving me an opportunity in being part of
the big organization and thus, able to experience working environment and gain valuable
knowledge in this company.

My utmost gratitude goes to my host company supervisor; Mr Mohd Muzani


Mahdun, the Production Engineer of Refinery Production Department (RPD), for his
support and guidance throughout the project execution and also the training. I would also
like to thanks my supervisor from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Prof Dr
Duvvuri Subbarao for his support, advices and also assistance. His visit to the host
company for my presentation is also highly appreciated. My appreciation also goes to Mr
Sazali Selamat, as the Business Team 1 Leader (Manager Operation of RPD) and to BT1
members for sharing on their knowledge as well as experiences in the company and
industry. Besides, the help and care from my friends from UTP, Universiti Kuala Lumpur
(UniKL) and Institut Teknologi Petroleum (INSTEP) who are also undergoing training
in the same company are also appreciated.

Not to forget, my parents, Mohamad Khir Isa and Saufiah Muhammad Ali who
are very supportive. Their encouragement and motivation has been one of the keys that
strengthen me in enduring this long period of industrial project.

IYLIA SYAHIRA BINTI MOHAMAD KHIR


Chemical Engineering Department; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 2
1.1 Objectives 2
1.2 Scope of Study 3
1.3 Problem Statement 5
1.4 Relevancy of Project 7

CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 8

2.1 Feasibility of the Project within the Scope and Time Frame 8
2.2 Critical Analysis Literature 9
2.2.1 Introduction to Desalter 9
2.2.2 Process Description of Desalting Crude Oil 11
2.2.3 Hard Water 19
2.2.4 Carbonate Scaling 19
2.3 Citation and Cross Referencing 23

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 25

31. Research Methodology 25


3.2 Key Milestone 29
3.3 Gantt Chart 30
3.4 Tools Required 31

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 33

4.1 Findings 33
4.2 Data Gathering/Data Analysis 35
4.2.1 Desalter Efficiency 35
4.2.1 Carbonate Scaling 42

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43

5.1 Impact 43
5.2 Relevancy to the Objectives 44

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5.3 Suggested Future Work for Expansion and Continuation 45

CHAPTER 6: SAFETY TRAINING AND VALUE OF THE PRACTICAL


EXPERIENCE 46
6.1 Lesson Learnt and Experience Gained 46

i) Major KR-2 Plant Turnaround and Project (TANP) 46


ii) Witnessed heat exchanger switching work 46
iii) Joined Visual Basic for Application Class by UTP
Trainee 46
6.2 Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities 47
6.3 Business Values, Ethics and Management Skills 48
6.3.1 Team Work - Business Team Concept 48
6.3.2 Ethics 49
i) MANTRA 49
ii) No Gift Policies – Code of Business Ethics 49
iii) Time Management 50
6.3.3 Management 50
i) Meeting 50
ii) Documentation 50
6.4 Problems or Challenges Faced and Solutions to Overcome Those 51

REFERENCES 52

APPENDICES 53

i) Desalter in CDU Plant


ii) C-115 Desalter Pipe Replacement Start Up and Shutdown
Standard Operation Procedure
iii) Standing Order for C-115 Desalter Bypass for Pipeline
Replacement

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Scope of Study 3

Figure 2: Components and Cross Section of Desalter 4

Figure 3: Diagram Reference for C-115 Project 6

Figure 4: Common Single Stage Desalting Unit 11

Figure 5: Parts Inside of Desalter C-115 13

Figure 6: Electrodes’ position in Desalter 14

Figure 7: Plates of Electrodes in Desalter C-115 14

Figure 8: Desalter and Heat Exchanger E-124A/B 15

Figure 9: Flow in Exchanger E-124A/B 16

Figure 10: Structure of Desalter System 18

Figure 11: Formation Equation of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) 20

Figure 12: Formula Derivation of Total Carbonate Hardness 21

Figure 13: Reaction of Calcium Bicarbonate 21

Figure 14: Reaction of Magnesium Bicarbonate 22

Figure 15: Reaction of Sodium Bicarbonate 22

Figure 16: Material Balance of Desalter System 27

Figure 17: Project’s Key Milestones 29

Figure 18: Thick Scale in Bypass Valve E-124A/B 33

Figure 19: Scaling in E-124 tube bundle (upper part) 33

Figure 20: Scaling in the Effluent Pipeline 34

Figure 21: Clogged Pipeline Near to Drain Point 34

Figure 22: Mass balance of Desalter System before Shutdown 38

Figure 23: Mass balance of Desalter System after Start-Up 40

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Figure 24: Graph of Desalter Efficiency 41

Figure 25: Result of Sample Analysis from NALCO 42

Figure 26: Reaction of Calcium Carbonate When Heated 42

Figure 27: Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities 47

Figure 28: Business Team Concept 48

Figure 29: Desalter in CDU Plant 53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Subjects Involved in Project 7

Table 2: Typical Operating Conditions of Water Wash in Desalter 12

Table 3: Project’s Gantt Chart 30

Table 4: Software Tools Used 31

Table 5: Technical Documents Used 32

Table 6: Desalter information from NALCO 35

Table 7: Trycock Outlet Report from NALCO 36

Table 8: Crude Content Analysis from NALCO 37

Table 9: Impact of Project 43

Table 10: Problems or Challenges Faced and Solutions to Overcome Those 51

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

ABSTRACT

This project involves the trouble shooting of non-routine problem of the unit Desalter in
Crude Distillation Unit. The title of this project is Carbonate Scaling Affects the
Efficiency of Desalter.

The usage of hard water in Desalter System has led to precipitation of carbonate
scale in pipeline. Thick scale was formed in pipeline and some area is found to be totally
clogged. Effluent water pipeline of Desalter has to be replaced in order to stabilize the
efficiency of Desalter.

The formation of carbonate scale in pipeline is explained in this report. Moreover,


the functions of Desalter is being highlighted in Literature Review part to stress on the
importance of the unit.

The rectification work done is found to be able to solve the Desalter’s efficiency
issue. Few recommendations which focused on the solution to main contributor to this
issue (usage of hard water) are shared too, inclusive of recommendations on removing
the scale formed.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this project are:

i) To understand the process flow and operation performance of Desalter system.


ii) To study on carbonate scaling and its effects on Desalter pipeline.
iii) To trouble shoot the non-routine problem of Desalter.
iv) To bypass the crude oil from Desalter and to control the implication.

These four objectives are crucial for the Crude Distillation Unit, Refinery
Production Department of PETRONAS Penapisan Terengganu Sdn Bhd (PPTSB).

