Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

Document No.

GP 36-15
Applicability Group
Date 6 December 2007

GP 36-15

Materials Selection for Surface


(Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas
Production Facilities

Group Practice

BP GROUP
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL PRACTICES
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Foreword

This is the first issue of Engineering Technical Practice (ETP) BP Group Practice
GP 36-15.

Copyright  2007, BP Group. All rights reserved. The information contained in this
document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which
the document was supplied to the recipient’s organisation. None of the information
contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient’s own organisation
without the prior written permission of Director of Engineering, BP Group, unless the
terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.

Page 2 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Table of Contents
Page
1. Scope...................................................................................................................................... 5
2. Normative references.............................................................................................................. 5
3. Terms and definitions............................................................................................................... 7
4. Symbols and abbreviations......................................................................................................8
5. Materials selection philosophy.................................................................................................9
6. Principles of materials selection.............................................................................................12
6.1. Materials selection for process side environment.......................................................12
6.2. Materials selection for external environment..............................................................17
6.3. Materials selection to avoid galvanic corrosion...........................................................18
6.4. Materials selection to avoid fatigue and corrosion fatigue..........................................19
7. Applications of corrosion resistant alloys...............................................................................19
7.1. General...................................................................................................................... 19
7.2. Ferritic stainless steels...............................................................................................19
7.3. Austenitic stainless steel............................................................................................19
7.4. Precipitation hardening stainless steel.......................................................................20
7.5. Duplex stainless steel.................................................................................................20
7.6. Nickel-copper alloys...................................................................................................21
7.7. Copper based alloys...................................................................................................21
7.8. Aluminium based alloys..............................................................................................21
7.9. Titanium based alloys.................................................................................................21
7.10. Cladding..................................................................................................................... 22
8. Pressure vessels................................................................................................................... 23
8.1. General...................................................................................................................... 23
8.2. Materials options........................................................................................................23
9. Piping systems...................................................................................................................... 26
9.1. General...................................................................................................................... 26
9.2. Production flowlines and manifolds............................................................................26
9.3. Wet gas piping............................................................................................................ 27
9.4. Flare tips.................................................................................................................... 27
9.5. Glycol unit piping........................................................................................................27
9.6. Amine unit piping........................................................................................................28
9.7. Raw seawater piping..................................................................................................28
9.8. Treated water piping...................................................................................................29
10. Heat exchangers................................................................................................................... 29
10.1. General...................................................................................................................... 29
10.2. Materials options........................................................................................................29
11. Valves.................................................................................................................................... 31

Page 3 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

11.1. General...................................................................................................................... 31
11.2. Materials options........................................................................................................31
12. Instrument impulse and chemical injection tubing..................................................................33
12.1. General...................................................................................................................... 33
12.2. Materials options........................................................................................................33
13. Rotating machinery................................................................................................................34
13.1. General...................................................................................................................... 34
13.2. Materials options........................................................................................................34
14. Fired heaters......................................................................................................................... 34
14.1. General...................................................................................................................... 34
14.2. Materials options........................................................................................................35
Bibliography................................................................................................................................... 36

List of Tables

1 Corrosion resistant alloys for pressure boundary applications


2 Typical materials for shell and tube heat exchangers - corrosive duties
3 Typical materials for air cooled exchangers - corrosive duties
4 Typical materials for plate and frame exchangers - corrosive duties
5 Typical specifications (ASTM) and applications of valve shell materials
6 Typical application of metallic trim materials

Page 4 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

1. Scope

a. This GP specifies requirements for selection of materials for construction of


surface (onshore and topsides) oil and gas production / injection equipment in
E&P, including chemical and utility systems.
Equipment within the scope is essentially that comprising the topsides of
offshore installations and that within the battery limits of onshore sites
b. The following items are outside the scope of this GP:
1. Drilling and completion equipment (see GN 36-003 and GN 36-013)
2. Wellhead and Christmas tree equipment including choke valves
3. Structural items and steel support fabrications
4. Fabrication and associated QA/QC requirements (see 18- and 42-series
ETPs)
5. Subsea equipment (see GP 36-20)
6. Flexible pipe (see GP 65-75)
7. Pipelines, risers, pig traps (see 43-series and 65-series ETPs)
8. Bulk storage tanks
9. Protective coatings
10. Thermal insulation
11. Temporary equipment
12. Steam plant and boilers (see GP 56-10)

2. Normative references

The following normative documents contain requirements that, through reference in this text,
constitute requirements of this technical practice. For dated references, subsequent
amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to
agreements based on this technical practice are encouraged to investigate the possibility of
applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated
references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.

BP
BPOUS RP 13-1-1 Crude Units
GIS 18-011 Welded Fabrication and Construction
GIS 18-013 Integral Cladding, Weld Overlay, and Limited Loose Lining of
Pressure Vessels and Components
GIS 22-101 Group PracticeMaterials Selection for Surface (Topsides)
Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities
GIS 22-201 API 537 Flare Details
GIS 26-101 ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Exchangers (API 660)
GIS 26-103 ISO 13706 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (API 661)
GIS 36-107 Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and
Gas Production Facilities
GIS 43-316 Manufacture of CRA Clad or Lined Steel Pipe.

Page 5 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

GIS 46-010 New Pressure Vessels


GN 06-001 Erosion Guidelines
GN 06-002 Corrosion Prediction Modelling
GN 06-005 Corrosion Protection of Bolting
GN 06-006 Corrosion Inhibition in E&P Facilities – Selection, Testing and Field
Application
GN 18-003 Deposition of CRA Overlay in Small Diameter Tubulars and other
Components.
GN 36-001 Requirements for Alloy 718 Equipment
GN 36-003 Non-metallic Materials Selection
GN 36-007 Compatibility Testing of Non-metallic Materials Within Subsea
Chemical Delivery Systems
GN 36-013 Selecting Downhole Tubing and Casing Materials for Oil & Gas
Production Wells
GN 36-016 Piping Materials Data Sheets
GP 06-14 Erosion Control
GP 06-20 Materials for Sour Service
GP 06-25 Design for the Prevention of CUI
GP 06-29 Corrosion Protection during Hydrotesting
GP 06-60 Painting of Metal Surfaces
GIS 06-601 Painting of Metal Surfaces
GP 06-63 Internal Coatings
GP 18-01 Welded Fabrication and Construction
GP 18-04 Manufacture of Duplex Stainless Steel Components
GP 22-20 API 537 Flare Details
EP GP 26-10 Heat Exchangers in the E&P Segment
GP 30-25 Field Instruments – General
GP 36-12 Amine Services
GP 36-20 Materials Selection and Specification for Subsea Equipment
GP 42-10 ASME B31.3 Piping Systems
GP 56-10 Boilers and Auxiliaries
GP 62-01 Valves
GP 65-75 Design of Unbonded Flexible Pipe Risers and Flowlines
GP 72-00 Design and Selection of Refractory Lining Systems

American Petroleum Institute (API)


API RP 6HP Recommended Practice for High Pressure Wellhead and
Christmas Tree Equipment (Working Committee Draft)
API Std 537 Flare Details for General Refinery and Petrochemical Service
API Std 560 Fired Heaters for General Refinery Service
API Std 660 Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services
API Std 661 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


ASTM A 105 Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications

Page 6 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

ASTM A182 Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless
Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for
High-Temperature Service.
ASTM A216 Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High
Temperature Service
ASTM A 217 Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-
Containing Parts, Suitable for High Temperature Service
ASTM A265 Standard Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloy-Clad Steel
Plate.
ASTM A350 Standard Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings,
Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components.
ASTM A 351 Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-
Containing Parts
ASTM A352 Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic
for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for Low Temperature
Service
ASTM A 395 Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at
Elevated Temperatures
ASTM A 494 Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy
ASTM A 744 Castings, Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Corrosion Resistant, for Severe
Service
ASTM A 890 Castings, Iron-Chromium-Nickel-Molybdenum, Corrosion
Resistant, Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) for General Application
ASTM B 164 Nickel-Copper Alloy Rod, Bar, and Wire
ASTM B 348 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)


ISO 15156 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-
containing environments in oil and gas production.

NACE International
NACE MR0175 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-
containing environments in oil and gas production.
Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon (NORSOK) Norwegian standards
association
NORSOK M-630 Materials Data Sheets for Piping
NORSOK M-001 Materials Selection

3. Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this GP, the following terms and definitions apply:

BP approval
Approval by the relevant BP Engineering or Technical Authority

Carbon steel
Weldable grades of carbon manganese steels suitable for pressure systems equipment.

Page 7 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Cladding
Metallurgically bonded corrosion resistant layer (e.g. as applied by roll bonding or fusion
welding).

Coating
A material applied as a layer onto a substrate to provide corrosion protection.

