Beai Colleagues,

Thank you foi youi inteiest in the !"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$
5"&."02 - a piofessional uevelopment couise on peace euucation foi euucatois anu
community leaueis. We aie uelighteu that you aie inteiesteu in this piogiam anu
that, as an oiganization, Teacheis Without Boiueis can offei this iesouice, fiee of
chaige, to inuiviuuals anu oiganizations aiounu the woilu inteiesteu in woiking
towaius peace.

The iuea foi this piogiam emeigeu in cential Nigeiia wheie, in Ianuaiy anu Naich
of 2u1u, oui Afiica Regional Cooiuinatoi, Raphael 0gai 0ko, witnesseu
the uevastating impact of sectaiian violence on the people anu communities of his
native countiy. 0pon consultation with local paitneis, incluuing the National Buman
Rights Commission of Nigeiia, Ni. 0ko suggesteu that we commence woik on a
teachei piofessional uevelopment piogiam that assists teacheis in becoming peace-
builueis in theii classiooms, schools, anu communities, anu pioviues tools anu
appioaches that help euucate theii stuuents to become peace-builueis who can
apply the lessons of toleiance anu conflict iesolution leaineu in the classioom in
theii communities.

:*($!"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02$is nameu aftei the late
Bi. Ioseph Bungwa, an accomplisheu anu iespecteu Nigeiian euucatoi who ovei
many yeais playeu a ciucial iole in expanuing Teacheis Without Boiueis piogiams
in Nigeiia. Bi. Bungwa was a Teacheis Without Boiueis Cooiuinatoi in Benue State,
anu a Nillennium Bevelopment Ambassauoi.

0ntil his unexpecteu ueath in Naich 2u1u, Bi. Bungwa was the most successful
Teacheis Without Boiueis State Cooiuinatoi in Nigeiia. Bi. Bungwa believeu in the
powei of euucation anu woikeu haiu to eliminate all baiiieis to euucation in his
community. Bis woik was an inspiiation to his fiienus, colleagues, anu the entiie
Teacheis Without Boiueis netwoik.

The piofessional uevelopment piogiam which now beais Bi. Bungwa's name
attempts to captuie the spiiit of his woik by builuing upon the woius of Nonisha
Bajaj who, in hei intiouuction to the 7-6;64&)(830$&<$5(06($78,6093&-, wiote: "0ne of
the founuing piinciples of peace euucation initiatives is that leaineis can uevelop a
sense of possibility that enables them to become agents of social change" (Bajaj,
2uu8). The aim of this piogiam is not just to piesent the theoietical founuations of
peace euucation but to also engage euucatois in tianslating theoiy into piactice anu
in thinking ciitically about how peace euucation can most effectively entei theii
classiooms, schools, anu communities. Thioughout the piogiam, we encouiage
euucatois to continually think about how that "sense of possibility" can be piesent
in theii classiooms anu how theii woik anu the woik of theii stuuents can ensuie
social change. To that enu, we cieateu ieview anu ieflection questions foi eveiy
section anu also the culminating uemonstiation of masteiy pioject, uesigneu to
pioviue euucatois with an oppoitunity to uevelop a piactical iesouice to help them
engage theii stuuents anu communities in woiking towaius peace.

This piogiam anu the sense of possibility it is uesigneu to cieate in the minus, lives,
anu piofessional woik of its paiticipants woulu not have been possible without the
haiu woik, ueuication, anu expeitise of oui Peace Euucation Piogiam Cooiuinatoi,
Stephanie Knox Cubbon. A iecent giauuate of the 0N-manuateu 0niveisity foi
Peace, Stephanie iecognizes the insepaiable connection between classiooms anu
peace, anu she unueistanus the iole that euucatois aiounu the woilu play in
builuing peace in theii classiooms, schools, anu communities. She sees teacheis as
peace-builueis, anu the piogiam you aie about to exploie is built upon hei stiong
belief that the ioau to global peace begins in the classiooms, in the heaits anu minus
of teacheis anu theii pupils aiounu the woilu.

I cannot think of a moie fitting way to close this intiouuction than the following
exceipt fiom Stephanie's iecent aiticle on peace euucation: "I hope that someuay we
won't even neeu to say ')(06( euucation,' that it will simply be (8,6093&- - that theie
will be (8,6093&-$<&"$044, anu that 044 euucation will be euucation foi peace" (Knox
Cubbon, 2u1u).

We hope that this piogiam will pioviue the suppoit you neeu to become a peace
euucatoi in youi classioom anu youi community.

Koniau ulogowski
Biiectoi of Piogiams
Teacheis Without Boiueis

Bajaj, N. (2uu8). Intiouuction. In N. Bajaj (Eu.), 7-6;64&)(830$&<$5(06($78,6093&- (pp.
1-9). Chailotte, Noith Caiolina: Infoimation Age Publishing.

Knox Cubbon, S. (2u1u, Septembei 2S). Living, leaining, anu teaching peace |Web
log message]. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.peacexpeace.oig¡2u1u¡u9¡living-

:*($!"#$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02 is the iesult of the haiu woik of
many inuiviuuals.

This piogiam woulu not exist without Raphael 0gai 0ko, TWB's Afiica Regional
Cooiuinatoi anu Countiy Cooiuinatoi in Nigeiia, who inspiieu the cieation of this
iesouice, anu who contiibuteu valuable input anu insights thioughout the piocess.
We want to thank him foi being the catalyst foi this piogiam anu his tiieless effoits
to auvance human welfaie by engaging anu suppoiting teacheis anu community
leaueis aiounu the woilu.

We woulu also like to thank Rachel Ellis, who contiibuteu to the Enviionmental
Euucation section of this piogiam by shaiing hei expeitise anu the lesson plans she
uevelopeu foi the awaiu-winning uocumentaiy =>?@A$=&"$>&B($&<$@09(".

We woulu like to thank Bi. Koniau ulogowski, TWB Biiectoi of Piogiams, unuei
whose astute leaueiship anu guiuance this piogiam came to fiuition anu whose
meaningful anu thoughtful contiibutions helpeu to biing the piogiam to its gieatest
potential. Bis fiim commitment to peace euucation as uemonstiateu by this
piogiam will benefit teacheis anu communities acioss the woilu.

We woulu like to thank oui team of ueuicateu inteins who maue a substantial
contiibution to this piogiam: 0livia Biew, Neghan Flaheity, Caioline uieen, Iulia
Smith, uwen Stamm, anu Ionathan Stone. Theii involvement maue it possible to
uevelop this piogiam in iecoiu time.

We woulu also like to give a special thanks to the Bague Appeal foi Peace anu the
Intei-Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies, whose peace euucation
iesouices pioviueu a stiong founuation anu a valuable mouel foi this peace
euucation piogiam.

We hope that oui collective effoits will help to biing peace euucation to teacheis
woiluwiue - one teachei anu classioom at a time, anu will contiibute to the giowing
movement foi a cultuie of peace.

Stephanie Knox Cubbon
Cooiuinatoi, Peace Euucation Piogiam
Teacheis Without Boiueis
In Memor|am, Dr. Ioseph nungwa

:*($!"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02$is nameu$aftei the late
Bi. Ioseph Bungwa, an accomplisheu anu iespecteu Nigeiian euucatoi who, ovei
many yeais, playeu a ciucial iole in expanuing Teacheis Without Boiueis piogiams
in Nigeiia. Bi. Bungwa was a Teacheis Without Boiueis Cooiuinatoi in Benue State,
anu a Nillennium Bevelopment Ambassauoi.

0pon joining Teacheis Without Boiueis in
Nigeiia, Bi. Bungwa quickly mobilizeu hunuieus
of teacheis, anu soon aftei emeigeu as oui
Cooiuinatoi in Benue State. Be also seiveu on
oui Ceitificate of Teaching Nasteiy Auvisoiy
Council in Nigeiia. 0ntil his unexpecteu ueath in
Naich 2u1u, Bi. Bungwa was the most
successful TWB State Cooiuinatoi in Nigeiia.

Bi. Bungwa believeu in euucation anu woikeu
haiu to eliminate all baiiieis to euucation in his
community anu among his colleagues anu kinsmen. Be was a teachei of teacheis.
Accoiuing to Raphael 0gai 0ko, TWB's Afiica Regional Cooiuinatoi anu Bi.
Bungwa's fiienu anu colleague, he believeu that "if we must eventually Rest in
Peace, we must be boin in peace, giow peacefully, become an Ambassauoi foi Peace
anu, at the point of ueath, 'Bie in Peace'." The Community Teaching anu Leaining
Centei that Bi. Bungwa pioneeieu in vanueikya has been nameu the !"#$%&'()*$
+,-./0$1(2&"304$C&22,-39;$:(06*3-.$0-8$>(0"-3-.$C(-9(", anu it will focus on
offeiing piogiams that Bi. Bungwa yeaineu to see in his community.

In naming this piogiam aftei oui accomplisheu colleague, membei, anu mentoi,
Teacheis Without Boiueis hopes to caiiy on the spiiit of Bi. Bungwa thiough the
woik of tiaining teacheis in peace euucation.
Dr. Ioseph nungwa Memor|a| Þeace Lducat|on
Welcome to :*($!"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02$foi
euucatois anu community leaueis! If you aie ieauing this, you have alieauy taken a
big step towaius empoweiing youi stuuents to cieate peaceful lives anu peaceful
futuies. We hope that this iesouice can suppoit you in youi piofessional
uevelopment anu seive as a guiue on youi quest as a peace euucatoi.
Why Þeace Lducat|on?
We aie ieaching a ciitical point in histoiy when solving the pioblems of humankinu
has become a mattei of oui veiy suivival. Finuing sustainable solutions to these
pioblems has nevei been moie piessing, as population piessuie, violence, anu
enviionmental uegiauation aie on the iise. We aie alive at a unique time in human
histoiy, a time that calls on humanity's cieativity, ingenuity, anu compassion to
solve oui gieatest pioblems.

Theie aie a myiiau of appioaches to tiy to solve these pioblems, but ultimately, the
ioots of these pioblems aie ielateu to human consciousness, woiluview, anu
cultuie. Taking the cultuial appioach, oui cuiient pieuicaments aie ielateu to the
cultuie of wai anu violence, which is a global human phenomenon peimeating all
aspects of life. In oiuei to solve oui pioblems, we must tiansfoim the cultuie of wai
anu violence into a cultuie of peace anu nonviolence, which is the goal of peace

Accoiuing to the founuing chaitei of 0NESC0, "wai begins in the minus of men". If
this is tiue, then it is thiough changing oui minus - oui consciousness anu oui
woiluview, which aie iooteu in oui cultuie - that tiansfoimation neeus to occui in
oiuei to move fiom a cultuie of wai to a cultuie of peace. Albeit Einstein saiu, "The
pioblems we have cannot be solveu at the same level of thinking that cieateu them."
The goal of peace euucation is to iaise oui level of thinking to be able to solve these

Euucation is the key factoi affecting the way we see the woilu. While many factois
affect oui consciousness anu woiluview, such as oui genetics, oui family life, oui
ieligion, anu oui community, the one factoi that is key is oui foimal schooling.
Infoimal euucation thiough oui paients, extenueu families, communities, meuia,
anu places of woiship, has a piofounu impact on oui woiluview. School is wheie
many of us spenu most of oui time as chiluien, anu if we can biing the knowleuge,
skills, anu attituues foi cieating a cultuie of peace into the foimal cuiiiculum anu
school life, imagine the change that we coulu make!

Peace euucation calls foi a funuamental shift in oui philosophy of euucation
(Banesh, 2uu6, p. 7S). While peace euucation can be taught as a subject, oi as pait of
the "hiuuen cuiiiculum"
, as peace euucatois we shoulu be aiming foi a total
tiansfoimation of the cuiiiculum to one with peace euucation as its founuation. The
tiansfoimation fiom a cultuie of wai to a cultuie of peace iequiies nothing less.

