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EEM343/EEE355

Robotics /Robotics and Automation


Kami Memimpin We Lead

Dr. Abdul Sattar Din


School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Semester 2 Academic Session 2018/2019


Kami Memimpin We Lead
Dr. Abdul Sattar Din EEM343/EEE355

Reference Books
Niku, S. (2011). Introduction to robotics: Analysis,
Control, Applications. 2nd ed.,Wiley.

John J. Craig (3rd edition), lntroduction to Robotics:


Mechanics and Control, Prentice Hall.

Tadei Bajd, Matjaz Mihelj, Marko Munih (2013),


lntroduction to Robotics, Springer

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Exam: 70% Course work: 30%
EEM 343 Assignment 5%
Test 10%
Robotics Quiz 5
Project 10%

Course Contents PO
Outcomes
CO1 ldentify the structure and mechanisms for a robotic system PO1
PO2
CO2 Perform kinematic and dynamic analysis for forward and PO2
inverse mode.
CO3 Apply the required analysis in determining the system PO1
performance. PO5
CO4 Design a robotic system to solve a robotic-assisted application. PO3
PO5
PO7

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Exam: 60% Course work: 40%
EEE 355 Assignment 5%
Test 10%
Robotic & Automation Quiz 5%
Project 20%
Course Contents PO
Outcomes
CO1 To be able to describe the fundamental concept in robotic PO1
manipulator in industrial automation application PO2
PO3
CO2 To be able to apply the appropriate components in robotic PO2
manipulator system development
CO3 To be able to design robotic manipulator according to the PO1
desired performance specification PO3
PO5
CO4 To be able to describe , apply and design PLC based PO2
automation system. PO3
PO5

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Content
Fundamentals
Kinematics of Robot (Position analysis)
Differential Motion and Velocities
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
Trajectory Planning
Actuators and Sensors

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Fundamental of Robotics

of Robotics

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Fundamental of Robotics

Definition

a) b)

Figure 1: a) Excavator b) Fanuc Industrial Robotic arm

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Definition of Robot
Excavator Robotic Arm
Similarities
• Consist of links, joints, and actuators
• Arms can be moved and positioned in space
• Can pick, carry, and manipulate objects
Differences
• Controlled by human • Controlled by computer
operator • Automatic
• Manual • Programmable
• Non-programmable

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Definition of Robot
• By general agreement, a robot is:
A programmable machine that imitates the actions or
appearance of an intelligent creature–usually a human.

• To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:


1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings
2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do something
physical–such as move or manipulate objects
3) Re-programmable: can do different things
4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings

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classification of robots according to the Japanese Industrial
Robot Association ( JIRA):

 Class 1: Manual Handling Device


 Class 2: Fixed Sequence Robot
 Class 3: Variable Sequence Robot
 Class 4: Playback Robot
 Class 5: Numerical Control Robot
 Class 6: Intelligent Robot

Figure 2: Baxter robot

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classification of robots according to the Robotics Institute of
America (RIA):

 Class 1: Manual Handling Device


 Class 2: Fixed Sequence Robot
 Class 3: Variable Sequence Robot
 Class 4: Playback Robot
 Class 5: Numerical Control Robot
 Class 6: Intelligent Robot

Figure 3: Atlas humanoid

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classification of robots according to The Association
Francaise de Robotique (AFR):

 Type A: handling devices with manual control


to telerobotics
 Type B: automatic handling devices with
predetermined cycles
 Type C: programmable, servo controlled
robots with continuous or point-to-point
trajectories
 Type D: same as C but with capability to
acquire information from its environment

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ROBOTICS
The art, knowledge base, and the know-how of designing, applying, and
using robots in human endeavours

Electrical &
Mechanical Electronics

ROBOTICS
Computer
Science Biological
Science

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History

1922 – Karel Capek wrote “Rossum’s Universal Robots” - Robota


1952 – First numerically controlled machine at MIT
1954 – First programmable robot (George Devol)
1955 – Denavit and Hartenberg - homogeneous transformation
matrices
1962 – First industrial robots (UnimationTM)
1968 – Shakey Intelligent robot
1973 – T3 model robot
1978 – PUMA robot
1983 – Robotic courses in academia
1986 – First Honda robot