High pressure/high temperature (HP/HT)


Equipment rated at or above 1034 bar and 121°C per API RP 6HP.

Historically, BP considered pressures and temperatures above 690 bar and


82°C to be HP/HT but this has evolved to the above-referenced industry
recommended practice definition.

IIW Carbon Equivalent (CE)


Mn Cr  Mo  V Ni  Cu
CE  C   
6 5 15

Lining
Non-metallurgically bonded corrosion resistant layer.

Obturator

Part of the valve positioned in the flow stream to permit or block flow i.e. gate or ball.

Pressure boundary equipment

Equipment that comprises the main pressure-containing envelope, i.e. where failure would
result in an uncontrolled loss of containment to the atmosphere.

PREw
Pitting resistance equivalent number (PREw = %Cr + 3.3 (%Mo + 0.5 %W) + 16 x %N).

4. Symbols and abbreviations

For the purpose of this GP, the following symbols and abbreviations apply:

ABS Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

BHN Brinell hardness number

CE Carbon equivalent

CA Corrosion allowance

CP Cathodic protection

CRA Corrosion resistant alloy

EA Engineering authority

ENP Electroless nickel plating

ERW Electric resistance welded

Page 8 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

GIS Group instruction for supply

GP Group practice

GRP Glass fibre reinforced plastic

HAZ Heat affected zone

HIC Hydrogen induced cracking

HIP Hot isostatic pressed

HP/HT High pressure/high temperature

HRC Rockwell hardness “C”

Hv Vickers hardness number

LME Liquid metal embrittlement

NDE Nondestructive examination

PREw Pitting resistance equivalent number

PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride

PWC Preferential weld corrosion

PWHT Postweld heat treatment

QA/QC Quality assurance/quality control

RTJ Ring type joint

SAW Submerged arc welding

SCC Stress corrosion cracking

SOHIC Stress oriented HIC (hydrogen induced cracking).

SS Stainless steel

SSC Sulphide stress cracking

STP Site technical practice

SWC Stepwise cracking

UNS Unified numbering system

5. Materials selection philosophy

a. Projects shall produce a single materials selection philosophy that defines:


1. Design and operating conditions.
Evaluation of corrosivity normally includes:

Page 9 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

 CO2 -content
 H2S-content
 Hg-content
 Content of oxygen and other oxidising agents
 Design and operating temperature and pressure
 pH including effects of organic acids
 Chloride/halide ion concentration
 Velocity, flow regime
 Sand or other solids production
 Micro-biological activity
 Condensing conditions
 Transient conditions e.g. shut-down and start-up
A gas is normally considered ‘dry’ (i.e. no risk of free water) when the water
dew point at the actual pressure is at least 10 °C lower than the actual
operation temperature for the system. Materials for stagnant gas
containment need particular attention.
2. Approach to materials selection.
3. Application of national and international materials specifications.
4. Compliance with regulations.
5. Requirements for materials and welding qualification testing.
6. Application of relevant GIS documents.
Project materials selection philosophy is normally developed during select
and/or define stages.
b. Construction materials for surface equipment shall be selected and specified to
provide required levels of operational integrity, taking account of the following:
1. Material availability in appropriate product forms
2. Operations and maintenance strategy.
3. Weldability
4. Inspectability
5. Project cost and schedule requirements.
6. Complexity and novelty of equipment manufacture and fabrication.
7. Internal and external in-service damage mechanisms for normal and transient
conditions, including:
a) Corrosion (general and localised).
b) Environmentally assisted cracking.
c) Brittle fracture.
d) Erosion.
e) Fatigue and corrosion fatigue.
f) Hydrogen embrittlement.

Page 10 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

8. Predicted changes in reservoir conditions over design life, e.g. souring.


9. Effect of contact with well treating and completion chemicals.
10. Operational criticality.
11. Required life.
12. Weight (for offshore).
c. The application of carbon steels shall be maximised for pressure boundary
equipment, consistent with the requirements of the relevant design codes to
achieve an economic wall thickness for the design pressure and adequate fracture
toughness at the minimum design temperature.
d. Where the predicted internal corrosion on carbon steels exceeds 8mm for the
design life, one of the following options shall be specified for acceptance by BP:
- Carbon steel with internal CRA cladding.
- Solid CRA or non-metallic construction.
- Carbon steel with internal coating in accordance with GP 06-63 may be
used in particular cases.
An internal corrosion allowance limit of 3mm may be more desirable as a
weight saving requirement for offshore topsides equipment.
e. Surface facility equipment items, other than piping, shall not be designed to rely on
upstream corrosion inhibition. Inhibition may be proposed for approval by BP
where the required inhibitor performance and availability can be assured, taking
account of geometry and layout, and where whole life costing indicates this is cost
effective.
Corrosion inhibition is best suited to long, larger diameter piping runs of
minimal complexity. Effective inhibition in branched fittings, dead legs and at
locations of turbulence may be difficult to achieve. The application of
inhibitors mandates the need for effective corrosion monitoring and
inspection, the costs of which also need to be taken into account.
f. Suitably qualified metallurgical, materials, welding, and corrosion specialists shall
be involved in materials selection in projects. Complexity of some issues involved
is such that this GP cannot always provide definitive recommendations.
Requirement for expert advice on materials issues will remain when
deriving Site Technical Practices (STPs) from this GP.
g. Non-metallic materials shall be selected in accordance with principles described in
GN 36-003.
h. Materials for surface (topsides) application shall be:
1. Covered by recognised standard or written material specification, subject to
acceptance by BP.
2. Manufactured to qualified manufacturing procedure, subject to acceptance by
BP.
i. Standards and specifications for metallic materials shall include requirements for
the following, as appropriate:
1. Melting, secondary refining and casting practice.
2. Chemical composition (heat and product).
3. Forging practice to produce fully wrought microstructure.

Page 11 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

4. Quality heat treatment.


5. Sampling for mechanical testing.
6. Mechanical property requirements, including fracture toughness.
7. Requirements for special testing (e.g., chemical resistance, metallography,
corrosion testing).
8. Welding and post-weld heat treatment.
9. Non-destructive evaluation and defect acceptance criteria.
Relevant ETPs for welding and fabrication include GP 18-01, GP 18-02,
GIS 18-011, GIS 42-101, and GIS 42-102.
GN 36-016 contains Data Sheets for CRAs, providing guidance for meeting
most of the above requirements.
j. If design temperature for material is above range for which allowable stresses are
listed in applicable reference code, elevated temperature tensile testing (including
welds) shall be performed and an allowable stress determined.
k. Corrosion protection for carbon and low alloy steel bolting shall be specified in
accordance with GN 06-005.
l. The number of different materials shall be minimised.

6. Principles of materials selection

6.1. Materials selection for process side environment

6.1.1. H2S-containing environments


a. Materials for H2S-containing environments shall comply with NACE MR0175/ISO
15156 and GP 06-20, including vessels with internal coatings / linings.
Cost of using “H2S resistant” grades of carbon or low alloy steels is usually
minimal, hence they should be considered for environments containing even
low H2S levels (i.e. below thresholds for sulphide stress cracking [SSC]).
The materials selection process should consider any predicted souring over
the design life of the reservoir.
b. If erosion studies performed in accordance with GP 06-14 demonstrate that CRA
internal cladding will remain intact for design life (i.e. predicted remaining cladding
thickness at end of design life is at least 1mm), carbon and low alloy steels that
are fully internally clad with CRA are not required to comply with hardness
restrictions in NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 for non-clad constructions.
The maximum individual hardness of fully internally clad carbon steel components
measured at any location shall be 325 Hv 10.
Advantages of permitting increased hardness levels pertain to elimination or
optimisation of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) parameters that facilitate
retention of tensile properties in high strength carbon steels and low alloyed
steels and minimise formation of undesirable microstructures at bimetallic
interfaces.
c. H2S partial pressure limits for avoidance of SSC in welded CRAs are not well
defined and application-specific, qualification corrosion testing may be required.
Effects of welding on SSC resistance shall be considered.

Page 12 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

d. If conditions are considered marginal between different classes or grades of


steels/alloys:
1. Conservative approach to materials selection shall be adopted, especially for
high criticality equipment and for offshore applications.
2. Alternates, such as carbon steel clad or lined with an austenitic CRA shall be
considered.
The ease of in-service inspection is an important factor in selecting materials
and the design of equipment.
e. Steels for hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), stepwise cracking (SWC), and stress
oriented HIC (SOHIC) resistance shall comply with applicable requirements in GP
06-20.
f. Selection of non-metallic materials shall also consider resistance to H2S as
described in GN 36-003.
g. Elemental sulphur.
Elemental sulphur deposits increase the susceptibility of carbon and low
alloy steels to SCC, pitting corrosion and general corrosion. However
corrosion is controlled by the use of solvents to prevent sulphur deposition
rather than materials selection.