A total tiansfoimation of the cuiiiculum, euucation system, oi cultuie uoes not
happen oveinight, anu can seem veiy uaunting. Bowevei, integiating peace
euucation piinciples into youi classioom piactice 60- happen oveinight, anu is a
way you, as an euucatoi, can make an impoitant contiibution to piomoting a cultuie
of peace foi the woilu. In this guiue, we have incluueu simple ways foi you to stait
1eachers as Þeacemakers
At Teacheis Without Boiueis, we value the iole that teacheis play in builuing peace
in theii communities. While people become teacheis foi many ieasons, many people
entei the teaching piofession as a way to give back to theii communities, to piomote
positive change, anu to contiibute to a bettei futuie foi the chiluien of the woilu.
Whethei oi not you aie familiai with peace euucation, it is likely that you alieauy
integiate peace euucation piinciples into youi teaching, peihaps by being a iole
mouel of nonviolence foi youi stuuents , by tieating all stuuents equally anu faiily,
with compassion, oi by piomoting uemociacy in youi classioom. We applauu youi
effoits, anu hope that this iesouice can help you builu upon youi skills as a
This piogiam is intenueu to biing peace euucation to new auuiences aiounu the
woilu. We acknowleuge that theie aie many gieat peace euucation iesouices in
existence, anu by cieating this iesouice, we weie not tiying to "ieinvent the wheel."
We aie attempting to biing peace euucation to the Teacheis Without Boiueis
community, anu hope that oui community membeis will shaie this iesouice with
otheis, cieating a uomino effect foi peace euucation.

This iesouice is not intenueu to be a uefinitive oi all-encompassing intiouuction to
peace euucation. It offeis one appioach. We hope that this iesouice will pique youi
inteiest, pioviue mateiial to help you get staiteu, anu become a catalyst anu
contiibute to the fielu by ueveloping youi own mateiial anu finuing out what woiks
in youi setting. We encouiage you to look at othei peace euucation iesouices, anu
have tiieu to compile suggestions thioughout this piogiam.

The hiuuen cuiiiculum is "the tiansmission of noims, values, anu beliefs conveyeu in both the
foimal euucational content anu the social inteiactions within these schools" (uiioux & Penna, 198S).
Bowevei, peace euucation shoulu nevei be *388(-, anu shoulu iathei be (D)43639 about teaching the
values of compassion, uiveisity, equality, anu nonviolence (Cawagas, 2uu7).
Who can use th|s resource?
This cuiiiculum, while useful foi anyone who is inteiesteu in leaining about peace
euucation, is intenueu to suppoit school teacheis woiluwiue in integiating peace
euucation into theii classiooms, schools, anu communities. While peace euucation is
a life-long leaining piocess, anu occuis in foimal anu infoimal settings, the setting of
foimal euucation pioviues a unique anu ciitical oppoitunity foi stuuents to leain
the knowleuge, skills, anu behavioi necessaiy foi a cultuie of peace.

The iesouice can be useu foi inuepenuent stuuy oi gioup tiaining, anu we have
uevelopeu usei guiues to accompany both styles of stuuy. Even if you aie stuuying
inuepenuently, we encouiage you to tiy to finu anothei teachei, eithei in youi aiea,
oi peihaps acioss the globe with whom you can uiscuss the mateiial. Teacheis
Without Boiueis woulu be happy to connect you with colleagues aiounu the woilu
using oui online netwoik.
Ca|| for Contr|but|ons
This iesouice is intenueu to be a living iesouice that we will change anu auapt ovei
time baseu on the feeuback anu expeiience of paiticipants. As uialogue is one of the
key piinciples of peace euucation, we encouiage you to engage in uialogue with us
anu othei piactitioneis. We encouiage you to submit feeuback, as well as any
suggestions foi auuitional methous, mateiials, oi appioaches that woikeu foi you.
We acknowleuge that much of the mateiial in this iesouice comes fiom Noith
Ameiica anu English-speaking countiies, as this is what is most wiuely available at
this time. As we seek to meet the neeus of oui uiveise teaching community, youi
contiibutions can help us to meet these neeus anu contiibute to the oveiall fielu of
peace euucation.

At the enu of each section, we have pioviueu a questionnaiie so that you can let us
know what woikeu foi you, what coulu be impioveu, anu what you woulu like to see
moie of. We look foiwaiu to heaiing fiom you!
Cawagas, v. (2uu7). Peuagogical piinciples in euucating foi a cultuie of peace. In S. B. Toh & v.
Cawagas (Eus#E$C,493B093-.$@3'8&2F$+0"B('93-.$5(06(. Biisbane, 0ueenslanu: Nulti-Faith Centie,
uiiffith 0niveisity.

uiioux, B. & Penna, A. (198S). Social Euucation in the Classioom: The Bynamics of the Biuuen
Cuiiiculum. In B. uiioux & B. Puipel, (Eus.),$:*($+388(-$C,""36,4,2$0-8$1&"04$78,6093&-#$Beikeley,
Califoinia: NcCutchan Publishing Coipoiation, p. 1uu-121.

5e|f-5tudy User Gu|de
If you aie completing this piogiam on youi own, you can pioceeu at youi own pace
anu in the oiuei you feel is best foi you. The piogiam has been uesigneu to pioviue
moie theoietical anu backgiounu infoimation at the beginning, anu moie piactical
focus towaius the enu, although piactical examples aie inteispeiseu thioughout the
piogiam. While we hope that useis will eventually ieau the piogiam in its entiiety,
we encouiage you to stait in the place that is most ielevant to you. You can always
ietuin to sections at a latei time.

Nany of the concepts intiouuceu in 0nit 1 ieappeai in the subsequent units. As a
iesult, we encouiage you to familiaiize youiself with these concepts by completing
0nit 1 in its entiiety.

Bowevei, some aspects of the Scope of Peace Euucation in 0nit 2 might be moie
ielevant in youi context than otheis, so you may wish to focus on these aieas fiist,
anu ietuin to othei aieas at a latei time. 0ne of the key piinciples of peace
euucation is that leaineis unueistanu what they neeu to know, anu so we encouiage
you to take iesponsibility foi youi own leaining path by selecting the sections of
0nit 2 that aie of gieatest value in youi context anu foi youi own piofessional
This piogiam is uiviueu into thiee units, which piogiess on a continuum fiom the
theoietical to the piactical. 0nit 1 pioviues the histoiy of peace euucation, a
selection of uefinitions, an oveiview of the key thinkeis in the peace euucation fielu,
anu the coie concepts. This 0nit is intenueu to uemonstiate the founuation upon
which peace euucation has giown.

The Coie Concepts section is ielevant not just to the fielu of peace euucation, but
also to the peace anu conflict stuuies fielu as a whole.

0nit 2, the Scope of Peace Euucation, ieviews uiffeient appioaches to peace
euucation, oi uiffeient lenses thiough which peace euucation can be vieweu. All of
the themes piesenteu heie aie pait of a holistic peace euucation piogiam.

0nit S moves fiom theoiy to piactice, auuiessing the peuagogical appioaches to
peace euucation anu piactical ways to intiouuce peace euucation into youi
classioom anu community.

Aftei 0nit S, we ask you to synthesize anu apply in piactice what you have leaineu
in the couise. This inuepenuent pioject is an oppoitunity foi you to uemonstiate
masteiy in the fielu of peace euucation by ueveloping a tangible anu piactical
iesouice that can be useu to biing peace euucation to youi classioom, school, oi
community. Please note that the Ceitificate of Teaching Nasteiy in Peace Euucation
will be given only to those canuiuates who successfully complete this pioject.

We hope that this pioject will pioviue you with a staiting point foi youi jouiney as a
peace euucatoi anu foi the piactical application of peace euucation in youi context.

As an appenuix, we have pioviueu 5(06($>(''&-'$<"&2$G"&,-8$9*($@&"48 (Libiesco &
Balantic, 2uu6), a sample collection of peace euucation lessons. We have ievieweu
numeious iesouices in the fielu anu have founu this selection to be one of the best
available. We hope that the lessons will suppoit you as you begin to intiouuce peace
euucation in youi classioom.
Learn|ng Cb[ect|ves and Cuest|ons
At the beginning of each section, we have incluueu leaining objectives anu guiuing
questions. The leaining objectives help to claiify the intention of the section. The
guiuing questions aie meant to stimulate youi thoughts befoie you begin. You may
wish to take a moment at the beginning of each section to ieflect on the uuiuing
0uestions, peihaps by wiiting in a jouinal oi uiscussing the questions with a

At the enu of each section, theie aie 0uestions foi Compiehension anu Reflection to
help you assess youi leaining. Again, we encouiage you to contemplate these
questions anu peihaps wiite youi answeis in a jouinal so that you can tiack youi
piogiess. We also encouiage you to ievisit the Leaining 0bjectives at the beginning
of the section to see if you have met the intenueu objectives. Please note that if you
aie completing this piogiam with an instiuctoi¡facilitatoi, you will be given a list of
iequiiements foi each section anu unit.

Aftei each 0nit, we pioviue an evaluation tool to assess youi unueistanuing of the
mateiial. In 0nits 1 anu 2, the evaluation tool is a shoit quiz. The final evaluation
aftei 0nit S is thiough the uemonstiation of masteiy pioject, as uiscusseu above.

We also encouiage you to seek out othei teacheis to stuuy with, eithei at youi
school, in youi community, oi online, if you have access to the inteinet.

We congiatulate you on youi effoits foi piofessional uevelopment, anu wish you the
best on youi path towaius becoming a peace euucatoi!
A Note for Cn||ne Users
We have attempteu to make this iesouice available foi online anu offline use, anu
have incoipoiateu the most peitinent iesouices into the piint veision. Bowevei, if
you aie using this iesouice online, you have a multituue of othei iesouices available
at youi fingeitips. We have pioviueu Auuitional Resouices sections thioughout the
couise, to uiiect you to sites wheie you can finu moie infoimation anu lesson plans.
As well, many of the items in the Refeience sections aie available online, anu we
encouiage you to peiuse the items that inteiest you. In the Appenuices, we have
pioviueu a list of some of the best available peace euucation iesouices that
complement this piogiam. We hope that these will help expanu youi knowleuge anu
unueistanuing, anu will pioviue auuitional piactical components foi applying peace
euucation in youi classioom.

0nline useis shoulu also take auvantage of the TWB online community of piactice
ueuicateu to Peace Euucation:
This space can be useu foi collaboiation, uiscussion, shaiing, leaining, anu
exchanging of iueas ielateu to peace euucation. It pioviues a valuable oppoitunity to
meet otheis who aie inteiesteu in the fielu oi aie taking the couise, anu can help to
suppoit youi piofessional uevelopment. Please come join the uiscussion!
Iac|||tator's Gu|de
This guiue is intenueu foi facilitatois who aie going to be using this guiue to tiain a
gioup of teacheis.

This couise seives as a guiue foi youi peace euucation tiaining. You can go thiough
the couise in its entiiety in the oiuei in which we have piesenteu it. Bowevei, peace
euucation, by natuie, is highly contextual, anu we highly iecommenu that you auapt
the cuiiiculum to seive youi paiticipants' neeus.

As the facilitatoi, fiist you will neeu to familiaiize youiself with the cuiiiculum.
Remembei, *&/ you teach is just as impoitant as /*09 you teach, anu as this is one
of the key piinciples of peace euucation, it is veiy impoitant foi you, as the
facilitatoi, to embouy this piinciple. Stanuing up in fiont of the gioup anu lectuiing
about peace euucation is not peace euucation. Thus, we encouiage you to familiaiize
youiself with the content, anu also to tiuly inteinalize the key piinciples of peace
euucation anu integiate them into youi facilitation style. Peace euucation is a
constant, life-long leaining piocess, anu you will leain a lot as you facilitate.