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1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY

This project is about trouble shooting non-routine problem of the process unit in KR-1
plant (refinery plant). The process unit is the Desalter, Unit C-115, located in the area of
Crude Distillation Unit (CDU). The unit is labelled in blue dotted line box in Figure 1,
showing its position in CDU.

Figure 1: Scope of Study

The trouble shooting problem involved is replacing the effluent water pipeline
that was found to be clogged. During the pipeline replacement, the Desalter is shut down
and the crude feed is bypassing the Desalter. As Desalter is one of the important
equipment in the early stage of distillation, troubles hooting have to be done to cater the
problem.

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The type of Desalter is the single stage desalting unit and it is the only Desalter in KR-1
plant of PPTSB. It uses the application of electrical coalescence. Figure 2 shows basic
components and cross section of a typical Desalter that applies the application.

Figure 2: Components and Cross Section of Desalter

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1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Title: Carbonate Scaling Affects the Efficiency of Desalter

Desalter is one of the important equipment in crude oil refinery plant. It removes
inorganic salt, water and sediment from the petroleum crude oil feedstock before it is
refined. These are necessary to hinder problems downstream of the Desalter.

Water is injected to the crude in order for the salt in crude to dissolve in water,
making it easier to be removed. However the type of water used for the Desalter system
in CDU is a hard water. When hard water is left untreated, the composition in water
deposits go on building-up, reducing energy and system efficiency. The formation of
scale will cause damage to pipework and equipment especially to systems that involve
high temperature. If the hard scale problem is severe, the damage to equipment may be
irreversible, resulting in the need for new appliances, or even whole system replacement.

In daily routine task, effluent water is being removed continuously during


Desalter operation. The same pipeline is also used to remove sludge (mud wash
operation). These downstream pipeline has found to be clogged due to scaling and need
to be replaced. Not only that, the bypass valve for mud wash operation is found to have
thick layer of scale too, leading to less outflow of mud wash water to the drain. The same
condition occurs in bypass line of control valve LIC150.

In order to allow the rectification work to be done, the Desalter need to be


bypassed for few days. From short term operational view, a loss of Desalter efficiency
for a short period will have no observable effect at the control panel. On the other hand,
the short term corrosion rate during this period can increase exponentially.

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Figure 3: Diagram Reference for C-115 Project

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1.4 RELEVANCY OF PROJECT

Chemical Engineering Programme in UTP prepares its students with sufficient


knowledge regarding chemical engineering field. Knowledge must be applied and
practiced to ensure the understanding of the student.

Student Industrial Project (SIP) requires a study or project to be done within the
last phase of internship period.

Below are the list of subjects learned by the author that are related to this project:

Subjects Relation

 Chemical properties
Organic Chemistry
 Chemical reaction involved

 Process of desalting
Principle of Chemical Engineering
 Equipment operation

Liquid-liquid separation process of crude oil


Separation Process I and II
and water in Desalter

Engineering, Economics and


Economics Evaluation
Entrepreneurship

Professional Communication Presentation of Carbonate Scaling in Pipeline


Skills to Production Engineers of CDU

Table 1: Subjects Involved in Project

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CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Feasibility of the Project within the Scope and Time Frame

The involvement in this project requires the author to understand and be familiar with the
operation of Desalter. Before the project starts, the author did some reading on the
Desalter’s operation manual including other reading materials. Site visit was done too for
familiarization with units involved in the desalting system. A flow diagram was drawn
for personal reference with verification from the KR-1 production engineer. All these
were done during the 2 weeks gap of Student Industrial Training (SIT) and Student
Industrial Project (SIP) periods.

Plant and Facilities Risk Assessment, Standing Job Orders, Standard Operation
Procedure for Desalter Shutdown and Start Up and other necessary documents for trouble
shooting were prepared by KR-1 Production Engineers and Production Supervisors which
then verified by Operation Manager during the second week of SIP period. Project
execution, stabilization of equipment together with project analysis were done in a month.
The month of July is focused on the documentation of the project report. By the end of
July, the author presented her study in carbonate scale and its effects on Desalter pipeline
to the Production Engineers of CDU. In the middle of August, the project is presented to
the UTP and Host Company supervisors.

Within the allocated time (14 weeks), the author managed to involve fully in the
project inclusive of the completion of the project’s report.

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2.2 Critical Analysis Literature

2.2.1 Introduction to Desalter

The most common problem that engineers have to perform in crude-unit


troubleshooting is corrosion-related failure caused by Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) attack.
HCl attack is one of the oldest refinery process problems. The issue originates from the
presence of salt in crude oil. Most of salt content in the crude are Sodium Chloride (NaCl),
Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) and Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). In the presence of water
and heat, these salts hydrolyze to form HCl.

Of these salts, the most heat-stable salt is NaCl. As for MgCl2 and CaCl2, they are
least heat-stable and moderately heat stable respectively. At crude tower flash zone,
MgCl2 will hydrolyze at temperature of 650 ºF and at 770 ºF for CaCl2. The HCl liberated
from hydrolysis of salt in the flash zone has great affinity of water. HCl remains a
noncorrosive vapour as long as no water is present. However, the droplets of water that
condense from the tower overhead will dissolve all the HCl they contact.

As for NaCl, Sodium (Na) ions has found to be the most harmful metal for
catalysts. Presence of Sodium within the catalyst active sites causes catalyst activity to
decrease. This decrease in activity implies that used catalyst must be replaced more often
to maintain a standard activity level.

To prevent the corrosion issue from happening, every crude distillation unit in oil
refinery plant requires the process of desalting. A crude Desalter should remove 90% of
the salt content in the crude.

Desalter is positioned in between Preheat Train Exchangers. Preheat Train


Exchangers are units where the crude is being gradually heated before it enters the
Furnace and Crude Preflash Section. The exchangers on the upstream of Desalter is
known as the Cold Preheat Train while the one on the downstream of Desalter is the Hot
Preheat Train. In KR-1 plant, Desalter is located after the forth (the last) cold preheat
exchanger. The position is very important in order for the crude to achieve an ideal
temperature before it enters the Desalter. At this point, the crude has been heated to the
temperature range from 120 to 130 ºC.

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The main purpose for the high temperature is lower the oil viscosity in order to
increase the water droplets settling rate in the Desalter. High temperature promote
coalescence of water droplets by enhancing the drainage of oil-surfactant layer
surrounding the droplets. Larger water droplets thus formed and settle more rapidly in the
lower viscosity oil.

This reasoning relates with the second function of a Desalter is to carry out the
dehydration of crude oil in order to bring down the water content to below than 0.1%. It
is necessary to do so as the existence of water relate with the change in phase of HCl from
vapour to liquid at flash zone, which need to be avoided. The dehydration process
involves washing of the crude, dilution of saline water in the crude and removal of the
water.