6.1.2. CO2-containing environments


a. CO2 corrosion rates on carbon and low alloy steel shall be predicted in accordance
with GN 06-002. Predictions shall be developed using the latest version of
Cassandra associated software for assessment of viability of use for surface
equipment.
b. Effects of organic acids shall be taken into account in corrosion prediction
modelling and in testing for corrosion inhibitor selection (GN 06-006).
c. Performance of CRAs in CO2-containing environments shall be considered in
terms of both general corrosion and localised corrosion (including SCC), especially
in high temperatures and/or high salinity waters.
Most CRAs have good resistance to CO 2 corrosion. Nevertheless, attack in
the form of pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion or environmentally induced
cracking may occur where one or more of the following conditions are
present: high temperature, chlorides and low pH.
d. Selection of non-metallic materials shall consider resistance to CO2 as described
in GN 36-003.

6.1.3. Chloride/halide ion-containing internal production environments


a. Materials shall be selected that have adequate and proven resistance to localised
internal corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) caused by chloride/halide
ions in produced/injected fluids.
Austenitic and duplex stainless steel alloys are used extensively in
environments with chlorides/halides present. Susceptibility of materials to
localised corrosion (pitting, crevice) and chloride SCC varies considerably
dependent on material grade, strength, residual stress (welding and cold
work), temperature, type of halide, halide concentration, component
geometry and presence of oxygen. Initial concentration of halide in a stream
or feed stream is important, but the possibility of increasing the initial
concentration, e.g. by evaporative concentrating, recycling, or unexpected
upsets can have a significantly worse effect.

Page 13 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Due to the large number of variables, only general guidance can be provided
and specialist advice should be sought.
b. Where sufficient data on the resistance of candidate materials to these forms of
attack is not available, laboratory-based qualification corrosion testing shall be
undertaken.
c. If doubts exist about suitability of highly-alloyed austenitic or duplex stainless steel,
consideration shall be given to more chloride SCC resistant materials, such as
Alloy 825 or carbon steel internally clad with Alloy 825 / 625.
Nickel based alloys may be considered highly resistant to chloride ion SCC
in surface facility (topsides) equipment. The advice of materials/corrosion
specialists should be sought for the most appropriate materials selection.

6.1.4. Erosion
a. Internal erosion rates in surface equipment and implications for materials selection
shall be evaluated in accordance with GP 06-14 and GN 06-001.

6.1.5. Chemicals
a. Surface system materials selection shall consider the range of expected chemical
treatments, including understanding of how required chemicals will interact with all
materials they contact (metals and elastomers) and how they will behave with one
another if mixed.
Carbon steel can typically be specified for non-corrosive chemicals such as
methanol. Potentially corrosive chemicals such as concentrated solutions of
corrosion and scale inhibitors normally require suitable CRAs as specified by
the vendors.
For non-metallic materials, requirements for testing of compatibility of
elastomers and plastics with production chemicals are described in GN 36-
007.
b. Titanium alloys shall not be specified where contact with methanol (<5% water)
could occur.
c. For amine duties refer GP 36-12.
d. Glycol systems using ethylene glycol (EG), monoethylene glycol (MEG) or
triethylene glycol (TEG) to remove water vapour from hydrocarbon gas streams
should be specified in carbon steels except for the hot sections of glycol
regeneration which may be CRAs.
Rich solutions contain absorbed water while lean solutions contain
essentially no water. Acid gas components present in the hydrocarbon
vapour are absorbed by the dehydration glycol along with water vapour.
Carbon steel is the common material used for equipment handling both lean
and rich glycol with the possible exception of the hot sections of the glycol
regeneration equipment. If CRA materials are required upstream of the
glycol contactor, then use CRA materials for the vapour wetted sections of
the glycol regeneration equipment (for example the vapour space of the
reboiler, the still column and the overhead piping). Assess the need for the
rich glycol piping and glycol regeneration equipment to be suitable for sour
service.
e. Hypochlorite systems shall be specified in titanium or GRP.
f. Compatibility of non-metallic materials with particular chemicals shall be
demonstrated as required and in accordance with GN 36-007.

Page 14 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

6.1.6. Mercury and liquid metal embrittlement


a. Effects of mercury in produced fluids on materials of construction shall be
considered.
b. Mercury bearing streams shall not use copper and aluminium base alloys for any
components.
c. Titanium alloys containing aluminium and/or copper for duty in systems that may
contain mercury shall be qualified by testing.
Mercury and associated mercury compounds can be detrimental to certain
materials. Mercury can occur naturally as a contaminant in well production
fluids, especially gas. Potential of mercury presence should be recognised
at the earliest possible stage of design to avoid potentially susceptible
materials being specified.
It is generally accepted that mercury needs to be present as free liquid for
damage to occur. Attack can be by amalgamation or by LME.
Lead, antimony and tin compounds, which may be found in some thread
dopes, have been found to lead to LME problems.

6.1.7. Preferential weld corrosion (PWC)


a. Propensity for PWC shall be assessed.
b. PWC shall not be mitigated by the use of additional design corrosion allowances.
PWC is a particular concern with carbon and low alloy steels and has been
experienced in systems handling produced hydrocarbons and seawater for
injection. Welding with consumables depositing approximately 1% Ni weld
metal has been used extensively to avoid PWC in seawater injection
systems. Several cases of PWC have subsequently been reported but
overall it appears to have significantly reduced the PWC risk.
Initially, it was also thought to prevent PWC in systems handling produced
hydrocarbons; however, this proved to be a far less effective approach and
was unreliable. The present, industry accepted approach is to use weld
consumables matching the composition of the parent steel and treat with an
appropriately selected corrosion inhibitor. Care is needed to select the
correct inhibitor and dosage to provide adequate protection or it can make
the risk and rate of PWC more acute - see EFC Publication 39 for more
detail.
PWC can be exacerbated by the presence of acetic acid / acetate and is
particularly critical in wet gas systems. For produced hydrocarbon systems,
when the acetate to bicarbonate ratio is favoured towards acetate, the
greater the effect of acetate on system corrosivity and by implication, PWC.

6.1.8. Water injection


a. Materials for treated water injection equipment shall generally be selected in
accordance with predicted water corrosivity, based on dissolved oxygen and
chlorine levels, and specification and reliability of water treatment facilities.
In most cases carbon steel will be the preferred option for all treated water
equipment but an additional corrosion allowance should be considered.
Although treated injection seawater is typically de-aerated to a design limit of
10 ppb oxygen or less, excursions to higher oxygen contents can often
occur, causing considerable corrosion in unlined carbon steel equipment. In
addition, there is increasingly a move to re-inject produced water (containing

Page 15 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

dissolved CO2 and possibly H2S) either alone or co-mingled with treated
seawater, with the consequent requirement for corrosion management.

6.1.9. Raw seawater


a. Materials for raw seawater applications shall be designed using seawater
resistant materials and/or using carbon steel with robust internal protective
coatings or linings. Materials options and preferences for raw seawater piping
are given in 9.7.
Corrosivity of seawater varies significantly around the world due to
differences in temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and presence of
life forms and pollution and is typically very corrosive to unprotected carbon
steel. Other materials are especially prone to pitting and crevice corrosion
damage in raw seawater. Additionally, seawater can cause SCC of
susceptible materials, such as 300 series austenitic stainless steels, duplex
stainless steels, and other specialty materials, such at 6% Mo alloys. These
factors make the selection of materials for raw seawater duty particularly
difficult, especially for offshore applications in which weight and fire
resistance are likely to be additional important factors.
a. Materials for raw seawater applications shall be selected to avoid internal galvanic
corrosion.
Galvanic corrosion is a major concern in aerated seawater duties and mixing
of different classes of alloys should be avoided. Guidance is provided in
Section 6.3.

6.1.10. Hydrotest water


a. Chemical treatment of hydrotest water using biocides and oxygen scavengers
shall comply with GP 06-29.
Care is required in specification and control of hydrotesting media (and any
other transient environments) to avoid internal corrosion and fouling. Many
grades of stainless steel used for internal components are not resistant to
localised pitting and crevice corrosion in raw seawater (PREw < 40).
Generally, fresh hydrotest water (meeting GP 06-29 requirements) should be
specified in all cases other than systems designed for raw seawater duty.
Avoid prolonged durations of hydrostatic test water remaining in equipment
and pipework.