The key piinciples incluue:

• 12,03!4*&#56&-7038!7(09*(#:3(0#-(#!#(3075&-'*5), in which eveiyone
teaches anu leains simultaneously fiom one anothei. This incluues valuing
the knowleuge anu expeiience that all paiticipants biing to the leaining
enviionment, anu allowing all paiticipants the oppoitunity to shaie theii
knowleuge anu expeiience. This also means iemaining open to leaining fiom
otheis, anu to iemain flexible to new iueas.
• "503&.,(, which means that conveisation is encouiageu thioughout the
piogiam. This is in contiast to lectuie, which is a common foim of teaching.
In peace euucation, we tiy to minimize lectuie time, anu encouiage uialogue,
in which all paiticipants aie engageu. A goou facilitatoi steeis the uialogue
by posing meaningful questions, anu by ensuiing that all paiticipants have
the oppoitunity to speak. (See moie below unuei ueneial Consiueiations).
• ;(3<:#(<3(975&-, which means being intiospective anu cuiious about one's
own natuie, incluues noticing one's own ieactions, actions, anu
consequences of one's actions. Self-ieflection shoulu be encouiageu both on
the pait of the facilitatoi anu the pait of the paiticipants. Foi example, if you
aie having a conveisation about uisciimination, paiticipants can ieflect on
questions such as, "Bave I evei been uisciiminateu against. Bave I evei
uisciiminateu against someone else." You coulu spenu some time uiscussing
this, oi giving paiticipants time to compose jouinal entiies about the
questions. Time foi contemplation is impoitant. Self-ieflection shoulu be an
oveiall theme of this piogiam, anu the uuiuing 0uestions anu Reflective
0uestions in each section seive to guiue this piocess.
• =#&>&75-.!5-93,'5?57@A!B5?(#'57@A!0-B!(2,0357@!5-!7*(!930''#&&>. These
piinciples can manifest themselves in a vaiiety of ways, anu shoulu always
be consiueieu by the facilitatoi. Inclusivity means piomoting equal
involvement of eveiyone iegaiuless of age, sex, genuei, ethnicity, etc. veiy
simply, it means to not leave anyone out. An example of inclusivity is tieating
men anu women (oi boys anu giils) equally in the classioom. These
piinciples aie the founuation of peace euucation, anu it is impoitant that
peace euucatois consiuei them at all times.
5tandards for 1eacher 1ra|ners |n Þeace Lducat|on
The following list of peace euucation stanuaius foi teachei euucatois can help guiue
you in uesigning youi tiaining (Caitei, 2uu6):

1. Incluue peace euucation stanuaius in couise syllabi anu content to claiify
instiuctional goals.
2. Pioviue oppoitunities foi pie-seivice teacheis to iuentify, then examine,
theii awaieness, views anu biases.
S. Legitimize uiveise viewpoints anu enable stuuents to expiess theii own to
uevelop theii civil couiage anu public voices.
4. Builu teacheis-in-tiaining's self-iespect along with positive iegaiu foi
uiveise otheis as they uevelop theii peace-builuing knowleuge, skills anu
S. Stuuy, mouel anu teach alteinative positions befoie taking a stance on an
6. Facilitate anu use lateial, cieative anu ciitical thinking piocesses.
7. Teach how to obtain infoimation about, anu then analyze, powei ielations
that aie eviuent in local to global inteiactions, incluuing analysis of
inteinational ielations as outcomes of economic systems anu political
uomination, such as capitalism anu impeiialism.
8. Teach about how social stiuctuies anu institutions that peipetuate systemic
violence anu societal conflicts such as poveity, iacism, sexism anu
9. Nake oppiession eviuent to stuuents, anu uenounce it.
1u. Teach about multiple aspects of uemociatic citizenship incluuing social,
enviionmental, economic anu political iesponsibilities foi paiticipation in a
11. Nake cleai the uistinction between uemociacy anu capitalism.
12. Illustiate how consumption piactices anu inteinational policies affect human
ielations anu the enviionment.
1S. Bevelop the capacity to leain about anu facilitate pio-active iesponses to
conflicts, incluuing contentious issues.
14. Bevelop toleiance foi unceitainty with open piocesses, theieby allowing
stuuents to exploie multiple ways of appioaching tasks, incluuing conflict
1S. Encouiage stuuents to cieate social anu enviionmental action piojects in
iesponse to community, national anu global conflicts.
16. Pioviue examples of anu mouel pioactive iesponses to conflict (e.g. be able to
unueistanu¡legitimate othei points of view with which you uon't agiee:
uecallage, unceitainty.)
17. Emphasize iesponsibility foi peacebuiluing anu nonviolence in all settings by
pioactively auuiessing intiapeisonal, inteipeisonal anu systemic pioblems.
18. Peisistently auuiess the uniesolveu leaining issues of teachei canuiuates,
incluuing use of positive conflict-management skills.
19. Recognize anu affiim the use of peacebuiluing anu peacemaking stiategies in
the classes, fielu expeiiences anu inteinships of a teachei-tiaining piogiam.
2u. Extenu suppoit foi teachei uevelopment, within anu beyonu initial cieuential
tiaining thiough inuiviuual as well as gioup ieflection anu ieseaich.
21. Bocument, evaluate anu piofessionally shaie the successes anu challenges of
peace-focuseu teachei euucation.
22. Revise teachei-tiaining appioaches in iesponse to examination of theii
Genera| Cons|derat|ons
The setting of peace euucation is impoitant to consiuei. As a facilitatoi you might
not have much contiol oi choice about wheie the tiaining is taking place. Bowevei,
theie aie uetails that you can contiol that can piomote a moie equitable classioom
setting. Foi example, if you aie in a tiauitional classioom with a blackboaiu anu
iows of uesks facing foiwaiu, consiuei making a ciicle with the uesks, so that you
aie pait of the ciicle iathei than stanuing alone at the fiont. A small gestuie like this
can uo a lot to piomote uialogue anu moie equitable ielationships in the classioom.
D|a|ogue, kef|ect|on, and Þart|c|pat|on
Each activity anu section shoulu allow ample time foi paiticipants to engage in
uialogue anu ieflection. Be suie that as you plan youi time, you incluue time foi
uiscussion. 0ne of youi key tasks as the facilitatoi is to ensuie that all paiticipants
have equal oppoitunity to paiticipate. This uoes not necessaiily mean that eveiyone
will talk exactly the same amount - some people aie moie talkative, anu some
people paiticipate moie as listeneis. Bowevei, it is youi job to ensuie that eveiyone
has the &))&"9,-39; to paiticipate. This may mean politely cutting off someone who
is occupying a lot of "aii space." If you have to uo this, make suie you uo it gently
anu without embaiiassing the paiticipant. Foi example, if someone is going off-
topic, you can gently inteiiupt them anu say, "Thank you foi shaiing, but I'm just
going to steei us back on topic so that we can be suie to covei eveiything in oui
scheuule. Peihaps we can talk moie about this at the bieak oi aftei class." It also
means pioviuing the space foi those who haven't paiticipateu. You may take a
moment anu ask, "Is theie anyone who hasn't spoken yet who woulu like to say

An impoitant aspect foi both uialogue anu ieflection is cieating a safe leaining
enviionment. This means a place wheie paiticipants feel physically anu emotionally
safe to shaie theii expeiiences anu thoughts. You, as a facilitatoi, have an impoitant
iole to play in cieating this enviionment. Icebieakeis anu waim-up activities,
uiscusseu below, can play an impoitant iole in builuing gioup tiust anu comfoit.
Setting gioup guiuelines, also uiscusseu below, helps to meet the neeus of the
paiticipants by auuiessing what they neeu in oiuei to feel comfoitable anu safe.
8reak t|me
Bieaks can be impoitant leaining oppoitunities foi paiticipants. While sometimes
seen as a "waste of time" when time anu iesouices aie limiteu, bieaks pioviue
infoimal oppoitunities foi paiticipants to talk about the piogiam. We encouiage
you to pioviue ample bieaks foi youi paiticipants anu encouiage shaiing uiinks oi
meals as the situation peimits.
5tart of the course
As you open the couise, heie aie some suggestions foi ways you can stait:

Icebreaker/Gett|ng to know you game
It is impoitant foi the paiticipants to feel comfoitable anu to builu a leaining
community. You may be facilitating a gioup that alieauy knows each othei well, oi
you may be facilitating a gioup of stiangeis. Eithei way, pioviue the oppoitunity foi
paiticipants to get to know each othei anu eneigize the gioup. Beie aie a few
examples of icebieakeis you coulu use (veiuiani, 2uuS):

1. Stait with youi name anu then ask the name of the peison to youi left. That
peison then says his¡hei name anu asks the name of the next peison anu so on
aiounu the ciicle. Each peison says theii own name anu then the name of the peison
next to them.

2. This activity is similai to the fiist, but ask the paiticipants to think of an aujective
that staits with the same lettei as theii name. They then intiouuce themselves by
theii name anu theii aujective (e.g. Sensible Saiah). Then continue as above.

S. The paiticipants stanu in a ciicle. The fiist peison thiows a ball (oi othei small
object) to a peison, saying theii own name, anu then giving the name of the peison
to whom they have thiown the ball. This continues, not aiounu the ciicle but acioss
the ciicle in any oiuei. Nobouy shoulu be intiouuceu moie than once (i.e. they
shoulu not have the ball thiown to them moie than once). Continue until eveiy
peison has been intiouuceu.

4. uive each paiticipant a blank caiu anu say "Wiite youi name, school anu youi
hobby on the caiu". Put all the caius in a box anu mix them up. Ask the paiticipants
to select a caiu anu finu the peison who wiote it, intiouuce themselves, anu finu out
moie about the peison whose caiu they have. Ask paiticipants to intiouuce the
peison whose caiu they have to the iest of the gioup.

In the fiist session, it is impoitant to allow paiticipants to voice theii expectations of
the couise. You coulu uo this as paiticipants enioll, as pait of the iegistiation
piocess. You coulu uo this thiough biainstoiming oi uiscussion at the beginning of
the fiist session. If you uo not have time, you coulu have paiticipants wiite theii
expectations on a piece of papei anu collect them. Then, altei the couise as neeueu
baseu on the expectations anu goals of the paiticipants. You shoulu also summaiize
the contiibutions anu shaie them at the beginning of the next class.
Charter/Code of Conduct/Group Gu|de||nes
While you will be most likely giving this couise to a gioup of auult euucation
piofessionals, uiffeient people might have uiffeient expectations of how the gioup
behaves anu inteiacts. This is paiticulaily ielevant in iegaius to communication
styles, as people coming fiom uiffeient backgiounus anu cultuies might have
uiffeient expectations about what is appiopiiate anu what leaining looks like. We
highly iecommenu that you take a few minutes uuiing the fiist session to
biainstoim as a gioup about a "uioup Chaitei." It is helpful to think of it as a
chaitei, iathei than "iules" that aie to be abiueu by oi bioken. 0nce a chaitei is in
place, the inuiviuual membeis will self-monitoi, anu ieminu each othei if they aie
not following the guiuelines. Allow the guiuelines to come fiom the membeis iathei
than imposing them upon them. If the gioup is having tiouble thinking of guiuelines,
you can make a suggestion (foi example, "0nly one peison speaks at a time" oi "no
cell phones uuiing class"), but tiy to allow the bulk of the guiuelines to come fiom
within the gioup. As uiscusseu above, cieating a chaitei like this is an impoitant
step in cieating a safe leaining enviionment. This is not only useful foi this
woikshop, but will also be a useful exeicise foi euucatois to take to theii classiooms
anu communities.
Group management
uioup management is only putting into piactice the chaiacteiistics of an effective
facilitatoi. The following piinciples come fiom the INEE Peace Euucation
Facilitatoi's uuiue (veiuiani, 2uuS):