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Advantage Disadvantage
 Can work in hazardous • Replace human (less job for
environment human)
 Require no comfort • Lack capability to response
 Work without tiring, fatigue, in emergency
or boredom • Inferior in certain
 Have repeatable precision capabilities (Reasoning, DOF,
 More accurate dexterity, sensing, real-time
 More capable than human response)
(strength, sensitivity) • Costly
 Can multitask

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Manipulator End effector

Robot’s Components
Manipulator or rover
End effectors
Actuators Links
End effector
Joints
Sensors
Controller
Processor
Software

Figure 4: Industrial Robotic Arm

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Degrees of Freedom (DOF) – number of Independent
position variables of a mechanism to locate all parts of the
mechanism.

In the case of a robot, the position variable is the joint. The


DOF of a robot is the number of independent joints that
the robot has.

A robot needs 6 DOF to be able to freely position and a)


orientate an object within their work ( 3 DOF for
positioning along x, y, and z axis, and 3 DOF for orientating
about the three axis).

Robot with less than 6 DOF has limited capability to


position or orientate object
b)
Robot with more than 6 DOF has infinite number of Figure 5: a) 2 DOF and
solution to achieve a desired position and orientation. Need b) 3 DOF manipulator
a complex programming to select one solution from the
infinite possibilities.
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Types of joints

Two most common


types of joints used
in robot manipulator
are revolute and
prismatic joints

Figure 6: Types of joint

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Robot Coordinates

Cartesian/rectangular/gantry (3P):
These robots are made of three linear joints that position the end
effector

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Robot Coordinates

Cylindrical (PRP):
Cylindrical coordinate robots have two prismatic joints and one
revolute joint for positioning the part, plus revolute joints for
orientating the part.

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Robot Coordinates

Spherical (P2R):
Spherical coordinate robots follow a spherical coordinate system,
which has one prismatic and two revolute joints for positioning the part,
plus additional revolute joints for orientation.

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Robot Coordinates

Articulated/anthropomorphic (3R):
An articulated robot’s joints are all revolute, similar to a human’s
arm. They are the most common configuration for industrial robots.

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Robot Coordinates

Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA):


SCARA robots have two (or three) revolute joints that are parallel and allow the
robot to move in a horizontal plane, plus an additional prismatic joint that moves
vertically (Figure 1.6). SCARA robots are very common in assembly operations.
Their specific characteristic is that they are more compliant in the xy plane but
are very stiff along the z-axis, therefore providing selective compliance.

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Robot Reference Frames
World Reference Frame:
This is a universal coordinate frame, as
defined by the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Used to define the motions of the robot


relative to other objects, define other parts
and machines with which the robot
communicates, and define motion
trajectories.

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Robot Reference Frames

Joint Reference Frame:


This is used to specify movements of
individual joints of the robot.

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Robot Reference Frames

Tool Reference Frame:


This specifies movements of the robot’s
hand relative to a frame attached to the
hand, and consequently, all motions are
relative to this local noa frame.

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Programming Modes
 Physical Set-up: Switches and hard stops are used to control the motions of the robot
 Lead Through or Teach Mode: The robot’s joints are moved with a teach pendant.
Positions are recorded and played back.
 Continuous Walk-Through Mode: All robot joints are moved
 simultaneously, while the motion is continuously sampled and recorded by the
controller.
 Software Mode: A program is written offline or online and is executed by the
controller to control the motions.

Most industrial robots can be programmed in more than one mode.

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Robot Characteristics
Payload: Payload is the weight a robot can carry and still remain
within its other specifications.
Reach: Reach is the maximum distance a robot can reach within
its work envelope.
Precision (validity): Precision is defined as how accurately a
specified point can be reached.
Repeatability (variability): Repeatability is how accurately the
same position can be reached if the motion is repeated many
times

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Robot Workspace
Collection of points that can be reached by a robot

Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Articulated

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Robot Applications
Machine loading
Pick and place
Welding
Painting
Inspection
Cleaning
Assembly
Manufacturing
Medical Figure 7: Welding robot
Remote place
exploration
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Robot Applications

Figure 8: Painting robot

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Robot Applications

Figure 9: Surgical robot

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Robot Applications

Figure 10: Curiosity Mars Rover

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