6.1.11. Additional internal environment considerations


a. The following shall be considered:
1. Internal corrosion at locations of no flow (dead legs) and slow flow.
2. Internal corrosion due to water dropout at low points e.g. drains.
Dead leg internal corrosion mechanisms include bacteria, which proliferate
in stagnant conditions, and under deposit corrosion caused by sand or
corrosion products. Areas where water could collect or fall out and remain
stagnant or become acidic are also prone to internal corrosion. Corrosion
inhibitors and biocides are unlikely to be effective at locations of no flow.
Guidance on identifying and managing internal corrosion at dead legs is
provided in GN 06-009.
3. Effect of gas lift operations on corrosion.

Page 16 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

4. Corrosivity of internal fluids encountered during installation and operational


transients (e.g. well workovers, spent acids), including chemical treatments.

6.2. Materials selection for external environment


a. Offshore facilities and onshore coastal sites shall assume the presence of external
chlorides for all equipment directly exposed (i.e. uncoated) to the atmosphere.
b. Materials for pressure systems equipment shall be selected in accordance with
specified external environmental design conditions, including minimum and
maximum ambient temperatures.
c. Materials for equipment that is impractical to externally protect by coatings, e.g.
instrument impulse tubing, shall be selected to resist atmospheric corrosion and
presence of local contaminants such as drilling fluids.
d. The following groups of materials shall be coated above the specified maximum
operating temperatures to prevent exposure to external chlorides and thus chloride
stress corrosion cracking:
Carbon Steel All temperatures
300 Series Stainless Steels >50ºC
Duplex and Super Duplex Steels >70ºC
Refer to GP 06-25 and GP 06-60 / GIS 06-601. The temperature thresholds
apply to both insulated and uninsulated equipment and pipework.
Consideration should be given to solar heating – in some parts of the world
uncooled metal temperatures exposed to solar heating can reach 80ºC or
higher.
Typically, 300 series austenitic stainless steels are considered susceptible to
chloride SCC at temperatures above about 60°C, especially when welded or
cold worked.
Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels and all duplex grades have
improved resistance to chloride SCC.
Although duplex stainless steels have superior resistance to chloride SCC
over 300 series austenitic stainless steels, high concentrations of chloride
ions in combination with high temperatures have led to several failures.
Conditions under which cracking can occur are not well understood. A
summary of failures and current knowledge of this phenomenon can be
found at UK Health and Safety Executive website:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr129.pdf
Threshold temperatures for SCC are 70ºC for unprotected 22%Cr duplex.
25%Cr super duplex and some highly-alloyed austenitic grades have higher
threshold temperatures but these temperatures are not well established.
e. Contact between austenitic stainless steels and zinc, or other low melting point
metals, shall be avoided.
Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to LME by zinc at temperatures
above about 750°C, e.g. in a fire.
Thread lubricants containing low melting point metals can result in LME.
Refer to GP 42-10 for further guidance.

Page 17 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

6.3. Materials selection to avoid galvanic corrosion


a. Coupling of dissimilar metals shall be minimised to prevent galvanic corrosion or
hydrogen charging. Wherever dissimilar metals are coupled together in
equipment or piping systems, a corrosivity evaluation shall be made.
Galvanic corrosion is a major concern in aerated seawater duties and mixing
of different classes of alloys should be avoided. It is normally of less
concern in production environments due to the much lower water phase
conductivity and the formation of a partially protective film of corrosion
products on carbon steels.
Most seawater resistant grades of stainless steels and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys can
be considered compatible, but any of them will promote galvanic corrosion
on less noble alloys such as cupro-nickel and Alloy 400. All CRAs will
promote corrosion of carbon steel. Titanium can suffer hydriding when
acting as a cathode in a galvanic cell.
b. The following methods to avoid or mitigate internal galvanic corrosion should be
used where appropriate:
1. Electrical isolation between dissimilar materials. Possible electrical
connection via alternative routes such as pipe supports, deck and earthing
cables shall be considered.
2. Install a distance spool between the dissimilar metals so that they will be
separated by at least 20 pipe diameters from each other. Shorter spools may
be used in cases of low conductivity of the water phase. The distance spool
may be either of a solid electrically non-conductive material (e.g. GRP) or of a
metal that is coated internally with an electrically non-conducting material, e.g.
rubber. In this case the metal in the distance spool should be the more noble
of the dissimilar metals.
Where installation of long isolation spools is not practical, a possible
alternative is sacrificial spools. These thick wall bare spools are installed on
the less noble side of an isolation joint, in combination with a shorter length
isolation spool and allowed to corrode; they are subject to regular inspection
and monitoring of the metal loss rate. At a predetermined measured
remaining wall thickness the sacrificial spool is replaced. The technique is a
last resort, and further advice should be sought from EPTG.
3. Apply a non-conducting internal coating on the more noble material in the
vicinity of the bimetallic contact. The coating shall extend a minimum of 20
pipe diameters in length for piping (although this should be reviewed in cases
of high flow or high conductivity).
By applying the coating on the more noble (cathodic) material any coating
defects or holidays will not have substantial effect. If coating is applied on
the less noble material (anodic) the coating defects will become sites where
penetration rates of the corrosion attack may be very high.
4. Apply corrosion allowance on the less noble metal, e.g. in hydrocarbon
systems.
The effectiveness of this method depends on the corrosivity and electrical
conductivity of the environment and the materials coupled together. In
certain conditions the application of corrosion allowance may not be
sufficient.
5. Connection of carbon steel to titanium alloys shall be avoided where a risk of
galvanic corrosion or hydrogen charging of the titanium alloy may occur. The

Page 18 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

design or use of equipment that includes coupling of carbon steel to titanium


alloys shall be approved by BP.
In some heat exchangers, titanium alloys (e.g. tubesheet and tubes) are
combined with coated carbon steel (e.g. water box), even in seawater. Any
holidays or defects in the coating will result in high penetration rates of the
carbon steel in the absence of cathodic protection, due to the large
cathode/small anode ratio.
6. Graphite-containing gaskets and seals shall not be used on seawater duties.
Graphite is cathodic to most seawater resistant materials and increases the
risk of crevice corrosion occurring on flange faces. Refer to GN 42-002 for
guidance on gasket selection.

6.4. Materials selection to avoid fatigue and corrosion fatigue


a. Equipment and components subject to cyclic loading shall be assessed for their
resistance to fatigue and corrosion fatigue (see GP 42-10).
Corrosion and fatigue have a synergistic effect on each other often making
the combination considerably worse than the sum of each mechanism.
Corrective action to control or even remove one or both of the damage
mechanisms may have to be implemented (e.g. use of a CRA or redesign of
the component).

7. Applications of corrosion resistant alloys

7.1. General
a. Typical examples of corrosion resistant alloys for pressure boundary equipment
are included in Table 1. The selection of CRAs for fasteners, valve stems and
instrument tubing are not included in Table 1.
There is often a requirement for fasteners, valve stems and instrument tubing
to be made from different, usually more corrosion resistant materials than the
parent equipment.
b. Copper alloys shall not be used in flammable or otherwise hazardous service.

7.2. Ferritic stainless steels


a. Ferritic stainless steels shall not be specified for pressure boundary equipment.
This is due to the poor weldability and fracture toughness of these alloys.
Ferritic stainless steels have good chloride SCC resistance. Acceptable
applications are limited to internal non-welded components such as trays for
fractionator columns and tubes for shell-and-tube heat exchangers.
b. Ferritic stainless steels shall not be specified for H2S-containing environments.

7.3. Austenitic stainless steel


a. Low carbon grades of austenitic stainless steels shall be specified for welded
applications. Dual grade alloys such as 304/304L are acceptable.
b. Austenitic and highly-alloyed austenitic materials used for pressure boundary
equipment shall be specified in solution treated and water quenched conditions,
and be free from any cold work intended to enhance their mechanical properties.
Forced air or gas quenching may be specified for thin wall components provided it

Page 19 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

results in a homogeneous single phase austenitic microstructure with no


deleterious secondary precipitation.
c. Type 300 series stainless steel equipment, piping, etc. shall be reviewed for
potential chloride SCC from external chloride sources, (e.g. from the local
industrial or marine environments or process leaks, particularly if evaporative
concentrating can occur and under insulation.
d. Low chloride grades of insulation as described in GP 06-25 shall be specified for
type 300 series stainless steel equipment unless otherwise approved by BP.
e. Cast 6Mo highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steel shall not be specified for
components to be welded.
f. In H2S-containing environments, where the partial pressure is greater than
0.05psia, the limitations of BP ETP GP 06-20 and NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156
shall be applied, unless it can be demonstrated by fully documented previous
service history or by prequalification laboratory corrosion/stress corrosion cracking
testing that the material is suitable for the intended service.
g. Free-machining austenitic stainless steels shall not be used.
Free machining grades have relatively poor corrosion resistance, especially
in seawater.
h. 6Mo steels and other highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steel can be considered
for use in chloride-containing environments where the maximum design
temperature does not exceed 120˚C.