• Piepaiation is the key to avoiuing pioblems. If you aie not piepaieu,
uon't expect the paiticipants to iesponu positively.
• At the beginning of a session, theie is a neeu to focus attention on the
session. uieetings pioviue some of this focus anu theie aie times
when an ice bieakei (intiouuctoiy game) can also help to focus. This
focus pioviues a motivation foi the paiticipants.
• Remembei to vaiy youi voice. Nonotones aie veiy boiing. The
paiticipants will be moie inteiesteu if youi voice shows youi
enthusiasm anu excitement foi the lesson.
• Be suie that youi bouy language is not aggiessive. If you neeu to help
somebouy, nevei lean ovei the peison (this is a veiy aggiessive
stance). Psychologically, it is much bettei to squat oi sit uown so that
you aie the same level as the paiticipant. Tiy to face the same way
that the paiticipant is facing, but iemembei youi peiipheial vision so
that you can still be awaie of the iest of the gioup.
• Nake contact with inuiviuual paiticipants: leain names, make eye
contact, anu notice anu comment on the positive things that they say
anu uo.
• Listen! If you want a leainei-centeieu piogiam, it is even moie
essential to listen to the leaineis, not just when they talk to you but
also when they talk to each othei. You must listen to what is saiu anu
what is not saiu, anu put youiself in the place of the leaineis to see
why they woulu say the things they uo (empathy).
• Bon't give a geneial instiuction to be quiet (e.g. 'sss', oi 'quiet
eveiybouy'). Eveiy peison can safely assume that you aie talking to
someone else. Speak by name to the uisiuptive peison if necessaiy,
but it is geneially moie constiuctive to simply stop speaking anu wait.
• Ask if theie aie questions anu then wait. People uo not always think
quickly anu shoulu be alloweu time. It is uifficult to stay silent foi
thiity seconus - tiy it anu see!
• Leain the ait of asking questions. Asking the iight questions is a key
pait of being an effective facilitatoi. The section on Peace Euucation as
Peuagogy pioviues an intiouuction to 0uestioning Skills. We highly
auvise that you consult this section anu apply it to youi facilitating.
Þract|ce teach|ng
0ne of the benefits of leaining as a gioup is that you have the oppoitunity to
piactice what you aie leaining. We stiongly encouiage you to have paiticipants take
tuins teaching a lesson to the othei gioup membeis. It might help to bieak the
monotony of leaining theoiy if each uay oi peihaps twice a uay, you coulu have
paiticipants piactice teaching. This will also help paiticipants gain a bettei
unueistanuing of peace euucation in action, which is a key goal of the couise.
As one of the key piinciples of peace euucation is tuining ieflection into action, you
may wish to make a plan with youi paiticipants to take action in the community to
implement a peace euucation pioject. This shoulu be context-specific, anu the iuea
shoulu come fiom within the gioup of paiticipants oi local community. Foi example,
you coulu holu a peace euucation event at a local public space following the tiaining.
This woulu be a gieat oppoitunity to take peace euucation beyonu youi school walls
anu into the wiuei woilu!
In oiuei to help TWB continue to impiove the couise anu tailoi it to oui
paiticipants' neeus, we ask that you collect feeuback fiom the paiticipants (feeuback
foims will be pioviueu by TWB, but aie not incluueu in this manual). Bepenuing on
the length of the couise, you may wish to conuuct youi own feeuback session miu-
way anu give the paiticipants an oppoitunity to pioviue feeuback as to how the
couise is going. Foi example, you coulu ask paiticipants to wiite (anonymously)
thiee things they ieally like about the couise, anu thiee things they woulu like to
change oi uon't like. Anothei option woulu be to give the paiticipants some time
alone (foi example, 1S minutes) to biainstoim about the "pluses anu minuses" of the
couise so fai. This woulu give you the oppoitunity as a facilitatoi to gauge wheie
youi paiticipants aie, anu, if iequiieu, to altei anu auapt things accoiuing to the
neeus of youi paiticipants. Remembei, a key quality foi a facilitatoi oi tiainei is to
not take things peisonally!
It is veiy impoitant to us that facilitatois anu tiaineis have all the suppoit they neeu
to use this couise. We encouiage you to pioviue us with youi feeuback.

If you have Inteinet capabilities, we also encouiage you to look at the following
iesouices piouuceu by the Intei-Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies:




These manuals can pioviue auuitional suppoit to facilitatois in piepaiing foi the

Thank you foi youi paiticipation in the$!"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($
78,6093&-$5"&."02, anu foi helping us to biing Peace Euucation to a new auuience!

Libiesco, A. S., & Balantic, I. (Eus.). (2uu6). 5(06($>(''&-'$="&2$G"&,-8$9*($@&"48# New Yoik: Bague
Appeal foi Peace.

veiuiani, A. (Eu.). (2uuS). H-9("IG.(-6;$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."022(A$JK344'$<&"$C&-'9",693B($>3B3-.#$$
Intei-Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies (INEE). Paiis: 0NESC0. Retiieveu fiom

L|st of I|gures

Figuie 1: The Expanueu Concept of Peace anu violence (uiewel, 2uuS, p.S): 0nit 1,
page S2.

Figuie 2: Tiansfoimative Nouel of Peace Euucation: 0nit 1, page S6.

Figuie S: Cultuies of Wai anu Peace: 0nit 1, page 48.

Figuie 4: The Flowei Nouel (Toh & Cawagas, 2uu2), 0nit 1, page S1.

Figuie S: The Integial Nouel foi Peace Euucation (Bienes, 2uu4): 0nit 1, page S2.

Figuie 6: Bick's spatial-tempoial mouel (2u1u): 0nit 2, page 8u.

Figuie 7: The Nonviolent Communication piocess (Rosenbeig, 2uuS): 0nit S, page

Figuie 8: 0uestion Pyiamiu: 0nit S, page 2u.

Figuie 9: Appieciative Inquiiy 4-B Cycle (Coopeiiiuei & Whitney, 2uu1): 0nit S,
page 2S.

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- 1 -

;06,2(2<%=>?09*(@0)% %
At the enu of this unit, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the histoiy of peace euucation
• Be able to uefine peace euucation
• 0nueistanu the philosophical unueipinnings of peace euucation
• 0nueistanu key concepts ielateu to peace euucation anu the fielu of peace anu
conflict stuuies

1. What is peace to you. Tiy to think of a uefinition, oi biainstoim a list of woius that
you think of when you heai the woiu "peace."

2. What is the ielationship between peace anu euucation.

In this 0nit, we will look at the founuation anu backgiounu of peace euucation - the histoiy,
uefinitions, majoi philosopheis, anu concepts that aie cential to the fielu. While this unit is
laigely theoietical, it lays the founuation foi the moie piactical elements that come latei in
the couise. Nany of the concepts auuiesseu in this unit aie uiscusseu thioughout the
couise, so it is impoitant to have a basic unueistanuing in oiuei to be able to unueistanu
latei iefeiences to the topics fiist uiscusseu in this unit. We hope that this section will
highlight the impoitance of peace euucation, anu inspiie you to continue on the path of a
peace euucatoi.

Bowevei, befoie we can stait talking about peace euucation, we must fiist think of peace.
What is peace. As peace is a hypothetical constiuct, it is peihaps easiei to iuentify what
peace is not: conflict. Conflict is, fiom the Latin, "to clash oi engage in a fight, a
confiontation between one oi moie paities aspiiing towaius incompatible oi competitive
means oi enus" (Nillei, 2uuS, p.22). Conflict can manifest in many foims, ianging fiom the
inteinal (within oneself), to the inteipeisonal, to communal, to the national anu, finally,

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- 2 -
Bow uoes peace ielate to conflict. Peace is not the absence, noi the management, of conflict
but iathei the constiuctive pievention of conflict anu piomotion of human iights, equality,
uiveisity, anu compassion. Peace iequiies the employment of skills, values anu attituues
that offei constiuctive alteinatives to conflict. Bowevei, peace is not only chaiacteiizeu by
the skills anu values that encouiage anu implement conflict pievention anu tiansfoimation,
noi is it solely iepiesenteu as the absence of wai on the national level. Peace is equally
piesent in a feeling of calmness anu ease at the peisonal level.

What is the connection between peace anu euucation. Accoiuing to the 0NESC0 chaitei,
"since wais begin in the minus of men, it is in the minus of men that the uefenses of peace
must be constiucteu"(0NESC0, 194S). If peace is something that can be leaineu, then it is
the job of teacheis to euucate theii stuuents to be peacemakeis. This is the task of peace
euucation: to tiansfoim the minus of leaineis in oiuei to builu a peaceful woilu. The goal of
this cuiiiculum is to show you why this is impoitant, anu how to uo it.
Nillei, C.E. (2uuS). "A ulossaiy of Teims anu Concepts in Peace anu Conflict Stuuies." 0niveisity foi Peace.

0NESC0. (194S). Constitution of the 0niteu Nations Euucational, Scientific, anu Cultuial 0iganization.
Lonuon. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.icomos.oig¡unesco¡unesco_constitution.html

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- S -

At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the ioots of peace euucation anu its mouein uevelopment
• Iuentify key thinkeis anu theoiists in peace euucation
• Biscuss key tienus in peace euucation
As you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Bow uiu the histoiical events of the 2uth centuiy shape the peace euucation
• What is missing fiom this histoiy.

Peace euucation can be uefineu simply as "the piocess of teaching people about the thieats
of violence anu stiategies foi peace," anu may take place insiue oi outsiue a classioom
(Baiiis, 2uu8, p. 1S). With this bioau uefinition, the histoiy of peace euucation is aiguably
as olu as human histoiy, as cultuies thioughout the woilu have leaineu - anu then taught
the next geneiation - how to live peacefully with otheis. Biveise ieligious anu philosophical
tiauitions have been a iich anu influential souice of peace leaining, even though people
have also piomoteu violence in the names of these tiauitions.

Peace euucation in its mouein foim, howevei, has its ioots in acauemia anu the fielu of
peace stuuies. Peace euucation scholai Ian Baiiis uesciibes this mouein peace movement
as beginning in nineteenth centuiy Euiope with many intellectual effoits to leain about
violent conflict, evolving into socialist political thought, anu spieauing to the 0niteu States
anu elsewheie befoie Woilu Wai I. Scholais then began to stuuy wai anu staiteu tiying to
euucate the public about its uangeis. Noie anu moie people tiieu to peisuaue each othei
anu theii goveinments to use meuiation insteau of wai to solve inteinational conflicts. Foi
example, influenceu by the piogiessive iueas of the Ameiican euucational theoiist Iohn
Bewey, many teacheis acioss the 0niteu States began using piogiessive euucation to teach

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- 4 -
theii stuuents about oui common humanity in oiuei to piomote peaceful social piogiess
(Baiiis, 2uu8, p. 16-17).

In the eaily 19uus, women became an especially active pait of this mouein peace euucation
movement. At this time, peace euucatois began campaigning foi social justice, aiguing that
poveity anu inequality weie causes of wai. These campaigns weie often leu by women.

!"#$"%!&'()**&#$ is one example of an influential miu-2uth centuiy theoiist who founu
new connections between peace anu euucation. She linkeu teaching methouology to peace-
builuing, hoping to help the next geneiation avoiu the violence of authoiitaiianism. 0thei
peace euucatois at that time, such as Beibeit Reau, began encouiaging the use of ait anu
stuuents' cieativity to piomote peace, while otheis, such as +",-&%.#)$#), focuseu on
tiaining stuuents foi ciitical analysis anu iefoim of society.

