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CED 38 (13455) WC

(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG, NEW DELHI 110002


व्‍यापक‍परिचालन‍मसौदा

हमािा संदर्भ : सीईडी 38/टी-7 04 January 2019


त‍
कनीक ‍सममतत‍ : ‍‍विमिष्ट संिचना‍विषय सममतत,‍सीईडी‍38
प्राप्‍तक
‍ ताभ‍:
1 मसविल‍इंजीतनयिी‍विर्ाग‍परिषद्‍के‍रूचच‍िखने‍िाले‍सदस्‍य‍
2 सीईडी‍38‍के‍सर्ी‍सदस्‍

3 रूचच‍िखने‍िाले‍अन्‍य‍तनकाय

महोदय(यों),
निम्‍िलिखित ‍मािक‍का‍मसौदा‍संखग्‍
ि‍ैं:

प्रलेख‍संख्‍
या िीषक

सीईडी‍38( 13455)WC‍‍‍संिचनात्मक‍स्टील‍‍औि‍कंक्र ट‍में‍संम्ममश्र‍तनमाभण‍– ‍िीतत‍संहहता‍


(IS 11384 का‍पहला‍पुनिीक्षण) ‍ ICS 91.080.13; 91.080.40

कृपया‍इस‍मािक‍के‍मसौदे ‍का‍अवखोकि‍करें ‍और‍अपिी‍सम्‍मन य ‍ यै‍ब ा ‍े ैुए‍भेजे‍कक‍यदद‍


यै‍मािक‍के‍रूप‍में ‍ प्रकालिि ‍ैो‍ ो‍इि‍पर‍अमख‍करिे‍ में‍ आपके‍व्‍यवसाय‍अववा‍कारोबार‍में‍ ्‍‍या‍
कदििाइया‍आ‍सक ी‍ैं‍।

सम्‍मन य भेजिे की अंन म न थव: 10 फिििी 2018

सम्‍मन ‍ यदद‍ कोई‍ ैो‍ ो‍ कृपया‍ अधोैस्‍ ाक्षरीरक‍ को‍ संखग्‍ि‍ ोोममेट ‍ में,‍ ced38@bis.gov.in or
abhishek.pal@bis.gov.in‍पर‍ईमेख‍कर‍दें ‍।‍
‍‍‍

यदद‍कोई‍सम्‍
मन ‍प्रा्‍‍ ‍िैकं‍ैो ी‍ै‍अववा‍सम्‍मन ‍में ‍केवख‍भााा‍सम्‍बन्‍धी‍रुटदु ‍ैुई‍ ो‍रपरो्‍‍ ‍
प्रखेत‍को‍यवाव ‍अंन म‍रूप‍ददया‍जाएगा‍।‍यदद‍सम्म्‍म‍ ‍ किीकी‍प्रकृन ‍की‍ैुई‍ ो‍ववाय‍सलिमन ‍के‍
अध्‍यक्षरी‍के‍परामिश ‍से‍अववा‍रिकी‍इ्‍‍ ा‍पर‍आगे‍की‍कायश वाैक‍के‍लिखए‍ववाय‍सलिमन ‍को‍भेजे‍जािे‍के‍
बाद‍प्रखेत‍को‍अंन म‍रूप‍दे ‍ददया‍जाएगा‍।‍

यै‍प्रखेत‍भार ीय‍मािक‍ब्‍यरू ो‍की‍वबसाइ ‍पर‍भी‍ै‍।‍

धन्‍यवाद‍।
‍र्िदीय,

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ ‍ (संजय‍पंत)
संखग्ि‍:‍रपरलिखित ‍‍‍‍‍‍प्रमख
ु (मसविल‍इंजीतनयिी)

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG, NEW DELHI 110002


DOCUMENT DESPATCH ADVICE

Reference Date
DRAFT IN WIDE CIRCULATION
CED 38/T-7 04.01.2019
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE:
Special Structures Sectional Committee, CED 38

ADDRESSED TO:
a) All Interested Members of Civil Engineering Division Council, CEDC
b) All Members of CED 38,
c) All others interested
Dear Sir (s),
Please find enclosed the following draft standard:

Doc No. Title


CED 38 (13455 ) Composite Construction in Structural Steel and Concrete - Code of
WC Practice, (First Revision of IS 11384)
ICS 91.080.13; 91.080.40
Kindly examine the draft Indian Standard and forward your views stating any difficulties
which you are likely to experience in your business or profession, if this is finally adopted as
National Standard.

Last Date for comments: 10 February 2019.

Comments, if any, may please be made in the format as enclosed and e-mailed to the
undersigned at ced38@bis.gov.in or abhishek.pal@bis.gov.in in word format.

In case no comments are received or comments received are of editorial nature, you will
kindly permit us to presume your approval for the above document as finalized. However, in case
of comments technical in nature are received then it may be finalized either in consultation with
the Chairman, Sectional Committee or referred to the Sectional Committee for further necessary
action if so desired by the Chairman, Sectional Committee.

The document is also hosted on BIS website: www.bis.org.in

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,

(Sanjay Pant)
Head (Civil Engg.)

Encl: As above

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

FORMAT FOR SENDING COMMENTS ON THE DOCUMENT

[Please use A4 size sheet of paper only and type within fields indicated. Comments on each clause/sub-clause/
table/figure, etc, be stated on a fresh row. Information/comments should include reasons for comments, technical
references and suggestions for modified wordings of the clause. Comments through e-mail to
ced38@bis.gov.in and abhishek.pal@bis.gov.in shall be appreciated.]

Doc. No.: CED 38 (13455) WC BIS Letter Ref: CED 38/T-7 Dated: 04 January 2019

Title: Code of Practice for Composite Construction in Structural Steel and Concrete,
(First Revision of IS 11384) ICS 91.080.13; 91.080.40

Name of the Commentator/ Organization: _______________________________

Clause/ Para/ Comments/Modified Justification of Proposed


Table/ Figure Wordings Change
No. commented

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY
(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS nor used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION IN STRUCTURAL STEEL AND
CONCRETE – CODE OF PRACTICE
(First revision of IS 11384)
ICS 91.080.13; 91.080.40
Special Structures Last Date for Comments:
Sectional Committee, CED 38 10 February 2019

FOREWORD

(Formal Clauses to be added later.)

Composite construction consists of use of prefabricated structural units like steel beams
and steel open web joists (trusses) in combination with concrete element. The design and
construction should ensure monolithic action between the prefabricated and cast in-situ
components, so that they act as a single structural unit.

This Indian Standard was first published in 1985. Since composite construction in steel
and concrete has come a long way after that in India, the revision of this code has become
necessary. This is a major revision of the standard and includes provisions for the design
of most of the members and components of composite construction based on the Limit
States Method. This code is restricted to the design of steel-concrete composite
components and systems used in buildings.

In this revision, the following major modifications have been effected:

a) This Standard conforms to Limit State Design philosophy, and it is in line with IS
456: 2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete and IS 800:2007 Code
of practice for general construction in structural steel.

b) Provisions for the design of slab, beam and columns of composite construction
have been added.

c) Two types of composite column constructions are covered, namely the concrete
encased steel columns (both fully encased and partially encased), and the concrete
filled steel columns.

d) The design for the following types of composite slabs are presented in this standard
-(i) profiled sheeting, serving as form work for the reinforced concrete slab and (ii)
the embossed profile sheeting acting as form work and also as a tension
reinforcement acting along with in-situ concrete with or without shear connectors.

e) Improved provisions for the design of shear connectors and their testing methods
are presented in this revision.

f) Revised limit state of serviceability is also included to check for deflection, vibration
and fire performance of the steel-concrete composite components.
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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

g) Additional specifications on the use of light gauge steel and light weight concrete
are included in this revision.

Though the common methods of designs have been covered in this code, special systems
of design and construction, not covered by this code, may be permitted on production of
satisfactory evidence regarding their adequacy and safety based on specialist literature,
or by analysis, test or both.

All requirements of IS 456:2000 and IS 800:2007 in so far as they apply, shall be deemed
to form a part of this code, except where otherwise laid down in this code.

Composite construction may be used in beams, columns as well as slabs in structures.


Because of the special nature of bridge structures, where dynamic loadings are expected,
this code is restricted to buildings.

As IS 3935: 1966 ‘Code of Practice for composite construction’ with overlapping provisions
pertaining to steel and cast in-situ composite construction. With the publication of this
standard, the user are advised to use this standard rather than IS 3935:1966 in so far as
scope of this standard is concerned.

The sectional committee responsible for the preparation of this standard has taken into
consideration the need for international coordination among standards prevailing in
different countries of the world. These considerations have led the sectional committee to
derive assistance from the following:

1) Eurocode 4 (Part 1-1) Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures,


General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization
2) Eurocode 3 (Part 1-1) Design of Steel Structures, General Rules and Rules for
Buildings, European Committee for Standardization

3) ANSI/AISC 360 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied
with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis,
shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2:1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values
(Revised)’. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be
same as that of the specified value in this standard.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY


(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS nor used as an Indian Standard)

Draft Indian Standard


CODE OF PRACTICE FOR COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION IN
STRUCTURAL STEEL AND CONCRETE
(First revision of IS 11384)
ICS 91.080.13; 91.080.40
Special Structures Last Date for Comments:
Sectional Committee, CED 38 12 February 2019

1 SCOPE

1.1 This standard deals with design and construction of composite structures made up
of structural steel and concrete.

1.2 This standard is applicable to simply supported as well as continuous beams and
slabs, and supporting column systems. The standard is based on the limit states method
of design.

2 REFERENCES

The standards listed in Annex D contain provisions which, through reference in this text,
constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated
were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this
standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions
of these standards.

3 TERMINOLOGY

3.1 For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS 800 and the following
shall apply.

3.1.1 Accidental Load – The load not normally expected in design life but has major
impact if it ever occurs, such as ramming of vehicles against columns or any other member
of the frame like bracings, blast loading etc.

3.1.2 Accompanying Load – Live (imposed load) acting along with leading imposed load
but causing lower action and/or deflections.

3.1.3 Action – The primary cause for stress or deformations in a structure such as dead,
live, wind, seismic or temperature loads.

3.1.4 Built-up Section – A member fabricated by inter-connecting more than one


element to form a compound section acting as a single member.

3.1.5 Camber – Intentionally introduced pre-curving (generally upwards) in a system,


member or any portion of a member with respect to its chord, these are generally
introduced to compensate for deflections at a specific level of loads.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
3.1.6 Composite Action – Integral action of primary supporting steel member and
supported concrete deck, with or without limited slip at their interface, to ensure greater
strength and rigidity. In composite columns, it is the integral action between steel and its
encasement or infill concrete. Shear transfer is to be ensured through use of mechanical
devices known as shear connectors in composite beams and columns, as required (Figs.
16 and 17).

3.1.7 Design Load/ Factored Load – A load value obtained by multiplying the
characteristic load with the partial safety factor for loads.

3.1.8 Design Service Life – The time period during which the structure or its
components should satisfy the design objectives and functions.

3.1.9 Detail Category – Designation given to a particular detail to indicate the S-N
curve to be used in fatigue assessment.

3.1.10 Differential Shrinkages – It is entirely due to shrinkage of concrete from the time
composite action comes into effect. When the coefficient of thermal expansion varies
significantly between steel and concrete (concrete with limestone or granite aggregate), it
also includes the difference in thermal strain between the steel and concrete. Differential
shrinkage may lead to increase in stresses and is more pronounced in continuous girders.

3.1.11 Fatigue – Damage caused by repeated fluctuations of stress, leading to


progressive cracking of a structural element.

3.1.12 Fatigue Limit State – The state of failure through fatigue damage due to repeated
application of loads.

3.1.13 Fatigue Strength – Stress range that can be endured by a category of detail,
depending upon the number of cycles.

3.1.14 Flexible Shear Connectors – Consists of studs, channels etc. welded as in Fig. 1
to steel member to develop integral action. These shear connectors develop resistance to
shear while experiencing bending of connectors, without permitting the slab to lift from
girder flange through anchorage action. They exhibit more flexibility and ductility before
failure.

3.1.15 Initial Dead Load – The combination of weight of steel structure and the portion of
concrete deck that are supported by the steel structure alone before the development of
full composite action with concrete reaching 75% of its 28-days strength

3.1.16 Limit State – The load state beyond which the structure is incapable of performing
its desired function.

3.1.17 Loads – Applied forces as per loads indicated in relevant standards like IS 875
(Part 1 to 5) for dead, live, wind, snow loads etc., and IS 1893 (Part 1 to 4) for seismic
loads that the structure is subjected during its life time.

3.1.18 Load Factors – The factors multiplied with the loads or their combinations to obtain
design loads, while checking performance under various limit states.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
3.1.19 m-k factors – Physically in a composite slab, ‘m’ is a broad measure of the
mechanical interlock between embossed profiled sheet and the reinforced cement
concrete on top of the deck and ‘k’ represents the friction load between the two elements,
i.e. steel and concrete.

3.1.20 Rigid Shear Connectors– Consist of bars, angles, channels, tees welded to steel
member to develop composite action, as in Fig. 2, deriving their resistance to shear from
concrete bearing on the vertical face. They exhibit negligible deformation under shear
transfer. These are not usually recommended for adoption.

3.1.21 Service Limit– The loading state beyond which the structure or its components
becomes incapable of performing its intended function; due to excessive deformation or
deflection or vibration.

3.1.22 Serviceability Loads– The actual loads on the structure against which the
serviceability of the structure has to be checked.

3.1.23 Shear Connectors– These are the mechanical attachments to steel members to
transfer interface shear between steel and concrete to develop composite action and are
composed of flexible shear connectors (Fig. 1), rigid shear connectors (Fig. 2), etc.

3.1.24 S-N curve – Curve, defining the relationship between the numbers of stress cycles
to failure (Nsc) at a constant stress range (Sc), during fatigue loading on parts of a structure.

3.1.25 Strength Factors – The factors that divide the specified strength to obtain design
strength; while assessing the safety under limit states of strength.

3.1.26 Stress Range – Algebraic difference between two extremes of stresses in a cycle
of loading at a location in a member.

3.1.27 Superimposed Dead Load – The dead loads added subsequent to concrete
hardening of concrete that are resisted by composite action.

3.1.28 Transient Load – The loads that are assumed to be varying over a short time
interval like live load, loads with dynamic effect, temperature effects, wind loads on
structure, earthquake loads, accident loads, etc.

3.1.29 Ultimate Limit State – The state at which the structure fails and loses its integrity
leading to its collapse.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

Not less than Automatic Ls


1.5d stud
d welding

(a) Stud
connector

Direction to thrust on connector


Ls

(b) Channel
connector
Fig. 1 Typical Flexible Shear Connectors

Direction to thrust on 10 Ls
connector 0
100 75
50

Tee Connector with Hooped Bars for Anchorage

Fig. 2 Typical Rigid Shear Connectors


(Ls indicates Line of shear (Typical))

4 SYMBOLS

The symbols, other than those used for load categorization are as follows:

A Area
As Area of structural steel cross section
Asl Area of structural steel cross section in tension
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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Ac Gross area of concrete
Aec Area of concrete effective in compression
Ast Area of steel reinforcements
Af Area of each flange of steel section
Ae Effective cross sectional area
As Shear area
B Centre to centre distance between girders and is equal to transverse
span of inner girder
b Outstand / width of the plate elements.
be Effective width of flange between pair of bolts
beff Effective width of concrete flange
bf Width of the structural steel flange.
D Overall depth of girder / diameter of the steel cross section.
d Depth of web, Nominal diameter of bolts / rivets/studs.
d2 Twice the clear distance from the compression flange of angles,
plates or tongue plates to the neutral axis
dc vertical distance between centroid of concrete slab and centroid of
steel beam
ds Overall depth of concrete slab
do Nominal diameter of the pipe column or the dimensions of the column
in the direction of depth of the base plate
dp Depth of profiled sheet deck
E, Es Modulus of elasticity of structural steel
Ecm Secant Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Est Modulus of elasticity of reinforcements
Fw Design capacity of the web in bearing
f Actual normal stress range for the detail category
fc Actual axial compressive stress in concrete at service load
fck Characteristic compressive cube strength of concrete at 28 days
fctk Characteristic axial tensile strength of concrete.
ff Fatigue stress range corresponding to 5  10 6 cycles of loading
ffd Design fatigue normal stress range
ffeq Equivalent constant amplitude stress
ff max Highest normal stress range
ffn Normal fatigue stress range
ft Tensile strength of reinforcements
fo Proof stress
fyk Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
fu Characteristic ultimate tensile stress
fup Characteristic ultimate tensile stress of the connected plate
fy Characteristic yield stress of structural steel
fyp Characteristic yield stress of connected plate
fyw Characteristic yield stress of the web material
h Depth of the section
hy Distance between shear centre of the two flanges of the cross section
I Moment of inertia of the member about an axis perpendicular to the
plane of the frame
Ic Moment of inertia of concrete (assumed uncracked) about axis of
bending for column
Ico Moment of inertia of composite section

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Ifc,y Moment of Inertia of the compression flange about the minor axis of
the steel beam
Ift,y Moment of Inertia of the tension flange about the minor axis of the
steel beam
Is Moment of inertia of steel section about axis of bending for column
Ist Moment of inertia of reinforcement about axis of bending for column
Iz Moment of inertia about the major axis
KL Effective length of the member
KL/r Appropriate effective slenderness ratio of the section
KL/ry Effective slenderness ratio of the section about the minor axis
KL/rz Effective slenderness ratio of the section about the major axis
L Actual span of girder
Lc Effective span of cantilever for overhang
Lo Length between points of zero moment (inflection) in the span
M Bending moment
Mv Reduced bending moment due to effect of shear force
Mcr Elastic critical moment corresponding to lateral torsional buckling
Me Elastic moment capacity of the section
Mf Design plastic resistance of the flange alone for steel section
Mp Plastic moment capacity of the section
Md Design bending strength.
My Factored applied moments about the minor axis of the cross section
Mz Factored applied moments about the major axis of the cross section
m modular ratio
mdl modular ratio (long term)
mll modular ratio (short term)
NSC Number of stress cycles
P Design axial force
Pcr Elastic buckling load
Pp Plastic resistance of encased steel column section or concrete filled
rectangular or square column section
Rh Flange stress reduction factor for hybrid section
r Appropriate radius of gyration
ry Radius of gyration about the minor axis
rz Radius of gyration about the major axis
S Spacing
Sl Spacing of shear connectors for longitudinal shear due to flexural
force
Sr Spacing of shear connectors due to bending moment
t Thickness of element/angle, time in minutes
tf Thickness of flange of steel section
tp Thickness of plate
tw Thickness of web of steel section,
V, Vv, VL Factored applied shear force
Vd Design shear strength
Vp Plastic shear resistance under pure shear
W Total load
X Distance from centre line of edge girder to edge of slab
xe Depth of elastic neutral axis of composite section from centroid of
steel section
xu Depth of neutral axis at limit state of flexure from top of concrete

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Ze Elastic section modulus
Zp Plastic section modulus
Zpc, Zpcn Plastic section modulus of concrete about its own centroid and about
the neutral axis of the composite section respectively
Zpr, Zprn Plastic section modulus of reinforcement about its own centroid and
about the neutral axis of the composite section respectively
Zps, Zpsn Plastic section modulus of structural steel section about its own
centroid and about the neutral axis of the composite section
respectively
yg Distance between point of application of the load and shear centre of
the cross section
 Imperfection factor
c Strength coefficient of concrete
 Steel contribution ratio
 Stress reduction factor due to buckling under compression
m Stress reduction factor,, at fym
 LT Stress reduction factor to account for lateral torsion buckling of a
beam
 Unit weight of steel
c Partial safety factor for material (concrete)
f Partial safety factor for load
m Partial safety factor for material (structural steel)
m0 Partial safety factor against yield stress and buckling (structural steel)
m1 Partial safety factor against ultimate stress (structural steel)
fft Partial safety factor for fatigue load
mft Partial safety factor for fatigue strength
mv Partial safety factor against shear failure
mw Partial safety factor for strength of weld
s Partial safety factor for material (reinforcements)
ε Yield stress ratio, (250/fy) 1/2
, r Non dimensional slenderness ratio
= f y KL / r 2 /  2 E  f y / f cc  Py / Pcc
e Equivalent slenderness ratio
 Poisson’s ratio
c Correction factor
 Coefficients
 Coefficients
 Actual shear stress range for the detail category
f Fatigue shear stress range
fd Design fatigue shear stress range
fmax Highest shear stress range
fn Fatigue shear stress range at NSC cycle for the detail category

5 MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

5.1 The two main materials for composite construction are structural steel and
concrete. The materials and workmanship of structural steel shall generally comply with
specifications laid down in IS 800 and concrete shall comply with specifications laid down
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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
in IS 456. However, the general properties and specification of materials for composite
construction are detailed as below.