7.4. Precipitation hardening stainless steel


a. Martensitic precipitation-hardened alloys, such as 17-4 PH (UNS S17400) and
Alloy 450 (UNS S45000) shall not be used in any H2S-containing duties unless
specifically approved by BP.
b. Where allowed, Alloy 17-4 PH (UNS S17400) shall be heat treated per NACE
MR0175/ISO 15156.

7.5. Duplex stainless steel


a. Duplex and super duplex stainless steel products shall comply with GP 18-04 and
the definitions for 22% Cr duplex, 25% Cr duplex and 25% Cr super duplex and
their respective PREw requirements shall be applied.
b. H2S partial pressure limits for avoidance of SSC in welded CRAs are not well
defined and application-specific corrosion testing shall be considered.
“H2S service” limits for duplex/super duplex stainless steels are complex.
Such materials would probably fail H2S service testing in “standard”
conditions as defined in NACE TM0177 and associated documents.
Susceptibility to SSC is a function of temperature, H2S level, pH, and
chloride content of transported water. Limits that have been applied in BP for
non-welded components (maximum 120,000 ppm chlorides) are:
Material Partial pressure (H2S) pH
bara psia
22% Cr duplex stainless steel 0,10 1.45 at least 3.5
25% Cr super duplex stainless 0,25 3.62 3.5 to 4.5
steel 0,50 7.25 greater than 4.5

c. Effects of welding on SSC resistance shall be considered.

Page 20 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

The limits for duplex stainless steel were largely developed for downhole
tubing grades. For applications involving welding, further qualification for the
field-specific conditions is recommended.

7.6. Nickel-copper alloys


a. Nickel-copper alloys, such as Alloy 400, R-405 and K-500 (UNS N04400, N04405,
and N05500) in wet sulphide environments such as wet H2S shall be limited to a
maximum in service temperature of 150C.
Sulphides, especially H2S, can reduce the corrosion resistance of these
alloys in environments that would normally be considered acceptable.
b. UNS N04400, N04405, may be used in H2S-containing service where the partial
pressure is greater than 0.05psia whereas N05500 shall not be used. Refer to
GP 06-20 and NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, Part 3 for further guidance.

7.7. Copper based alloys


a. Copper, brasses, and bronzes shall not be used in process streams containing
caustic amines, ammonia, sour water or wet H2S, or in applications exposed to
atmospheric H2S.
The high pH of ammonia can cause rapid corrosion of copper and its alloys.
Ammonia causes SCC of copper based materials. The use limits for these
materials are dependent on temperature and H2S concentration.
b. Aluminium bronze (UNS C61300) and inhibited admiralty brass (UNS C44300)
may be used for wet H2S service if amine or ammonia is not present.
c. Brass shall not be used for ammonia or anhydrous ammonia environments.
d. Copper and its alloys shall not be used for pressure boundary vessels or
components in flammable or toxic service.
e. Copper-nickel alloys shall not be used in sour water and wet H2S services or
where this type contamination is possible.
Sulphides, especially H2S, can reduce the corrosion resistance of these
alloys in environments that would normally be considered acceptable.

7.8. Aluminium based alloys


a. Applications of aluminium based alloys shall be subject to BP approval.
b. Aluminium shall not be used for ammonia or anhydrous ammonia environments.

7.9. Titanium based alloys


a. The following limitations and concerns shall be considered in the application of Ti
and Ti-alloys:
1. Commercially pure titanium is susceptible to crevice corrosion in seawater
and brine at temperatures above about 93C. Use of Pd and Ru-containing
grades shall be used above this temperature.
2. In the presence of acidified brines at temperatures exceeding 80oC, crevice
corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of some alloys is
increased. Titanium alloys containing minor ruthenium (0.1% Ru) additions,
such as Ti Grade 29, or palladium (0.05%Pd) improve the resistance.
3. Methanol shall not be used for degreasing purposes and contact of titanium
alloys with methanol should be avoided.

Page 21 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Titanium is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in pure methanol. The


presence of 5% or more water in methanol will inhibit stress corrosion
cracking although failures have occurred due to accidental contact with
undiluted methanol.
4. Titanium alloys are susceptible to hydrogen charging and hydriding when
galvanically coupled to carbon steel and other ferritic alloys.
5. Titanium alloys are highly corrosion resistant to produced well fluids including
all hydrocarbons, acidic gases (CO2 and H2S), elemental sulphur and sweet
and sour chloride brines at elevated temperatures. NACE MR0175 /ISO
15156 Part 3 Section A.11 gives guidance on specific alloys tested in H2S
service.

7.10. Cladding
a. CRA clad plate shall comply with GIS 18-013.
Clad plate should also be purchased to meet a suitable ASTM specification
such as ASTM A264 (austenitic and duplex stainless steel clad plate), ASTM
A265 (nickel alloy clad plate) or ASTM B898 (titanium alloy clad plate).
b. CRA clad pipe shall comply with GIS 43-316. Supplementary requirements for
induction bending shall be subject to BP approval.
c. Options for clad pipe produced by internal weld overlay techniques may be
proposed for acceptance by BP (see GN 18-003).
d. Mechanically lined pipe shall not be specified.
e. Internal CRA linings and claddings for pressure vessels shall comply with GIS 36-
107.
Table 1 – Typical corrosion resistant alloys for pressure boundary applications

Generic type Common name UNS


Austenitic stainless steels 304 stainless steel S30400
304L stainless steel S30403
316 stainless steel S31600
316L stainless steel S31603
Highly-alloyed austenitic stainless 254SMO or 6Mo S31254
steels 904L N08904
Alloy 28 N08028
Duplex stainless steels 22% Cr duplex S31803
25% Cr super duplex S32750
25% Cr super duplex S32760
25% Cr super duplex S39274
Nickel based alloys Alloy 825 N08825
Alloy 625 N06625
Alloy C-276 N10276
Alloy 59 N06059
Alloy 686 N06686
Alloy 400 N04400
Copper based alloys 90-10 cupro-nickel C70600
Nickel aluminium bronze C95800
Titanium based alloys Grade 2 R50400
Grade 7 Ti-0.2% Pd R52400
Grade 12 Ti-0.3% Mo - 0.8% Ni R53400

Page 22 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

8. Pressure vessels

8.1. General
a. Materials for pressure vessels, heat exchanger shells designed to pressure vessel
codes (including external bolting) shall be selected and specified in accordance
with GIS 46-010.
b. Materials for internal bolting shall be selected to be compatible with the corrosivity
of the process fluids.
Internal fasteners are often manufactured from a more corrosion resistant
material than parent equipment to reduce the possibility of their failure in
service.
c. Acceptable materials for corrosive oil and gas production duties are detailed in 8.2.
Alternatives to these materials may be proposed for review by BP.
d. Materials selection for topping unit vessels shall follow the guidance for refinery
crude units in BPOUS RP 13-1-1.
Topping units are small distillation units installed on remote sites or pipeline
locations taking a diesel cut to provide fuel.
http://technical_practices.bpweb.bp.com/ousrp/rps/rp13/1311.pdf

8.2. Materials options

8.2.1. Slug catchers


a. Slug catchers designed as pressure vessels should normally be specified in
carbon steel. Internal corrosion protection will often be required due to the intrinsic
stream corrosivity or likelihood of sludge / solids deposition leading to under-
deposit corrosion, especially in black oil systems. Reliance on upstream corrosion
inhibition should be avoided. Options that may be proposed for acceptance by BP
include the following:
1. Carbon steels with internal CRA cladding.
This option will generally be preferred for HP/HT developments with high
corrosivity of the produced fluids, especially offshore (e.g. wet sour gas with
CO2 and chlorides).
2. Carbon steels with internal coatings in accordance with GP 06-63.
This option may only be considered when access to vessels for inspection of
the coating is practicable and forms part of the site inspection and
maintenance strategy. Internal coatings are not normally practicable for
small vessels.

8.2.2. Production separators


a. Similar considerations apply as for slug catchers. Options that may be proposed
for acceptance by BP include the following:
1. The same materials options offered in 8.2.1.
2. Duplex / super duplex stainless steels.
This option will generally be preferred for smaller vessels and/or lower
pressure applications in sweet or mildly sour duty where the cost of solid
CRA is likely to be lower than clad constructions. This option is likely to
have superior availability to other options.

Page 23 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

8.2.3. Wet gas separators / scrubbers / compressor KO drums


a. Gas should only be considered dry and non-corrosive when its water dew point is
at least 10°C lower than the operating temperature, including during transient and
upset operations.
b. Options that may be proposed for acceptance by BP include:
1. The same materials options offered in 8.2.1.
2. The same materials options offered in 8.2.2.
3. Austenitic stainless steels.
316L stainless steel may be considered for lower pressure wet sweet or sour
gas duties at temperatures below about 60°C where internal chlorides are
<50 ppm . Highly-alloyed austenitic grades may be considered where these
limits cannot be assured.