Inteinational oiganizations, incluuing vaiious 0niteu Nations bouies, as well as many non-
goveinmental oiganizations, have been giowing in influence anu impoitance since the enu
of Woilu Wai I, anu have contiibuteu gieatly to the movement to achieve global peace.
Although the League of Nations faileu, the establishment of the 0niteu Nations achieveu
new levels of global coopeiation, noims, anu iueals. The Chaitei of the 0niteu Nations has
since seiveu as inspiiation foi the uevelopment of peace euucation, as euucatois aspiieu to
help in the global effoit to "save succeeuing geneiations fiom the scouige of wai," "to
ieaffiim faith in the .uignity anu woith of the human peison |anu] in the equal iights of
men anu women," "to establish conuitions unuei which justice anu iespect foi the
obligations aiising fiom tieaties anu othei souices of inteinational law can be maintaineu,"
anu "to piomote social piogiess anu bettei stanuaius of life in laigei fieeuom" (0niteu
Nations, 194S).

With this manuate, the stuuy anu piomotion of sustainable peace thiough
euucation began to take on new uigency anu sophistication to achieve these univeisal

+)"/)%*(,0$)* became a moie seiious acauemic subject soon aftei Woilu Wai II. The
thieat of nucleai wai thioughout the Colu Wai encouiageu many scholais to uevote theii
stuuies to cieating a sustainable peace. Since the 198us in paiticulai, peace euucation
scholaiship has uevelopeu in many uiiections. Some have emphasizeu minimizing
masculine aggiession, uomestic violence, anu militaiism: otheis have sought to fostei
empathy anu caie in stuuents: anu many have aigueu that ciitical thinking anu uemociatic
peuagogy aie vital.

With the 1&'2)'($&'%&'%(3)%4$53(*%&6%(3)%13$-0 (CRC), cieateu in 1989, peace euucation
anu human iights euucation took on new impoitance, as this type of euucation came to be
seen as a funuamental iight that all chiluien shoulu have. As 0NICEF scholai Susan
Fountain wiites, "It is significant that the fiameis of the CRC vieweu the piomotion of
unueistanuing, peace anu toleiance thiough euucation as a funuamental iight of all
chiluien, not an optional extia-cuiiiculai activity". Inteinational oiganizations of all types,
along with local teacheis anu communities, felt ieneweu piessuie to pioviue peace

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euucation to all stuuents as pait of theii coie stuuies: this piovision became an explicit
uuty foi eveiyone in society, anu especially foi those involveu in foimal euucation.

Since the 199us, peace euucation scholaiship fiom aiounu the woilu has pioviueu an even
gieatei vaiiety of peispectives on the piactice anu its goals. In uocumenting the
implementation of peace euucation, scholais have founu vaiying uegiees of emphasis on
positive oi negative peace
, on local oi global peace, anu suboiuinate oi uominant status of
stuuents. Scholais have aigueu that the context of the peace euucation piogiam has
become one of the most impoitant factois in shaping the foim it takes. In othei woius, the
content anu emphasis of a given peace euucation piogiam uepenus to a laige extent on
wheie it is taught. Some piogiams focus piimaiily on positive peace, while otheis may
auuiess negative peace.

Thus, peace euucation has evolveu to emphasize local peace potentials anu local tiauitions
of conflict tiansfoimation. Teacheis anu otheis have shapeu theii piogiams to auuiess the
neeus anu goals of theii communities. Foi example, some scholais have suggesteu ,:,-9, -
an ethical philosophy of southein Afiica that ioughly tianslates to "I am because you aie" -
as a helpful component of peace euucation in paits of Afiica.

The histoiy of peace euucation, theiefoie, has vaiious ioots anu has uevelopeu on vaiious
paths: nonetheless, eveiy instance of peace euucation can be seen as pait of a laigei
movement towaiu the cieation of a moie peaceful woilu.

Bespite theii uiffeiences in local context, peace euucation teacheis have much in common.
Nany peace euucatois seek to piomote some combination of the following iueals: human
iights anu the iights of the chilu, social justice anu the minimization of stiuctuial violence,
ciitical analysis anu tiansfoimation of violent concepts anu institutions, non-violent
inteipeisonal anu intei-communal conflict iesolution, univeisal empathy, global
familiaiity, anu peaceful coexistence with the enviionment. Aiounu the woilu, teacheis
have uiawn upon the woik anu ieseaich of inteinational activists, scholais, anu each othei
foi iueas. At the same time, these peace euucatois' woik continues to inspiie fuithei woik
anu stuuy conceining new possibilities foi peace euucation.

Thus, the tienu in iecent histoiy appeais to be one of moving towaiu an expanuing
infoimal netwoik of activists, scholais, teacheis, anu otheis that uiaw on each othei's woik
to impiove theii unueistanuing anu piomotion of peace. New paiticipants join the
movement eveiy uay, anu peace euucation continues to evolve in its theoiy anu in its

Positive peace is the piesence of social justice anu equality, anu the absence of stiuctuial oi inuiiect
violence. Negative peace is uefineu as the absence of violence. In oiuei to cieate negative peace, we must look
foi ways to ieuuce anu eliminate violence.

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1. What aie the key histoiical tienus of peace euucation.
2. This histoiy, like all histoiies, is fiom one peispective. What is left out of this
histoiy of peace euucation.
S. Task: Leain about the histoiy of peace euucation in youi countiy oi iegion by
ieseaiching on the Inteinet, in the libiaiy, oi by inteiviewing a local peace
euucatoi. Who have been the key figuies in peace euucation. What
oiganizations aie woiking locally oi iegionally to piomote peace euucation.
4. Bow can the above ieseaich help you incoipoiate peace euucation into youi
Fountain, S. (1999). 5(06($78,6093&-$3-$:;<=7>#$New Yoik: 0NICEF. Retiieveu fiom

Baiiis, I. (2uu8). "Bistoiy of Peace Euucation" in Nonisha Bajaj, eu., 7-6?64&)(830$&@$5(06($78,6093&-#$
Chailotte, NC: Infoimation Age Publishing, 2uu8) Retiieveu fiom

Nuiithi, T. (2uu9). "An Afiican Peispective on Peace Euucation: :A,-9, Lessons in Reconciliation,"
<-9("-093&-04$B(C3(/$&@$78,6093&- (SS), p. 221-2SS.

0niteu Nations. (194S). 5"(02A4($&@$9*($:;$=*0"9(". Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.un.oig¡cybeischoolbus¡peace¡fiame2.htm

Salomon, u. (2uu2). "The Natuie of Peace Euucation: Not All Piogiams Aie Cieateu Equal" in Nevo &
Salomon, eus., 5(06($78,6093&-D$9*($6&-6()9$)"3-63)4('E$0-8$)"06936('$0"&,-8$9*($/&"48, New Ieisey: Lawience
Eailbaum Associates, p. S-1S.

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As explaineu by Abebe, ubesso, & Nyawalo (2uu6):

Peace euucation is a unifying anu compiehensive concept that seeks to piomote a
holistic view of euucation. Bowevei, its ielevance is inextiicably pait of anu is highly
uepenuent on contextual specificity. 0NESC0 liteiatuie states that Peace Euucation
is moie effective anu meaningful when auopteu accoiuing to the social anu cultuial
context anu the neeus of a countiy. It shoulu be eniicheu by its cultuial anu spiiitual
values togethei with the univeisal human values. It shoulu also be globally ielevant.
uiven such a fiamewoik, it is haiu to finu a univeisally accepteu uefinition. As such,
Peace Euucation is chaiacteiizeu by its many uefinitions (p. 14). $
0ne of the key thinkeis of the fielu, Iohn Bewey (192S), uefineu peace euucation as a

. which will make it moie uifficult foi the flames of hatieu anu suspicion to sweep
ovei this countiy in the futuie, which inueeu will make this impossible, because
when chiluien's minus aie in the foimative peiiou we shall have fixeu in them
thiough the meuium of the schools, feelings of iespect anu fiienuliness foi the othei
nations anu peoples of the woilu (p. S16).

Bewey's emphasis, uevelopeu in the miust of two Woilu Wais, was on a sense of woilu
patiiotism anu peaceful inteinationalism that woulu eliminate the hoiiific wais of his time,
anu his uefinition ieflects that globalist theoiy.
The 0niteu Nations, even in its eailiest yeais, voiceu similai suppoit foi peace euucation as
a catalyst foi inteinational iespect anu human iights, as uesciibeu in its :-3;("'04$

Euucation shall be uiiecteu to the full uevelopment of the human peisonality anu to
the stiengthening of iespect foi human iights anu funuamental fieeuoms. It shall
piomote unueistanuing, toleiance anu fiienuship among all nations, iacial oi
ieligious gioups, anu shall fuithei the activities of the 0niteu Nations foi the
maintenance of peace (0niteu Nations ueneial Assembly, 1948, p. 6).
Noie iecently, numeious uefinitions focus on peace euucation as the uevelopment of skills
that empowei stuuents to tackle ieal-woilu issues anu thus actively cieate peace in the
woilu. Accoiuing to Fountain (1999),

Peace euucation in 0NICEF iefeis to the piocess of piomoting the knowleuge, skills,
attituues anu values neeueu to biing about behavioui changes that will enable

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chiluien, youth anu auults to pievent conflict anu violence, both oveit anu
stiuctuial: to iesolve conflict peacefully: anu to cieate the conuitions conuucive to
peace, whethei at an intiapeisonal, inteipeisonal, inteigioup, national oi
inteinational level (p. 1).

Accoiuing to Abebe et. al. (2uu6),

Peace Euucation is piocess of ueveloping knowleuge, skills, attituues, behaviois anu
values that enable leaineis to:
• Iuentify anu unueistanu souices of local anu global issues anu
acquiie positive anu appiopiiate sensitivities to these pioblems
• Resolve conflicts anu to attain justice in a non-violent way
• Live by univeisal stanuaius of human iights anu equity by
appieciating cultuial uiveisity, iespect foi the eaith anu foi each othei (p.
0thei uefinitions emphasize the uiffeience between leaining 0:&,9 peace anu leaining ;&"
peace, thus incoipoiating both backgiounu knowleuge anu piactical skills.

Peace Euucation means to leain about anu to leain foi peace. Leaining about
peace means obtaining knowleuge anu unueistanuing of what contiibutes to peace,
what uamages it, what leaus to wai, what uoes 'peace' mean on each level anyway,
what is my iole in it, anu how aie the uiffeient levels connecteu. Leaining foi
peace means leaining the skills, attituues anu values that one neeus in oiuei to
contiibute to peace anu help maintain it. Foi example, this means leaining to ueal
with conflicts without the iecouise to violence, leaining to think cieatively, leaining
to apply the methous of active non-violence oi leaining to ueal with cultuial
uiffeiences in a constiuctive way (Space foi Peace, 2u1u).

Peace euucation can be uefineu as: the tiansmission of knowleuge about
iequiiements of, the obstacles to, anu possibilities foi achieving anu maintaining
peace: tiaining in skills foi inteipieting the knowleuge: anu the uevelopment of
ieflective anu paiticipatoiy capacities foi applying the knowleuge to oveicome
pioblems anu achieve possibilities (Reaiuon, 2uuu, p. S99).
Befinitions can also uiffei in the level anu scope of theii focus, as some concentiate on the
impacts of peace euucation on inuiviuuals, while otheis emphasize its impact on the woilu
as a whole.

Peace euucation is holistic. It embiaces the physical, emotional, intellectual, anu
social giowth of chiluien within a fiamewoik ueeply iooteu in tiauitional human
values. It is baseu on philosophy that teaches love, compassion, tiust, faiiness, co-

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opeiation anu ieveience foi the human family anu all life on oui beautiful planet
(Schmiut anu Fiieuman, 1988, as citeu in Abebe et. al., 2uu6, p. 14).

Peace euucation is an attempt to iesponu to pioblems of conflict anu violence on
scales ianging fiom the global anu national to the local anu peisonal. It is about
exploiing ways of cieating moie just anu sustainable futuies (R. B. Laing, I978, as
citeu in Abebe, et. al., 2uu6, p. 14).
As a final note, below is 0NICEF's uetaileu outline of the many factois that peace euucation
must take into account anu incoipoiate.