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2.2.2 Process Description of Desalting Crude Oil

Salt content of crude oil that is greater than 10 lb/1000 bbl (expressed as NaCl) requires
a single stage desalting to minimize salt deposition on heat transfer surfaces and acids
formed by decomposition of the chloride salts which are the major factors of fouling and
corrosion. If the crude oil salt content is more than 20 lb/1000 bbl, two-stage desalting is
used. There are also cases where residua are catalytically processed, these crudes used
three-stage desalting. In KR-1 plant, a single stage desalting system is used. Figure 4
shows the common structure of a single stage desalting unit.

Figure 4: Common Single Stage Desalting Unit

The salt in the crude is in the form of dissolved or suspended salt crystals in water
emulsified with the crude oil. In simple words, the principle of Desalter is to wash these
salt from the crude oil with water. Problems occur in obtaining efficient and economical
water/oil mixing, water-wetting of suspended solids, and separation of the wash water

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

from the oil. The pH, gravity, and viscosity of the crude oil, as well as the volume of wash
water used per volume of crude, affect the separation ease and efficiency.

Desalting is carried out by mixing the crude oil with water from 3 to 10 vol % at
temperatures from 200 to 300 ºF (90 to 150 ºC). Both the ratio of the water to oil and the
temperature of operation are functions of the density of the oil. Typical operating
conditions are:

API Water wash, Vol % Temp. ºF (ºC)

>40 3–4 240–260 (115–125)

30–40 4–7 260–280 (125–140)

<30 7–10 280–330 (140–150)

Table 2: Typical Operating Conditions of Water Wash in Desalter

Since KR-1 plant processes Tapis crude (sweet crude of API 50), the volume of water
wash used is 5% of crude feed, with temperature of 130 ºC.

The operating condition of water wash in Desalter is necessary and need to be


follow by the operation side. As tabulated in Table 1, the injection rate corresponds to the
API of the crude. The rate of injection should not exceed or lower than the range provided.
The volume percentage that is too low will decrease the Desalter efficiency. As a result,
water droplets can be too far to combine each other in the electrical field. Too high
injection rate of water wash will increase the the conductivity of emulsion. This results
in increment of electrical current and decrement of voltage, which decreases the driving
force for polarizing droplets combining each other in electrical field that ends up
decreasing the Desalter efficiency.

When the crude oil enters the Desalter, it will flow into a spcially deigned Petreco
distributor. The functions of this component of Desalter is to meter the flow of crude oil
so that it will flow uniformly throughout the length of the vessel.

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Figure 5: Parts Inside of Desalter C-115

The salts present in crude oil are dissolved in the wash water where eventually the
oil and water phases are separated in the settling vessel. Chemicals known as demulsifier
are being added to assist in breaking the emulsion. This increases the efficiency of water
separation for the crude.

The Desalter applies the application of electrical coalescence whereby


electrostatic charges is produced to concentrate suspended water globules from crude to
the bottom of the settling tank. High-potential electrical field of 435 volt and 16 ampere
is developed across the settling vessel to coalesce the droplets of salty water more rapidly.
Desalter in CDU of KR-1 plant consists of three layers of electrodes (1st layer – Direct
Current (DC) field, 2nd and 3rd layer – Alternating Current (AC) field). The usage of both
AC and DC field provide high dewatering efficiency. Efficiencies of up to 99% water
removal in a single stage are achieved for the dual field process.

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Figure 6: Electrodes’ position in Desalter

The dual field electrostatic process provides efficient water separation at


temperatures lower than the other processes and, as a result, higher energy efficiencies
are obtained.

Figure 7: Plates of Electrodes in Desalter C-115

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The brine produced normally covers one third to half of the Desalter. A layer of
emulsion too developed in between layers of oil and water. However, the thinner the
emulsion layer, the more efficient the Desalter operates.

The brine solution or also known as the effluent water is being continuously
removed. At this point, a heat exchanger takes part in the operation. Heat exchangers
provide the transfer of heat energy between fluids that are at different temperatures. The
cold side will absorb the heat from the hot side, increasing its temperature as it leaves the
exchanger. At the same time, the hot side will release its heat to the cold side, reducing
its temperature by the end of the flow. This helps in cost saving in terms of usage of fuel
gas for heating and workload of other instrument namely furnace, boiler and cooler.

The effluent water flows into the tube side (hot side) of Heat Exchanger E-
124A/B, with Treated Water from Utility flows in the shell side (cold side). Process of
heat exchange takes place whereby heat from the effluent water is absorbed by the treated
water. This reduces the effluent water’s temperature from 120 to 60 ºC before it flows
into the Waste Water Treatment.

Figure 8: Desalter and Heat Exchanger E-124A/B


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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

Figure 9: Flow in Exchanger E-124A/B

Other than salt, other harmful contaminants that are removed in Desalter are the
clay, silt, rust and other debris. It is critical that these undesirable residues are extracted
from the crude oil as they can promote heat exchanger fouling, plugging and erosion on
downstream equipment and residual product contamination. The suspended solids are
usually very fine sand, clay, and soil particles; iron oxide and iron sulfide particles from
pipelines, tanks, or tankers; and other contaminants picked up in transit or production.
The tertiary yet important function of the Desalter system is the removal of suspended
solids from the crude oil. Total suspended solids removal should be 60% or better with
80% removal of particles greater than 0.8 micron in size. They are being removed during
mud wash.

Over time, these separated solids or sludge will accumulate in the bottom of the
Desalter vessel. Hence, the Desalter must be periodically washed to remove this
accumulation. This cleaning operation is handled by the ‘mud washing’ system installed
in the bottom of the vessel to occasionally remove the solids. Mud washing consists of

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agitating the sludge with water so that they are washed out. These solids are then routed
to the wastewater system.

In CDU plant, the operation of mud wash takes place once per day. The sludge
need to be remove daily to avoid the accumulation becomes thicker and hard to be
remove. The source of water comes for the mud wash operation comes from the Utility
Unit, the same source of water used in the shell side of Exchanger E-124A/B. During the
mud wash operation, the flow of water to the tube side of E-124A/B is diverted to the
mud wash pipeline (Figure 9). It then flows out of the Desalter into the same pipeline for
effluent removal, and being channeled to the wastewater system.

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Figure 10: Structure of Desalter System

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The crude oil densities are close to the density of water and temperature above
280 ºF (138 ºC) are needed. It is sometimes necessary to adjust the pH of the brine to
obtain pH values of 7 or less in the water. If the pH of the brine exceeds 7, emulsions can
be formed because of the presence of sodium naphthenate and sodium sulfide. For most
crude oils it is desirable to keep the pH below 8.0. Better dehydration too is obtained in
electrical Desalters when they are operated in the pH range of 6 to 8 with the best
dehydration obtained at a pH near 6. The pH value is controlled by using another water
source or by the addition of acid to the inlet or recycled water.