5.2 Structural Steel

All the structural steel used in general construction, coming under the purview of this
standard shall before fabrication conform to IS 2062.

Structural steel other than those complying with IS 2062 may also be used provided that
the permissible stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel
is also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted.

Steel that is not supported by mill test result may be used only in unimportant members
and details, where their properties such as ductility and weld-ability would not affect the
performance requirements of the members and the structure as a whole. However, such
steels may be used in structural system after confirming their quality by carrying out
appropriate tests in accordance with the method specified in IS 1608.

5.2.1 Properties of Structural Steel

The following physical properties shall be assumed for all grades of steel for design
purposes:
Unit mass of steel = 7850 kg/m3
Young's Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity) = 2.0 x 105 MPa
Shear Modulus = 0.769 x 105 MPa
Poisson's Ratio = 0.30
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion = 0.000012 / 0c / unit length

The mechanical properties of steel like yield stress, ultimate stress, elongation shall be as
per values indicated in IS 800.

5.2.2 Specifications of Structural Steel

Unless otherwise permitted herein, structural steel used shall, before fabrication comply
with the requirements of the following Indian Standards, or their latest revisions as
appropriate:

IS 808 Dimensions for hot rolled steel beam, column,


channel and angle sections
IS 1161 Steel tubes for structural purposes
IS 1239 (Part 1) Steel Tubes, Tubulars and Other Wrought Steel
Fittings - Specification: Part I: Mild steel tubes
IS 1239 (Part2) Steel Tubes, Tubulars and Other Wrought Steel
Fittings - Specification Mild steel tubes, tubular and
other wrought steel fittings: Part 2: Mild steel tubular
and other wrought steel fittings
IS 1730 Dimensions for steel plates, sheets, strips and flats
for general engineering purposes
IS 1732 Dimension for round and square steel bars for
structural and general engineering purposes

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
IS 1852 Rolling and cutting tolerances for hot rolled steel
products
IS 2062 Hot Rolled Medium and High Tensile Structural Steel
— Specification
IS 4923 Hollow steel sections for structural use
IS 11587 Structural weather resistant steels

The use of structural steel not covered by the above standards may be permitted with the
specific approval of the competent authority.

5.2.3 Other Steels

Except where permitted with the specific approval of the authority, steels for machined
parts and for uses in other than structural members or elements, shall comply with the
following or relevant Indian Standards.

IS 1875 Carbon steel billets, blooms, slabs and bars for forgings
IS 6911 Stainless steel plate, sheet and strip

5.2.4 Castings and forgings

Steel casting and forgings shall comply with the requirements of the following
Indian Standards as appropriate:

IS 1030 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes


IS 1875 Carbon steel billets, blooms, slabs bars for forgings
IS 2004 Carbon steel forgings for general engineering purposes
IS 2644 High tensile steel castings
IS 4367 Alloy steel forgings for general industrial use

5.2.5 Fasteners

Bolts, nuts, washers and rivets shall comply with the following or relevant Indian
Standards, as appropriate:

IS 1148 Steel Rivet Bars (Medium and High Tensile) for Structural
Purposes
IS 1363 (Pt. 1 to Pt. 3) Hexagon head bolts, screws and nuts of product grade C
(size range M5 to M64)
IS 1364 (Pt. 1 to Pt. 3) Hexagon head bolts, screw and nuts products grade A &
B (size range M1.6 to M64).
IS 1367(Pt. 1 to Pt. 18) Technical supply conditions for threaded steel fasteners
IS 1929 Hot forged steel rivets for hot closing (12 to 36 mm
diameter)
IS 2155 Cold forged solid steel rivets for hot closing (6 to 16 mm
diameter)
IS 3640 Hexagon fit bolts
IS 3757 High strength structural bolts
IS 4000 High strength bolts in steel structures-code of practice
IS 5369 General requirements for plain washers and lock
washers

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
IS 5370 Plain washers with outside diameter = 3 x inside dia.
IS 5372 Taper washers for channels (ISMC)
IS 5374 Taper washer for I-beams (1SMB)
IS 5624 Foundation bolts
IS 6610 Heavy washers for steel structures
IS 6623 High strength structural nuts
IS 6649 Hardened and tempered washers for high strength
structural bolts and nuts
IS 7002 Prevailing Torque Type Hexagon Nuts (With Non-
Metallic Insert), Style 1 - Property Classes 5, 8 and 10

5.2.6 Welding Consumables

Welding consumables shall comply with the following Indian standards, as appropriate:

IS 814 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of


carbon and carbon manganese steel
IS 1395 Low and medium alloy steel covered electrodes for
manual metal arc welding
IS 3613 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for
submerged-arc welding of structural steels
IS 6419 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc
welding of structural steel
IS 6560 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel
welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc
welding
IS 7280 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding of
structural steel.
IS 812 Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metal
IS 816 Code of practice for use of metal arc welding for general
construction in mild steel
IS 822 Code of procedure for inspection of welds
IS 1024 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and
structures subject to dynamic loading
IS 1182 Recommended practice for radiographic examination of
fusion welded butt joints in steel plates
IS 4853 Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of
fusion welded butt joints in steel pipes
IS 5334 Code of practice for magnetic particle flaw detection of
welds
IS 7307(Pt.1) Approval tests for welding procedures: Part-I fusion
welding of steel
IS 7310(Part 1) Approval tests for welders working to approved welding
procedures: Part 1 fusion welding of steel
IS 7318(Part 1) Approval tests for welders when welding procedure is
not required: Part 1 fusion welding of steel
IS 9595 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon and
carbon manganese steels

5.2.7 Wire Ropes and Cables

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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These shall conform to the following or relevant Indian Standards except where use of
other types is specifically permitted by the authority.
.
IS 1785 (Part 1) Specification for plain hard-drawn steel wire for pre-
stressed concrete: Part 1 Cold drawn stress relieved
wire
IS 1785 (Part 2) Specification for plain hard-drawn steel wire for pre-
stressed concrete: Part 2 As- drawn wire
IS 2266 Steel wire ropes for general engineering purposes
IS 2315 Thimbles for wire ropes

5.3 Concrete

5.3.1 All structural reinforced concrete shall be of minimum grade M 20 and shall be in
accordance with material specification and workmanship as stipulated in IS 456. The
strengths shall be specified in terms of the characteristic compressive strengths of cubes,
fck, measured at 28 days. The composite design provisions in this code is applicable for
concrete strength between M 20 to M 75. Specialist literature shall be adopted in
composite design, while using concrete strength outside this range.

5.3.2 Concrete shall be grade-designated based on its characteristic strength. The three
main categories of concrete strength grade are given below, and the recommended
design properties of concrete are co-related to 28-day characteristic compressive
strength, unless specified otherwise. The mechanical properties of concrete namely,
tensile strength and modulus of elasticity shall be determined based on 6.2 in IS 456.

a) Ordinary concrete: Concrete grades up to M 20 are included in this type that could
be prepared by nominal mix proportioned by weight of its main ingredients.

b) Standard concrete: This type comprises of concrete grades from M 25 to M 55. It


is made based on design mix proportioned by weight of its main ingredients, along
with chemical admixtures to achieve certain target values.

c) High strength concrete: Concrete grades from M 60 to M 80 are included in this


type. Even though usage of high strength concrete is allowed in composite
construction, capacity equations specified in this provision shall not be used in the
designs using this concrete.

5.3.3 Lightweight concrete may be used in composite construction, and the design
provisions in this code shall be used within a strength range of M 20 to M 60.

The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of lightweight concrete are given in Eq. 4.1
and Eq. 4.2 respectively, as modifications over the provisions in IS456. The factors ηl and
ηE are determined respectively using Eq. 4.3 and Eq. 4.4. Here, ρ is the upper limit of the
oven dry density of the relevant class of lightweight concrete, as given in Table 1.

fcr ,l  l fcr (Eq. 4.1)

Ec,l  E Ec (Eq. 4.2)

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0.6
l  0.4  (Eq. 4.3)
2200

  
2

E    (Eq. 4.4)
 2200 

Table 1 Density classes and corresponding design densities,  for


lightweight concrete
(Clause 5.3.3)

Density class 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2


801- 1001- 1201- 1401- 1601- 1801-
Density (kg/m3) 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Plain
Density (kg/m3) concrete 1050 1250 1450 1650 1850 2050
Reinforced
concrete 1150 1350 1550 1750 1950 2150

5.3.4 Design of concrete component of a composite structure against creep shrinkage


and temperature stress may be done as indicated in IS 456 or as per specialist literature.

5.4 Reinforcement Steel

Reinforcement steel shall consist of hot rolled, thermo-mechanically treated or heat-


treated rods, de-coiled rods or cold-worked steel of various grades as given in Table 2.
The grade designations and properties are given in Table 3.

Table 2 Grades of Reinforcing Steel


(Clause 5.4)

Grade /
Types of Steel Relevant Code
Designation
Mild Steel (MS) Grade - I IS 432 (Part 1)
High Yield Strength Deformed Fe 415
(HYSD) Fe 415D
Fe 500
Fe 500D IS 1786
Fe 550
Fe 550D
Fe 600

The minimum strength of reinforcing steel as specified in IS 456 is either the yield stress
in case of mild steel or 0.2 percent proof strength in case of high yield strength steel and
it is notionally taken as the characteristic strength of reinforcement, fyk or fy.

The steel may be coated or galvanized to improve its corrosion resistance. The following
corrosion resistive steel may be used as reinforcements:

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a) Galvanized reinforcements – The strength, elongation and bond properties are


not adversely affected by galvanizing.

b) Epoxy-coated reinforcements – These are reinforcements conforming to IS


1786 coated by fusion bonding epoxy conforming to IS 13620. The bond of
coated reinforcements is lowered by up to 20 percent compared to un-coated
reinforcements. The lap length and anchorage length provided while using these
steel bars shall be increased by 25 percent.

c) Stainless steel reinforcements – Properties of stainless steel reinforcement


shall not be inferior to carbon steel reinforcement of corresponding strength and
class. These are reinforcements conforming to IS 16651.

Table 3 Strength of Reinforcing Steel


(Clause 5.4)

Type of Grade / Minimum Yield Minimum Tensile Minimum


steel Designation Stress/0.2% Strength, as % of %
proof stress, the actual 0.2% elongation
proof stress/yield
stress but not
less than
Mild Steel Grade - I Bars up to and
including 20 mm 410 MPa 23.0
dia = 250 MPa
Bar dia,
20mm≤50 mm = 410 MPa 23.0
240 MPa
High Fe 415 110% (≥ 485 MPa) 14.5
415 MPa
Yield Fe 415D 112% (≥ 500 MPa) 18.0
strength Fe 500 108% (≥ 545 MPa) 12.0
500 MPa
Deformed Fe 500D 110% (≥ 565 MPa) 16.0
Steel Fe 550 110% (≥ 585 MPa) 10.0
(HYSD) 550 MPa
Fe 550 D 108% (≥ 600 MPa) 14.5
Fe 600 600 MPa 106% (≥ 600 MPa) 10.0
Notes
1) Elongation on a gauge length of 5.65√A, where A is the cross-sectional area of the test
piece, when tested in accordance with IS 1608 – 1995.
2) For Seismic Zone III, IV and V; HYSD steel bars having minimum elongation of 14.5
percent and conforming to other requirements of IS 1786 shall be used.
3) For Seismic Zone III, IV and V; Structural Steel Maximum yield strength shall not exceed
specified minimum value by more than 20 % and conforming to other requirements of IS
1786 shall be used.

6 BASIS OF DESIGN

6.1 The aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability (reliability) that
the structure being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life. With an
appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal

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construction and use and have adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effects
of accidental loads and fire.

6.2 Structure and structural elements shall normally be designed by Limit State
Method. Account should be taken of accepted theories, experiment and experience and
the need to design for durability. Design calculations alone do not produce safe,
serviceable and durable structures. Suitable materials, quality control, adequate detailing
and good supervision and good construction practices are equally important.

7 LIMIT STATE DESIGN

7.1 General

In the Limit State Design method, the structure shall be designed to withstand safely all
loads likely to act on it throughout its life. The objective of the design is to achieve a
structure that will remain fit for use during its life with acceptable target reliability. In other
words, the probability of a limit state being reached during its lifetime should be very low.
The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before failure occurs is
called a limit state. In general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of the most
critical limit state and shall be checked for other limit states.

For satisfactory functioning of a structure during its design life conditions, stipulations and
directives laid down in IS 800 shall be adequately satisfied for all steel-concrete composite
structures.

7.1.1 Normal elastic method is valid for analysis of the structure after considering load
history, sequence of concrete casting and development of composite strength. In case of
propped construction, most of the initial dead load is resisted through girder-prop system
and the main girder remains basically unstressed at that stage. In case of un-propped
construction, the steel girders alone have to carry the initial dead load and construction
loads. Consequently, stresses and deflections at this stage shall not exceed specified
design limits. The necessary distinction has to be made in the analysis about the stage of
loading and effectiveness of the system resisting the load. In ultimate limit state, however,
this distinction is not necessary while checking for flexural strength. For design of steel
components and concrete deck, stipulations of IS 800 and IS 456 and this code shall be
applied.

7.2 Limit States

A composite structure or part of it is considered unfit for use when it exceeds a particular
state called the limit state, beyond which it infringes one of the criteria governing its
performance or use. The limit states can be classified into following categories:

7.2.1 Ultimate Limit States – It is the state when under the worst combination of factored
loads the structure or its components either reach design strength or becomes unstable.
Both stability and strength need to be checked under Ultimate Limit State.

In steel-concrete composite structures used in buildings or general constructions, the


significant ultimate limit states to be considered are,

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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a) Collapse due to flexural, shear or bearing failure of one or more critical sections
or components,
b) Collapse due to horizontal shear failure at the interface between the steel beam
and the concrete slab or composite slab system involving concrete slab and
embossed profiled sheets,
c) Collapse due to vertical separation of the concrete / composite slab from the
steel in beams,
d) Collapse due to shear failure between steel and concrete component or due to
buckling of both fully/partially concrete encased steel columns as well as
concrete filled hollow sections used as columns.

7.2.2 Serviceability Limit States – It is the state at which any of the following conditions
occur during the loads encountered under construction and service

a) Stress in structural steel has reached the prescribed limit


b) Stress in concrete has reached the prescribed limit
c) Deflection of a structure or its component reaches the prescribed limit
d) Concrete crack width reaches the prescribed limit
e) Slip at the interface between steel and concrete exceeds permissible limits.
f) Vibration becomes excessive, especially at overhangs.

7.2.3 Fatigue Limit States – It is the state at which stress range due to application of
live loads, reach prescribed limit, corresponding to the number of load cycles and detail
configuration.

7.3 Design Philosophy

For ensuring the design objectives, the design should be based on characteristic values
for material strengths (resistance) and applied loads (actions), which take into account the
probability of variations in the material strengths and in the loads to be supported. The
characteristic values should be based on statistical data, if available. Where such data is
not available, they should be based on experience. The design values are derived from
the characteristic values through the use of partial safety factors, both for material
strengths and for loads. In the absence of special considerations, these factors should
have the values given in this section according to the material, the type of load and the
limit state being considered. The reliability of design is ensured by requiring that

Design Action (Load) Design Strength (Resistance)

Design action refers to the external actions or load which acts on the structure and the
design strength refers to the maximum resistance the structure and its components
provides to resist the actions without causing failure of the structure and its components
or causing hindrances to the smooth operation of the structure for which it is intended.

7.4 Design Actions (Loads)

7.4.1 Actions (Loads) are classified into three main categories: -

a) Permanent or Dead Loads – Loads due to self-weight of structural and non-


structural components, fittings, ancillaries, and fixed equipment etc. Dead
loads shall be calculated on the basis of unit weights which shall be established

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
taking into consideration the materials specified for construction. Alternatively,
the dead loads may be calculated on the basis of nominal dimensions and unit
weights of materials given in IS 875 (Part 1).

b) Variable or Live Loads – Construction and service stage loads such as


imposed (live) loads (e.g. crane loads, snow loads, impact, etc.), wind loads,
and earthquake loads etc. Imposed loads, wind loads and snow loads shall be
assumed in accordance with IS 875 (all parts) and the earthquake forces shall
be calculated in accordance with IS 1893.

c) Accidental Loads – Accidental loads are actions or loads expected due to


explosions, and impact of vehicles, etc. The characteristic values of accidental
loads generally correspond to the value specified by relevant code, standard
or client. Design for accidental load is generally not required in every building
unless it is required by client or approving authority, in which case general
recommendations given in IS 800 or specialist literature shall be followed.

7.4.2 Other than the actions due to the external applied loads as discussed in 7.4.1, if
the effects of shrinkage, creep and temperature are liable to affect materially the safety
and serviceability of the structure, these shall be taken into account in the calculations
[see IS 875 (Part 5)].

7.4.3 Load Combination – The different combinations of loads considered shall be as


given in IS 875 (Part 5). For each combination different partial safety factors for loads, f,
are assigned to different loads to account for:

a) Possibility of unfavorable deviation of the load from the characteristic value,


b) Possibility of inaccurate assessment of the load,
c) Uncertainty in the assessment of effects of the load, and
d) Uncertainty in the assessment of the limit states being considered.

The loads or load effects shall be multiplied by the relevant f factors, given in Table 4, to
get the design loads or design load effects.

7.5 Material Strength and Partial Safety Factor

The Design Strength, Sd, of a structural component is obtained as given below from
ultimate strength, Su and partial safety factors for material strength, m (Table 5).

Sd = Su / m

Where partial safety factor for materials, m, account for:

a) Possibility of unfavorable deviation of material strength from the


characteristic value,
b) Possibility of unfavorable variation of member sizes,
c) Possibility of unfavorable reduction in member strength due to fabrication
and tolerances, and
d) Uncertainty in the calculation of strength of the members.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Table 4 Partial Safety Factor for Loads, f, for Limit States
(Clause 7.4.3)

Limit state of
Limit State of Strength
Serviceability
Combination LL2) WL/ LL2) WL
DL Leadin AL DL Leadi
g
Accompanying EL ng
Accompanying /EL
DL+LL+CL 1.5 1.5 1.05   1.0 1.0 1.0 
DL+LL+CL+ 1.2 1.2 1.05 0.6
 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8
WL/EL 1.2 1.2 0.53 1.2
1.5
DL+WL/EL   1.5  1.0   1.0
(0.9) 1)
1.2
DL+ER 1.2       
(0.9)1)
DL+LL+AL 1.0 0.35 0.35  1.0    
1) This value is to be considered when the dead load contribution to stability against overturning is critical
or the dead load causes reduction in stress due to other loads.
2) When action of different live loads is simultaneously considered, the leading live load shall be

considered to be the one causing the higher load effects in the member/section.
Abbreviations: DL= Dead Load, LL= Imposed Load (Live Loads), WL= Wind Load,
CL= Crane Load (Vertical / horizontal), AL=Accidental Load, ER= Erection Load,
EL= Earthquake Load.
Note – The effects of actions (loads) in terms of stresses or stress resultants may be
obtained from an appropriate method of analysis.