8.2.4. Glycol dehydration unit vessels


a. The gas dehydrator or contactor may be specified in carbon steel with a nominal
corrosion allowance where glycol wetting occurs. The main internal corrosion
threat is at the bottom where the wet gas enters and passes upwards through the
chimney tray into the structured packing wetted by glycol. 316L stainless steel
internal cladding should be specified in the bottom section, terminated about 0.3
metres from the top of the structured packing bed.
b. Unclad carbon steel is not acceptable in the still column, which sits on the reboiler,
due to high temperature condensing organic acids. Type 316L stainless steel shall
be specified for the still column.
c. The overhead separator shall be specified in carbon steel with internal lining (GP
06-63) or type 316L stainless steel.
The overhead separator allows warm gases (around 30°C) to go to the LP
flare system while the liquids are usually sent to the closed drains system.

8.2.5. Amine gas sweetening unit vessels


a. Carbon steel will normally be specified for absorber and regenerator columns by
the process licensor with type 304L or 316L stainless steel internal cladding, the
extent of which is dependent on many variables including solvent type, acid gas
type, stream velocities / turbulence and acid gas loadings. Additional corrosion
allowance should be considered for any unclad regions.
b. Regenerator reboiler shell may be in potentially corrosive duty in which case
carbon steel constructions may require additional corrosion allowance.
c. Rich amine flash drums and regenerator overhead reflux drums are likely to be in
highly corrosive duty, requiring solid CRA construction, typically 316L stainless
steel.
d. All unclad carbon steel vessels or sections of vessels in amine duty shall be post
weld heat treated to avoid amine stress corrosion cracking.
GP 36-12 provides materials selection guidance for amine services and API
945 Appendix B gives guidelines for corrosion control.

8.2.6. Seawater deaerators


a. Minox deaeration tower may be specified in carbon steel (CA 1.5 mm) internally
coated with glass flake vinyl ester. Sacrificial cathodic protection should be
installed in the bottom section. 316L stainless steel internals should be specified

Page 24 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

(demister, trays, fastening, and internal piping etc.) Alloy 400 and type 304L
stainless steel should not be specified. The structured packing should be non-
metallic, e.g. polypropylene.
b. Identical considerations apply to vacuum deaeration towers.

8.2.7. Produced water strippers


a. Stripper towers should be specified in carbon steel with 100% internal corrosion
protection by coatings (GP 06-63).

8.2.8. Closed drains drums


a. Closed drains drums are in potentially corrosive duty due to solids deposition and
localised corrosion, especially at the bottom. Carbon steel construction with 100%
internal coating should be considered as a minimum.
CRA options may be preferred for smaller vessels where internal access for
inspection of the coating is impracticable.

8.2.9. Flare KO drums


a. Internal corrosivity of flare systems is usually relatively low on account of the low
pressures and short exposure durations to relieving streams. The main issues are
often associated with solids deposition in the KO drums and under-deposit
corrosion. The drums are usually high criticality with limited opportunity for internal
access for inspection and maintenance, especially offshore. Hence internal
corrosion protection by high integrity linings such as glass flake epoxy should be
considered, especially for flare drums where deposition of sludge / solids could be
expected.
Impact tested carbon steels are typically suitable for design temperatures
down to -46°C, below which austenitic stainless steels are required, typically
type 316L.

9. Piping systems

9.1. General
a. Materials, including external bolting, shall be selected and specified in accordance
with GP 42-10.
Guidance on welding components and pipework is detailed in GIS 42-101
and GIS 42-102.
b. A range of approved piping and piping component specification sheets are
included in GN 36-016. Alternatively, relevant NORSOK M-630 piping materials
data sheets may be proposed for acceptance by BP.
c. Acceptable materials for corrosive oil and gas production duties are detailed in 9.2.
Alternatives to these materials may be proposed for review by BP.
d. GN 42-002 provides guidance on gasket selection.
e. Coating of piping shall be carried out in accordance with GP 06-60 and GIS 06-
601.
f. Materials selection for topping unit piping shall follow the guidance for refinery
crude units in BPOUS RP 13-1-1.
http://technical_practices.bpweb.bp.com/ousrp/rps/rp13/1311.pdf

Page 25 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

9.2. Production flowlines and manifolds

9.2.1. Flowlines
a. Production flowlines may be in potentially corrosive and erosive duty due to
handling raw well fluids. They may be in HP/HT duty and may experience
vibration, highly turbulent flow conditions, low temperatures downstream of the
choke and contact with well treatment fluids. Their relatively small diameter usually
precludes use of internal clad or coated / lined constructions. Options which may
be proposed for acceptance by BP are listed below. Other options, including
martensitic stainless steels for non-sour duties, may also be proposed, though
their limited availability in all required product forms and their fabrication
complexity does not often make them first choice. Specific design features for
erosion control may be required, e.g. long radius bends, target tees.
1. Impact tested carbon and low alloy steels.
This option may be considered for relatively benign fluid conditions that are
inhibited at the wellhead or downhole, and where routine inspection and
monitoring is feasible and cost effective. Adequate corrosion allowance
should be specified for the inhibited predicted corrosion and erosion rates.
Impact tested carbon and low alloy steel grades, suitable for design
temperatures down to -46°C, are specified to cater for possible auto-
refrigeration conditions.
2. Austenitic stainless steels.
316L type stainless steel may be considered for pipework from the wellhead
to the separator when no H2S is present.
3. Duplex and super duplex stainless steels.
These options will generally be preferred for moderately corrosive
applications, typically with CO2 and chlorides, but only mildly sour. Super
duplex grades should only be specified when 22%Cr grades cannot be
used, e.g. due to lower H2S limits for 22%Cr grades.
4. Alloy 825.
This option should be considered for highly corrosive and sour well streams.
In some cases highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steels may be appropriate
lower cost alternatives but may require qualification, and the availability of all
required product forms may be problematic. The advice of
materials/corrosion specialists should be sought.

9.2.2. Manifolds
a. Similar considerations and options to 9.2.1 apply to production manifolds except
that their greater size may additionally allow internally CRA-clad options for the
most severe duties, e.g. carbon steel internally clad with Alloy 825.
Effective corrosion inhibition of carbon steel manifolds may be difficult to
achieve and should be avoided.

9.3. Wet gas piping


a. Carbon steel should be used if corrosivity of the fluid is low or when possible to
effectively use corrosion inhibitors.
b. Piping handling wet gas streams from slug catchers, production separators and
around compressors is likely to be in corrosive duty, requiring CRA construction.
Options that may be proposed for acceptance by BP include:

Page 26 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

1. 316L stainless steel for lower pressure gas streams and where chloride
carryover should not occur (maximum 50ppm chlorides).
2. Duplex and super duplex stainless steel for mildly sour duties with chlorides,
and for higher pressures.
3. Highly-alloyed austenitics or Alloy 825 for more severe sour service with CO2
and chlorides.

9.4. Flare tips


a. Materials shall be selected in accordance with GIS 22-201 and GP 22-20.
Flare tip designs are generally proprietary and materials of construction vary
widely. Depending on design, flare tips are normally fabricated from heat
resistant austenitic stainless steels, such as type 310 or a nickel based alloy,
such as 800H.
GIS 22-201 and GP 22-20 provide guidance on materials selection and GP
32-49 provides additional guidance on damage mechanisms and inspection
procedures.

9.5. Glycol unit piping


a. Type 316L stainless steel shall be specified for the still column overhead piping
and overhead separator liquid outlet piping.
The condenser at the top of the still column lowers the temperature to about
100°C where it enters the overhead piping and the vapour is typically further
cooled by an overhead condenser to allow liquids to be removed in the
overhead separator. It is essential to cool the overhead vapour rather than
allowing it to pass straight into a carbon steel LP flare system. Alternatively,
the uncooled gas may be routed directly to an incinerator using 316L piping.
The overhead separator liquid phase can contain water at a pH around 4
and so the small diameter outlet piping should be specified in 316L stainless
steel.

9.6. Amine unit piping


a. Rich amine streams often require CRA construction, usually 304L or 316L,
dependent on the process unit design.
High temperatures and locations of turbulence and acid gas flashing make
rich amine streams particularly corrosive, e.g. downstream of the control
valve on the rich amine inlet to the regenerator. Refer GP 36-12.
b. Regenerator overhead piping, including liquid reflux lines and acid gas disposal
lines, shall be specified in 304L or 316L stainless steel.