2.2.3 Hard Water

Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) ions are the common minerals in water. These ions
get into water when it comes in contact with limestone and other rocks that contain
calcium compounds. This can happen, for instance, when rainwater flows over these
rocks on its way to a reservoir.

2.2.4 Carbonate Scaling

The presence of Calcium and Magnesium ions contributes to carbonate scaling in


pipeline. Calcium and Magnesium ions are inversely soluble when in contact with hot
surfaces. As the water temperature rises, the amount of both Ca and Mg ions that can be
held in the solution drops. The displaced Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions that are in excess, bond with
available Carbon (C) to form Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 then deposited as scale
on the nearest receptive surface such as metal pipeline. Figure 11 shows the formation
equation of Calcium Carbonate.

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Carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce carbonic acid.


CO2 (g) + H2O (l) → H2CO3 (aq) (1)

Carbonic acid continue to dissociate hydrogen.


+ −
H2CO3 (aq) + H2O (l) → H3O (aq) + HCO3 (aq) (2)
− + 2−
HCO3 (aq) + H2O (l) → H3O (aq) + CO3 (aq) (3)

Finally, in the presence of calcium and carbonic acid, calcium


carbonate will precipitate out.
2− 2+
CO3 (aq) + Ca (aq) → CaCO3 (s) (4)

Full equation:
Ca (HCO3)2 (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + CaCO3 (s) (5)

Figure 11: Formation Equation of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

The measurement of hardness depends on the composition of a water. Hardness


often derived from the dissolution of limestone that is concentrations of calcium and
magnesium are nearly equal to the concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate in most
of natural waters. Thus, the calculation depends on the hardness cations’ concentration.
The unit for total hardness is reported in milligrams per litre of equivalent Calcium
Carbonate (CaCO3).

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Hardness as Equivalent CaCO3

For Calcium, Ca2+ = CaCO3 .

1 mole of Ca weighs 40.08g, and 1 mole of CaCO3 weighs 100.08g.


100.08
Ca2+ x = 2.50 = the hardness equivalence of Ca2+
40.08

For Magnesium, Mg2+ = CaCO3 . 1 mole of Mg weighs 24.31g.


100.08
Mg2+ x = 4.12 = the hardness equivalence of Mg2+
24.31
---------------------------------------------

Total hardness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness

= 2.50 x Calcium concentration +

4.12 x Magnesium concentration

Figure 12: Formula Derivation of Total Carbonate Hardness

At certain temperature, Calcium Bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2) breaks into Calcium


Carbonate. Same goes to Magnesium Bicarbonate (Mg(HCO3)2), except that it then
converts to Magnesium Hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) when in contact with water. Sodium too
undergoes the same reaction like Magnesium. That is the reason for the composition of
Calcium Carbonate being the highest among all.

Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + H2 O + CO2


Calcium Bicarbonate → Calcium Carbonate + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Figure 13: Reaction of Calcium Bicarbonate

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Mg(HCO3)2 → MgCO3 + H2 O + CO2


Magnesium Bicarbonate → Magnesium Carbonate + Water + Carbon
Dioxide

MgCO3 + H2 O → Mg(OH)2 + CO2


Magnesium Carbonate + Water → Magnesium Hydroxide + Carbon
Dioxide

Figure 14: Reaction of Magnesium Bicarbonate

NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2 O + CO2


Sodium Bicarbonate → Sodium Carbonate + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Na2CO3 + H2 O → 2NaOH + CO2


Sodium Carbonate + Water → Sodium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide

Figure 15: Reaction of Sodium Bicarbonate

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2.3 Citation and cross referencing

Deposition of salts, wax and corrosion have been reported for heat exchanger’s upstream
of the Desalter, while chemical reaction fouling and corrosion fouling are dominant
downstream of the Desalter (Crittenden et al., 1992).

Desalting, as the name implies, is intended to remove inorganic materials from


the oil. Desalter malfunction hinders crude oil processing in several ways: (i) formation
of inorganic/organic acids downstream of the Desalter, causing corrosion, (ii) deposition
of salts as mineral scale in heat exchangers, (iii) deactivation of catalysts and (iv) two-
phase flow downstream of the Desalter arising from water vapourisation (Ishiyama et al.,
2009).

In one of the international electrochemical journals, there’s an article entitled


Electric Desalting and Dewatering of Crude Oil Emulsion Based on Schiff Base Polymers
As Demulsifier by Ayman M.A. who wrote that petroleum is typically produced as a
water-in-oil emulsion. The water must be removed (down to a level of < 1%) in a process
usually called demulsification or dehydration which consists of forcing the coalescence
of water droplets and producing their separation by settling. Water-in-oil emulsions are
stabilized by a wide range of materials that appear naturally in heavy oil, such as
asphaltenes, natural surfactants, and clays. Water elimination has to meet pipeline
specifications) and destabilization of the emulsion is essential. Demulsification can be
achieved by three means: mechanical, electrical, and chemical. The addition of chemical
demulsifiers is the most widely used method. An effective demulsifier is a surface-active
compound that can absorb onto the water/oil interface and change its properties such that
water droplets aggregate and coalesce. Attempts have been made to correlate the
efficiency of demulsifiers with their surface, interfacial, and chemical properties.

T.M. Pääkkönen, et al., 2009, mentioned in their article of Crystallization Fouling


of CaCO3, that crystallization fouling occurs when dissolved salts precipitate from the
aqueous solution. In the case of inversely soluble salt like Calcium Carbonate, (CaCO3)
may lead to crystal growth on heated surfaces.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

They also stated that fouling, which is often described as the deposition of
unwanted material on a heat transfer surface, diminishes the heat transfer and increases
the pressure drop of the system. Due to fouling, operation and maintenance costs are
increasing significantly. By decreasing the fouling and economic effects can be reduced.

There are several ways of fighting scales. There are preemptive methods like
chemical inhibitors that hinder the scale growth. These methods are limited in their use,
because inhibitors works best for specific scale types and crystal structure. A more
versatile methods for scale fighting are removal after deposition. Chemical removal is a
cheap method for scale removal, but it is effectiveness depends on the porosity and the
type of scale. Mechanical removal is another method for removing scales after scale
deposition, and usually involves scraping, drilling or inducing vibrations to pipes and
equipment. (Nergaard, M., et al., Trondheim, November 2010).