Table 5 Partial Safety Factor for Material


(Clause 7.5)

Partial Safety Factor m

Material Item
Ultimate Serviceability
Limit Limit

Resistance against Yield stress, mo 1.10 1.00

Resistance of Member to Buckling,


1.10 1.00
Structural mo
Steel, steel
Resistance against Ultimate Stress,
sheeting 1.25 1.00
m1
For Accidental Load Combinations,
1.00 1.00
mo, m1
Reinforcement Reinforcement against Yield Stress, 1.15 1.00
s

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Shear Yield Stress, v 1.25 1.00
Connectors
Bolts-Friction Type, mf 1.25 1.00

Bolts-Bearing Type, mf 1.25 1.00

Connections Rivets, mf 1.25 1.00

Welds for Shop Fabrication, mw 1.25 1.00

Welds for Site Fabrication, mw 1.50 1.00

For Basic and Seismic Load


1.50 1.00
Combinations, c
Concrete
For Accidental Load Combinations,
1.20 1.00
c

8 DESIGN FOR ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

8.1 Composite Beams

8.1.1 Assumptions

Design for the limit state of collapse in flexure shall be based on the assumptions given
below:

a) Plane sections normal to the neutral axis remain plane after bending
b) The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression fiber at collapse
is taken as 0.0035 in bending as per IS 456
c) The stress-strain curve for concrete may be taken to be the same as in Fig. 21
of IS 456. The total compressive force in concrete is given by Fcc=0.36fck.b.xu
and this acts at a depth of 0.42xu, with the value restricted to maximum of ds.
However, a rectangular stress-strain distribution is adopted (Annex A) to
determine the bending strength of a composite beam
d) The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored
e) The stress-strain curve for the reinforcing steel shall be assumed to be the
same as in Fig. 23 of IS 456.
f) The properties of structural steel shall be taken as given in Table 1 of IS 800.

8.1.2 Ultimate Bending Strength

For determining the position of plastic neutral axis and the ultimate moment of resistance
of composite beams, provisions given Annex A may be used.

8.2 General

A typical composite beam system is as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig 4. Fig 3 shows an
arrangement of a typical composite beam where RCC slab is directly resting on the steel
beam and Fig. 4 shows a composite beam where the composite slab consisting of RCC
and profiled sheet deck with or without embossments, which is finally resting on steel
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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
beams. The neutral axis may be in the concrete slab, or in top flange of steel section or in
the web of the steel section.

beff

ds
xu
tf
xg N.A. of composite
tw girder D

C. G. of steel cross-
section
tf

Fig. 3 Typical Composite Girder without profiled Sheet


beff
beff

xu ds ds
dt
xu dt

tf N.A. of composite
tf N.A. of composite
xg girder
xg girder
tw D
tw D
C. G. of steel cross-
C. G. of steel cross-
section
tf section
tf

(a) (b)

Fig. 4 Typical Composite Girder with profiled Sheet. (a) corrugation parallel to girder (b)
corrugation perpendicular to girder

Bending moments and shears due to application of factored loads may be analyzed in
indeterminate structures by elastic theory assuming the concrete in the slab to be un-
cracked and unreinforced.

Negative moments over internal supports as calculated above should be checked against
section strength assuming steel girder acting integrally with concrete (considering un-
cracked and un-reinforced). If the flexural tensile stress in concrete thus calculated
exceeds the tensile strength of concrete as per IS 456 then,
i) a new analysis neglecting concrete, but including reinforcements over the
effective width of the slab at support (clause 8.4)should be done to check the
strength,

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
ii) provided adjacent spans do not differ appreciably, the positive maximum
moments in the adjacent spans could be increased by 40 fct/ fck percent for
checking the strength without decreasing the support moment (fct = tensile
stress in uncracked concrete flange), in recognition of partially plastic
redistribution of moments.

Bottom flange of girder in negative moment zone should be adequately braced against
lateral buckling.

8.2.1 Sectional classification of steel beams

The section strength at ultimate limit state should be considered on their ability to resist
local buckling before full plastic strength is developed. In this respect the structural steel
sections may be classified as

Cross sections which can develop plastic hinges


and have the rotation capacity required for
Class – 1 or Plastic:
failure of the structure by formation of a plastic
mechanism.
Cross sections which can develop plastic
moment of resistance but have inadequate
Class – 2 or Compact:
plastic hinge rotation capacity for formation of a
plastic mechanism due to local buckling.
Cross sections in which the extreme fibers in
Semi- compression can reach yield stress, but cannot
Class – 3 or
compact: develop the plastic moment of resistance due to
local buckling.
Cross sections in which the elements buckle
Class – 4 or Slender: locally, even before reaching yield stress. This
code does not deal with these types of section.

8.2.2 Guidelines for sectional classification of steel beams

a) A composite section should be classified according to the least favorable


class of steel elements in compression.
b) The class of a composite section depends on the direction of the bending
moment at that section.
c) A steel compression element restrained by a reinforced concrete element
through shear connectors may be placed in a more favorable class, after
ensuring its improved local buckling resistance due to the above connection.
d) Plastic stress distribution over the cross section should be used for section
classifications 1 and 2. In classification 3 the elastic stress distribution
should be used taking into account sequence of construction and the effects
of creep and shrinkage.
e) For classification, design values of strength of materials should be taken.
Concrete in tension should be neglected. The stress distribution should be
established for the gross cross-section of the steel web and the effective
concrete flanges.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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f) Welded mesh should not be included in the effective section unless it has
sufficient ductility before fracture when embedded in concrete
g) Account should be taken of the class of steel section at every stage of
construction in the global elastic analysis.

8.2.3 Composite section without concrete encasements

a) A steel compression flange which is restrained against local buckling by


effective attachment to a concrete by shear connectors may be assumed to be
in class 1 if the maximum spacing of the connectors is in accordance with 11.8.
b) Other steel flanges and webs in compression in composite girders should be
classified on the basis of width to thickness ratios and susceptibility to local
buckling of steel only, unless they are also restrained by concrete as in
columns. Accordingly, sections are categorized in three groups as indicated in
Fig. 2 and Table 2 of IS 800.
c) Cross-sections with webs in Class 3 and flanges in Class 1 or 2 may be treated
as an effective cross-section in Class 2 with an effective web in accordance
with Fig. 5. The proportion of the web in compression should be replaced by a
part of 20.tw adjacent to the compression flange, with another part of 20.tw
adjacent to the plastic neutral axis of the effective cross-section where  is as
described in Table 2 of IS 800.
1
fy

20 ε tw -
4
3 20 a tw -
1 – Compression
+
2 – Tension
fy 3 – Plastic neutral axis
2 1
2 4 – Neglect

Fig. 5 Effective Class 2 Web

8.2.4 Composite section with concrete encasements


A steel outstand flange shall be classified as per Table 6.

8.2.5 Types of elements for steel sections

a) Internal elements are elements attached along both longitudinal edges to other
elements or to longitudinal stiffeners connected at suitable intervals to
transverse stiffeners, e.g., web of I-section and flanges and web of box section.
b) Outside elements or Outstands are elements attached along only one of the
longitudinal edges to an adjacent element, the other edge being free to
displace out of plane e.g., flange overhang of an I-section, stem of T-section
and legs of an angle section.
c) Tapered elements may be treated as a flat element having average thickness
as defined in IS 808.

The limiting width to thickness ratios of elements for different classifications of sections
are given in Table 2 of IS 800 based on end conditions of elements.
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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Table 6 Section classification of steel flanges for partially encased


cross-sections
(Clause 8.2.4)

Rolled section Welded section


b b
bc bc +

t
c

Stress distribution
t t (compression positive)
c c
0.8 ≤ bc/b ≤ 1.0
Class Type Limit
1 c/t ≤ 9ε
2 Rolled or welded c/t ≤ 14ε
3 c/t ≤ 20ε

8.3 Precast Slab on Steel Beam

The use of precast slab, both full depth and partial depth is allowed for composite
construction as one of the components of composite beams. Precast slabs shall be
erected and connected to steel section so as to ensure composite action along with the
steel beam.

8.3.1 Full depth precast slab

Full-depth precast concrete deck panels may be used for new construction as well as for
replacement of deteriorated, concrete decks on existing steel beams in general structures.
The advantage of using this full depth precast slab lies in construction of more than one
floor at a time after the erection of the steel structures. This shall be ensured by proper
shear connection during erection of these precast panels. This system typically consists
of precast concrete panels, placed adjacent to one another on steel beams. The typical
requirements for these types of beams are as given below:

a) Panels shall either span the full width of the concreting deck or shall be in
lengths that span between two or more parallel beams. Minimum thickness of
slab shall be 150 mm.
b) The panels shall be connected to the beams using shear connectors in
pockets, which consist of mechanical connectors such as shear studs
encapsulated in non-shrinking grouted pockets. These connections cause the
panels to develop composite action with the girders.
c) The contact between the precast panels at their longitudinal edge should
ensure transfer of compression between the panels, necessary for composite
action.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
8.3.2 Partial depth precast slab

Partial-depth precast concrete deck panels are generally thin RCC/prestressed concrete
panels that span between beams and also serve as stay-in-place forms/shuttering for the
cast-in-place concrete deck. The typical geometrical and parameters which governs the
use of these panels as composite unit for the floor system are as given below:

a) Minimum thickness of the precast panels shall be 75 mm.


b) Dimensions of the precast panels shall be chosen from consideration of easy
handling, ease of lifting by cranes and for catering to the construction loads
including load of wet cast in-situ concrete.
c) Partial-depth panels must be capable of developing sufficient composite
action with the cast in-situ concrete to be an effective floor system.
d) To ensure full bond between the cast-in-situ concrete and precast panels, it is
recommended that the top surface of the precast panel is intentionally
roughened while casting it and is cleaned by removing the laitance or other
contaminates on the surface and other measures may be taken, before the
placement of the cast in-situ concrete so as to ensure good bond between
precast and cast in place concrete.
e) After the precast panels are in place, the top layers of reinforcing steel shall
be placed, and the cast-in-situ concrete shall be placed on top of the panels
f) As a composite floor system, the cast-in-situ concrete and the partial-depth
panels together create the total thickness of the slab, with the panel’s
reinforcing steel serving as the positive moment reinforcement in the bending
direction of the combined slab.

8.3.3 General design principles

a) The precast slab together with any in-situ concrete (for partial depth slab)
should be designed as continuous in both the longitudinal and the transverse
direction.
b) The joints between slabs should be designed to transmit membrane forces as
well as bending moment and shear forces.
c) Effective width of pre-cast slab in the composite beam action shall be
calculated as per clause 8.4.
d) The design principles of composite girders involving either full depth or partial
depth precast slabs are similar to standard composite decks using cast-in-situ
reinforced concrete.
e) Vertical shear check of composite beam shall be done as per clause 8.5.4.
f) For serviceability limit states, guidelines given in section 9.0 shall be followed.

8.3.4 Joints between steel beam and precast concrete slab

a) Where precast slabs are supported on steel beams without bedding the
influence of the vertical tolerances of the bearing surfaces shall be
considered.
b) The shear transfer between steel flange and precast concrete though
mechanical shear connector shall be designed as per section 10.0 with the
following precautions:
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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
i) If shear connectors welded to the steel beam project into the recesses
within the slabs or joints between slabs, which are filled with concrete
after erection, the detailing and the properties of the concrete shall be
such that it can be cast properly.
ii) The minimum infill around the shear connectors should be at least 25
mm.
iii) If shear connectors are arranged in groups, sufficient reinforcement
should be provided near each group to prevent premature local failure
in either the precast or the in-situ concrete.
iv) Special provision for protection against corrosion shall be adopted,
wherein, the steel flange under precast slabs without bedding should
have the same corrosion protection as the rest of the steel work but for
an additional top coating provided after erection.
v) Bedding with the purpose of protecting against corrosion may be
designed to be non-load bearing.

8.3.5 Joints between precast members

The critical sections of members close to joints should be designed to resist the worst
combination of shear, axial force and bending caused by the ultimate vertical and
horizontal forces. When the design of the precast members is based on the assumption
that the joint between them is not capable of transmitting bending moment (see 8.3.4),
suitable precautions should be taken to ensure that if any crack develops, it will not be
excessively and reduce the shear or axial force resistance of the member and will not
aesthetically or functionally objectionable.

Where a space is left between two or more precast units, to be filled later with in-situ
concrete or non-shrink mortar. The gap should be large enough for easy placement and
adequate compaction of the filling material to fill the gap completely.

8.3.6 Structural Connection at Joints

When designing and detailing the connections across joints between precast members
the overall stability of the structure, including its stability during construction, shall be
considered. A typical Joint connection is shown in Fig. 6.
Cast in-situ
concrete

Pre-cast slab
Bed block

Fig. 6 Typical Joint Connection for Partial Depth Precast Slab


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CED 38 (13455) WC
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8.3.6.1 Design method


Connections should, where possible, be designed in accordance with the generally
accepted methods applicable to reinforced concrete, or structural steel.

8.3.6.2 General considerations in design details

In additional to ultimate strength requirements the following should be considered.

a) Protection: – Connections should be designed so that the standard of


protection against weather and corrosion required for the rest of the
structure is sufficiently maintained.
b) Appearance: – Where connections are to be exposed, they should be
designed to achieve and maintain the quality of appearance required for the
rest of the structure.
c) Manufacture, assembly and erection: – Methods of manufacture and
erection should be considered during design. Care should be taken during
erection and the following precautions are mandatory:

i) Where projecting bars or sections are required, they should be kept to


a minimum and made as simple as possible. The lengths of such
projections should be not more than necessary.
ii) Fixing devices should be located in concrete sections of adequate
strength.
iii) The practicability of both casting and assembly should be considered.
iv) Most connections require the introduction of suitable jointing material.
Sufficient space should be allowed in the design for such material to
ensure that the proper filling of the joint is possible.

8.3.6.3 Reinforcement continuity at joint

Where continuity of reinforcement is required through the connection, the joining method
used should be such that the assumptions made in analyzing the structure and critical
sections are realized. The standard methods applicable for achieving continuity of
reinforcements are lapping and butt welding of bars.

8.4 Effective Width of Concrete Slab

Effective width of the concrete slab is used in strength calculations to account for shear
lag effects. The effective width of the concrete slab with reference to Fig. 7 shall be
determined by:
Le
beff  bo   bo  be1  be 2 
4
where

bo is the centre to centre between the outer row of shear connectors

be1 and be2 in above equation are the effective width of the concrete flange on each side
of the web of the composite girder. It is taken as Le /4 but not greater than the distance
from shear connector to mid-way between the centerline of steel girders, on each side
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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(that is be1+be2). In the case of outer girder, be1 or be2 shall be the distance to the edge of
the slab.

Fig. 7 Effective widths for composite beams

Le is the effective span length of the corresponding composite girder. For simply supported
girder, it is taken as the center-to-center distance between the supports. Whereas, in the
case of continuously supported girder, it shall be computed in accordance with Fig. 8.
Le=0.25(L1+L2) Le=2 L3

Le=0.85 L1 Le=0.7 L2

L1 L2 L3

Fig. 8 Value of Le for continuous beam


Reinforcements placed parallel to the span of the steel beam only within the effective
width of concrete slab at the continuous support will only be effective in calculating the
hogging moment capacity of the composite girder at the continuous support.

8.4.1 Effective cross section for strength calculation

In calculating the strength of the cross section of the composite girders the
following should be considered:

For Positive Moment - Concrete in the effective width to be included but not
the steel reinforcements.
For Negative Moment - Concrete to be neglected but longitudinal steel
reinforcement along the beam length within the
effective width are to be included

8.5 Analysis of Structures

8.5.1 Elastic analysis

Design moments and shears may be calculated by normal elastic method of analysis. In
case of continuous structures with negative moments over supports evaluation of the
effective section at support may be necessary as mentioned in 8.2. Appropriate load
combinations with corresponding load factors are to be used to find out the maximum
design values of moments and shears.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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Design strength for different sections is to be worked out on the basis of their capacity to
resist local buckling based on classification given in 8.2.1. Methods of calculating the
design bending strength under various conditions are given in Annex A. The bending
moments, given in Annex A, are for full shear connection. Necessary correction due to
partial shear connection shall be done as also indicated in Annex A.

The stability of a structure as a whole against overturning shall be ensured under ultimate
limit state as per provisions of IS 456. The foundation components of the structure shall
also be safe against sliding under adverse condition of the applied characteristic loads.
Following factor of safety shall be ensured:

a) Overturning

The stability of a structure as a whole against overturning shall be ensured so that the
restoring moment shall be not be less than the sum of 1.2 times the maximum
overturning moment due to the characteristic dead load and 1.4 times the maximum
overturning moment due to the characteristic imposed loads. In cases where dead
load provides the restoring moment, only 0.9 times the characteristic dead load (as
indicated in Table: 4) shall be considered. Restoring moment due to imposed loads
shall be ignored.

b) Sliding

The structure shall have a factor against sliding of not less than 1.4 under the most
adverse combination of the applied characteristic forces. In this case also, only 0.9
times the characteristic dead load shall be taken into account.

8.5.2 Plastic Analysis

Plastic analysis may be used to determine the distribution of bending moments and
vertical shear forces in simply supported and continuous composite superstructures
provided that:

a) All cross sections of steel member at which, as per calculations plastic


behavior will occur, are plastic.
b) Premature failure of the steel compression flange (both at mid span and
supports) by lateral torsional buckling is prevented.
c) In a continuous beam the length of an end span does not differ from that of
an adjacent span by more than 15% and nor do the length of two adjacent
interior spans differ by more than 25%.
d) The concrete slab is of normal density concrete having a characteristic
strength within the range 20 MPa to 45 MPa.
e) The yield stress for the grade of the structural steel used shall not exceed
500 MPa.
f) The stress-strain characteristics of the steel shall not be significantly
different from those obtained for steels complying with IS 2062 or equivalent
and shall have such ductility as to ensure complete plastic moment
redistribution.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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i) The stress strain diagram has a plateau at the yield stress, extending
for at least six times the yield strain;
ii) The ratio of the ultimate tensile strength to the yield stress specified
for the grade of the steel is not less than 1.2;
iii) The elongation on a gauge length complying with IS 2062 is not less
than 15%;
iv) The steel exhibits strain-hardening capability and
v) Steels conforming to IS 2062 shall be deemed to satisfy the above
requirements.
g) Further the section shall satisfy the following conditions:

i) The members used shall be hot-rolled or fabricated using hot-rolled


plates and section.
ii) The cross section of steel members in regions not containing plastic
hinges should be at least compact.
iii) Where plastic hinges occur in a member, the plate elements of its
cross section should not exceed the limiting values for plastic section
given in Table 2 of IS 800.
iv) The cross section should be symmetrical about its axis
perpendicular to the axis of the plastic hinge rotation.

8.5.3 Design of structure for bending moment

The factored design flexural strength, Md, in a beam and the external action, M, shall
satisfy
M  Md
Where
Md = Mn / γm0 = design flexural strength calculated as given below
m0 = partial safety factor against Flexural failure (Table – 5)

Considering local buckling, sections are to be analyzed as plastic, compact or semi-


compact as already mentioned, with the following additional consideration.

a) Load history and development in composite action are to be taken into


consideration with appropriate values of modular ratio, m at each stage and
stresses and deflections are to be the summation of values over successive
stages.
b) Determination of bending strength for a beam before composite action has set
in or during construction stage shall be done as per 8.2 of IS 800.
c) For calculating the bending strength of composite beams Annex A may be
referred.
d) Effective width of concrete in composite action may be as mentioned in 8.4.

The bending moment and shear force distribution in continuous beams for secondary as
well as primary moment resistant frames/beams have to be determined by structural
analysis.

8.5.3.1 Design of structure for effect of lateral buckling on moment resistance

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Lateral Buckling may govern the design under the following conditions:

a) At construction stage, in the top flange closer to mid span in both simply
supported and continuous beams.
b) At construction and composite stage, in the bottom flange closer to support
in continuous beams.

At the construction stage the effect of lateral buckling on the bottom flange in a continuous
beam shall be taken care of by considering cantilever action up to the point of inflection
from the support.