Schooling anu othei euucational expeiiences that ieflect 0NICEF's appioach to peace
euucation shoulu:

• Function as 'zones of peace', wheie chiluien aie safe fiom conflict in the
• 0pholu chiluien's basic iights as enumeiateu in the CRC (Convention on the
Rights of the Chilu):
• Bevelop a climate, within the school oi othei leaining enviionment, that
mouels peaceful anu iights-iespectful behavioi in the ielationships between
all membeis of the school community: teacheis, auministiatois, othei staff,
paients anu chiluien:
• Bemonstiate the piinciples of equality anu non-uisciimination in
auministiative policies anu piactices:
• Biaw on the knowleuge of peace-builuing that alieauy exists in the
community, incluuing means of uealing with conflict that aie effective, non-
violent, anu iooteu in the local cultuie:
• Banule conflicts - whethei between chiluien oi between chiluien anu auults -
in a non-violent mannei that iespects the iights anu uignity of all involveu:
• Integiate an unueistanuing of peace, human iights, social justice anu global
issues thioughout the cuiiiculum whenevei possible:
• Pioviue a foium foi the explicit uiscussion of values of peace anu social
• 0se teaching anu leaining methous that piomote paiticipation, coopeiation,
pioblem-solving anu iespect foi uiffeiences:
• Allow oppoitunities foi chiluien to put peace-making into piactice, both in
the euucational setting anu in the wiuei community:
• Pioviue oppoitunities foi continuous ieflection anu piofessional
uevelopment of all euucatois in ielation to issues of peace, justice anu iights
(Fountain, 1999, p. S-6).

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The uefinitions above pioviue a geneial sampling of those available anu utilizeu in the fielu
of peace euucation touay. Peace euucation is a holistic, inteiuisciplinaiy fielu that seeks to
piomote knowleuge, skills, values, anu attituues foi peace. In 0nit 2, we will look at the
scope of peace euucation, which encompasses the vaiious uisciplines that aie incluueu
within the bioau umbiella of peace euucation. While theie is no single uefinition foi peace
euucation, this compilation shows the vaiiety of ways that peace euucation can be uefineu.
1. What aie the similaiities anu uiffeiences between the uefinitions. What aie theii
stiengths anu weaknesses.
2. Why is it beneficial to have many uefinitions foi peace euucation. Aie theie any
uiawbacks to not having one single agieeu-upon uefinition.
S. Baseu on this intiouuction, what benefits can you imagine peace euucation biinging
to youi classioom, school, oi community.
4. Task: If you have access to the Inteinet oi books on peace euucation, seek othei
uefinitions that aie not featuieu in this section.
S. Task: Baseu on these uefinitions, uevelop youi own uefinition of peace euucation
baseu on what iesonates with you oi what is most ielevant oi piessing in youi
6. Bow will youi own uefinition (oi any one of the uefinitions incluueu in this section)
guiue youi classioom piactice. What will have to change in youi classioom. What
will stay the same. Bow will this uefinition impact youi stuuents anu theii leaining.
Bow will youi stuuents benefit fiom it.
Abebe, T.T., ubesso, A., & Nyawalo, P.A. (2uu6). 5(06($78,6093&-$3-$:;"360. Auuis Ababa: 0niveisity foi Peace.
Retiieveu fiom

Bewey, I. (192S). The Schools as a Neans of Beveloping a Social Consciousness anu Social Iueals in
Chiluien# %&,"-04$&;$<&6304$=&"6(' I.

Fountain, S. (1999). 5(06($78,6093&-$3-$>?@A7=# New Yoik: 0NICEF. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.unicef.oig¡giilseuucation¡files¡PeaceEuucation.puf

Reaiuon, B. (2uuu). Peace Euucation: A Review anu a Piojection. In B. Noon, N. Ben-Peietz & S. Biown
(Eus.), B&,94(8.($@-9("-093&-04$A&2)0-3&-$9&$78,6093&-. Lonuon: Tayloi & Fiancis. p. S97-42S.

Space foi Peace. (2u1u). 5(06($78,6093&-C$:$D&"E3-.$!(;3-393&-. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.spacefoipeace.net¡pe.phtml

0niteu Nations ueneial Assembly. (1948). >-3F("'04$!(640"093&-$&;$+,20-$B3.*9'. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡uaccess-uus-ny.un.oig¡uoc¡RES0L0TI0N¡uEN¡NRu¡u4S¡88¡INu¡NRuu4S88.puf.0penElement

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the contiibutions of Iohn Bewey, Naiia Nontesoiii, anu Paulo Fieiie to
the fielu of peace euucation
• Besciibe the key peuagogical piinciples that each thinkei offeis to the fielu
While ieauing this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Iohn Bewey, Naiia Nontessoii, anu Paulo Fieiie uiu not necessaiily call themselves
"peace euucatois." What qualities make a peace euucatoi. What aie the qualities
that chaiacteiize peace euucatois.
• Bow coulu you apply the theoiies uevelopeu by these thinkeis in youi own
classioom. Aie you applying them alieauy. If so, how.
• What aie the similaiities anu uiffeiences between Bewey, Nontessoii anu Fieiie.

Philosophies of peace euucation began as eaily as the woilu's majoi ieligions. Spiiitual
visionaiies such as Buuuha, Iesus, Baha'u'llah, Nuhammau, anu Lao Tse weie also pioneeis
of peace euucation thiough the teaching of theii uoctiines of love anu compassion. Latei,
impoitant philosophical thinkeis such as Immanuel Kant continueu to uevelop a wiuei anu
ueepei fielu of tieatises on peace. Bowevei, peace euucation as a specific uiscipline uiu not
gain momentum until the 2u
centuiy (Baiiis, 2uu2). Peace euucation in its mouein foim
is a ielatively new fielu which continues to giow anu expanu to this uay, thanks to the
contiibutions of a numbei of key thinkeis thioughout histoiy.

!"#$%&'('),%*+,-+%*"$.'//",-,%anu%0+12"%3,'-,'%aie consiueieu to be thiee majoi
thinkeis in the fielu of peace euucation. Though each a gieat intellectual in theii own iight,
theii woik has in common a numbei of impoitant iueas that have shapeu the uevelopment
of peace euucation. These commonalities incluue the concept of teacheis as leaineis in a
two-way paitneiship with theii stuuents, anu an emphasis on the faculties of cieativity,
imagination, anu ciitical thinking so that stuuents can apply skills leaineu in the classioom
to solve ieal-life pioblems. Bewey, Nontessoii, anu Fieiie each believeu in the powei of
euucation to empowei stuuents to fulfill theii potentials anu cieate peace.

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In auuition to these thiee majoi thinkeis, theie aie many moie scholais who have
contiibuteu significantly to the uevelopment of peace euucation. !"#$%&'$()*%+ is a
Noiwegian acauemic known foi his contiibutions to peace euucation ieseaich anu his
fiamewoik of negative anu positive peace
, anu oveiall contiibutions to the peace stuuies
anu peace ieseaich fielus (ualtung, 198S). ,(-./&0"*(1-%+&was an influential thinkei who
emphasizeu peace euucation as a combination of thinking globally anu acting locally
(Noiiison, 2uu8). 0-2+-)&02"3456)%/ has also gieatly impacteu peace euucation by
biinging a feminist peispective to the fielu. 0thei notable peace euucation thinkeis incluue

The woik of many of these key peace euucation theoiists infoims the content of this couise,
but we will focus on the main thiee thinkeis below. The ieason foi the emphasis on these
thiee is that theii woik, moie than that of any othei thinkeis, is the most ielevant to the
philosophical unueipinnings of peace euucation, anu is impoitant to unueistanu in
applying to classioom piactice.
ualtung, I. (198S). Peace Euucation: Leaining to Bate Wai, Love Peace, anu to Bo Something About It.
:-9("-093&-04$;(<3(/$&=$78,6093&-, >?@AB. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.jstoi.oig¡stable¡S444uuS

Baiiis, I.N. (Apiil 2uu2). 5(06($78,6093&-$C*(&"D. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.eiic.eu.gov:8u¡ERICBocs¡uata¡eiicuocs2sql¡content_stoiage_u1¡uuuu u19b¡8u¡1b¡Su¡ub.puf

Noiiison, N.L. (22 Febiuaiy 2uu8). 743'($E&,483-.$0-8$5(06($78,6093&-. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.tc.euu¡centeis¡epe¡htm%2uaiticles¡NoiiisonElise%2uBouluing_22fe bu8.uoc

Positive peace is the piesence of social justice anu equality, anu the absence of stiuctuial oi inuiiect
violence. Negative peace is uefineu as the absence of violence. In oiuei to cieate negative peace, we must look
foi ways to ieuuce anu eliminate violence.

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the main piinciples of Iohn Bewey's euucational philosophy
• Besciibe Iohn Bewey's contiibution to the fielu of peace euucation
• 0nueistanu how to apply Iohn Bewey's iueas in the classioom
As you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What is the ielationship between uemociacy anu euucation.
• Bow can the ieal-woilu issues of stuuents be integiateu into the cuiiiculum.
• Is an inciemental appioach the best appioach to social change.

Iohn Bewey (18S9-19S2) is one of the most piolific Ameiican philosopheis anu
euucational theoiists. Be is consiueieu to be the founuei of the Piogiessive Novement, a
movement baseu on piomoting societal change via inciemental change iathei than
completely oveihauling the system. Be is best known foi his woik on euucation anu
Iohn Bewey believeu that the piomise of humanity was limitless, anu that the puipose of
euucation was to pioviue people with the skills anu knowleuge to use this potential to be
the best that they coulu be as inuiviuuals. Bowevei, he also believeu that humanity hau
limitless potential in a less positive uiiection: the limitless potential to uemoialize anu
piomote violence. Be saw this potential foi haim in the pioblems of iacism,
ethnocentiism, in the class system that capitalism piomoteu, anu also in the mannei in
which schools taught theii stuuents. Accoiuing to Bewey, the solution to these pioblems
was an euucation that piomoteu uemociacy anu peace. The focus on uemociacy came fiom

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the belief that uemociacy was the best mouel foi the positive giowth of inuiviuuals anu
Bewey's philosophy stiesses the impoitance of viewing the classioom as a community
centeieu on leaining.$Bewey believeu that the iole of teacheis shoulu not be limiteu to
meiely tiansfeiiing infoimation to theii stuuents. To be effective, teacheis neeu to
stiuctuie lessons in a mannei that is engaging foi the stuuents. This iequiies that stuuents
play a key iole in ueteimining the aieas they want to exploie anu concepts they want to
leain. This also means that classiooms neeu to be stiuctuieu aiounu the iuea that teacheis
anu stuuents aie co-uiscoveieis in the classioom.

In Bewey's philosophy of leaining, the enviionment is a key element. Be uefineu
enviionment as cuiiiculum, instiuctional methous, anu physical setting. With iegaius to
the cuiiiculum, he believeu that topics neeueu to be laige enough to challenge the cuiient
conceptions of stuuents, but also small enough foi stuuents to finu familiaiity in the topic.
This was a uifficult balance to stiike, but the objective was that stuuents woulu feel
connecteu to the topic thiough the aspect of familiaiity while still being challengeu by new
iueas anu expeiiences. To make this possible, the teachei - in auuition to being a teachei of
his¡hei subject - neeus to be also a leainei. Teacheis must constantly be awaie of theii
stuuents, both of theii state in the piesent moment as well as theii past giowth anu
potential foi futuie giowth. This alloweu teacheis to incoipoiate past expeiiences of theii
stuuents into theii uesign of lessons. Leaining, accoiuing to Bewey, shoulu nevei be pie-
packageu anu shoulu always be shapeu aiounu the neeus anu inteiests of the stuuents.
Auuitionally, the classioom enviionment neeus to give chiluien oppoitunities to exploie on
theii own anu thiough the appiopiiate stiuctuiing anu guiuance fiom theii teacheis.