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Methodology

The project consists of three stages which are study on Desalter system and
carbonate scaling, project execution and equipment stabilization.

i) Study on Desalter system and Carbonate Scale

The first step in conducting the project is to gather all important information related to
Desalter system and carbonate scaling. As a trainee, the author is required to understand
the concept of Desalter and the issue that it involves in so that it would be easier to relate
with the technicality and practicality of the problem.

Typically the relevant data required are as follows:

Desired System Performance of Desalter

The major factors that affect how efficiently the system can remove salt form crude oils
are:

 Oil Flow Rate

o If oil throughput is increased above the design capacity of the desalting


system, a loss in desalting efficiency can be expected

o The current desalter has been designed at 51 500 BPSD

 Wash Water Injection Rate

o As wash water injection rate increase from the minimum system rates to
the maximum system rates, the amount of salt remaining in the treated oil
generated will decrease

 Selection and Use of Wash Water

o It is desirable to use warm or hot hater. This minimizes loss of operating


temperature. Non- scaling fresh water is recommended for use as wash
water. Hard water is to be avoided. Hard water is defined as water
containing more than five grains per gallon permanent hardness.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

 Mixing Intensity

o Mixing intensity refers to the degree of oil and water mixing that is
achieved in a mixing valve due to the pressure drop across that valve. The
greater the pressure drop, the greater the mixing intensity. Condition of
undermixing or overmixing should be avoided. Under mixing (insufficient
pressure drop) results in insufficient desalting process and low water
carryover (less water is carried into the treated oil, but not much salt is
removed).

 Demulsifier Type and Amount

o A change in demulsifier rate or type may make precipitation more


effective for the crude being treated. Too little or too much demulsifier
added to the untreated crude may increase the amount of salt in treated oil.

 Vessel Water Level

o The interface in Desalter, the transition region where water and oil meet,
must be maintained at a level below the electrodes, but not so low that oil-
in-water carryover increases. If water-level rises to the electrode zone, the
electrodes will be shorted out.

 Process Temperature

o The system operating temperature should be maintained within the range


for which the system was designed. A loss in desalting efficiency may be
experienced outside this range. If the Desalter experiences a higher than
normal system temperature, ‘gassing’ will occur in the vessel, reducing
desalting efficiency. If the operating temperature is too low, emulsion
resolution will not be complete. The operating temperature is in between
130 to 150 ºC.

 Process Pressure

o The back pressure valve for the system will normally be set to maintain a
pressure at the vessel which is at least 20 psi above the vapour pressure of

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

the oil and water mixture in the Desalter. If system back pressure decreases
for any reason, ‘gassing’ may occur in the vessel. Symptoms of excessive
gassing are arcing at the electrode zone, variations in voltmeter readings,
excessive water in the treated oil, and poor slat removal. The normal
operating values for system back pressure should present gassing. The
pressure of the Desalter is maintained between 20 to 25 bar by regulating
downstream of crude pump.

 Optimizing System Operation

o Whenever changes in system operating conditions are made, the system


operator must keep in mind the effect of each changes will have on the
system. In adjusting the system, these three performance criteria are the
most important:

i. The salt remaining in the treated oil must be kept to a minimum

ii. The water carried over into the treated oil must be kept to a minimum

iii. The oil carried over into the effluent water must be kept to a minimum

Material Balance of Desalter System

Figure 16: Material Balance of Desalter System

Carbonate Scale
Scale occurrence, formation and prevention have been investigated. In a natural gas
reservoir, water with dissolved ions will always be present.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

When parameters as temperature, pressure, concentration or pH are changed, the


equilibrium of the system is shifted. This can push the system into a state where the
dissolved ions precipitate out, causing a deposition of scale especially in pipeline.

ii) Project Execution

The author followed the execution of the project, starting from the draining process up to
the start-up of the Desalter.

Throughout the execution, the author followed the Production Supervisor and
Field Operator to witness and experienced the work.

iii) Equipment Stabilization

After the rectification work, the Desalter need to be monitored closely to make sure its
operation goes back to normal. The author monitored the flow rate of crude and effluent
water through PI software. Not only that, sample analysis is obtained from Lab Unit (data
extracted from LIMS software) and those from NALCO Company.

The author also followed the Production Engineer to site in order to observe and
monitor the condition Desalter directly, not just monitor from the data received.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

3.2 Key Milestones

Key milestones of the project indicates the focus events throughout the project execution as shown below.

15 August 2014

14 August 2014
Report
Submission
7 July 2014

2nd SV
24 May – 1 Jun 2014 Consultation:
1st SV
Consultation: Report Submission
for Reviewing by
Project Update project's HC SV
15 May 2014 Execution: progress to UTP SV
Shutdown and
Title Start Up of
Confirmation Desalter

Figure 17: Project’s Key Milestones

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

3.3 Gantt Chart

The Gantt chart inclusive of all activities during project execution with particular timeline according to week as shown below.

WEEK
ACTIVITY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Project Identification
Confirmation of Project Title
Identifying Objectives and Scope of Study
Literature Review Preparation
Collecting Reading Materials
Drafting of Literature Review
Project Execution
Shutdown of Desalter
Rectification Work by Maintenance Department
Start Up of Desalter
Stabilization of Desalter
Project Analysis Execution
Collecting Data
Analysing Data
Report Preparation
Report Writing
Submitting Report for HC SV Review
Report Completion
Correcting Report
Submitting Report for HC SV Approval
Submitting Report to UTP SV
Project Presentation
Aidilfitri Celebration (Holiday)

Table 3: Project’s Gantt Chart

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

3.4 Tools Required

In conducting the project, several tools have been utilized. The tools are being classified
into two groups which are software and document tools. The lists of the tools are as
follows.

3.4.1 Software Tools

The software tools usage is mainly for calculation and report completion purposes. The
software tools are:

Software Function

Microsoft Excel
 To extract data from Plant Information (PI)
Process Book

 To tabulate and analysed the collected data

Plant Information (PI) Process Book


 To monitor the unit process online

 To monitor any changes during test run

LV LIMS

 To extract data of tested samples online

Table 4: Software Tools Used

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

3.4.2 Technical Documents

Documents Function

 To compare the drawing with the actual unit


Process Engineering Flow Sheet
in plant
(PEFS) – Crude Distillation Unit
 To analyse which area is affected for the
Desalter Section
work to be done

 To study the standard operation of Desalter


Manual Operation of Desalter
 To understand the process flow of Desalter

Standard Operating Procedure


 As guidelines for local man in operating the
(SOP) of C-115 Desalter Pipe
work
Replacement Shutdown and Start up

Table 5: Technical Documents Used

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Findings

Figure 18: Thick Scale in Bypass Valve E-124A/B

Figure 19: Scaling in E-124 tube bundle (upper part)