9.7. Raw seawater piping


a. Grade 2 titanium and non-metallic composites will usually be the first materials of
choice for above ground applications. Grade 2 titanium can normally be specified
for design temperatures up to about 85°C in seawater, above which alloyed grades
are required for improved localised corrosion resistance (e.g. Grade 12).
b. For onshore sites, cement mortar lined carbon steel may be considered for cooling
water piping and fire mains duties in sizes 4”NB and above, and is preferred over
non-metallic materials for buried piping due to its greater mechanical strength. Hot
dip galvanized steel spools or threaded assemblies may be considered for smaller
diameter lines provided planned replacements can be cost-effectively made and

Page 27 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

that internal corrosion products will not compromise safety critical protective
systems.
c. 90-10 cupro-nickel is suitable provided its susceptibility to internal erosion at
stream velocities exceeding about 3.5m/s is accounted for in design.
The alloy has excellent resistance to bio-fouling and crevice corrosion, but
suffers corrosion in sulphide-polluted waters. Excessive chlorination will
adversely affect performance.
d. Alloy 400 is suitable for many seawater components but its high cost usually limits
its applications to small diameters / components, and equipment internals, e.g.
valve trim.
e. Super duplex and 6Mo stainless steels (PREw >40), have good resistance to
localised corrosion up to maximum design temperatures of about 30°C in
seawater. Susceptibility to crevice corrosion is usually the limiting factor hence
threaded fittings shall not be used.
Strict welding controls are required for super duplex to minimise loss of
corrosion resistance at the weld zones.
f. For raw seawater with residual chlorine, 25%Cr super duplex (PREw >40) can be
used up to a maximum design temperature of 20°C with 1.0ppm maximum
residual chlorine.
This allows the use of 25%Cr super duplex upstream of the deaerator, if
conditions are within the specified limits. For higher temperatures, resistor
controlled cathodic protection (RCP) of super duplex could be proposed or
more resistant materials, such as titanium, considered.
g. Internal cathodic protection systems for super duplex and 6Mo stainless steels
may be proposed for acceptance by BP.
h. Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys may be proposed for higher temperature
applications for acceptance by BP.

9.8. Treated water piping


a. Carbon steel can be used for treated water systems. A corrosion management
strategy shall be implemented to ensure the effectiveness of the water treatment
regime.
Chemical cleaning and descaling of new pipework is required as part of
commissioning. Corrosion inhibitors are added as part of the water
treatment regime and the fixed volume and limited supply of oxygen in
closed circuit systems mean that corrosion can be effectively managed.

10. Heat exchangers

10.1. General
a. Selection, design and construction of heat exchangers shall be in accordance with
GP 26-10.
b. Acceptable materials for corrosive oil and gas production duties are detailed in
10.2. Alternatives to these materials may be proposed for review by BP.
c. Similar principles of materials selection shall be applied to other heat exchanger
design types.
d. Materials selection for topping unit exchangers shall follow the guidance for
refinery crude units in BPOUS RP 13-1-1.

Page 28 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

http://technical_practices.bpweb.bp.com/ousrp/rps/rp13/1311.pdf

10.2. Materials options

10.2.1. Shell and tube exchangers


a. Table 2 lists materials for a variety of typical corrosive duties.
b. Materials requirements in GIS 26-101 shall apply.
c. Floating head bolting shall be specified to match the specified shellside materials
and be resistant to environmental cracking.

Tubeside Shellside Channel Tubes Tubesheets Floating Shell


fluid fluid head
cover

Untreated Heating Carbon Duplex Duplex N/A Carbon


sweet medium steel stainless stainless steel
crude oil steel steel or
316L-clad
carbon steel

Seawater Dry crude Titanium Titanium Titanium or Titanium or Carbon


oil Ti-clad steel Ti-clad steel
steel

Seawater Wet gas, Titanium Titanium Titanium Titanium Duplex


CO2, Cl stainless
steel

Wet sour Seawater Titanium Titanium Titanium N/A Titanium


gas, CO2,
Cl

Wet gas, Dry oil or Duplex Duplex Duplex N/A Carbon


CO2, Cl gas stainless stainless stainless steel
steel steel steel

Rich amine Lean Carbon 316L or 316L Carbon Carbon


amine steel 444 stainless steel steel
stainless steel
steel

Heating Amine / Carbon 316L 316L N/A Carbon


medium glycol steel stainless stainless steel
(reboiler) steel steel

Table 2 Typical materials for shell and tube heat exchangers in corrosive duties

10.2.2. Air cooled heat exchangers


a. Table 3 lists materials for a variety of typical corrosive duties.
b. Materials requirements in GIS 26-103 shall apply.

Duty Tubes and headers

Wet (condensing) gas, CO2, <50 316L stainless steel


ppm chlorides

Page 29 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Wet gas, CO2 with chlorides 22%Cr duplex stainless steel


>50ppm

Amine regenerator overhead 316L stainless steel


condenser

Table 3 Typical materials for air cooled heat exchangers in corrosive duties

10.2.3. Plate and frame exchangers


a. All metallic plate and frame exchangers are supplied in CRA construction. Typical
suitable materials are listed in Table 4.

Duty Plates

Lean / rich glycol 316L stainless steel

Lean / rich amine 316L stainless steel

Seawater coolant / hot Grade 2 titanium for design T up to 85°C


gas
Grade 7 or 12 titanium for design T > 85°C

Seawater coolant / Grade 2 titanium


indirect coolant

Table 4 Typical materials for plate and frame exchangers on corrosive duties

11. Valves

11.1. General
a. Metallic and non-metallic materials selection and specification for valves shall
conform with GP 62-01.
b. Acceptable materials options are in 11.2.

11.2. Materials options

11.2.1. Valve pressure boundary (shell) materials


a. For corrosive service, valve pressure boundary (shell) material or internal cladding
shall match the associated piping materials as closely as possible.
b. Internally CRA clad carbon and low alloy steels are generally preferred to duplex
and super duplex castings and forgings for large size / high pressure applications.
c. Table 5 lists typical specifications and applications of valve shell materials.
d. If steel castings are specified, forgings may be substituted.
e. If forgings are specified, substitution of castings or plates will be subject to
acceptance by BP.
f. If forgings or castings are specified, substitution of welded construction valves will
be subject to approval by BP.
g. Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) provides better integrity than castings and an
improved microstructure compared with either castings or forgings. It is

Page 30 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

recommended as the best option for duplex or highly-alloyed austenitic stainless


steels if constraints of size and complexity do not prevent its use.
h. Refer to GP 62-01 for non-metallic valve shells.

11.2.2. Metallic valve trim materials (obturator/seat/stem)


a. Materials used for valve trim shall be suitable for exposure to the process fluid,
any treatment chemicals, and to the proposed test conditions.
b. Materials shall be selected to avoid or minimise galvanic action between dissimilar
materials.
c. Seating components of metal seated valves shall be faced with (or manufactured
from) a hard material (e.g. tungsten carbide, stellite, etc.), to withstand wear,
abrasion and erosion.
Performance of hard facings may depend on the suitability of the substrate
material particularly at low temperatures.
d. Materials for valve stems shall be chosen to avoid galling when in contact with
glands, trunnion bearings, etc.
Plating or hard facing is sometimes necessary to achieve this.
e. In the case of wedge gate, globe, and check valves, the seating surface trim
selections of ISO 10434 are acceptable.
f. Typical applications of metallic valve trim are listed in Table 6 and suitable
specification data sheets are in GN 36-016.
g. Refer GP 62-01 for non-metallic trim materials.

Table 5 – Typical specifications (ASTM) and applications of valve shell materials

Material Typical Specifications Typical Application


Forgings Castings
Carbon Steel ASTM A105/ ASTM A216/ Non corrosive process hydrocarbons, produced water, de-
A105M A216M Gr. WCB aerated seawater, air, nitrogen, diesel
Low Temperature ASTM A350/ ASTM A352/ As above but for service between 0°C and
Carbon Steel A350M Gr. LF2 A352M Gr. LCB, –50°C if toughness must be demonstrated.
(Impact Tested) LCC
Austenitic ASTM A182/ ASTM A351/ Corrosive service, low temperature service, services
Stainless Steel A182M Gr. F304, A351M Gr. CF8, requiring cleanliness. Unsuitable for seawater service and
Type 304 F304L CF3 if chlorides exceed 50ppm.
Austenitic ASTM A182 ASTM A351/ Same as 304L stainless steel but greater resistance to
Stainless Steel Gr. F316, F316L A351M Gr. CF8M, localised corrosion by chlorides. Unsuitable where
Type 316 CF3M chlorides exceed 50ppm.
13% Chromium ASTM A182/ ASTM A217 Corrosive non-sour hydrocarbon service (e.g. wet gas +
Stainless Steel A182M Gr. F6 CA15 C02), compatible with 22%Cr duplex stainless steel piping
for some applications. Unsuitable for seawater.
Highly-alloyed Corrosive hydrocarbon service. Seawater service up to
austenitic 30°C
stainless steel
(6Mo)
Duplex Stainless ASTM Corrosive hydrocarbon service, e.g. wet oil/gas with CO2,
Steel (22% Cr.) A182/A182M chlorides but low H2S
Gr. F51
Super Duplex ASTM A182/ ASTM A890/ Corrosive hydrocarbon service, slightly greater corrosion
Stainless Steel A182M Gr. F55 A890M Gr. 5A resistance than 22%Cr. Seawater service up to 30°C
(25% Cr.)