If required, suitable horizontal bracings or members may be provided at the bottom flange
to reduce effective length of compression flange near support. For beams which are
provided with such bracings or members giving effective lateral restraint to the
compression flange at intervals along the span, the effective lateral restraint shall be
capable of resisting a force equal to 2.5 percent of the maximum force in the compression
flange taken as divided equally between the numbers of points at which the restraint in
bracing members occur. In beams supporting composite slabs, wherein the sheeting is
welded to top flange before concreting is done, the lateral restraint of the deck sheet may
be considered.

8.5.4 Design against vertical shear force

The factored design shear force, Vd, in a beam due to external action, V, shall satisfy
V  Vd
Where
Vd = design shear strength calculated as given below
Vd = Vn / γm0
m0 = partial safety factor against shear failure (Table – 5)

The vertical shear force is assumed to be resisted by the web of the steel section only
unless the value for a contribution for the reinforced concrete part of the beam has been
established. The nominal shear strength, Vn may be governed by plastic shear resistance
or strength of the web as governed by shear buckling as discussed below.

a) Plastic shear resistance

The nominal plastic shear resistance of composite beams under pure shear is
calculated as indicated in 8.4.1 of IS 800, disregarding the contribution of the
concrete slab. The shear resistance for I-sections, channels both for major axis
bending and minor axis bending as well as for rectangular and circular hollow
sections of uniform thickness shall be as per 8.4.1.1 of IS 800.

Resistance to shear buckling shall be verified as specified in 8.4.2 of IS 800.

b) Shear buckling Resistance:

The nominal shear strength, Vn, of webs with or without intermediate stiffeners as
governed by buckling may be evaluated as detailed in 8.4.2.2 of IS 800 either using
Simple Post Critical Method or Tension Field Method.
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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8.5.4.1 Reduction in bending resistance under high shear force

If V is less than 0.6Vd reduction in the plastic bending resistance of the section need not
be considered. When V > 0.6Vd, the bending resistance is reduced as the contribution of
web to bending gets diminished. The reduced bending capacity is given by

a) Plastic or Compact Section

M dv  M d   M d  M fd   1.2 ze f y  m0 , Eq. 7.5


Where,
 = (2 V / Vd - 1)2 Eq. 7.6
Md = plastic design moment of the whole section disregarding high shear
force effect considering web buckling effects
V= factored applied shear force.
Vd = design shear strength as governed by web yielding or web buckling
Mfd = plastic design strength of the area of the cross section excluding the
shear area, considering partial safety factor m0
b) Semi-compact Section
M dv  Z e f y /  m0 Eq. 7.7
Where Ze = elastic section modulus of the whole section

8.6 Hybrid Sections

Use of hybrid steel sections consisting of different grade steel elements are permitted,
with necessary adjustment (reduction) in stresses of the flange element in the cross
section with higher yield stress by the reduction factor, Rh. The Rh may be determined
using the procedure as presented in Annex A.

9 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILTY LIMIT STATES

Serviceability limit states are related to the criteria governing normal use. Serviceability
limit state is limit state beyond which the serviceability criteria specified below, are no
longer met:

a) Stress and deflection limit


b) Vibration limit
c) Durability consideration
d) Fire resistance

9.1 General

Normal elastic analysis is to be used for finding out design moments and stresses under
various load combinations and load factors as mentioned in 7.4.3, for serviceability limit
sates. Concrete is to be assumed as unreinforced and uncracked for the analysis.

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9.1.1 Method of construction

The stress and strain at serviceability limit state depend on whether the steel beam is
propped or un-propped during construction.

a) Un-propped construction:

In un-propped construction, the steel beam has to carry the construction load
including shuttering, wet concrete and its own weight until concrete hardens.

b) Propped construction:

In propped construction both the dead and live load are resisted by the composite
section. When props are used, they should be kept in place until the in-situ concrete
has attained a strength equal to approximately twice the stress to which the concrete
may be subjected to upon removal of props.

This difference in the above two methods of construction does not, however, affect
the ultimate limit load, wherein the total load including the transient loads shall be
resisted by the composite section.

9.2 Negative Moments

Negative moments over intermediate supports may be adjusted as mentioned in 8.2.

9.3 Stresses and Deflections

For calculating stresses at service load and deflection, the value of modular ratio,
m shall be taken as,
Es
m  7.5 For short-term effect or loading
Ecm
Es
m  15.0 For permanent or long-term loads (Kc = Creep factor = 0.5)
K c Ecm
Where,

Es = Modulus of elasticity for steel = 2.0 x 105 N/mm 2


Ec = Modulus of elasticity of cast-in-situ concrete (IS 456)
fck = characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete in N/mm2

The equivalent area of concrete slab at any stage, however shall be determined
by dividing the effective width of the concrete slab by the modular ratio,
Es
m , Where,
Eci
Eci = Modulus of elasticity of cast-in-situ concrete at i days (i < 28 days)

Final stresses and deflection is to be worked out separately at each stage of load history
with relevant modular ratios and section modulus as discussed above and then added
together.
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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9.3.1 Limiting stresses for serviceability

Limiting stresses for different stage of construction are as indicated below:

a) Concrete:

The allowable compressive stress in concrete at service stage shall be as per clause
38 of IS 456.

b) Reinforcement steel:

The allowable tensile stress in steel reinforcecement at service stage shall be as per
clause 38 of IS 456.

c) Structural steel:

The concept of equivalent stress shall be adopted to determine the limiting permissible
stress in steel beam or girder.

Where bearing stress is combined with tensile or compressive stress, bending and
shear stresses under the most unfavourable conditions of loading, the equivalent
stress, fe, obtained from the following formula shall not exceed 0.9fy.

f ec  f bc  f p  f bc . f p  3 b Eq. 8.1
2 2 2

and
f et  f bt  f p  f bt . f p  3 b Eq. 8.2
2 2 2

Where
fec and fet = equivalent compressive and tensile stress in steel section
fbc and fbt = actual compressive and tensile stress in steel section
fp = actual bearing stress in steel section
b = actual shear stress in steel section.

The value of bending stresses fbc about each axis, to be used in the above formula
shall be individually lesser than the values of the maximum allowable stresses in
bending about the corresponding axis.

9.3.2 Limiting deflection and camber

9.3.2.1 Deflection limit

The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or a building component should not
impair the strength of the structure or components or cause damage to finishing.
Deflections are to be checked for the most adverse but realistic combination of service
loads and their arrangement, by elastic analysis, using a load factor of 1.0. The deflection
of a member shall be calculated without considering the impact factor or dynamic effect
of the loads on deflection. Table 6 of IS 800 -2007 gives recommended limits of
deflections for certain structural members and systems. Circumstances may arise where
greater or lesser values would be more appropriate depending upon the nature of material
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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in element to be supported (vulnerable to cracking or not) and intended use of the
structure, as required by client.

9.3.2.2 Provision of camber

Where the deflection due to combination of dead load and live load is likely to be
excessive, consideration should be given to pre-camber the steel beams. The values of
desired camber shall be specified in design drawing. Generally for spans greater than 25
m camber approximately equal to the deflection due to dead loads plus half the live load,
may be used.

9.4 Vibration

Suitable provisions in the design shall be made for the dynamic effects of live loads, impact
loads and vibration due to machinery operating loads. In severe cases possibility of
resonance, fatigue or unacceptable vibrations shall be investigated. Unusually flexible
structures (generally the height to effective width of lateral load resistance system
exceeding 5:1) shall be investigated for lateral vibration under dynamic wind loads.
Structures subjected to a large number of cycles of loading shall be designed against
fatigue failure as per section 13 of IS 800. Floor vibration effect shall be considered using
specialist literature.

9.5 Durability

Several factors that affect the durability of the buildings, under conditions relevant to their
intended life are listed below:
a) The environment
b) The degree of exposure
c) The shape of the member and the structural detail
d) The protective measure
e) Ease of maintenance.

The durability of structural steel component of a composite section shall be ensured by


recommendations of Section 15 of IS 800. Specialist literature may be referred to for more
detailed additional information in design for durability. For concrete, the durability shall be
ensured by following the recommendations of section 8 of IS 456.

9.5.1 Profiled steel sheeting for composite slabs

The durability criteria for profiled steel sheets for composite deck slab shall be
met by the following procedures
a) The exposed surfaces of the steel sheeting shall be adequately protected
to resist the particular atmospheric conditions.
b) A zinc coating of total mass 275 g/m2 (including both sides) is sufficient for
internal floors in a non-aggressive environment, but the specification may
be varied depending on service conditions

9.6 Fire Resistance

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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Fire resistance of a steel component of a composite member is a function of its mass, its
geometry, and the actions to which it is subjected, its structural support condition, fire
protection measures adopted and the fire to which it is exposed. Design provisions to
resistance of fire for concrete shall be as per guidelines given in Clause 21 of IS 456. For
design of structural steel components for fire resistance, section 16 of IS 800 shall be
referred. Specialist literature may be referred to for more detailed information on design
for fire resistance of steel/composite structures.

9.7 Control of Cracking in Concrete and Crack Width Calculation

Minimum reinforcements in terms of diameter and spacing required for crack control at
top of concrete as per clause 26.3.2 of IS 456 is to be provided in composite girders at
the zone of negative moment, to prevent cracks adversely affecting appearance and
durability of structure. Crack width calculation as well as limiting crack width as given in
clause Annex F of IS 456 may be followed, subject to discretion of engineers. The crack
width in concrete shall be restricted to values as indicated in clause 35.3.2 of IS 456.

10 DESIGN FOR FATIGUE LIMIT

This section applies to the design of structures and structural elements subject to loading
which could lead to fatigue failure. The following effects are not considered in the section.
a) Corrosion fatigue
b) Low cycle (high stress) fatigue
c) Thermal fatigue
d) Stress corrosion cracking
e) Effects of high temperature (> 150o C)
f) Effects of low temperature (< below transition temperature)

The Fatigue design of various components of composite structures like members, welded
joints, bolts, shear lugs, etc. shall be carried out as per the specifications laid down in
Section-13 of IS 800. Fatigue provisions in the design of shear connectors are discussed
in 11.2.

11 SHEAR CONNECTORS

The shear connectors shall fulfill the dual purpose of transferring shear force between
concrete and structural steel as well as anchoring the two components relative to each
other with minimum slip, to ensure full or partial composite action as per design
requirement.

11.1 Longitudinal Shear in Beams and Slabs

Longitudinal shear load on shear connectors in a composite section, irrespective of


boundary conditions of the members is to be calculated for service and fatigue limit states,
on the basis of elastic theory. Appropriate sectional properties based on effective widths
and modular ratios as per the load history and development of composite action shall be
considered for design of the section against longitudinal shear between steel and
concrete.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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11.1.1 Design of Shear Connectors

a) Shear connection and transverse reinforcement shall be provided to transmit


the longitudinal shear force between the concrete and the structural steel
element, ignoring the effect of natural bond between the two.

b) Shear connectors may be either of mild steel or high tensile steel


irrespective of the grade of steel used in the parent girder. Flexible shear
connectors are preferred because of their better performance. Channel,
Angle and Tee shear connectors may be of mild steel, whereas, the shear
studs may be made of high tensile steel.

c) Shear connector shall be generally designed for full transfer of longitudinal


shear due to composite action. The strength and spacing are to be checked
separately for all the limit states using appropriate factored load
combinations and factored strength. All shear connectors should be capable
of resisting uplift of slab from steel section. Channel connectors provide
adequate safety against uplift. Headed stud shear connectors may be
assumed to provide sufficient resistance to uplift, unless the shear
connection is subjected to direct tension due to loading, in which case the
shear connectors should be supplemented by other positive anchoring
devices.

d) For verification for ultimate limit states, the shear connectors provided in
terms of the size and spacing may be kept constant over any length where
the design longitudinal local shear per unit length does not exceed the
design shear resistance by more than 10 percent. Over every such length,
the total design longitudinal shear force should not exceed the total design
shear resistance of the shear connectors.

11.2 Design Strength of Shear Connectors

Shear Connectors shall be checked for adequacy against failure in both ultimate limit
states and fatigue limit states. The strength of shear connectors against failure under
ultimate limit states and fatigue limit states shall be considered as per clause 11.2.1 and
11.2.2 respectively.

11.2.1 Design Strength of Shear Connectors

Design static strengths of flexible shear connectors mainly stud connectors and channel
connectors can be determined by the following equations:

a) Stud Connectors
The design resistance, Qu of stud shears connectors shall be as given below:
0.8 f u . .d 2 / 4 0.29 .d 2 f ck ( cy ) .Ecm
Qu   Eq. 10.1
v v
Where,

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
 hs 
  0.2  1 for 3  hs  4 and α = 1.0 for hs  4
d  d d
Qu = design strength of stud in newton (N)
v = partial safety factor for stud connector = 1.25
d = diameter of the shank of the stud in millimeters (mm) (16 mm ≤ d ≤ 25
mm)
fu = ultimate tensile strength of the stud material  500 N/mm2
fck(cy) = Characteristic cylindrical compressive strength of concrete = 0.8fck
hs = nominal height of stud in millimeters (mm)
Ec = Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete (IS 456)

b) Channel Connectors

Assuming that the web of the channel is vertical with the shear applied nominally
perpendicular to the web, the design resistance of a channel connector shall be
determined as given below
Qu  20b.(h) 4 .( f ck (cy ) ) 3  /  v
3 1
Eq. 10.2
 
Where
Qu = design strength of channel in newton (N)
b = length of the channel in millimeters (mm)
h = height of the channel in millimeters (mm)

While using channel shear connectors the following recommendation need to be


followed.
1. The height h of the channel should not exceed 20 times the channel web
thickness or 150 mm whichever is less.
2. The width b of the channel should not exceed 300 mm.
3. The underside of the top flange of the channel should not be less than 30 mm
clear above the bottom reinforcement.
4. The size of the fillet weld connecting the channel to the flange plate should
not exceed half the flange plate thickness.

The design strengths of some standard shear connectors are given in Table 7 for
easy reference.

Table 7 Ultimate static strengths of shear connectors (Qu for different


concrete strengths)
(Clause 11.2.1)

Type of Material SIZE Ultimate static strength


Connector in kN per connector

Stud Material with a Nomial Overall For concrete strengths,


Connectors characteristic yield Diameter height fck (MPa)
strength of 385 (mm) (mm) 25 30 40 50

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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MPa, minimum 25 100 112 125 149 156
elongation of 18%
and a 22 100 87 97 115 120
characteristic
tensile strength of 20 100 72 80 95 100
495 MPa 20 75 68 76 91 100
16 75 46 51 61 64
12 65 26 29 34 36
Channels: As per IS 2062 ISMC 125 244 259 285 307
150mm long
ISMC 100 206 219 241 260
(min)
ISMC 75 166 176 194 209

The following needs to be considered while adopting the table 7

a) fck is the specified characteristic cube strength at 28 days.


b) Connector strengths for concrete of intermediate grade may be obtained by
linear interpolation.
c) For channels of lengths different from those quoted above, the capacities
are proportional to the lengths for lengths greater than 150mm.
d) For rolled angle and tee shear connectors, the values given for channel
connectors are applicable provided the height is at least equal to that of the
channel.
e) For stud connectors of overall height greater than 100 mm the design static
strength should be taken as the values given in the table for 100 mm high
connectors.
f) The above provisions of stud connectors are not applicable to composite
slab using profiled deck. The strength of shear connector in such cases can
be established by experimental push-out tests.
g) The number of shear connectors given by the above table shall be
distributed in the zone between the maximum and the zero moment
sections. The number of connectors have to be meet both ultimate strength
consideration as well as fatigue consideration
h) In order to avoid undesirable slip, the maximum interface shear per unit
length due to superimposed dead load and live load under service conditions
at any point in the beam should satisfy 11.3.1.

11.2.2 Fatigue Strength of Shear Connectors

The fatigue shear stress range (fatigue Strength) of shear connector shall be obtained
from Fig 23 of IS 800, corresponding to the design load life cycle, NSC.
The strength shall be determined as given below.
 f   fn 5 5x106 / N SC Eq. 10.3

42
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
fn = design normal and shear fatigue stress range respectively of the detail for 5
x106 cycles as given in Table 26 of IS 800.
fn = 67 N/mm2 for stud connector [refer:- Table 26(b), detail category – 67]
fn = 59 N/mm2 for channel connector (Ref. Table 26(b), detail category – 59)
[provided that the thickness of the top flange of steel girder is greater than
or equal to 12 mm and the edge distance from the end of weld to the edge
of the top flange is 10 mm.]

The nominal fatigue strengths of some standard shear connectors have been indicated in
table 8.

Table 8 Nominal Fatigue Strengths Qr (in kN)


(Clause 11.2.2)

Type of Connector N = Nos. of Cycles


Connectors Material
1 x 105 5 x 105 2 x 106 1 x 107 1 x 108
Headed Studs  25 fy = 385 71 52 39 28 18
fu = 495
Headed Studs  22 Elongation = 55 40 30 22 14
18%
Headed Studs  20 46 33 25 18 11

Headed Studs  16 29 21 16 11 7

Channel 150 long IS 2062 109 79 60 43 27


for a nominal weld
of 8 mm
Note:

For intermediate stress cycles the values may be interpolated from log scales (i.e. the
above equation). Other connectors, if used, should have their capacities established
through tests.

11.3 Spacing and Design of Shear Connectors

11.3.1 Ultimate Strength of Shear Connectors

The design shear action per unit length of the steel concrete interface, VL, is given
by
V . Aec .Y 
VL     Eq. 10.4
 I  dl,ll
Where
VL = Longitudinal shear per unit length
V = The vertical shear forces due to dead load and live load (including impact
if any) separately at each state of load history.

43
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Aec = The transformed compressive area of concrete above the neutral axis of
the composite section with appropriate modular ratio depending on the
nature of load (short term i.e. live load, or long term i.e. dead load)
Y = C.G. distance of transformed concrete area from neutral axis.
I = Moment of Inertia of the composite section using appropriate modular
ratio.
dl, ll = Different load history condition, i.e. sustained load or composite action
dead load, transient load or composite action live load. These loads are
to be considered with appropriate load factor at this stage.

Maximum spacing of Shear connectors is given as S L1  Q u

VL
Qu is the Ultimate static strength of one shear connector (11.2.1 and Table 7) and the
summation is over the number of shear studs at one section.
The maximum longitudinal force at the interface due to bending moment shall also be
calculated over the shear span, L, equal to the distance from zero moment to maximum
moment section and is given by the following equations:
H1 = Asl . fy. 10-3 / m Eq. 10.5
H2 = 0.36 . fck .Aec.10-3 Eq. 10.6

Where,
H1, H2 = Longitudinal interface shear force due to bending (kN)
Asl = Area of Tensile Steel (mm2) in longitudinal direction
Aec = Effective area of concrete
= beff .xu (for neutral axis within the slab)
= beff. ds (for neutral axis in steel section)
Sufficient connectors should be provided to resist the longitudinal force H, the
maximum compressive force action in the composite beam slab interface, which
is the smaller of H1 and H2

The maximum spacing of Shear connectors is given as S L 2 


Q u
.L
H

11.3.2 Fatigue Strength of Shear Connectors

V . A .Y 
Vr    R ec  {Vr, Aec, Y and I are similar as explained above} Eq. 10.7
 I  ll
VR = The shear range = difference between the maximum and minimum Vertical
Shear envelop due to live load and impact
ll = is live load with impact.

Spacing of Shear connectors from fatigue consideration is given as S R   r


Q
Vr
44
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Qr is the Nominal fatigue Strength one shear connector which is to be taken from
Table 8 of IS 800.
For Full shear connection the lowest spacing of SL1, SL2 and SR is to be provided
as the actual spacing of the shear connectors.

11.4 Partial Shear Connection

Partial shear connection may be used either for attaining economy without losing much in
moment capacity of the composite section or where the number of shear connectors
required for full shear cannot be provided without compromising minimum spacing
provisions.