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

Figure 20: Scaling in the Effluent Pipeline

Figure 21: Clogged Pipeline Near to Drain Point

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

4.2 Data Gathering/Data Analysis


4.2.1 Desalter Efficiency
Crude Desalter
Date
Slate Charge, m3/hr SG Temp, oC Amperage, A Voltage, V Wash water, m3/hr Wash water, % Mix valve delta P, kg/cm2 Water level, %

2-Apr Tapis 330 0.8 121 23 437 0 0 0.4 0


7-Apr Tapis 327 0.8 119 23 439 0 0 0.4 0
Before Shutdown

13-Apr Tapis 322 0.8 118 27 433 0 0 0.4 21


22-Apr Tapis 329 0.8 114.6 28 437 1.1 0.3 0.4 24.5
5-May Tapis 332 0.8 110 26 435 0 0 0.3 21
6-May Tapis 330 0.8 110 259 21 0 0 0.3 43.5
8-May Tapis 315 0.8 109 23 432 0.1 0 0.3 7.1
12-May Tapis 329 0.8 106 19 433 1.4 0.4 0.3 18.9
15-May Tapis 314 0.8 109 23 437 1.4 0.4 0.36 203
19-May Tapis 317 0.8 108 20 442 1.9 0.6 0.36 25.2
Average 325 0.8 112.42 45.82 398.09 0.54 0.16 0.36 36.33
5-Jun Tapis 317 0.8 122 19 434 2.5 0.8 0.3 29.3
10-Jun Tapis 334 0.8 122.6 41 437 3 0.9 0.3 9.5
After Shutdown

23-Jun Tapis 335 0.8 121 252 83 4 1.2 0.28 17.9


26-Jun Tapis 330 0.8 127 18 439 4.5 1.4 0.26 14.8
6-Jul Tapis 315 0.8 128 252 82 3.2 1 0.24 29.9
9-Jul Tapis 314 0.8 126 40 429 3.9 1.2 0.24 2.4
10-Jul Tapis 313 0.8 126 70 410 3.7 1.2 0.24 6.4
13-Jul Tapis 316 0.8 125 20 432 3.5 1.1 0.24 18.5
17-Jul Tapis 331 0.8 125 15 442 4.1 1.2 0.24 11.8
21-Jul Tapis 333 0.8 123 12 437 3.5 1.1 0.28 21.9
Average 323.8 0.8 124.56 73.9 362.5 3.59 1.11 0.262 16.24

Table 6: Desalter information from NALCO

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

Trycock
Date
#5 #4 #3 #2 #1 Effluent Water
2-Apr CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION NA
7-Apr CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION NA
13-Apr CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION NA
Before Shutdown

22-Apr CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION CRUDE + EMULSION CLEAR WATER
OILY
5-May CRUDE OILY WATER OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
WATER
OILY
6-May CRUDE OILY WATER OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
WATER
8-May CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CLEAR WATER
12-May CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CLEAR WATER
15-May CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION CLEAR WATER
19-May CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION EMULSION + OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
5-Jun CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
10-Jun CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
23-Jun CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
After Start-Up

26-Jun CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
6-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
9-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION HAZZY WATER
10-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + EMULSION HAZZY WATER
13-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
17-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE OILY WATER CLEAR WATER
21-Jul CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE CRUDE + OILY WATER OILY WATER CLEAR WATER

Table 7: Trycock Outlet Report from NALCO

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

Basic Sediment & Desalting Dehydration


Salt, ptb as NaCl Filterable Solid, ptb Solid Removal
Date Water, %V Efficiency, Efficiency,
Efficiency, %
In Out In Out In Out % %
2-Apr 13.3 6.3 0.3 0.1 11.2 7.7 53.1 66.7 31.3
7-Apr 15 7.3 0.25 0.1 41.3 32.2 51.4 60 22
13-Apr 18.6 7.5 0.15 0.05 13.3 7 59.6 66.7 47.4
Before Shutdown

22-Apr 12.1 4.6 0.2 0.2 26.6 83.3 62.1 63.2 -213.2
30-Apr 18.2 6.7 0.2 0.05 27.9 54.6 63.3 75 -95.7
5-May 15.6 6 0.2 0.05 28 49 61.3 75 -75
6-May 17.3 6.7 0.3 0.1 9.8 10.5 61.4 66.7 -7.1
8-May 12.7 5.4 0.25 0.1 24.5 20.3 57.4 64.5 17.1
12-May 15.8 5.8 0.2 0.15 21 39.9 63.2 76 -90
15-May 12.5 4.2 0.3 0.15 16.1 14 66.7 79.9 13
19-May 16.5 5.5 0.2 0.2 29.4 18.9 66.5 75 35.7
Average 15.24 6.00 0.23 0.11 22.65 30.67 60.55 69.88 -28.59
5-Jun 15.4 4.8 0.2 0.1 26.6 14.7 68.9 89.9 44.7
10-Jun 14.6 4.2 0.25 0.1 19.6 18 71.4 91.3 8.2
23-Jun 10.6 3.5 0.2 0.2 35 27 66.7 85.7 22.9
After Start-Up

26-Jun 10.2 2.9 0.2 0.15 28 18 71.4 90.4 35.7


6-Jul 9.4 3.3 0.5 0.4 38 31 64.4 73.6 18.4
9-Jul 10.4 3.1 0.1 0.05 29 18 70 96.3 37.9
10-Jul 10.6 2.9 0.2 0.1 31 19 72.5 92.8 38.7
13-Jul 8.3 2.1 0.1 0.05 33.4 21 75 95.9 37.1
17-Jul 10.8 2.7 0.2 0.1 29 18.5 75 93.1 36.2
21-Jul 8.3 2.1 0.3 0.1 28 15.8 75 92.6 43.6
Average 10.86 3.16 0.225 0.135 29.76 20.1 71.03 90.16 32.34

Table 8: Crude Content Analysis from NALCO

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CRUDE DESALTED CRUDE


325 m3/hr Mixer Desalter 324.61 m3/hr
inclusive of inclusive of
0.75 m3/hr water 0.36 m3/hr water

WASH WATER EFFLUENT WATER


9.75 m3/hr 10.14 m3/hr

Figure 22: Mass balance of Desalter System before Shutdown

 Calculation of Mass Balance in Figure 22 (Table 6 & 8 as Reference)


i) CRUDE
1 BPSD = 0.0066 m3/hr
Volume of Desalter is designed for 51500 BPSD which equals to 341.16 m3/hr
At 325 m3/hr, the Desalter is processing at 95.3% load.