Anothei ieason to use the expeiience of the stuuents is to teach stuuents how to solve
genuine pioblems, which is the piimaiy goal of euucation foi uemociacy. Bewey felt that
stuuents shoulu be taught how to see issues in the woilu anu iesponu to them. Bewey
stiongly believeu that leaining in the ieal woilu alloweu stuuents to unueigo a peisonal

Bewey believeu that the uemociatic state was the most peaceful because it best uiaws out
the capacity of inuiviuuals, anu thus theii abilities to contiibute best to society. A goou
euucation woulu teach stuuents the skills foi effective communication anu how to inteiact
with otheis, which aie essential skills foi a peaceful uemociatic society. All of these aieas
will leau to a commitment to mutual engagement by all of those in society.
When Woilu Wai I bioke out, Bewey saw the uestiuction that wai coulu biing, anu he
began to focus his euucational philosophy on the value of peace euucation. While his
euucation foi uemociacy was key to piomoting peace, his new philosophy was uistinctly

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focuseu on piomoting peace thioughout the woilu. 0ne of his main ciitiques of the
euucation system of his time was that it focuseu on teaching nationalism anu patiiotism,
which in tuin piomoteu moie wais. Be pioposeu, insteau, an inteinationalism that was not
bounu by patiiotism.

Be consiueieu the teaching of histoiy anu geogiaphy to be the most impoitant subjects
thiough which to teach inteinationalism anu peace. Teaching geogiaphy was uesigneu to
teach stuuents about the woilu community's uiveise cultuies, habits, anu occupations. The
teaching of histoiy shoulu not, accoiuing to Bewey, be focuseu on uates anu names, but
iathei shoulu piomote peace by pioviuing stuuents with knowleuge of the past that
contiibutes effectively to an unueistanuing of the pioblems that exist in the piesent anu
coulu exist in the futuie. Be aigueu that the uomestic stiuctuies that piomote wai anu
inequalities neeueu to change in oiuei foi peace to emeige in the futuie.

Anothei key aspect of Bewey's peace cuiiiculum was the iuea of !"#$%&'()#*")*+,.
Accoiuing to Bewey, two key iueas - that societies have uistinctive uiffeiences between
them, anu that wai was inevitable - weie uestiuctive anu fanneu the flames of hatieu. To
ueconstiuct these iueas, he piomoteu the iuea of a global citizen thiough woilu patiiotism.
Be also auvocateu a tiansnational peispective in which the best attiibutes of all societies
came togethei to foim a bioauei iueological base foi the woilu. Be wanteu to piepaie
stuuents to be pait of a bioauei inteinational society.
Iohn Bewey's philosophy of euucation quickly became populai anu seiveu as the influence
foi many schools acioss the 0niteu States. Bowevei, many people anu schools have
inteipieteu Bewey incoiiectly, thinking that Bewey auvocateu foi chiluien to uo whatevei
they wish. 0n the contiaiy, a school that coiiectly uses Bewey's influence uoes not allow
chiluien limitless fieeuom with no guiuance oi consequences. Rathei, teacheis use
stuuents' inteiests anu expeiiences to cieate ielevant activities. Inteiuisciplinaiy anu
collaboiative woik is emphasizeu anu infoimation about each subject is supplementeu by
peisonal expeiiences of both teacheis anu stuuents. The school, oi community of leaineis,
must function as a tiue uemociacy in which eveiyone woiks foi the benefit of theii
community. This uoes not mean that teacheis, auministiatois, anu paients uo not have
leaueiship ioles, but iathei that they must woik to incoipoiate stuuents into all aspects of
school life, incluuing aspects tiauitionally ieseiveu foi teacheis anu auministiatois.

Bewey's peace euucation, when implementeu well, focuses on the ioles of teaching histoiy
anu geogiaphy. When teaching these two subjects, teacheis must be conscious to teach
about vaiious cultuies anu the similaiities that exist between the cultuies of the globe.
Stuuents shoulu be taught how these cultuies aie ielevant to theii own lives. This can be
seen thiough uiawing connections between the stuuents' cultuie(s) anu the othei cultuie
being stuuieu, oi thiough investigating the influences of the uiffeient society on the lives of
stuuents. Foi example, in Nicaiagua, wheie fiieciackeis aie populai, teacheis coulu teach
that fiieciackeis weie inventeu in China. This shows veiy simply the connections between

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stuuents in Nicaiagua anu people in China. With iegaius to histoiy, teacheis neeu to ensuie
that stuuents can see how cuiient events that impact theii neighboihoou oi state oi
countiy, come fiom a ceitain histoiical tiajectoiy. Stuuents shoulu also leain how to cieate
anu piomote peaceful change to solve pioblems.

1. What aie the key points of Bewey's euucational philosophy.
2. Bow uiu Bewey contiibute to the fielu of peace euucation.
S. Bow uo you cieate a positive enviionment foi leaining in youi classioom. Biu this
section on Bewey contiibute to youi unueistanuing of how to builu inclusive anu
uemociatic enviionments foi leaining.
4. Woulu you uesciibe youi classioom as uemociatic. Explain.
Bansen, B. T. (2uu7). "Iohn Bewey on Euucation anu 0uality of Life." In B. T. Bansen, (Eu.), 79*3604$:3'3&-'$&;$
78,6093&-<$5*34&'&)*3('$3-$5"06936(. New Yoik: Teacheis College Piess, p. 21-S4.

Bowlett, C. F. (2uu8). "Iohn Bewey anu Peace Euucation." =(06*("'$>&44(.(. Columbia 0niveisity,. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.tc.euu¡centeis¡epe¡...¡Bowlett_chS_22febu8.puf

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3.2 Mar|a Montessor|
Learn|ng Cb[ect|ves
At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the main piinciples of Naiia Nontessoii's euucational philosophy
• Besciibe Nontessoii's contiibution to the fielu of peace euucation
• 0nueistanu how to apply Nontessoii's iueas in a classioom setting
Gu|d|ng Cuest|ons
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What uoes it mean to be a global citizen.
• What aie the elements of a peaceful leaining enviionment.
• Bow uo the stages of human uevelopment affect the way peace euucation shoulu be

Naiia Nontessoii (187u-19S2) spent hei youth anu young auulthoou in Italy. She initially
tiaineu to be a physician, which was ievolutionaiy foi a woman at that time. Bei woik as a
physician leu hei into the stuuy of euucation anu teaching. Bei woik in peace euucation
was influenceu by the iise of fascism that she saw thioughout Euiope uuiing the 192us anu
19Sus. While hei woik touay is most commonly iefeienceu in euucation of young chiluien,
hei peuagogy can be applieu to those of all ages.
Montessor|'s Þh||osophy
Peace is at the centei of Nontessoii's philosophy. She believeu that toleiance was not
enough foi the woilu to be peaceful - iathei, iespect foi eveiything anu eveiyone is
neeueu. Foi this ieason she piomoteu a global outlook anu uiveisity in euucation. She
believeu that a global anu uiveise outlook, when combineu with peisonal iesponsibility,
woulu leau to peace. Foi this ieason she is consiueieu the founuei of !"#$%"&'()(*+,-.(/.
She piomoteu the iespect of both the physical enviionment anu human ielationships. In
hei woius, "0ui piincipal concein must be to euucate humanity - the human beings of all
nations - in oiuei to guiue it towaiu seeking common goals" (Cossentino & Witcomb, 2uu7,
p. 11S). She vieweu chiluien as the hope anu piomise foi mankinu anu theiefoie thought it
was essential to invest in them to piomote peace in the woilu.

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Nontessoii piomoteu a specific way of investing in chiluien to piomote peace. The two key
elements of hei philosophy we will exploie in the following sections aie piepaieu
enviionments anu planes of uevelopment.

Piepaieu enviionments aie uesigneu to give chiluien fieeuom within limits, which
suppoits the essential Nontessoii concepts of chilu-leu anu chilu-centeieu leaining.
Piepaieu enviionments shoulu offei a wiue iange of choices anu be aesthetically pleasing.
0nce the enviionment is piepaieu, stuuents aie given the fieeuom to leain what is
inteiesting to them anu to cieate theii own unueistanuings. This occuis thiough
expeiimenting as well as leaining fiom the actions of peeis anu teacheis.

The piocess of inuiviuual anu gioup exploiation also teaches the stuuents about
imagination, which is key to Nontessoii's philosophy of self-uiscipline. Nontessoii
believeu that stuuents neeueu to be self-uisciplineu, iathei than ieceiving uiscipline fiom
the outsiue, since at some point they will be on theii own anu will neeu this self-uiscipline
in oiuei to be successful anu manage theii own life, goals, plans, anu ielationships.
Accoiuing to Nontessoii, this piocess of inuiviuual anu gioup exploiation allows youth to
leain fiom theii own expeiiences, fiom theii peeis, anu fiom theii teacheis.
Nontessoii believeu in foui planes of uevelopment that uesciibe the chilu at vaiious
uevelopmental peiious. The foui planes aie:

1. The Age of Piuuence (u-6 yeais olu): Constiuction of the physical, conciete plane
2. The Age of Tempeiance (6-12 yeais olu): Constiuction of the intelligence plane
S. The Age of Iustice (12-18 yeais olu): Constiuction of the social¡moial plane
4. The Age of Foitituue (18-24 yeais olu): Constiuction of the spiiitual plane

Nontessoii believeu that chiluien have spiiitual impulses that, when piopeily nuituieu,
biing about a poweiful innei guiue foi peace anu compassion. When woik is at the iight
level foi chiluien anu is fulfilling, chiluien will be peaceful anu content, anu will uevelop
theii intellectual, social, anu spiiitual potential.

Each 6-yeai uevelopmental plane is uiviueu into S-yeai cycles. Within each cycle,
especially at youngei ages, Nontessoii consiueieu that chiluien pass thiough a sensitive
peiiou, which must be cultivateu by the euucatoi thiough inuiviuual anu gioup activities, to
suppoit self anu gioup leaining. These peiious iesponu to vaiious intellectual, social, anu
moial awakenings anu the euucatois must cultivate that awakening.
The puipose of Nontessoii's iuea of peace euucation was to not simply stop wai anu
violence (what is known as negative peace) but iathei to piomote positive peace. She

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uefineu positive peace as the values that aie impoitant to humanity, such as justice anu
haimony. She wiote that "inheient in the veiy meaning of the woiu peace is the positive
notion of constiuctive social iefoim" (Buckwoith, 2uu8). Biveisity is a key aspect of this
positive peace since she piomotes a woilu in which these values aie uefenueu anu
piomoteu foi all people, iegaiuless of inuiviuual uiffeiences.
Nontessoii schools can be founu aiounu the woilu, anu pioviue living examples of hei
vision of peace euucation in action. In Nontessoii schools, chiluien typically begin the uay
with thiee houis of uninteiiupteu, self-uiiecteu woik. Stuuents engage in activities that
aie baseu on classification, sequencing, anu exploiation. The iole of the teachei is not as a
souice of knowleuge, but iathei as a stiuctuial guiue. Stuuents aie also involveu in the
uesign of fielu tiips, which aie an impoitant pait of the Nontessoii cuiiiculum.