Page 31 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Material Typical Specifications Typical Application


Forgings Castings
Nickel Aluminium Seawater, black sewage, brine, fire water. Compatible with
Bronze CuNi piping systems. Unsuitable for sulphide polluted
water.
Titanium ASTM B348 Gr. 2 Seawater service up to 85°C design temperature. Sodium
hypochlorite
Spheroidal ASTM A395/ Suitable for fresh / brackish waters. Unsuitable for
Graphite (ductile) A395M hydrocarbons or hazardous service.
Cast Iron
Alloy 400 ASTM B164 ASTM A494/ Seawater, brackish water, brine.
Class A A494M or
A744-M-35-1
Thermoplastics Land locations or inside offshore modules only if no fire
PVDF hazard. Low pressure water and utility services only.
Polypropylene
ABS
Glass Filled As above plus fire water, etc. if valves have been fire type
Epoxy tested.

Table 6 – Typical application of metallic trim materials

Material Notes
13% Chromium stainless steel* General non-corrosive and non-erosive service, gases, oil
13% Chromium stainless steel, hard General services, gas, oil and oil vapour.
faced with Stellite, Colmonoy, etc.
Abrasion resistant trim (e.g. tungsten Dirty/abrasive service, including untreated oil and gas production,
carbide, carbide + stellite,) or critical valves where commissioning/ line clearing conditions
are onerous.
316L stainless steel Corrosive service, deaerated water, cryogenic service. Unsuitable
for seawater.
17/4 PH stainless steel* Corrosive service where high strength required. Not to be used
for stems in sour service.
Bronze Cold / hot water, marine applications and low temp. service.
Nickel aluminium bronze Seawater, brine, firewater. Unsuitable for sulphide polluted water.
Duplex stainless steel* Corrosive service.
Super Duplex stainless steel* Seawater, corrosive service.
Nickel alloys Highly corrosive and sour services.
Titanium Sodium hypochlorite, seawater.
Electroless Nickel Plating Used for ball valves on clean service.
* If used for obturator or seats, needs hard facing for dirty/abrasive service.

12. Instrument impulse and chemical injection tubing

12.1. General
a. Tubing shall be designed and installed in accordance with GP 30-25.
There is often a requirement for instrument tubing to be made from more
corrosion resistant materials than parent equipment and acceptable
materials options are listed in 12.2.
b. Unless specified otherwise by BP, material selection for valves and fittings shall
follow that for associated tubing.
c. All grades of tubing shall be seamless unless otherwise accepted by BP.
Welded and drawn tube may be subject to derating factors for weld integrity.

Page 32 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

12.2. Materials options

12.2.1. Instrument impulse tubing and fittings


a. 316L stainless steel is acceptable for tubing and associated components for non
marine sites or at existing onshore sites where its use has been successful.
Tubing cannot be effectively protected externally from marine and some high
salinity desert environments (dewing condensation) and 316L stainless steel
has a history of failures due to localised corrosion at supports, fittings and
between adjacent tubing runs.
b. For non-process duties at marine locations, the preferred material is Tungum. It
shall not be used where there is a risk of hydraulic fluids becoming contaminated
with H2S or mercury.
Tungum is a proprietary high tensile brass with proven service experience
offshore and excellent external resistance to marine atmospheres. 316L
fittings have been successfully used with Tungum and are considered the
industry standard. Tungum is susceptible to liquid metal embrittlement if
mercury is present.
c. 6Mo stainless steel is acceptable for marine locations where production fluids are
expected inside the tubing, up to a maximum design temperature of 120°C.
d. Super duplex stainless steel is also acceptable and its higher design strength may
favour larger diameter or higher pressure applications.
e. Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, e.g. Alloy 625, are acceptable for extreme environments, where
other materials may be considered marginal.

12.2.2. Chemical injection tubing and fittings


a. Materials selection for chemical injection duties shall consider:
1. Corrosivity of chemical in its intended concentration and purity.
2. Effects of increased temperatures and contamination of injection chemicals
caused by proximity to and/or backflow of produced fluids.
b. 316L and Alloy 825 may be specified for non marine sites.
c. Tungum, 6Mo, super duplex stainless steel, and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may be specified
for marine locations.
316L fittings are acceptable for use with Tungum tubing.
d. Material selection for valve bodies shall follow that for associated tubing, unless
otherwise accepted by BP.

13. Rotating machinery

13.1. General
a. Materials requirements for rotating machinery shall comply with the relevant 34-
series ETPs.
b. Casing materials should generally be of equivalent type to the corresponding
piping.
c. Internal components should match casing material class for corrosive duties as far
as practicable, e.g. pump impeller, shaft.
d. Materials for typical corrosive duties are in 13.2.

Page 33 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

13.2. Materials options


a. Produced water pumps - 22%Cr duplex stainless steel.
b. Seawater pumps - 25%Cr super duplex stainless steel.
c. Open and closed drains pumps – 25%Cr super duplex stainless steel.
d. Amine circulation / booster / reflux pumps – 316L type stainless steel.
e. Fresh water / demin water pumps – 316L type stainless steel.

14. Fired heaters

14.1. General
a. Materials requirements for fired heaters designed to ISO Materials Selection for
Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities shall comply
with GIS 22-101.
b. Materials requirements for directly fired heaters and incinerators to designs other
than ISO 13705 shall be agreed with BP.
c. Materials for refractory linings shall be selected and specified in accordance with
GP 72-00.
d. Materials selection for topping unit heaters shall follow the guidance for refinery
crude units in BPOUS RP 13-1-1 to take account of potential internal corrosion by
sulphidation and naphthenic acid corrosion.
http://technical_practices.bpweb.bp.com/ousrp/rps/rp13/1311.pdf

14.2. Materials options


a. Tubing for dry crude oil heaters for stabilisation units should normally be specified
in seamless grades of carbon steel to either tubing or piping specifications.
Crude oil streams to heaters will normally be essentially dry such that
internal aqueous corrosion should not occur. Metal temperatures in crude
oil stabilisation units are normally too low to induce internal corrosion by
non-aqueous mechanisms, e.g. sulphidation or naphthenic acid attack.
Crude oil heaters receiving cold crude may operate with tube metal
temperatures below the flue gas dew point, in which case external
condensation and corrosion may occur, especially if there are corrosive
species in the fuel, e.g. sulphur. This is especially relevant to inlet tubes,
usually located in the convection bank. It can also occur on designs where
the tubing return bends are located in header boxes external to the firebox.
Designs should therefore be assessed for the potential for such external
condensation and corrosion.
b. Tubing for wet crude oil heaters should be specified in materials to suitably match
the inlet and outlet piping.
c. Tubing for condensate stabiliser reboilers should be specified in seamless grades
of carbon steel to either tubing or piping specifications.

Page 34 of 35
6 December 2007 GP 36-15
Materials Selection for Surface (Topsides) Equipment in Oil and Gas Production Facilities

Bibliography

BP
[1] GIS 42-101, Fabrication, Assembly, Erection, and Inspection of Carbon, Carbon Manganese, and
Low Alloy Steel Pipework (ASME B31.3).

[2] GIS 42-102, Fabrication, Assembly, Erection, and Inspection of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless
Steel, Cupro Nickel, Nickel Base Alloy, Titanium, and Zirconium Pipework (ASME B31.3).

[3] GN 06-009, Dead Leg Internal Corrosion Management Guidelines. Previously GN 32-019.

[4] GN 42-002, Piping Joints Handbook.

[5] GP 18-02, Storage and Control of Welding Consumables.

[6] GP 32-49, In Service Inspection and Testing of Special and Other Equipment.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


[7] ASTM A193, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-
Temperature or High-Pressure Service or Other Special Purpose Applications.

European Federation of Corrosion (EFC)


[8] EFC Publication 39, The Use of Corrosion Inhibitors in Oil & Gas Production.

NACE International
[9] NACE TM0177, Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Specific Forms of Environmental
Cracking in H2S Environments.

American Petroleum Institute (API)


[10] API Specification 6A718, Specification of Nickel Base Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) for Oil and Gas
Drilling and Production Equipment

[11] API RP 945, Avoiding Environmental Cracking in Amine Units

Page 35 of 35