Partial shear connections may be used in plastic and compact sections. The number of
connectors shall then be determined by a partial shear connection theory, taking into
account the deformation capacity of shear connector.
𝑛𝑝
Sc = Degree of shear connection = 𝑛
𝑓
np = Number of shear connectors provided for partial shear connection
nf = Number of shear connectors required for full shear connection
MR = Required reduced bending resistance of the section
Mp = The full plastic moment of resistance of the composite section
Mps = Plastic moment of resistance of steel section alone
𝑀−𝑀𝑝𝑠
𝑛𝑝 = 𝑀 𝑛𝑓= Sc nf
𝑝 −𝑀𝑝𝑠

11.4.1 Limitation on the Use of Partial Shear Connection in Beams for Buildings

Headed studs with an overall length after welding not less than 4 times its diameter and
with shank diameter not less than 16 mm and neither greater than 25 mm, may be
considered as ductile with following limits for the degree of shear connection, Sc

a) For steel sections with equal flanges:


 355 
Le ≤ 25 S c  1   .0.75  0.03Le  Sc ≥ 0.4 Eq. 10.8
 f y 
Le > 25 Sc = 1.0 Eq. 10.9

b) For steel sections having a bottom flange with an area of three times the
area of top flange:
 355
Le ≤ 20 S c  1   .0.30  0.015Le  Sc ≥ 0.4 Eq. 10.10
 f y 
Le > 20 Sc = 1.0 Eq. 10.11

45
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Le is the distance between points of zero bending moment in the sagging
bending range in metres. For typical continuous beams, Le may be assumed
to be L0, as shown in Fig. 8.

c) For steel sections having a bottom flange with an area exceeding the area
of the top flange but less than three times that area, the limit for Sc may be
determined from expressions in (a) and (b) above by linear interpolation.

11.5 Dimensional Detail of Shear Connectors

The dimensional details of shear shall be given in fig. 9

1.5
d 25 mm
d (min.)
H ≥ 4d
≥ 100
mm (a) Stud Connector
40 mm
(min.)
25 mm
(min.)
H ≥ 4d
≥ 100 mm

(b) Angle / Channel Connector


-transverse section

Minimum 6 mm fillet weld for full width


both at heel and toe of channel/ angle
(c) Angle / Channel Connector
- longitudinal section
Fig 9 Details of Shear Connectors

Note: 1 The diameter of the stud connector welded to the flange plate shall not exceed twice the
flange plate thickness.
Note: 2 The height of the stud connectors shall not be less than four times their diameter nor
100 mm.
Note: 3 The diameter of the head of the stud shall not be less than one and a half times the
diameter of the stud.
Note: 4 The size of the fillet weld joining other types of connectors to the flange plate shall not
exceed half the thickness of the flange plate.
Note: 5 Channel and angle connectors shall have at least 6 mm fillet welds placed along the
heel and toe of the channels/angles. The clear distance between the edge of the flange
and the edge of the shear connectors shall not be less than 25 mm
Note: 6 The overall height of a connector including any hoop, which is an integral part of the
connector, shall be at least 100 mm with a clear cover of 25 mm.
46
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

11.5.1 Precautions against separation of steel beam from concrete

a) Top of stud and top flange of channel shear connectors shall extend into the
deck slab at least 40 mm above bottom transverse reinforcements and also
a minimum of 40 mm into the compression zone of concrete flange.
b) Where a concrete haunch is used, between the steel flange and the soffit of
the slab, top of stud and top flange of channel shear connectors shall extend
up to at least 40 mm above the transverse reinforcements in the haunches,
provided the reinforcements are sufficient to transfer longitudinal shear.
c) Where shear connectors are placed adjacent to the longitudinal edge of the
slab, transverse reinforcement provided in accordance with 11.8.1 shall be
fully anchored in the concrete between the edge of the slab and the adjacent
row of connectors.

11.6 Detail of Haunches in Reinforced Concrete

Fig. 10 indicates the dimension of haunches as applicable for slabs with haunches resting
on steel girder.

bh ≥ L+2dh bh ≥ L+2dh
L L

o
≤ 45 ≤ 45o dh

Fig. 10 Dimension of Haunches

The edge of haunches shall be located outside a line drawn at 45 degrees from the outside
edge of the base of the connector as shown in Fig. 10

11.6.1 Clear Cover to Shear Connectors

The clear depth of concrete cover over the top of the shear connectors shall not be less
than 25 mm. The horizontal clear concrete cover to any shear connector shall not be less
than 50 mm as shown in Fig.11.

47
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
cover 50 mm (min.) cover 50 mm (min.)

Fig. 11 Cover to Connectors

11.7 Spacing of Shear Connectors

a) Where the compression flange of steel beam, in spite of being semi-compact is


assumed to be compact or plastic based on the restraint provided by shear
connectors, the centre-to-centre spacing of the shear connectors in the direction
of the compression should satisfy the following:

i. Where the slab is in contact over the full length (e.g. solid slab):-
S L  21.t f 250 / f y Eq. 10.12

ii. Where the slab is not in contact over the full length (e.g. slab with ribs
transverse to the beam):-
S L  14.t f 250 / f y Eq. 10.13

Where,
tf is the thickness of the flange
fy is the nominal yield strength of the flange N/mm2.
SL is the maximum spacing of the shear connector
In addition, the clear distance from the edge of the compression flange
to the nearest line of shear connectors should not be greater than
9.t f 250 / f y or 50 mm which whichever is less.
b) In all cases, shear connector shall be provided throughout the length of the beam
and may be uniformly spaced between critical cross sections. The maximum
spacing of shear connectors in the longitudinal direction shall be limited to 600
mm or three times the thickness of the concrete slab or four times the height of
the connector (including any hoop which is an integral part of the connector),
whichever is least.

c) Minimum spacing should be such, as to allow proper concrete flow and


compaction around the connectors. In stud connectors the minimum spacing
should not be less than 75 mm.

11.8 Transverse Shear Check (Requirement of Bottom Steel in Concrete Slab)

Planes, which are critical for longitudinal shear failure, in the process of transfer of
longitudinal shear from the girder to the slab, are of four main types, as shown in Fig.12.
48
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
The shear force transferred per meter length from steel beam to concrete slab above, VL
shall satisfy both the following conditions:
1. VL  0.632L f ck Eq. 10.14
or
2. VL  0.232L f ck  0.1. Ast . f yk .n Eq. 10.15
Where,

VL = Longitudinal shear force per unit length calculated for ultimate limit state
fck = Characteristic strength of concrete in MPa
fyk = Yield stress of transverse reinforcement in MPa.
L = Length (in mm) of possible shear plans envelop as indicated in Fig 12.
n = Number of times each lower transverse reinforcing bar is intersected by a
shear surface (i.e. the number of rows of shear connector at one section
of the beam). Generally, for T-beam n = 2 and for L-beam n = 1
Ast = Sectional areas (in Cm2) of transverse reinforcements per meter run of
beam
The amount of transverse steel (cm2/m) in the bottom of the slab shall not be less
2.5VL
than where VL is in KN/m.
f yk
11.8.1 General Arrangements of Transverse Reinforcements

If the concrete by itself is insufficient to take the longitudinal shear, sufficient transverse
reinforcements shall be provided to transfer longitudinal shear force from the girder to the
effective width of the slab. The area of transverse reinforcement per unit length of beam
will be the sum total of all the reinforcement [At, Ah or Ab as shown in Fig. 12(a), Fig. 12(b)
and Fig. 12(c)], which are intersected by the shear plane and are fully anchored on both
the sides of the shear plane considered.

11.8.2 Total Transverse Reinforcements

The total transverse reinforcements Ast, per unit length of beam in case of shear plane 1
– 1 which crosses the whole thickness of the slab will be the sum of (At + Ab) [Fig. 12(a)].
Area of reinforcements At and Ab include those provided for flexure. The total transverse
reinforcements across plane 2 – 2 [Fig. 12(a)] is Ast = 2Ab and that across plane 3 – 3 [Fig.
12(b)] is Ast = 2Ah as these planes do not cross the full thickness of the slab. In case of
shear plane 4 – 4 [Fig. 12(c)], the total transverse reinforcement is Ast = 2(Ab + Ah). The
transverse reinforcements shall be placed at locations as shown in Fig. 13. The haunch
bars shall be extended beyond the junction of bottom bars by a length equal to the
anchorage length.

49
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Top bar (At)
1

2 2

1 2 2 Bottom bar (Ab)

(a) Non Haunched Beam


Top bar (At)
Haunch bar (Ah)
1
3 3

1 Bottom bar (Ab)


3 3

(b) Large Haunched Beam

Haunch bar (Ah) Top bar (At)


1
4 4

1 Bottom bar
4 4 (Ab)

(c) Small Haunched Beam


Fig 12 Transverse reinforcement across Shear Planes

50
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

C2 C1 C2 C1

(a) Stud Connector in (b) Channel Connector in


Un-Haunched Beam Un-Haunched Beam

b c b c
a a
C1 C1
C2 C2

(c) Stud Connector in (d) Channel Connector in


Haunched Beam Haunched Beam

Fig. 13 Arrangement of Transverse reinforcements

12 COMPOSITE SLABS WITH PROFILED STEEL SHEETING

12.1 General

12.1.1 Typical Arrangement of Profiled Slab

Typical arrangement of components and terminologies in composite deck are shown in


Fig 14.

br
bs

Fig. 14 Composite beam with profiled decking steel sheet.

The steel decking performs a number of roles as given below:


51
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
i) It supports loads during construction and acts as a working platform
ii) It develops adequate composite action with concrete to resist the imposed loading
iii) It transfers in-plane loading by diaphragm action to vertical bracing or shear walls
iv) It stabilizes the compression flanges of the beams against lateral buckling, until
concrete hardens.
v) It reduces the volume of concrete in tension zone
vi) It distributes shrinkage strains, thus preventing serious cracking of concrete.

12.1.2 Scope

The provisions in this section deal with composite floor slabs spanning only in the direction
of the ribs. They are applicable to buildings predominantly subjected to static imposed
loads.
These are limited to decking with narrowly spaced web, defined by the ratio of the width
to spacing of the rib, 𝑏𝑟 ⁄ 𝑏𝑠 ≤ 0.6. (Fig. 14)

12.2.1 The Structural Elements

Composite floors with profiled decking consist of the following structural elements along
with in-situ concrete and steel beams (Fig 14):
a) Profiled Decking
b) Shear Connectors
c) Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses

Connections between the structural steel beam and decking elements are generally
designed as ‘simple’ i.e. not moment resisting. Stud shear connectors are often welded
through the sheeting on to the top flange of the beam to obtain additional anchorage of
the sheeting with concrete.

12.2.2 Prequalification

12.2.2.1 Slab dimension

Where the slab acts composite with a steel beam or used as a diaphragm;
- the overall depth of the slab ℎ𝑡 ≥ 90 mm
- the thickness of concrete above the main top flat surface of the the
sheeting ribs ℎ𝑐 ≥ 50 mm

Where the slab does not act composite with a steel beam or has no other stabilizing
function;
- the overall depth of the slab ℎ𝑡 ≥ 80 mm
- the thickness of concrete above the main flat top surface of the
sheeting ribs ℎ𝑐 ≥ 40 mm

12.2.2.2 Bearing length

52
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

Fig. 15 Minimum bearing lengths

The recommended minimum bearing lengths of steel decking on the support (𝑙𝑏𝑐 ) and the
composite slab including the cast in place concrete (𝑙𝑏𝑠 ) shall be as given below:

For composite slab bearing on steel or concrete: 𝑙𝑏𝑐 =75mm, 𝑙𝑏𝑠 =50mm
For composite slab bearing on other material: 𝑙𝑏𝑐 =100mm, 𝑙𝑏𝑠 =70mm

12.2.2.3 Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses

Effect of temperature stress effects in composite slabs in buildings may normally


neglected unless specially required in special conditions. The effect of shrinkage is to be
considered. The total shrinkage strain for design may be taken as 0.003 in the absence
of test data.

12.2.2.4 Minimum Reinforcement:

The minimum reinforcement in both directions should be according to IS 456, clause-


26.5.2. The spacing of the reinforcement bar should be according to IS456, Clause-26.3.

12.2.2.5 Size of Aggregates

In addition to the above, the largest nominal aggregate size should be according to IS
456.

12.3 Analysis for Internal Forces and Moments

12.3.1 Profile steel Sheeting as shuttering

a) Elastic analysis shall be used where sheeting is considered. In the analysis of


temporarily propped profile steel sheeting and sheeting continuous permanent
supports, the magnitude of bending moments and shear forces could be
conservatively calculated using the coefficients of bending moment and shear force
as per clause 22.5 of IS 456
b) More accurate analysis and design of profile steel sheeting could be in accordance
with IS 801.

12.3.2 Analysis of composite slab

a) The following method of analysis may be used for ultimate limit states

53
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
1) Linear analysis without redistribution (serviceability stage) with redistribution
(Ultimate limit states)
2) Rigid-plastic global analysis based either on the kinematic method or on the
static equilibrium method provided that it is shown that sections where plastic
rotations are required have sufficient rotation capacity (Ultimate Limit States)
3) Elastic-plastic analysis taking into accounts the non-linear material behavior.
(Ultimate Limit States)
b) A continuous slab may be designed as a series of simply supported spans. Nominal
reinforcement in accordance with IS 456 clause 26.5.2 should be provided over
intermediate supports to avoid excessive cracking at the supports.
12.3.3 Effective span

a) When continuous composite slab is designed as a series of simply supported


spans, for simplicity the effective span can be taken as the lesser of the following:
1) Distance between centres of supports
2) The clear span plus the effective depth of the slab.
b) Where the composite slab is designed as continuous, it is permitted to use an
equivalent isostatic span for the determination of the resistance. The span length
should be taken as
1) 0.8L for internal span
2) 0.9L for external span
12.4. Design of composite slabs

Proprietary data backed by analysis and tests may be used in the design. Otherwise the
procedure given below may be used to evaluate the strength of composite slabs

12.4.1 Evaluation of profile steel sheeting as shuttering during construction

The stress analysis of the profiled steel sheeting should be evaluated using the design
equations or tests. For the ultimate limit state, the resistance of the sheet to sagging and
hogging bending, together with the effects of combined bending and web crushing, are
normally critical. For the serviceability limit state, the limiting value of deflection 𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 of
steel sheeting under its own weight plus the weight of wet concrete may be considered as
L/180 (where L is the effective span between supports) as per IS800, Table-6.
12.4.2 Ultimate limit states design criteria

The design values of effects actions shall not exceed the design values of resistance for
the relevant ultimate limit states.

12.4.2.1 Flexure
a) In case of full shear connection (=1.0), the design bending resistance 𝑀𝑑 of any
cross section should be in accordance with clause 7.1 but the yield stress of the
steel sheeting should be taken as𝑓𝑦𝑝 .
b) In case partial shear connection (<1.0), the design bending resistance, 𝑀𝑑 , shall
be calculated as per 12.4.2.2.

54
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
c) In hogging bending region the contribution of steel sheeting shall only be taken into
account where the sheet is continuous. The redistribution of moments that can
occur between support and mid span sections shall not be considered.
d) For the effective area 𝐴𝑝 of the steel sheeting, the width of embossments and
indentations in the sheet should be neglected, unless it is inferred by tests that a
larger area is effective.
e) The effect of local buckling of compressed parts of the sheeting should be
considered by using effective widths not exceeding twice the limiting values of
class-1 steel webs as discussed in clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of ISv800.
f) The sagging bending resistance of a cross section with the neutral axis above the
sheeting should be calculated form the equilibrium of stress distribution as shown
ANNEX C (Fig 38a and 38b)
g) If the contribution of the steel sheeting is neglected the hogging bending resistance
of a cross section should be calculated as a reinforced concrete for the stress
distribution as shown in ANNEX C (Fig 38c).

12.4.2.1.1 Sagging bending resistance of composite slab with full shear


connection (𝜼 = 𝟏):

a) When the neutral axis is within the concrete slab (xu < hc) (Fig 16(a))

bs 0.45 fck
Fcf 0.42 xu
hc xu
d Plastic N.A.
ht z Md
C. G. axis Fat
hp
e

Fig. 16(a) The stress distribution in the composite slab for sagging
bending moment (xu ≤ hc)

For full shear connection, the design compressive force in the concrete part
𝐴𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝
𝑀𝑑 = 𝛾 (𝑑 − 0.42𝑥𝑢 ) Eq 11.1
𝑚𝑜
where
𝐹𝑐𝑓 = 0.36𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑠 𝑥𝑢
and design tensile force in the steel decking sheet
𝐹𝑎𝑡 = 𝐴𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝 ⁄𝛾𝑚𝑜
𝐴𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝 ⁄𝛾𝑚𝑜
𝑥𝑢 = ≤ ℎ𝑐
0.36𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑠
𝑑– Distance between the C.G axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the
extreme fibre of the composite slab in compression ( ℎ𝑐 + ℎ𝑝 − 𝑒)
𝑒 − Distance between the C.G axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the
extreme fibre of the composite slab in tension
𝑏𝑠 − Distance between the centres of adjacent ribs of profile steel sheeting
𝐴𝑝 − Effective cross-sectional area of profile steel sheeting
55
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
𝑓𝑐𝑘 − Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
𝑓𝑦𝑝 − yield strength of profile steel sheeting
ℎ𝑡 – total depth of the composite slab ( ℎ𝑡 = ℎ𝑐 + ℎ𝑝 )

b) When neutral axis is within the steel decking (xu> hc) (Fig. 17(b))

bs 0.45 fck
0.45 fck
Fcf Fcf 0.42 xu
hc xu xu xu
d
Fac z Fac
Plastic Fts Mpr
hp N.A. C. G. Fat 0.87 Ftc 0.87 fy
0.87 fy
axis
ep f
0.87 0.87 fy
f

Fig. 17(b) The stress distribution in the composite slab for sagging
bending moment (xu ≥ hc)
The compressive force in concrete of thickness ℎ𝑐 is ‘𝐹𝑐𝑓 ’which is less than 𝐹𝑎𝑡 as given
in equation-(). The concrete within the decking rib is neglected. The tensile force in
decking sheet is divided into 𝐹𝑡𝑐 (equal to the compressive force in concrete (𝐹𝑐𝑓 ) and
𝐹𝑡𝑠 . (equal to the compressive force in the decking steel above neutral axis)

𝑀𝑑 = 𝐹𝑐𝑓 × 𝑍 + 𝑀𝑝𝑟 Eq 11.2

where

𝐹𝑐𝑓 = 0.36𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑠 ℎ𝑐 = 𝐹𝑡𝑐


𝐹𝑎𝑡 = 𝐴𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝 ⁄𝛾𝑚𝑜
𝐹𝑡𝑠 = 𝐹𝑎𝑡 − 𝐹𝑡𝑐
𝐹𝑐𝑓
𝑍 = ℎ𝑡 − 0.42ℎ𝑐 − 𝑒𝑝 + (𝑒 − 𝑒)
𝐹𝑎𝑡 𝑝
𝐹𝑐𝑓
𝑀𝑝𝑟 = 1.25𝑀𝑝𝑠 (1 − ) ≤ 𝑀𝑝𝑠
𝐹𝑎𝑡
𝑒𝑝 − Distance between the plastic neutral axis of the profiled steel sheeting
and the extreme fibre of the composite slab in tension

12.4.2.1.2 Hogging bending resistance of composite slab with full shear


connection

Neglecting the contribution of steel decking, the hogging bending resistance of the cross
section could be calculated as follows (Fig. 18).

56
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)

bs
Fat
c
hc
d h z
Md
N.A. Fcf
xu
0.42 xu
bo 0.45 fck

Fig. 18 The stress distribution in the composite slab for hogging


bending moment
𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑠𝑘
𝑀𝑑 = × (ℎ − 𝑐 − 0.42𝑥𝑢 ) Eq 11.3
𝛾𝑠
where,

𝐹𝑠𝑡 = 𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑓𝑠𝑘 ⁄𝛾𝑠


𝑥𝑢 = 𝐹𝑠𝑡 /0.36𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑏𝑜
c = distance of the centroid of the reinforcing steel from the top of concrete

12.4.2.2 Bending Resistance of Composite Slab with Partial shear connection


(𝟎 < 𝜼 < 𝟏)

In this case the compressive force in concrete 𝐹𝑐 is less than 𝐹𝑐𝑓 and depends on the
strength of shear connection between the steel decking and concrete. The interface shear
strength depends upon the chemical bond and mechanical interlock between the deck
sheeting and concrete as well as the end anchor provided by the shear connectors welded
to the steel support through the metal deck. The parameters m and k corresponding to
chemical bond and the mechanical interlock values are obtained for the particular deck
sheeting used from the m-k test as given in Annex C.