From Table 8, the average amount of water in the crude itself is at 0.23%.
0.23
0.23% × Volumetric flow rate of Crude = × 325 m3 /hr
100
= 0.7475 m3 /hr
= 𝟎. 𝟕𝟓 𝐦𝟑 /𝐡𝐫

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

ii) WASH WATER


The amount of Wash Water injected to crude oil is at 3 vol% of crude.
3
3% × Volumetric flow rate of Crude = × 325 m3 /hr
100
= 𝟗. 𝟕𝟓 m3 /hr

iii) DESALTED CRUDE


From Table 8, the average amount of water in the crude itself is at 0.11%.
0.23
0.11% × Volumetric flow rate of Crude = × 324.88 m3 /hr
100
= 0.3575 m3 /hr
= 𝟎. 𝟑𝟔 𝐦𝟑 /𝐡𝐫

iv) EFFLUENT WATER


Volumetric flow rate of Water in Crude (Inlet) + Volumetric flow rate of Wash Water – Volumetric Flow Rate of
Water in Crude (Outlet)
= 0.7475 m3 /hr + 9.75 m3 /hr − 0.3575 m3 /hr
= 𝟏𝟎. 𝟏𝟒 𝐦𝟑 /𝐡𝐫

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CRUDE DESALTED CRUDE


323.8 m3/hr Mixer Desalter 323.51 m3/hr
inclusive of inclusive of
0.73 m3/hr water 0.44 m3/hr water

WASH WATER EFFLUENT WATER


9.71 m3/hr 10.00 m3/hr

Figure 23: Mass balance of Desalter System after Start-Up

*The calculation of mass balance in Figure 23 is the same as the one in Figure 22.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

Graph below shows the efficiency of Desalter, composed of Desalting Efficiency, Dehydration Efficiency and Solid Removal
Efficiency based on data in Table 8.

DESALTER EFFICIENCY
Desalting Efficiency, % Dehydration Efficiency, % Solid Removal Efficiency, %
150

100

50
PERCENTAGE

-50

-100

-150

-200

-250

DATE

Figure 24: Graph of Desalter Efficiency


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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

4.2.1 Carbonate Scaling

From the result, the sample of scale analysed by NALCO is dried (heated) at
temperature of 105 ºC, elements discovered are mainly Calcium Oxide (CaO) at 51% and
Copper Oxide (CuO) at 5%.

Figure 25: Result of Sample Analysis from NALCO

The majority composition of Calcium Oxide from X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) test on the
sample from the pipeline shows the existence of CaCO3. This is because, when Calcium
Carbonate is heated, it produces Calcium Oxide.

CaCO3→ CaO + CO2


Calcium carbonate → Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide

Figure 26: Reaction of Calcium Carbonate When Heated

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the result and discussion presented, it can be concluded that the rectification
work done on the effluent water pipeline able to increase the efficiency of desalter.

5.1 Impact

The execution of this project has given the impact of:


 Increasing the efficiency of effluent water flow out
Equipment
 Reducing the opening of control valve LIC150 to allow
Benefits
the flow of effluent water
 Reduce the possibility of equipment premature failure

Production and This project has benefits the production and unit in terms of:

Unit Benefits  Increase in production quality


 Economical saving (RM70 000)

Throughout the study of this project, the author has gained:

Individual  Improvement of the soft skills especially in

Benefits communication and self esteem


 Practicality of studied knowledge
 Exposure to real oil and gas industry

Table 9: Impact of Project

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

5.2 Relevancy to the Objectives

There are four objectives that have been set during the early stage of the study:

i) To understand the process flow and operation performance of Desalter system.


ii) To study on carbonate scaling and its effects on Desalter pipeline.
iii) To trouble shoot the non-routine problem of Desalter.
iv) To bypass the crude oil from Desalter and to control the implication.

The first objective is achieved. The author took this advantage to learn new things.
Equipment manual was read and also met with the panel controller and production
engineer to understand more on the operation of Desalter.

The second objective is being done to find a suitable solution that can be
recommended to the operation engineers.

The third objective is successfully achieved. Few replacements of material have


been made along the effluent water pipeline inclusive of a bypass valve, a drain point
after Cooler E124A/B, and upstream pipeline of Cooler E124A/B tube side. Unclogging
job too was done on bypass pipeline of Control Valve LIC150 (Figure 3 for reference).

The final objective is accomplished too whereby the shutdown procedure was
successfully done in order to bypass the crude from the Desalter. A strategic planning and
proper risk analysis that were applied throughout the project have managed to control any
implication.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

5.3 Suggested Future Work for Expansion and Continuation

Upgrading is necessary in improving the production and efficiency of an equipment. For


this particular unit, Desalter, the root cause of the issue that has been detected should be
taken into necessary action. Hard water should be treated or replaced with other sources
for wash water in order to control scaling issue in the future.

Softener should be used as treatment for hard water. The Sodium ions (Na+) in
softener will replace Ca and Mg ions, reducing the probability of CaCO3 formation.

Other source of water recommended for Desalter wash water is the stripped sour
water. The generation of sour water comes from steam that is used as a stripping medium
in distillation. The steam is condensed as an aqueous phase and is removed as sour water.
Since this steam condenses in the presence of hydrocarbons, which contain hydrocarbons,
which contain Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Ammonia (NH3), these compounds are
absorbed into the water at levels that typically require treatment. The typical treatment
for sour water is to send it to a stripper for removal of H2S and NH3. At least < 1 ppm
H2S and < 30 ppm NH3 can be achieved in the stripped sour water. The practice of using
stripped sour water requires new piping to route all sour water generated to the sour water
stripper. A high cost is needed to start it, but it can replace other unnecessary expenses
for the same rectification work in the future.

Demineralized water too can be used as wash water which will result in a very
high efficiency of operation, but the cost of producing demineralized water is too
expensive and not economical for Desalter that operates all the time.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

CHAPTER 6: SAFETY TRAINING AND VALUE OF THE PRACTICAL


EXPERIENCE

6.1 Lesson Learnt and Experience Gained

i) Major KR-2 Plant Turnaround and Project (TANP)

- In charged as Quality Assurance/Quality Compliance (QA/QC) Engineer for System


and Equipment blind

- Involved in pump P-21104A/B switching job

- Witnessed boroscope and Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection at fin cooler E-21104

- Witnessed tube bank No 4 replacement of cooler E-21105

- Learned to operate the Lower Explosion Limit (LEL) meter

- involved in furnace start up

ii) Witnessed heat exchanger switching work

Follow operators performing their task on switching Preheat Train Exchanger of Diesel-
Crude line from Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (E-142 A/B) to Plate Heat Exchanger
(E-142 C)

- The heat exchanger need to be switched over a period of time if the efficiency
of current heat exchanger has started to drop

iii) Joined Visual Basic for Application Class by UTP Trainee

The author joined the session of transfer knowledge on the Visual Basic for Excel
Application delivered by Amirul Ariff Sazali, trainee from UTP, to the engineers of
Aromatics Production Department (APD). The author applied the knowledge by
upgrading the template of CDU Preheat Train Exchangers monitoring performance.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

6.2 Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities

Team Work
Integrated meeting
among Production
Engineer, Maintenance
Planner and Technical
Service Department Individual
Leadership
Calculation and
Standing order
analysis on
documentation for
Desalter's
local man guidelines
efficiency

Trouble Shooting
Non-Routine
Desalter Problem

Figure 27: Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

6.3 Business Values, Ethics and Management Skills

6.3.1 Business Team Concept

PPTSB emphasized team work in order to ensure smooth operation and production.
PPTSB has developed the business team concept in order to ensure a rapid operation in
the company. Before the development of business team concept, the work force in PPTSB
is divided into two; Operation and Maintenance.