The interface shear strength corresponding to bond and mechanical interlock is obtained
as

H = {[k+mxAp/(bxLs)]/dp +nsh x Vsh}/𝛾𝑣𝑠

where,
𝐴𝑝 – nominal cross section of the sheeting in mm2
dp = Depth of the centroid of the deck sheeting from the extreme compression
foibre of concrete
m,k – design values for the empirical factors in N/mm2 obtained from slab
tests in Annex C
𝛾𝑣𝑠 – partial safety factor for ultimate limit state (recommended value – 1.25)
nsh, Vsh – The number anf shear strength of the shear connector at the
nearest end support from the section
𝐿𝑠 – shear span in mm
For design 𝐿𝑠 should be taken as,
i) 𝐿/4 for a uniformly load applied to the entire span length

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ii) the distance between the applied load and the nearest support for two
equal and symmetrically placed loads
iii) for other loading arrangements including a combination of distributed and
asymmetrical point loads, as assessment should be made based upon
test results or by the following approximate calculation. The shear span
should be taken as the maximum moment divided by the greater vertical
shear force adjacent to the supports for the span considered.

The maximum compression in concrete is given by

Fc = H  Fcf

The stress block is as shown in Fig. 15(b). The design bending strength of
the partial connection is given by

𝑀𝑑 = 𝐹𝑐 × 𝑍 + 𝑀𝑝𝑟

where

𝐹𝑐 = Compressive force in concrete slab as governed by the interface shear


between steel decking and concrete slab

𝐹𝑎𝑡 = 𝐴𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝 ⁄𝛾𝑚𝑜


𝐹𝑐
𝑀𝑝𝑟 = 1.25𝑀𝑝𝑠 (1 − 𝐴 ) ≤ 𝑀𝑝𝑠 Eq 11.19
𝑝 𝑓𝑦𝑝 ⁄𝛾𝑚𝑜
𝐹𝑐𝑓
𝑍 = ℎ𝑡 − 0.42𝑥𝑢 − 𝑒𝑝 + (𝑒 − 𝑒)
𝐹𝑎𝑡 𝑝
12.5 Shear Resistance of Composite Slab

12.5.1 Punching Shear

The punching shear resistance of a composite slab should be calculated as per Clause of
IS 456 where the critical perimeter is as shown in fig 19

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hc hc

dp critical perimeter cp

loaded area

dp
A A

hc dp

SECTION A-A
Fig. 19 Punching perimeter in a profiled composite slab

12.5.2 Resistance to Shear

The vertical shear resistance 𝑉𝑣.𝑑 of composite slab over a width equal to the distance
between centres of ribs and the effective depth which depends on the effective depth of
the cross section to the centroid of the tensile reinforcement, should be accordance with
IS 456, clause-40.2.1.

Sheeting may be taken as the tensile reinforcement provided that it is fully anchored
beyond the section considered. For heavily loaded slabs additional reinforcement may be
required at the support when the profile steel sheeting is discontinuous and has only
limited anchorage.

In case of partial shear connection the shear capacity may be governed by the interface
shear strength between steel decking and concrete, as presented in Annex C.

12.6 Serviceability Limit State

12.6.1 Design against cracking

The crack width is calculated at the top surface in the negative moment region using
standard methods prescribed for reinforced concrete in IS 456. If environment is corrosive
it is advisable to design the slab as continuous at supports and take advantage of steel
provided for negative bending moment resistance and for minimizing cracking during
service loads.
Otherwise normally crack width should not exceed 3 mm. Provision of 0.4 % steel at top
of slab will normally avoid cracking problems in propped construction. Provision of 0.2 %
of steel is normally sufficient for the same in un-propped construction.

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11.6.2 Deflection Limits

The IS 456 gives a stringent deflection limitation of span/350 or 20mm whichever is less,
which may be un-realistic for un-propped construction. It may be worthwhile to limit span
to depth ratio in the range of 25 to 35 for the composite condition, the former being adopted
for simply supported slabs and the later for continuous slabs. The deflection of the
composite slabs is influenced by the slip between sheeting and concrete. Tests seem to
be the best method to estimate the actual deflection for the conditions adopted.

11.6.2.1 Ponding Effect

In long spans the profiled deck sheet may deflect considerably under the dead weight of
concrete causing larger thickness of concrete at the mid span (ponding effect). In such
cases either propping from below should be used to eliminate the dead load deflection or
the effect of additional thickness should be considered in the weight and strength
calculations.

13 COMPOSITE COLUMNS

13.1 General

13.1.1 This clause applies to various forms of steel-concrete composite columns including
fully or partly encased steel columns and concrete in-filled rectangular or circular steel
tubes, provided:
a) The columns or compression members consist of structural steel with grade
conforming to IS 2062 and normal weight concrete of strength M20 to M60.
b) The columns or compression members are in framed structures where the other
structural members are either composite or steel members.
c) The steel contribution ratio  should fulfill the criteria:

0.2 ≤  ≤ 0.9 where  is defined in Clause 13.6.

d) Further,

1) The influence of local buckling of the structural steel section on the resistance
of the composite section as a whole shall be considered in design.
2) The effects of local buckling may be neglected for a steel section fully encased
in accordance with 13.2, and for other types of cross-section, the maximum
width to thickness ratio given in IS 800 shall not be exceeded.

13.1.2 Composite Columns can be of two types:

a) Encased where concrete encases the steel section [Fig. 20]


b) In-filled where concrete fills rectangular or circular steel tube [Fig. 21].

13.2 Construction Details

In composite columns with fully encased steel sections, concrete cover to structural steel
sections be at least 40 mm or one-sixth of the breadth b of the flange, over steel section.
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The concrete shall be adequately held by steel reinforcements and stirrups all around.
The steel section shall be unpainted to ensure friction between steel and concrete, but
cleaned at abutting surface to ensure protection against corrosion and spalling of
concrete. The cover to steel reinforcement should be in accordance with IS 456.

Shear transfer between steel concrete interfaces is ensured basically through bond for
which calculated shear stress at interface shall be kept limited in accordance with Table
9, beyond which mechanical shear connectors are to be provided.

13.3 Members under Axial Compression

Standard composite sections used as columns are as shown below:

bc bc
b b = bc b
cz

z z
h = hc

hc
hc
h cz

y y y
(i) (ii) (iii)

Fig. 20 Fully and partially concrete encased columns

dc d

z z
z
h

t t
y y y
(vi
(iv (v)
)
)
Fig. 21 Concrete in-filled columns

13.3.1 General Design Philosophy

To ensure structural stability of a compression member, second order effects like residual
stresses, geometrical imperfections, local instability, cracking of concrete,
creep/shrinkage of concrete, yielding of structural steel and of reinforcement etc. shall be
considered. While designing the compression members including design for the above
effects the following shall be taken into account.

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a) The second-order effects shall be considered in any direction in which failure might
occur, if they affect the structural stability significantly.
b) Internal forces should be determined by elasto-plastic analysis.
c) Full composite action between steel and concrete shall be considered up to failure.
d) Effects of creep and shrinkage shall be considered if they are likely to reduce the
structural stability significantly. For simplification, creep and shrinkage effects may
be ignored if the increase in the first-order bending moments due to creep
deformations from permanent loads is not greater than 10% of first order bending
moments due to total design loads.

13.3.2 Design Guidelines

The simplified design provisions given in the following sections is applicable for composite
members that are doubly symmetrical and uniform in cross-section throughout the length
of the member. Further, the composite member should conform to the following
conditions.

a) The non-dimensional slenderness  (section 13.5) should not be greater than 2.

b) For a fully encased steel section (Fig. 20(a)) limits to the maximum thickness of
concrete cover that may be used in the strength calculation are:
Cz (max) = 0.3 h
Cy (max) = 0.4 b

c) The longitudinal steel reinforcement that may be used in calculation should not
exceed 6% of the concrete area.

d) The ratio of the cross-section’s depth hc to width bc, see Fig. 20a, should be within
the limits (0.2≤ hc/bc ≤5.0)

13.4 Local Buckling of Steel Sections

To prevent premature local buckling of structural steel components in partly encased steel
section and concrete filled steel sections, the width to thickness ratio of individual
elements of the steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits:
d
 88 2 for concrete filled circular tubular sections
t
h
 50 for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections
t
b
 43 for partially encased I sections
tf
250
Where   and fy is the yield strength of the steel section in MPa
fy
For fully encased steel sections, the above local buckling check is not required. However,
the concrete cover to the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than
40 mm, nor less than one-sixth of the breadth, b, of the flange. Design of concrete filled
rectangular tubular sections where h/t ratios exceed the local buckling limits for semi-
compact sections, should be verified by tests.

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13.5 Short Compression Members

A compression member is termed as a ‘short compression member’ when its non-


dimensional slenderness ratio   0.2 .

Ppu
Where,   , Eq. 12.1
Pcr
Ppu is the plastic resistance of the composite cross section to compression
and is given
Ppu = As.fy + c.A c. [0.80fck] + A st .f yk Eq. 12.2
Pcr is the elastic buckling load of the column
 2 EI eff
Pcr  Eq. 12.3
l2
(EI)e is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column (section
13.6). is the effective length of the column, which may be conservatively taken
as the overall length L for an isolated non-sway composite column.

fy , yield strength of steel section.


fck characteristic compressive strength (cube strength) of the concrete.
fyk yield strength of the reinforcing steel.
c strength coefficient for concrete
= 1.0 for confined concrete in tubular sections,
= 0.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections with lateral
ties,
= 0.89 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections with spiral
ties.

[Note: While providing spiral ties it must be designed as per section 39.4 of IS456, and
ensure that the ratio of the volume of helical reinforcement to the volume of the core is not
less than 0.36(Ag /Aco–1)fck / fyk
(Ag = Gross area of section; Aco = Area of core of the confined core of column
measured to the outer diameter of the helix)]

13.5.1 Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular / square tubular
sections

The plastic resistance of an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square
section (i.e. . the so-called “squash load”) is given by
Pp = As.fy /  m + c.A c. [0.80fck] /  c + A st .fyk / s Eq. 12.4

13.5.2 Concrete filled circular tubular sections

In composite columns with a non-dimensional slenderness of   0.5 (see 13.6 and 13.7)
and where the eccentricity of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10, (where d
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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is the outer dimension of the circular tubular section) the increase in strength and ductility
of concrete due to the confining effects of circular tubular section may be considered.

The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated
by using two coefficients 1 and 2 as given below.
 t fy 
Pp  As 2 f y /  m  0.8 Ac c f ck 1  1  /  c  Ast . f yk /  s Eq. 12.5
 d f ck 
Where, t is the thickness of the circular tubular section, and 1 and 2 two coefficients,
which account for confinement effect and are given by
 10e 
η 1  η 10 1   and η 2  η 20  1  η 20  10 e Eq. 12.5a
 d  d
The basic values 10 and 20 depend on the non-dimensional slenderness 
, and are given by Eq 12.5 b

𝜂1𝑜 = 4.9 − 18.5𝜆̅ + 17𝜆2̅ but ≥ 0


𝜂2𝑜 = 0.25(3 + 2𝜆̅) but ≤ 1.0 Eq. 12.5b

The resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may increase
by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement of in-filled concrete
is considered. Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of e  d/10.
If the eccentricity ‘e’ exceeds the value d/10, or if the non-dimensional slenderness
exceeds the value 0.5 then 1 =0 and 2 = 1.0.

13.6 Effective Elastic Flexural Stiffness

a) Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness, (EI)e, is obtained by adding
up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section:

(EI)e = Es Is + 0.6 Ecm Ic + Est.Ist Eq. 12.6

Where,

Es and Est = modulus of elasticity of the steel section and the


reinforcement respectively
Ecm = secant modulus of the concrete

b) Long term loading: In slender columns (   0.2 ) the effect of long-term loading
should be considered.

If the eccentricity ‘e’ of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension ‘D’ or e
> 2D, the effect on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due
to creep and shrinkage of concrete will be very small and may be neglected. Moreover,
effect of long-term loading need not be considered if the non-dimensional slenderness,
 of the composite column is less than the limiting values given in Table 9.
Table 9 Limiting values of  for long term loading
(Clause 12.6)

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Braced Un-braced and/or
Non-sway sway system
systems
Concrete encased cross-
0.8 0.5
section
Concrete filled cross- 0.8 0.5
section 1  1 
Note:  is the steel contribution ratio defined as

As . f y
 Eq. 12.7
Pp  m
When  exceeds the limits prescribed above and e/D < 2, the effect of
creep and shrinkage of concrete should be considered by adopting modulus
of elasticity of concrete Ecs instead of Ecm where Ecs is defined as follows:
 0.5Pdd 
Ecs  0.75Ecm 1  Eq. 12.8
 P 
Where,
P the applied factored load;
Pdd the part of the applied factored load permanently acting on the
column.

The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular
sections with   2.0 provided that  is greater than 0.6 for braced (non-
sway) columns, and 0.75 for Unbraced (sway) columns.

13.7 Long Members Subjected to Axial Compression

The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling, if anyone of
the following conditions is satisfied:

(a) Axial force in the column is less than 0.1 Pcr where Pcr is the elastic buckling
load of the column
(b) Non-dimensional slenderness  is less than 0.2.

In designing other columns not satisfying the above conditions, safety against buckling
strength shall be checked about the corresponding axis. The following equation need to
be satisfied for buckling load.
P  Pp

Pp is the plastic resistance to compression.


1
 2
Eq. 12.9
    2

Where,

 
  0.5 1     0.2    2
 Eq. 12.10

= Non-dimensional slenderness ratio.

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 = Imperfection factor as given in Table 10 which allows for different
levels of imperfections and residual stresses in columns corresponding to
curves a, b and c.

The buckling curve to be adopted for design shall be selected according to type of section
and the axis of bending as given blow:

Curve a for concrete filled tubular sections with reinforcement


percentage less than 3% of gross cross section area
Curve b for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about
the strong axis of the steel sections (z-z axis) and for concrete
filled tubular sections with reinforcement percentage more than
3% of gross cross section area.
Curve c for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about
the weak axis of the steel sections (y-y axis).

Table 10 Imperfection factor  for the buckling curves


(Clause 12.7)
Buckling Curve a b c
Imperfection
0.21 0.34 0.49
Factor

13.8 Members Subjected to Combined Compression and Bending

When the bending moment in the section is zero (i.e. M = 0), the design compressive
strength is as given in 13.5 and 13.7. Similarly the plastic moment of resistance in a
column at zero compression loads is as given below.

Mp = (Zps – Zpsn) fy /m + (Zpr – Zprn) fyk /s + αc.0.8.(Zpc – Zpcn) fck /c Eq. 12.11

Where,

Zps, Zpr, and Zpc plastic section moduli of the steel section,
reinforcement and concrete about their own
centroids respectively
Zpsn,, Zprn and Zpcn plastic section moduli of the steel section,
reinforcement and concrete about neutral axis of
gross cross section respectively.

While determining the plastic resistance of a section the following criteria shall be
considered:

a) If the shear force V on the steel section exceeds 60% of the design shear resistance
Vp of the steel, the influence of the transverse shear on the resistance in combined
bending and compression should be taken into account by a reduced design steel
strength (1 - ß) fy /δm in the shear area Av (ß is determined as per 8.5.4.1).

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b) Unless a more accurate analysis is used, the design shear action, V, may be
distributed into Vs acting on the structural steel and Vc, acting on the reinforced
concrete section by:
M ps
Vs  V .
Mp
Vc  V  Vs
Where,
Mps is the plastic moment of resistance of steel section alone
Mp is the plastic moment of resistance of the entire composite section
V may be assumed to be resisted by steel sections alone as a simplifying
approximation.

13.8.1 Second Order Effects on Bending Moment

For isolated non-sway columns second order effects need to be considered if both the
conditions as mentioned below are satisfied.
P
(1)  0.1
Pcr

Where P is the design applied load, and Pcr is the elastic critical load of the
composite column.

(2) Elastic slenderness conforms to:


λ  0.2

Where,  is the non-dimensional slenderness of the composite column.

If the above two conditions are met, the second order effects shall
considered by modifying the maximum first order bending moment
(moment obtained initially), Mmax, with a correction factor k, which is defined
as follows:
Cm
k   1.0
P
1
Pcr
Where
P applied design load and
Pcr is the elastic critical load for the relevant axis and corresponding to
a modified effective flexural stiffness given by (EI)em with the
effective length taken as the composite column length
Cm equivalent moment factor given in Table 11 to account for non-
uniform bending moment over the length of the member.

A simplified approach in considering the value of Cm is as indicated below:

Cm = 0.85 for members whose ends are restrained against rotation


= 1.00 for members whose ends are un-restrained against rotation

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(EI) e = 0.9(Es Is + 0.5 Ecm Ic + Est.Ist)

Table 11 Equivalent Moment actor, Cm


(Clause 12.8.1)
Moment Distribution Moment Factor Comment
(Cm)

First-order bending M is the maximum


moments from member bending moment
M imperfection or lateral within the column
load:: length ignoring
second-order effects
Cm = 1.0
M

End Moments: M or .M is the end


M moments from first-
rM
Cm = 0.66 + 0.44  ≥ order or second-
-1 ≤ r ≤ 1 0.44 order global
analysis.

13.8.2 Members Subjected to Axial Force and Uni-axial Bending

While checking a section for combined axial force and bending Moment, first it should be
ensured that the section is safe against axial force acting alone considering buckling along
each principal axis. The resistance of the section shall then be checked for combined axial
compression and uniaxial bending moment as described below.

The design against combined bending and axial compression is adequate when the
following condition is satisfied:

M  0.9.M p

Where M is the design bending moment, which may be factored to allow for second
order effects, if necessary, as described in 13.8.1(2).

The moment resistance reduction ratio  for a composite column under combined
compression and uniaxial bending shall be evaluated as follows:

   d  d  c
when Eq. 12.12
1   c 
and
  1
1    d d  c
when Eq. 12.13
1   c 
Where,
Pc
c =Axial compression resistance ratio due to concrete =
Pp

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Where Pc = 0.8αc.fck.Ac /γc
P
d = Design axial compression resistance ratio =
Pp
 = reduction factor due to column buckling

13.8.3 Members Subjected to Axial Force and Bi-axial Bending

Members subjected to combined axial compression and biaxial bending shall satisfy the
following interaction relationships:
P Cmy M y M
Ky  K LT z 1.0
Pdy M dy M dz
P Cmy M y C M
 0.6 K y  K z mz z 1.0
Pdz M dy M dz

Where,

Cmy, Cmz = equivalent uniform moment factor as per Table 18;


P = applied axial compression under factored load;
My, Mz = maximum factored applied bending moments about y and
z-axis of the member, respectively;
Pdy, Pdz = design strength under axial compression as governed by
buckling about minor (y) and major (z) axis respectively;
Mdy, Mdz = design bending strength about y (minor) or z (major) axis
considering laterally unsupported length of the cross section [see Section 6(h)];
Ky = 1+ (λy - 0.2)ny ≤ 1 + 0.8 ny;
Kz = 1 + (λz - 0.2)nz ≤ 1+ 0.8 nz, and
0.1LT n y 0.1n y
KLT = 1  1
CmLT  0.25 CmLT  0.25
where
ny, nz = ratio of actual applied axial force to the design axial strength
for buckling about the y and z-axis, respectively, and
CmLT = Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral torsional buckling as
per Table 18 corresponding to the actual moment gradient between lateral
supports against torsional deformation in the critical region under consideration.

Table 12 Equivalent Uniform Moment Factor


(Clause 12.2)
Cmy, Cmz, CmLT
Bending Moment Diagram Range
Uniform Loading Concentrated
Load
(1) (2) (3) (4)

M −1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 0.6 + 0.4 ψ ≥ 0.4


ψM

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0 ≤ αs≤ 1 −1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 0.2 + 0.8 αs ≥ 0.4 0.2 + 0.8 αs ≥ 0.4

0≤ψ≤1 0.1 − 0.8 αs ≥ 0.4 − 0.8 αs ≥ 0.4


Mh αs =Mh / Ms
ψMh −1 ≤ αs ≤ 0 0.1(1−ψ) −0.8 αs ≥ 0.2(1−ψ) −0.8 αs ≥
−1 ≤ ψ ≤ 0
0.4 0.4

0 ≤ αh ≤ 1 −1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 0.95 − 0.05 αh 0.90 + 0.10 αh

0≤ψ≤1 0.95 + 0.05 αh 0.90 + 0.10 αh


ψMh
Mh
−1 ≤ αh ≤ 0 0.95 + 0.05 αh 0.90 + 0.1αh (1+2
−1 ≤ ψ ≤ 0
(1+2 ψ) ψ)
αh =Ms / Mh
Ms
For members with sway buckling mode, the equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy = Cmz = 0.9.
Cmy, Cmz, CmLT shall be obtained according to the bending moment diagram between the
relevant braced points

Moment factor Bending axis Points braced


in direction
Cmy z-z y-y My for Cmy
Cmz y-y z-z
CmLT z-z z-z
Mz for Cmz

for CmLT

13.9 Mechanical Shear Connection and Load Introduction

Proper sharing of loads between steel section and concrete of a composite columns
should be ensured at points of load introduction due to load and moment reactions coming
from members connected to the ends of the column and also for axial loads applied
anywhere within the length of the column, considering the shear resistance at the interface
between steel and concrete.

Where composite columns and compression members are subjected to significant


transverse shear, for example by local transverse loads and by end moments, provision
shall be made for the transfer of the corresponding local longitudinal shear stress at the
interface between steel and concrete. For axially loaded columns and compression
members, longitudinal shear outside the region of load introduction need not be
considered.

13.9.1 Load Introduction

Shear connectors should be provided at regions of load introduction and at regions with
change in cross section, if the design shear strength  (Table 13) is exceeded at the
interface between steel and concrete. The shear forces should be determined from the
change of sectional forces of the steel or reinforced concrete section within the
introduction length. If the loads are introduced into the concrete cross section only, the
values resulting from an elastic analysis considering creep and shrinkage should be taken
into account. Otherwise, the forces at the interface should be determined by elastic theory
or plastic theory, to determine the more severe case. In absence of any accurate method,

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the introduction length should not exceed 2d or L/3, where d is the minimum transverse
dimension of the column and L is the column length.

Table 13 Design shear strength (


(Clause 12.9.1)

Type of Cross Section 


(N/mm2)
Completely concrete encased steel
sections 
Concrete filled circular hollow sections 
Concrete filled rectangular hollow
sections 
Flanges of partially encased sections 
Webs of partially encased columns 

Due to the action of creep and shrinkage, no shear connection is required for composite
columns or compression members if the load application is by endplate, where the full
interface between steel and concrete is permanently under compression. Otherwise the
load application / introduction should be verified as given below;

a) If the cross section is partially loaded as shown in Fig. 22 (a), the loads may be
distributed with a ratio of 1 : 2.5 over the thickness te of the end plate. The concrete
stresses should then be limited in the area of effective load introduction.

b) For concrete filled circular hollow section or square hollow section, under partial
loading as shown in Fig. 22 (b), for example by gusset plates or by stiffeners, the
local design strength of concrete c under the gusset or stiffener resulting from the
sectional forces of the concrete section shall be determined as

0.8 f ck  t f y  Ac 0.8. Ac . f ck .
c  1   0   Eq. 12.19
c  d 0.8 f ck  A1 A1 . c
Where,

t is the wall thickness of the steel tube;


d diameter of the tube or width of the square section;
Ac is the cross sectional area of the concrete section of the column;
A1 is the loaded area under the gusset plate (See Fig. 22);
0 = 4.9 for circular steel tubes and 3.5 for square sections

Ac / A1 ≤ 20

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P

I I
ts II II
te
eg σc
P
M

σc ≤ fy /γm
ts+5te
e
A1 A1
ts

(a) End Plate Loading (b) End Gusset Loading


Fig. 22 Partially loaded circular concrete filled hollow section

c) For concrete filled circular hollow section longitudinal reinforcements may be


taken in to account while determining the resistance of the composite column,
even if the reinforcement is not directly connected to the end plate, provided that
the gap e.g. [Fig 22 (A)] between the end of reinforcement and the surface of the
end plate does not exceed 30mm

13.9.1.1 Shear Connection

When mechanical connection is introduced in the form of stud connectors to the web of a
fully or partially concrete encased steel I-section, account may be taken of the frictional
forces that develop from the prevention of lateral expansion of the concrete by the
adjacent steel flanges. This resistance is assumed to be equal to µ.Qu / 2 on each flange
and each horizontal row of studs as shown in Fig. 16 and may be added to the calculated
resistance of the shear connectors. µ is the relevant coefficient of friction and be taken as
0.5. Qu is the resistance of a single stud as per clause 11.2.

The clear distance between the flanges should not exceed the values given in Fig. 23 to
ensure the development of the frictional forces between concrete and steel flanges.

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Fig. 23 Additional frictional forces in composite columns by use of


headed studs

13.9.2 Longitudinal Shear outside Area of Load Introduction

a) Outside the area of load introduction, longitudinal shear at the interface between
concrete and steel should be verified where it is caused by transverse loads and
/or end moments. Shear connectors should be provided based on the distribution
of the design value of longitudinal shear, where this exceeds the design shear
strength . In absence of a more accurate method, elastic analysis, considering
long-term effects and cracking of concrete, may be used to determine the
longitudinal shear at the interface. Provided that the surface of the steel section in
contact with the concrete is unpainted and free from oil, grease and loose scale or
rust, the values given in Table 11 may be assumed for . The value of  given in
Table 11 for fully concrete encased steel sections applies to sections with a
minimum concrete cover of 40 mm. For greater concrete cover and adequate
reinforcement, higher values of  may be used. Unless verified by tests, for
completely encased sections the increased value βc.  may be used, with βc given
by:
 C 
 c  1  0.02.C z .1  z ,min   2.5 Eq. 12.20
 Cz 
Where,
Cz is the wall thickness of the steel tube;
Cz,min diameter of the tube or width of the square section;

b) Unless otherwise verified, for partially encased I-sections with transverse shear due
to bending about the weak axis caused by lateral loading or end moments, shear
connectors should always be provided. If the resistance of the structural steel
section alone against transverse shear is not sufficient to take care of the total
transverse shear on the composite section, then the required transverse
reinforcement for the shear force Vc, according to 13.8, should be welded to the
web of the steel section or should pass through the web of the steel section.

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13.10 Shear Check

The factored shear force in the compression members should be less than the design
shear strength of the member, which is, the sum total of the shear resistance given by the
concrete section along with steel reinforcements as per IS456 and the shear resistance
given by the steel section as per 7.5.4. The shear force shall be distributed between the
steel section and the concrete section in accordance with 13.8.2.

14 CONSTRUCTION & ERECTION

14.1 Fabrication and Inspection Procedure for Structural Steel

Fabrication and erection of steel sections and components as and where situated in a
composite structure would include fabrication procedures, both shop and site fabrications,
along with fabrication tolerances, inspection, testing, handling, transportation, site
storage, erection along with erection tolerances, etc.

Fabrication and erection specifications of all steel components of a composite structure


shall refer to stipulations laid down in IS 800.

14.2 Quality Control and Construction of Reinforced Concrete

For general construction in steel including preparation of concrete, quality control of


concrete as well as reinforcements and construction procedure reference shall be made
to IS 456.

15 TESTING METHODS

Testing of materials shall be done as per standard laid down norms.

15.1 Concrete

For testing of concrete reference shall be made to IS 456.

15.2 Steel Sections

Structural steel shall be tested for mechanical and a chemical property as per Indian
standards as may be applicable and shall conform to requirements of IS 2062 and IS
11587. All accessories like, rivets, bolts, nuts, washers, welding consumables, steel
forging, casting, etc., shall be tested for mechanical and chemical properties as applicable
and shall conform to requirements of appropriate Indian standards. Bolts and bolted
connection joints with high strength friction grip bolts shall be inspected tested according
to IS 4000.

For testing of strength, flexibility and other relevant properties of shear connectors proper
test procedures as indicated in clause 15.3 shall be adopted.

15.3 Testing of Shear Studs

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Fig. 24 Standard push test

The nominal static strength of a shear connector may be determined by push-out tests.
The conditions and procedures which shall be followed while performing the tests are as
indicated below:

a) The dimensions of the standard test are as shown in Fig. 24.


b) The bond at the steel-concrete interface shall be prevented by greasing the flanges
or by any other suitable method.
c) The rate of application of load should be uniform and such that the failure load is
reached in not less than 10 minutes.
d) The strength of the concrete fc, at the time of testing should not differ from the
specified cube strength fck of the concrete by more than  20%.
e) Not less than three tests shall be done and the nominal static strength Pu shall be
taken as the lowest value of fck.P / fc for any of the tests, where P is the failure loads
of the connectors at concrete strength fc and fck is the characteristic cube strength
of the concrete.

16 FIRE RESISTANCE & FIRE DESIGN

For all structures in general construction using composite construction, fire resistance and
design against fire shall be done mainly considering the performance of steel components
under fire. For closed structures an accidental fire may lead to rise in temperature under
which failure of the material may take place. Open structures like bridges are not generally
vulnerable to failure under fire, since the temperature does not go up to the level which
may cause material damage. Also being an open structure, the fire can be extinguished
easily and quickly. Fire tests on open structures like elevated parking lots and bridges
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using steel based construction like composite constructions has shown that the structure
does not undergo any material damage due to reasons indicated above. However, all
structures including both closed and open ones shall be protected from all possible
accidental fire caused by different kind of hazards.

Fire resistant designs for open and closed structures at specialized locations, such as
proximity to oil installations or pipelines carrying inflammable materials etc., as in the case
of industrial buildings and structures shall be done based on recommendations given in
specialized literatures. Also adequate provisions may be made for firefighting equipment
to access all parts of the structure. After occurrence of fire in a structure, it should be
mandatory for the concerned authorities to have the structure inspected by competent
experts in order to ascertain the health of the structure before it can be declared safe for
re-use.

In addition to the above, locations in any structural system which may be prone to
accidental occurrence of fire, shall be adequately provided with basic fire protection
methods as per specialist literature. These will include both active fire protection as well
as passive fire protection.

16.1 Response to Fire

Steel components are more prone to changes in property compared to the concrete ones
and therefore the changes in the inherent properties of the steel component will play an
important role in the behavior of the composite structure during and post fire accident in
the structure.

The requirements for fire resistance shall apply to steel elements of steel-concrete
composite structure designed to exhibit a required fire-resistant level as per the relevant
specifications.

16.1.1 Response of structural elements to fire

The design of a structure against fire load is dependent on the required Fire Resistant
Level (FRL), which is dependent on the function of the structure itself and the Period of
Structural Adequacy (PSA) which shall be calculated based on stipulation laid down in IS
800.

The response of steel elements of a composite structure against fire as laid down in IS
800 shall be binding on all steel elements of composite structures which are susceptible
to rise in temperature during its operational life. For all general buildings adequate fire
protection methodology shall be adopted.

16.1.2 Fire protection methodology

Apart from direct design of structure against fire as elaborated in IS 800 both for protected
as well as unprotected section, other protection both active and passive may be adopted
as fire resistant procedure.

For active fire resistance, provisions of fire locating and fighting measures like smoke
detectors, fire extinguishers inside a building along with accessory fire water supply
system, sprinkler system, etc. shall be made available at vantage points. The planning of

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structure shall be made in such a way that it is accessible from all sides to fire
extinguishing vehicles.

For passive fire resistance, protective paints and materials like intumescent paints,
vermiculite boards etc. may be used on exposed surfaces and their provision shall be
made as per the required fire-resistant level and as per their properties and specification
provided by the manufacturers. The design of protected sections shall be done as per the
stipulations laid down in the relevant section of IS 800.

16.1.3 Fire Resistance of Composite slabs

The fire resistance is assumed based on the following two criteria:


a) Thermal insulation criterion concerned with limiting the transmission of heat by
conduction
b) Integrity criterion concerned with preventing the flames and hot gases to nearby
compartments.
It is met by specifying adequate thickness of insulation

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ANNEX A
(Clauses 8.5.1, 8.5.3 (c), 8.6)
MOMENT OF RESISTANCES

A.1 Moment of Resistance of Composite Section with Plastic or Compact


Structural Steel Beams (Positive Moments)
A.1.1 Bending strength with full shear interaction
The design plastic moment of resistance depends on the location of the neutral axis. Table
14 gives the various bending moments of a composite section depending upon the
location of the neutral axis as shown in Fig. 25, 26, 27 and 28. For hybrid sections
appropriate yield strength in flanges and web shall be considered for calculation of the
plastic moments

(αcc/γc).η.fck
beff

Fcc
0.5ds λxu
ds xu
0.5ds

Neutral axis of
composite
dc section

C.G. of steel
beam Asfy /γm

fy /γm

Fig 25 Stress distribution in a composite beam neutral axis


within concrete slab at ultimate moment

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(αcc/γc).η.fck (αcc/γc).η.fck
beff

Fcc Fcc
0.5ds
ds xu
0.5ds
Fsc 2Fsc
Neutral axis of
composite
dc section

C.G. of steel Asfy/γm


beam Fst

fy/γm fy/γ
m
(a) (b) (c)

Fig 26 Stress distribution in a composite beam with


neutral axis within flange of steel beam at ultimate
moment

(αcc/γc).η.fck (αcc/γc).η.fck
beff
Fcc
0.5ds Fcc
ds
0.5ds xu
Fsc 2Fsc

dc
NEUTRAL
AXIS OF
C.G. OF COMPOSITE Asfy/m
STEEL SECTION
BEAM Fst

fy/m fy/m

(a) (b) (c)

Fig 27 Stress distribution in a composite beam with neutral


axis within web of steel beam at ultimate moment

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Table 14 Positive Moment Capacity of Composite


Section with full Shear interaction
(Clause A.1.1)
Case Position of Plastic Value of xu Design Moment
Neutral Axis Capacity, Mp
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Within slab (Fig. 25) x u = a A s / b eff Mp=As fy (dc + 0.5ds –λ. xu
1 /2 ) /m
beff.ds>a.As
Plastic neutral axis in Mp = fy [As {dc+0.5ds.(1 - λ)}
steel flange (Fig. 26)
xu  d s 
aAs  beff d s  –bf.(xu – ds ).{ xu + (1 - λ).ds
2 beff.ds<a.As<(
2b f a }]/m
beff.ds+2a.Af)

Mp = fy.[ As.{dc + 0.5 ds.(1 –


Plastic Neutral axis in
xu  d s  t f 
 
a As  2 A f  beff d s λ)} – 2Af.{0.5tf + (1 – λ/2)
3 web (Fig. 27)
2at w ds } – tw.(xu – ds – tf ).{xu +
beff.ds + 2a.Af < a.As
(1 – λ) ds + tf }] /m

fy / m
a , Eq. A.1
 cc.
....( f ck )
c
Af = area of top flange of steel beam of a composite section.
As = cross sectional area of structural steel beam of a composite section.
beff = effective width of concrete slab.
bf = width of top flange of steel section.
ds = Overall depth of concrete slab
dc = vertical distance between centroids of concrete slabs and steel
beam in a composite section.
tf = average thickness of the top flange of the steel section.
tw = thickness of the web of the steel section
xu = depth of neutral axis at ultimate limit state of flexure from top of
concrete
Mp = ultimate bending moment.
αcc = 0.67
c = material safety factor for concrete
= 1.50 (for basic and seismic combinations)
= 1.20 (for accidental combinations)
m = material safety factor for structural steel = 1.10
1.0 [for fck ≤ 60 MPa]
1.0 - (fck - 60) / 250 [for 60 < fck ≤ 110 MPa]
0.8 [for fck ≤ 60 MPa]
0.8 - (fck - 60) / 500 [for 60 < fck ≤ 110 MPa]

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A.1.2 Bending moment with partial shear interaction
Provisions for partial shear connection is applicable either for attaining economy without
losing much in moment capacity of the composite section or in conditions where the
number of shear connectors required for full shear interactions cannot be provided due to
lack of space resulting in increased spacing of shear connectors due to provision of lesser
numbers of shear connectors than that needed for full composite action.
np Fcp M  M ps
Degree of shear connection Sc is given as S c   
n f Fcf M p  M ps
np = Number of shear connectors provided for partial shear connection
nf = Number of shear connectors required for full shear connection
Fcp = Capacity of shear connectors in partial shear connection with np no. of
connectors
Fcf = Capacity of shear connectors in full shear connection with nf no. of
connectors
M = Required bending resistance of the section
Mp = Plastic moment of resistance of the composite section
Mps = Plastic moment of resistance of steel section alone

The number of shear connectors required (assuming all connectors have equal capacity)
for the desired moment capacity in partial shear interaction is given as

M  M ps
np  nf
M p  M ps
A.2 Moment of Resistance of Composite Section with Non-Compact Structural
Steel Beams (Positive moments)

Since the compression flange of non-compact steel sections buckle locally under
compression before reaching yield stress fy, the resistance of the composite section
consisting of non-compact sections is guided by that of compact sections as above,
wherein the effective width of elements of section like the compression flange is restricted
to that of the compact section limiting value.

A.3 Moment of Resistance of Composite Section (Negative Moment) (Continuous


Beams)

Fig. 28 shows stress distribution across a composite beam section subjected to hogging
bending moment. Since the steel bottom flange is in compression. Section classification
shall be done as per Table 2 of IS 800. For classification of the web, the distance y of the
plastic neutral axis above the center of area of the steel section, shall first be found.

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beff
Fs
ds
de
Fa Z

Fs

y
Za xe
D

Fa

fy /m fy /m

Fig 28 Stress Diagram for Hogging Moment


region at ultimate moment

A.3.1 Moment of Resistance for Plastic and Compact Structural Steel Sections

The design tensile force in reinforcement is given as,


Fs  f yk .Ast /  s ,
Where, γs = partial safety factor for reinforcement = 1.15
f yk = Characteristic yield strength of the reinforcements
Ast = the effective area of longitudinal reinforcement within the effective width
beff of the beam.
The plastic moment of resistance for plastic and compact structural steel section is given
as,

Z p. f y
Mp  Eq. A.2
m

Where, Zp is the plastic section modulus and  m is the material safety factor to be taken
as 1.10. In the absence of any tensile reinforcements the bending resistance of the section
would be that of the structural steel section as given by Mp above. To allow for
reinforcements it is assumed that the stress in a depth y changes from tension to
compression for Plastic and compact section. The corresponding depth for non-compact
section is xe. For plastic and compact sections stress distribution y may be determined
from

2 fy
y..t w  Fs Eq. A.3
m

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The locations of the neutral axis and the moment of resistance for plastic and compact
section are given in Table 15 below.