The author learned that the implementation of Business Team concept has created
an effective communication between operation and maintenance staffs.

There are three business team developed in PPTSB name Business Team One
(BT-1), Business Team Two (BT-2) and Business Team Three (BT-3). BT-1 is
responsible for the operation and maintenance in KR-1 and KR-2A while BT-2 is
responsible for KR-2B. Meanwhile BT3 manage the oil movement and shipping (OMS)
of the products in PPTSB.

BT-1: Refinery
Area: KR-1, and KR-2A plants

BT-2: Aromatics
Area: KR-2B plant

BT-3: OMS
Area: OMS

Figure 28: Business Team Concept

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

6.3.2 Ethics

Adapting to the working environment in PPTSB, the author has been familiar with the
working ethics such as MANTRA, No Gift Policies and time management.

i) MANTRA

MANTRA is a leadership philosophy in PPTSB as it becomes the guide to all staff.

 Professionalism (“Berusaha dan Bertanggungjawab”)


o With guts there is glory. In each and every aspect that we do we need to be
give our full commitment as there is no an easy way to taste the victory. The
company aspiration shall be shared by all the employee and work together to
achieve it.
o Responsibilities and accountabilities that have must be complying without any
excuse. Each activities or issues should be done in the best way.
 Brand Essence (“Memberi dan Berbudi”)
o Contribution of the ideas by committing towards projects and events is
needed. Knowledge has also needed to be shared among the members as it
will bring benefits to us and the company.
 Spiritual (“Redha dan Bersyukur”)
o Always believe in Allah (God). The most powerful and the most gracious.
Everything happens with reasons and we as the believer must obey and work
hard.

ii) No Gift Policies – Code of Business Ethics

In line with the Code of Business Ethics (COBE), Part II: Duties of Good Faith, Fidelity,
Diligence and Integrity, PPTSB has implemented the PETRONAS initiative “No Gift
Policy” programmes among the worker. This policy was established to avoid any conflict
of interest among the staff and the vendor supplier. Each party involved will not receive
any gift from the other party as prove of the commitment. This commitment is important
to avoid any affect towards the decision making process.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

iii) Time Management

Time Management is very important in any work environment. Same goes to PP(T)SB
where here, for non-shift staffs, flexi hours‘ were introduced. The staffs will work based
on the amount of hours which is normally 8 hours with 1 hour rest at 1 a.m. By applying
this system, the staff of PP(T)SB are able to manage their time more efficiently.

6.3.3 Management

i) Meeting

Every Sunday and Monday, BT-1 will held a meeting involving all production engineers,
maintenance planner and production supervisor to update on any work and issue. While
on Wednesday, the BT will held a discipline meeting which involved representative from
other support units, namely, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), Technical Support
Department (TSD), Instrument, Rotary, and Electrical.

On the last Thursday of every month, the department meeting will be held, chaired
by Senior Manager of Refinery Production Department (RPD) to review the department’s
performance for that particular month.

By participating in these meetings, the author learned that they are necessary for
managing the unit operation as it is the medium for discussion and to update or notify
other related parties.

ii) Documentation

Being part of a big oil refinery plant, all sorts of work require proper documentation.
Other than for auditing purposes, the documentation is necessary for safety, health and
environment commitments. Crude oil refinery plant based work exposing workers to
danger at all times. Guidelines, standard procedure and safety analysis must be reviewed
by the operation side before the particular work can be done. All these paperwork are
then being documented for future reference.

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

6.4 Problems or Challenges Faced and Solutions to Overcome Those

Problems/Challenges Solutions

Desalter need to be bypassed for few A period of time was allocated for the
days to give way for the pipeline Maintenance Department to do the
replacement rectification work

Reciprocating pump stopped working The reciprocating pump is replaced with a


during the process to drain out fluid centrifugal pump
from desalter

Tight schedule of the Operational Make used the opportunity the time after
Production Unit and also Production the Business Team meeting for a short and
Engineer which makes the integrated precise discussion.
meeting between these two parties
difficult to arrange.

Table 10: Problems or Challenges Faced and Solutions to Overcome Those

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

REFERENCES

Cheremisinoff N. P., Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology, CRC


Press, 1994.
Waterman, Chem. Eng. Prog., 1965, 61(10), pp. 51–57.
Petroleum Refining Water/Wastewater Use and Management, IPIECA Operations Good
Practice Series 2010.
Optimum Temperature in the Electrostatic Desalting of Maya Crude Oil, J. Mex. Chem.
Soc. 2005, 49(1), 14-19.
Duggirala P.Y., Formation of Calcium Carbonate Scale and Control Strategies in
Continuous Digesters, Pulp and Paper Research, Nalco Company, Naperville,
Illinois USA.
Larson T. E., Buswell A. M.., Calcium Carbonate Saturation Index and Alkalinity
Interpretations.
An Introduction to Scaling Causes, Problems and Solutions, Margrethe Nergaard Chriss
Grimholt, Trondheim, November 2010
Water treatment handbook, Vol. 1-2, Degremont, 1991
Kerri, K.D. 2002. Water Treatment Plant Operation. California State University:
Sacramento
Sour Water: Where it comes from and How to Handle It, Addington L., Fitz C., Lunsford
K., and Lyddon L., Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc.
Hard Water – To Soften Or Not To Soften, Sept. 1990, Clemson Extension, WQL 6.
http://www.endurosolv.com/scale_formation
http://www.geochemtec.eu/Tutorials/magnesium%20carbonate%20oxide%20hydroxide
.html

http://www.lenntech.com/applications/process/boiler/scaling.htm

http://www.merusonline.com/merusring

http://www.top5best.net/best-water-softeners/

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STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT 14794

APPENDICES

Figure 29: Desalter in CDU Plant

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