Table 15 Limiting Negative Moment Capacity of Composite Section having


plastic and compact structural steel section
(Clause A.3.1)
Case Position of Value of y Moment Capacity Mp
Plastic
Neutral Axis
D
1 In Web y tf Mph = Mp +Fs.Z
2
D D
 y  tf D ( F  Fs ) 2 t f
2 In Flange 2 2 M ph  Fb .  Fs .d s  b .
2 Ff 4

D y
Z  de 
2 2
f y . As
Fb  = axial capacity of steel section ((As = area of steel section)
m
f y .Af
Ff = axial capacity of a single flange =
ym
Note: The web shall classified as being in compression throughout
As = cross sectional area of steel beam of a composite section.
ds = Overall depth of concrete slab
de = effective depth of slab (Fig. 28).
tf = average thickness of the top flange of the steel section.
tw = thickness of the web of the steel section

A.3.2 Moment of Resistance for Non-Compact Section

Where elastic analysis is used, creep is allowed for in the choice of modular ratio m (=Es
/ Ecm). Here, at the section considered, the loading causes hogging bending moment Me(s)
in the steel member alone and Me(c) in the composite member.
The height xe of the elastic neutral axis of the composite section (Fig 28) above that of the
steel section is given as

D 
xe ( As  Ast )  Ast   d s  Eq. A.4
2 
and the second moment of area of the composite section is

2
D 
 I s  As .xe  Ast   d s  xe 
2
I co Eq. A.5
2 

Where, Is is the second moment of area of the steel section alone.


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The yield moment is mostly governed by the total stress in the steel bottom flange. The
locations of the neutral axis and the moment of resistance for non-compact section is
given in Table 16 below.

Table 16 Negative Moment Capacity with plastic/compact cross-section


(Clause A.3.2)

Location of Neutral Moment capacity of


Axis Steel section alone Moment Capacity Me(c)
[ fs ] y
D  D/2 ( f y /  m  f s ) I co
xe ( As  Ast )  Ast   d s  f s  M e( s ) . M e(c)  M e( s ) 
2  Is ( D / 2  xe )
Where,
2
D 
I co  I s  As .xe  Ast   d s  xe 
2

2 
D/2
f s  M e( s ) .
Is
Note: The web shall be classified as being in compression throughout
As = cross sectional area of steel beam of a composite section.
Ast = cross sectional area reinforcements within the effective width of the
concrete flange.
ds = Overall depth of concrete slab
de = effective depth of slab (Fig. 28).
Me(s) = hogging moment in the Steel section alone.
fs = Compressive stress in steel flange due to moment Me(s).
Is = Second moment of inertia of steel section alone
Ico = Second moment of inertia of the composite section
tf = average thickness of the top flange of the steel section.
tw = thickness of the web of the steel section

The bending moment Me(s) causes no stress in the slab reinforcements. In propped
construction, the tensile stress in the reinforcement may govern the design. It is given as
( f y /  m  f s )( D / 2  d s  xe )
 sr   f yk /  s Eq. A.6
( D / 2  xe )
A.4 Flange Stress Reduction Factor Rh for Hybrid Sections

Flange stress reduction factor is applicable for hybrid sections using higher grade steel
flanges where the section is non-compact, or in other words, where plastic moment
capacity cannot be generated. In such cases design limiting stress for both compression
and tension shall be modified by the reduction factor Rh and shall be taken as,
fn = Rh . fy /m

where fy is the yield strength of the flanges


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For homogeneous grade steel sections, Rh shall be 1.0. The reduction factor shall not
apply to compact or plastic sections because the effect of lower strength material in the
web is accounted for in calculating the plastic moment as specified in clause A.1.1

A.5 Buckling Resistance Moment of Steel Section (Construction Stage)

At construction stage, before concrete hardens the structural steel beam strength may be
dictated by the lateral buckling strength. If composite slab with metal decking is used,
where in the decking is adequately welded to the steel compression flange, the lateral
support provided by the decking may be considered, if adequate The moment resistance
as governed by lateral buckling may be evaluated as per the provisions of IS 800.

Effect of lateral torsional buckling on flexural strength need not be considered if Lt  0.4.

The design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained girder under un-
propped condition during construction stage shall be taken as
M pl (buck)   LT .M pl (for plastic and compact sections)

M el (buck)   LT .M el (for non-compact sections) Eq. A.7

where,

1
 LT  1
but  LT  1.0 Eq. A.8
[ LT  ( LT   LT ) ]
2 2 2

Now

LT  0.5[1   LT ( LT  0.2)   LT 2 ] Eq. A.9


 LT  0.21 for rolled sections
 LT  0.49 for welded sections
The non-dimensional slenderness ratio, Lt, is given by

Lt   b Z p f y / M cr Eq. A.10

Where, βb = 1.0 for Plastic and Compact sections


= Ze / Zp for semi-compact sections
Mcr = the elastic critical moment corresponding to lateral torsional
buckling.

In case of simply supported prismatic members with symmetric cross section, the elastic
critical moment, Mcr, can be determines as –

  2 EI y   2 EI w  
M cr      
2 
LLT 2  b p cr.b 
GI .Z . f
 LLT  
t Eq. A.11

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The maximum bending compressive stress corresponding to lateral buckling, fcr.b of non-
slender rolled sections may be approximately calculated using the following equation:
0.5
1.1 E  1  LLT / ry  
2
2
f cr .b  1 Eq. A.12
( LLT / ry ) 2  20  h f / t f  
 
The following simplified conservative equation may be used in the case of prismatic
members made of standard rolled I sections and welded doubly symmetric I sections for
calculating the elastic critical lateral buckling moment.
2  0.5
 2 EI y h f  L /r 
M cr  1  1  LT y   = b Zp fcr,b Eq. A.13
2L2LT  20  h f / t f  
   
Where,
Iw = warping constant
It = torsional constant = ∑bi . ti3 / 3 for open sections
Iy = moment of inertia about the weak axis
ry = radius of gyration of the section about the weak axis]
LLT = effective length for lateral torsional buckling
hf = Center to center distance between flanges
tf , = thickness of the flange

A.6 Moment of Resistance for Filler Beam Decks

Filler Beam decks most likely to be designed for structures with wide column free zones
having higher live loads. The stress distribution diagram for a standard filler beam decks
is as shown in Fig. 29.

For equilibrium, Fst = Fsc + Fcc


Where,
Fst = Tensile force in the steel section below neutral axis
Fsc = Compressive force the steel section above neutral axis
Fcc = Compressive force in the concrete above neutral axis

The depth of the neutral axis is given as,


xu = H - xg

Where,
 cc
.. f ck .[ B.H  b f .t f  t w .(h  t f )]  t w .h. f y /  m
c
xg 
 cc Eq. A.14
.. f ck .( B  t w )  2t w . f y /  m
c
Moment of resistance,
Mp = Fsc . Xsc + Fcc . Xcc + Fst . Xst Eq. A.15
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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[Xsc, Xcc and Xst are respectively the distance between the neutral axis of
the composite girder and the individual centre of gravities of the
corresponding forces]

Note:

Af = area of top flange of steel beam of a composite section.


As = cross sectional area of steel beam of a composite section.
beff = effective width of concrete slab.
bf = width of top flange of steel section.
tf = average thickness of the top flange of the steel section.
tw = thickness of the web of the steel section
xu = depth of neutral axis at ultimate limit state of flexure from top of
concrete
B = Centre-to-entre distance between two filler beams
= Effective width of concrete for one filler beam
H = Distance between top of concrete and bottom of bottom flange of
steel girder
h = Total depth of steel girder
xg = Distance of neutral axis from bottom of bottom flange of steel beam
Mp = Ultimate bending moment.
cc = 0.67
c = Material safety factor for concrete
= 1.50 (for basic and seismic combinations)
= 1.20 (for accidental combinations)
m = Material safety factor for structural steel = 1.10

(αcc/γc).η.fc
beff

c tf λx Fcc
xu
Fsc

Neutral axis H
h
of composite xg Fst
tw
section
tf bf
fy/γm fy/γm
B

Fig 29 Stress diagram for filler beam

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
ANNEX B
PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS IN COMPOSITE COLUMN

B.1 General

The general dimensional view of fully or partially concrete encased single I-section is as
given in Fig 30.

bc
b = bc
b
cy cy
c

h = hc
z z
hc
h
cz

y y
(ii)
(i)
Fig. 30 Fully and partially concrete encased columns

Fig. 31 shows the typical position of the neutral axis for points B and C in the beam column
interaction curve. Location of Neutral axis from CG of section, hn, can be determined from
the difference in stresses at points B and C.

Point-A Py Pck Pst

z P
Nop moment

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Point-B Py Pck Pst

hn
MB
z
=Mp
Zero axial force

Point-C Py Pck Pst


2hn

MC
z
=Mp
PC = 0.4Py

Fig. 31 Typical stress distributions for the points of the interaction curve for
concrete-filled rectangular tubular sections

fy 0.8. c . f ck f yk
Where, p y  pck  p st 
m c s
Please note that strength coefficient of concrete αc shall be taken as follows:
αc = 1.0 for concrete filled tubular steel columns
= 0.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections
2hn

Pc 2Py
z k
PC

y
Fig. 32 Variation in the neutral axis positions

The resulting axial forces are dependent on the position of the neutral axis of the cross-
section, as shown in Fig. 33. The sum of these forces is equal to Pc. This calculation
enables the equation defining hn to be determined. It will be different for various types of
sections.

B.1.1 For concrete encased steel sections with single I-section:

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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Major axis bending

2hn
z
2hn

y
y

Fig. 33 Concrete encased steel sections (Major axis bending)

(1) Neutral axis in the web: hn  [ h/2- tf ]

Ac pck  A' st (2 p st  pck )


hn  Eq. B.1
2bc pck  2t w (2 p y  pck )

(2) Neutral axis in the flange: [h/2-tf ]  hn  h/2

Ac pck  A' st (2 pst  pck )  b  t w (h  2t f )(2 p y  pck )


hn  Eq. B.2
2bc pck  2b(2 p y  pck )

(3) Neutral axis outside the steel section: h/2  hn  hc/2

Ac pck  A' st (2 p st  pck )  As (2 p y  pck )


hn  Eq. B.3
2bc pck

Minor axis bending


2hn
2hn

y y

z z

Fig. 34 Concrete encased steel sections (Minor axis bending)

(1) Neutral axis in the web: hn  tw/2

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
Ac pck  A'st (2 pst  pck )
hn  Eq. B.4
2hc pck  2h(2 p y  pck )

(2) Neutral axis in the flange: tw/2 < hn < b/2

Ac pck  A' st (2 pst  pck )  t w (2t f  h)(2 p y  pck )


hn  Eq. B.5
2hc pck  4t f (2 p y  pck )
(3) Neutral axis outside the steel section: b/2  hn  bc/2

Ac pck  A' st (2 p st  pck )  As (2 p y  pck )


hn  Eq. B.6
2hc pck

Note: Ast is the sum of the reinforcement area within the region of 2hn

B.1.2 For concrete filled tubular sections


bc
d
2hn

z
hc

2hn

y y

Fig. 35 concrete filled tubular sections

Major axis bending

Ac pck  A' st (2 p st  pck )


hn  Eq. B.7
2bc pck  4t (2 p y  pck )

Note:

 For circular tubular section substitute bc = d


 For minor axis bending the same equations can be used by interchanging
hc and bc as well as the subscripts y and z

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
ANNEX C
[Clause 12.4.2.1(f), 12.4.2.1 (g), 12.5.2]
COMPOSITE SLAB

C.1 Profile Decking

The steel deck is normally rolled into the desired profile from 0.9 mm to 1.5 mm galvanised
coil. It is profiled such that the profile heights are usually in the range of 38-75 mm and
the pitch of corrugations is between 150 mm and 350 mm. Generally, composite slab
spans of the order of 2.5 m to 3.5 m between the beams are chosen and the beams are
designed to span between 6 m to 12 m. There are two well-known generic types of profiles.

a) Dovetail profile
b) Trapezoidal profile with web indentations

(a) Trapezoidal decking sheet

(b) Dovetail decking sheet

(i) (ii)

(c) Composite slab with (i) Trapezoidal Profile


(ii) and dovetail profile
(ii)
Fig. 36 Profile Decking

C.2 SHEAR CONNECTORS

To enable composite action to be assumed between the profiled steel sheet and the
concrete, the longitudinal shear force be transferred by the sheet by the following form of
connection Fig. 37:
a) Mechanical interlock through the provision of indentations or embossments
rolled into the profile
b) Frictional interlock for re-entrant profile

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
c) Through-deck welded stud connectors or any other local connection between
the steel and the concrete
d) Deformation of the ends of the ribs at the ends of the sheeting

Fig. 37 Typical forms of shear connectors in composite slab

Ibc

Ibs Ibs
Ibs
Ibs Ibs
Ibc

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 38 Minimum bearing lengths

C.3 Longitudinal steel concrete interface Shear Strength:

The concrete-steel interface longitudinal shear strength is required in cases where the
complete flexural and shear strength, as mobilized by the strength of concrete and steel
decking can not be developed, due to inadequate interface shear strength and consequent
premature slip failure along this interface. Such composite slabs may be designed as
composite slabs with partial shear connection.
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CED 38 (13455) WC
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C.4 Evaluation of Shear Capacity Using m-k Test

This test is applicable to composite slabs with mechanical or frictional interlock (Fig 36
and Fig 37). The m-k test method helps to establish the values of the gradient and
intercept of a linear relationship between the non-dimensional shear evaluated from two
groups of composite slab tests; as illustrated in Fig.36 and Fig.37). The relationship
𝐴
between the vertical shear, (𝑉⁄𝑏𝑑 ) and the shear bond capacity ( 𝑝⁄𝑏𝐿 ), is
𝑝 𝑠
approximated by constructing a straight line through the two groups of data. Two groups
of data are formed corresponding to the long shear span specimen (Group-A) and short
shot specimens (Group-B).

F/2 F/2
Ls Ls
Vt /b.Dp
B
A B
m
1

Vt Vt
A
k
bs
0 Ap /b.Ls
Dp

Fig. 39 Determination of m-k values from m-k test results

When the longitudinal shear behaviour may be considered ductile, 𝑉 is taken as the
value of the support reaction at the failure load (i.e 𝑉 = 𝐹/2).

If the behaviour is brittle, the value, V should be reduced using a factor 0.8. From all
the values of 𝑉, the characteristic shear strength should be calculated from the test
values as the 5% fractile and drawn as a characteristic linear regression line to define
the characteristic m and k values. The minimum value of each group is further reduced
by 10% for design consideration. If two groups of three tests are used and the deviation
from the mean of any individual test result in a group should not exceed 10%.

From the plot the design values of m and k are obtained.

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CED 38 (13455) WC
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ANNEX D
(Clause 2)

LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS

IS Number Title
IS 456 : 2000 Plain and reinforced concrete - Code of practice
(Fourth revision)
IS 800 : 2007 General construction in steel — Code of practice
(Third revision)
IS 808 : 1989 Dimensions for hot rolled steel beam, column, channel and
angle sections (Third revision)
IS 812 : 1957 Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metal
IS 814 : 2004 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of carbon and
carbon manganese steel (Sixth revision)
IS 816 : 1969 Code of practice for use of metal arc welding for general
construction in mild steel (First revision)
IS 822 : 1970 Code of procedure for inspection of welds
IS 875 Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for
Buildings and Structures
Part 1 : 1987 Dead Loads (Second revision)
Part 2 : 1987 Live Loads (Second revision)
Part 3: 2015 Wind Loads (Third revision)
Part 4: 1987 Snow Loads (Second revision)
Part 5: 1987 Special loads And Combinations (Second revision)
IS 1024 : 1999 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures
subject to dynamic loading (Second revision)
IS 1030 : 1998 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (Fifth
revision)
IS 1148 : 2009 Steel Rivet Bars (Medium and High Tensile) for Structural
Purposes (Fourth revision)
IS 1161 : 1998 Steel tubes for structural purposes (Fourth revision)
IS 1182 : 1983 Recommended practice for radiographic examination of fusion
welded butt joints in steel plates
(Second revision)
IS 1239 Steel Tubes, Tubulars and Other Wrought Steel Fittings -
Specification
Part 1: 2004 Part 1 Mild steel tubes (Sixth revision)
Part 2: 2011 Part 2 Mild steel tubular and other wrought steel fittings (Fifth
revision)
IS 1363 : 2002 (Part 1) Hexagon head bolts, screws and nuts of product grade C (size
range M5 to M64) (Fourth revision)

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CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
IS 1364 : 2002 (Part 1) Hexagon head bolts, screw and nuts products grade A & B
(size range M1.6 to M64) (Fourth revision)
IS 1367 : 2002 Technical supply conditions for threaded steel fasteners (Fourth
revision)
IS 1395 : 1982 Low and medium alloy steel covered electrodes for manual
metal arc welding (Third revision)
IS 1608 : 2005 Metallic materials - Tensile testing at ambient temperature
(Third revision)
IS 1730 : 1989 Dimensions for steel plates, sheets, strips and flats for general
engineering purposes (Second revision)
IS 1732 : 1989 Dimension for round and square steel bars for structural and
general engineering purposes
(Second revision)
IS 1785 Specification for plain hard-drawn steel wire for pre-stressed
concrete:
Part 1 :1983 Part 1 Cold drawn stress relieved wire (Second revision)
Part 2 :1983 Part 2 As-drawn wire (First revision)
IS 1852 : 1985 Rolling and cutting tolerances for hot rolled steel products
(Fourth revision)
IS 1875 : 1992 Carbon steel billets, blooms, slabs and bars for forgings (Fifth
revision)
IS 1893 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures,
Part 1 : 2016 Part 1 General Provisions and buildings (Fifth revision)
Part 2 : 2014 Part 2 Liquid retaining tanks (Fifth revision)
Part 3 : 2014 Part 3 Bridges and Retaining Walls
Part 4 : 2005 Part 4 Industrial Structures including Stack like Structures
IS 1929 : 1962 Hot forged steel rivets for hot closing (12 to 36 mm diameter)
(First revision)
IS 2004 : 1991 Carbon steel forgings for general engineering purposes (Third
revision)
IS 2062 : 2011 Hot Rolled Medium and High Tensile Structural Steel —
Specification (Seventh Revision)
IS 2155 : 1982 Cold forged solid steel rivets for hot closing (6 to 16 mm
diameter) (First revision)
IS 2266 : 2002 Steel wire ropes for general engineering purposes (Fourth
revision)
IS 2315 : 1978 Thimbles for wire ropes (First revision)
IS 2644 : 1994 High tensile steel castings (Fourth revision)
IS 3613 : 1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc
welding of structural steels
(First revision)
IS 3640 : 1982 Hexagon fit bolts (First revision)
IS 3757 : 1985 High strength structural bolts (Second revision)
IS 4000 : 1992 High strength bolts in steel structures-code of practice (First
revision)
IS 4367 : 1991 Alloy steel forgings for general industrial use
(First revision)
IS 4853 : 1982 Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of fusion
welded butt joints in steel pipes (First revision)
IS 4923 : 1997 Hollow steel sections for structural use

96
CED 38 (13455) WC
(Draft Revision of IS 11384)
(Second revision)
IS 5334 : 2003 Code of practice for magnetic particle flaw detection of welds
(Second revision)
IS 5369 : 1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers
(First revision)
IS 5370 : 1969 Plain washers with outside diameter = 3 x inside dia.
IS 5372 : 1975 Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (First revision)
IS 5374 : 1975 Taper washer for I-beams (1SMB) (First revision)
IS 5624 : 1993 Foundation bolts (First revision)
IS 6419 : 1996 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding
of structural steel (First revision)
IS 6560 : 1996 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel
welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding
(First revision)
IS 6610 : 1972 Heavy washers for steel structures
IS 6623 : 2004 High strength structural nuts (Second revision)
IS 6649 : 1985 Hardened and tempered washers for high strength structural
bolts and nuts (First revision)
IS 6911 : 1992 Stainless steel plate, sheet and strip (First revision)
IS 7002 : 2005 Prevailing Torque Type Hexagon Nuts (With Non-Metallic
Insert), Style 1 - Property Classes 5, 8 and 10 (Second revision)
IS 7280 : 1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding of structural
steel.
IS 7307 (Part 1) : 1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part-I fusion welding of
steel
IS 7310 (Part 1) : 1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding
procedures: Part-1 fusion welding of steel
IS 7318 (Part 1) : 1974 Approval tests for welders when welding procedure is not
required: Part- 1 fusion welding of steel
IS 9595 : 1996 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon and carbon
manganese steels (First revision)
IS 11587 : 1986 Structural weather resistant steels

97