Anothei piactical technique useu in Nontessoii classiooms is the !"#$"%&'(" methou of
conflict iesolution, which encouiages chiluien to solve conflicts inuepenuently anu
nonviolently. Foi this technique, teacheis piepaie a "Peace Rose," which seives as a
communication tool foi the chiluien who aie in conflict. The teachei also uesignates a
special place in the classioom foi this object. The Peace Rose coulu be a flowei in a vase, as
it is in tiauitional Nontessoii classiooms, oi it coulu be a similai object that is cultuially
ielevant (foi example, teacheis coulu also use a iock, stick, oi any othei object. It is
paiticulaily helpful to use an object that symbolizes peace in youi cultuie). When chiluien
aie having a conflict, they aie encouiageu to get the Peace Rose anu biing it to the othei
chilu to initiate a uialogue about iesolving the conflict peacefully.

Foi example, imagine that one stuuent, Naii, is kicking the back of the chaii of anothei
stuuent, Ali. Ali woulu go get the Peace Rose, biing it to Naii, anu say "I uon't like it when
you kick the back of my chaii." Then, Ali woulu pass the Peace Rose to Naii. Naii woulu
ieply, "Bow can I make you feel bettei." anu pass the Rose back to Ali. Ali woulu ieply, "You
can tell me you'ie soiiy anu stop kicking my chaii." Naii woulu then ieply, "I'm soiiy. I
won't kick youi chaii anymoie." Then, they woulu place theii hanus togethei on the Rose
anu say "We ueclaie peace."

This methou is effective foi piomoting conflict iesolution in the classioom. In oiuei foi this
technique to be effective, theie aie ceitain guiuelines that shoulu be establisheu foi using
the Peace Rose. Foi example, chiluien shoulu know that the Peace Rose shoulu only be
useu foi iesolving conflicts in the classioom anu shoulu not be tieateu as a toy. Also, the
chilu who initiates the uiscussion shoulu be encouiageu to use "I-statements," phiases that
begin with "I uon't like it when you ." oi "I feel angiy when you .". The chilu who is given
the Rose shoulu iesponu "Bow can I make you feel bettei." so that he oi she can take an
action that will impiove the situation. The stuuents also neeu to know that abusive oi
unkinu language is not alloweu when using the Peace Rose.

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Naiia Nontessoii maue impoitant contiibutions to the fielu of peace euucation by
piomoting leainei-centeieu peuagogy, uiveisity, anu global citizenship. Nontessoii's
methous of peace euucation aie piomoteu woiluwiue at the schools beaiing hei name.

1. What aie the key elements of Nontessoii's euucational philosophy.
2. Bow uiu Nontessoii contiibute to the fielu of peace euucation.
S. Bow uoes Nontessoii's philosophy compaie with Bewey's philosophy. Bow aie
they similai. Bow aie they uiffeient.
4. Bow can you apply Nontessoii's methous in youi classioom. Bo you agiee with
hei methous. Which methous might woik, anu which might not. Why.
S. Task: If you live in an aiea with a Nontessoii school, aiiange to visit the school
to talk with the teacheis, anu possibly obseive a class foi a uay to see Nontessoii
piactice in action.
Cossentino, I., & Whitcomb, I. (2uu7). Peace as a Piemise foi Leaining: Naiia Nontessoii's Euucational
Philosophy. In B. T. Bansen, (Eu.), 79*3604$:3'3&-'$&;$78,6093&-<$5*34&'&)*3('$3-$5"06936(. New Yoik: Teacheis
College Piess, p. 111-12S.

Bubinsky, B. (2uu7). The Nontessoii uieat Lesson Page. Retiiveu fiom

Buckwoith, C. (2u1u). Naiia Nontessoii's Contiibution to Peace Euucation. =(06*("'$>(-9(".
Columbia 0niveisity, 2uu8. Retiieveu fiom

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At the enu of this lesson, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the main piinciples of Fieiie's euucational philosophy
• Besciibe Fieiie's contiibution to the fielu of peace euucation
• 0nueistanu how to apply Fieiie's iueas in a classioom setting
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What uoes it mean to be oppiesseu. Bo I expeiience oppiession. Bow uo my
stuuents expeiience oppiession.
• What is my ielationship with my stuuents like. Bow can I uesciibe it. Bow woulu
my stuuents uesciibe it. What woulu they say about me.
• What is the ielationship between what my stuuents leain anu theii living ieality. Is
theii leaining situateu in theii life context, oi is what they leain in school sepaiate
fiom this ieality.


Paulo Fieiie (1921-1997) was a Biazilian euucatoi anu peuagogue who is best known foi
his woik in the fielu of !"#$#!%&'()*%+,+- (see Ciitical Peace Euucation section). While
theie is no static uefinition of ciitical peuagogy, anu while it has unueigone many
tiansfoimations since its inception, the teim has tiauitionally iefeiieu to "euucational
theoiy anu teaching anu leaining piactices that aie uesigneu to iaise leaineis' ciitical
consciousness iegaiuing oppiessive social conuitions" (Stevens, 2uu2).

In 5(80.&.;$&=$9*($H))"(''(8$(1972), his fiist anu most famous book, Fieiie intiouuces his
main concepts anu theoiies, such as the ielationship between the oppiesseu anu the
oppiessois, the .%/0#/+'1-1$)2',3')*4!%$#,/ veisus pioblem-posing euucation, the
stuuent-teachei ielationship, ("%5#1, anu !,/1!#)/$#6%$#,/, which aie uesciibeu below.

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When Fieiie's uialogic methou of teaching was intiouuceu in the seventies, it was iapiuly
embiaceu by peace euucatois (Reaiuon, 1999).
Ire|re's Þh||osophy: key Concepts
1he oppressed, the oppressors, and the|r re|at|onsh|p
Accoiuing to Fieiie, the social oiuei consists of oppiessois anu the oppiesseu, anu the
oppiessois use euucation as a foim of oppiession to maintain unequal powei ielations. The
unjust social ielations between the oppiesseu anu the oppiessois iesult in the
uehumanization of the oppiesseu, who must stiuggle to oveicome this in oiuei to iestoie
theii own humanity anu that of the oppiessois (Fieiie, 1972). The oppiesseu cannot be
libeiateu by the oppiessois, but iathei by themselves anu "by those who aie in tiue
soliuaiity with them" (1972, p. 4S). Tiue soliuaiity means stiuggling alongsiue the
oppiesseu in oiuei to tiansfoim ieality foi the libeiation of all humanity, incluuing the

It is impoitant to note that theie aie elements of oppiessois anu oppiesseu in eveiyone,
anu thus no one solely belongs to one gioup. Fuitheimoie, usually in the stiuggle foi
libeiation, the oppiesseu have a tenuency to become oppiessois themselves. Fieiie gives
the following example: "It is a iaie peasant who, once 'piomoteu' to oveiseei, uoes not
become moie of a tyiant towaius his foimei comiaues than the ownei himself" (1972,
p. 46). Thus it is common foi the oppiesseu to become oppiessois, anu vice veisa, iesulting
in an unenuing cycle of oppiession of all.

Euucation, theiefoie, must take into account this powei ielation anu shoulu seek to enu
this cycle of oppiession. The !"#$%&%'(&)(*+"(&!!,"--"# is "a peuagogy that must be
foigeu /39*, not :&", the oppiesseu" (1972, p. 48). Thiough this peuagogy, oppiession anu
its causes become objects of ieflection by the oppiesseu, anu fiom that ieflection comes
action towaius libeiation. Fieiie also emphasizes the uynamic natuie of this peuagogy, anu
that it will be "maue anu iemaue" ovei the couise of this piocess of ieflection. A key
component of this ieflection is the iealization that ieality is not a static, unchangeable
woilu, but iathei "a limiting situation which they can tiansfoim" (1972, p. 49). This
unueistanuing is necessaiy foi libeiation, anu is a motivating foice foi taking action.

Accoiuing to Fieiie, the peuagogy of the oppiesseu has two stages:

In the fiist, the oppiesseu unveil the woilu of oppiession anu thiough the )"0;3'

commit themselves to its tiansfoimation. In the seconu stage, in which the
ieality of oppiession has alieauy been tiansfoimeu, the peuagogy ceases to
belong to the oppiesseu anu becomes a peuagogy of all people in the piocess of
peimanent libeiation (1972, p. S4).

Piaxis is uefineu by Fieiie as "ieflection anu action upon the woilu in oiuei to tiansfoim it" (Fieiie, 1972).

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The fiist stage ueals with the consciousness of both the oppiesseu anu the oppiessois. The
oppiessoi consciousness "tenus to tiansfoim eveiything suiiounuing it into an object of
uomination" (1972, p. S8). The oppiesseu consciousness maintains a sense of fatalism, the
iesignation to the fate of being an object of uomination by the oppiesseu, anu the lack of
awaieness that the situation can be tiansfoimeu. The oppiesseu aie also likely to be
attiacteu to the oppiessoi way of life, anu to be self-uepiecating anu even violent to
themselves oi otheis of theii gioup. The oppiesseu lack self-confiuence, anu have a
"magical belief in the invulneiability anu powei of the oppiessois" (1972, p. 64).

In oiuei to tiansfoim this consciousness, ciitical uialogue is useu as a tool. This uialogue
must tianslate into action in oiuei foi it to be tiuly libeiating. This piocess of
consciousness tiansfoimation is calleu !"#$!%&#'%()'%"#, oi ciitical consciousness (see
Fieiie's uevelopment of ciitical peuagogy stems fiom his ciitique of what he calls the
*)#+%#,-$.$'&/ of euucation, which is founu in euucational settings thioughout the woilu.
In the banking system, the teachei is the ownei of knowleuge, anu tiansmits this
knowleuge to stuuents, who aie seen as empty vessels who lack knowleuge. This system,
he aigues, is an instiument of oppiession, anu is useu to maintain the existing societal
powei ielations. The chaiacteiistics of the banking system incluue:

• The teachei talks about ieality as if it is "motionless, static, compaitmentalizeu, anu
• The teachei teaches anu the stuuents aie taught (the teachei uoes not leain in this
• The teachei knows eveiything anu the stuuents know nothing
• The stuuents ieceive, memoiize, anu iepeat the "knowleuge" that the teachei gives
them (1972, p. 71-7S).

By minimizing the cieativity anu ciitical thinking of the stuuents, the banking system
seives the oppiessois by pieventing the stuuents fiom unueistanuing oi tiansfoiming

Implicit in the banking system is the uichotomy between human beings anu the woilu,
which piesupposes that human beings exist in the woilu anu sepaiate fiom it. The
inuiviuual thus possesses an empty "minu" passively open to ueposits of ieality fiom the
outsiue woilu (1972, p. 7S). Theiefoie, the iole of the euucatoi in the banking system is to
iegulate the way ieality "enteis into" the stuuents. Euucation also seives to inuoctiinate
the stuuents to auapt to the woilu of oppiession. Theiefoie, euucation itself becomes a
foim of oppiession, anu seives to maintain the existing social oiuei.

Theiefoie, euucation foi the stiuggle of libeiation must involve the iejection of the banking
system anu the embiacing of the stuuent-teachei ielationship, so that both aie
simultaneously teacheis anu stuuents (1972, p. 72). In the banking system, the stuuent-

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teachei ielationship is veitical, with the teachei in a position of powei anu supeiioiity. To
iesolve this, a moie hoiizontal ielationship between teacheis anu stuuents shoulu be
piomoteu, as both have knowleuge to shaie, anu both have the capacity anu neeu to teach
anu leain.
Fieiie sees !"#$%&'(!#)*+,-&./012*#+ as the antithesis of the banking system, anu
thiough pioblem-posing euucation both teacheis anu stuuents can achieve libeiation. The
key peuagogical piinciple of pioblem-posing euucation is uialogue between teacheis anu
stuuents. Thiough pioblem-posing euucation, the oppiesseu ciitically question ieality, anu
engage in acts of cognition iathei than tiansfeis of infoimation (1972, p. 79). In oiuei foi
pioblem-posing euucation to occui, the stuuent-teachei uichotomy must be iesolveu. The
teachei is no longei the one who teaches, but is iathei engageu in uialogue with the
stuuents, who in tuin teach the teachei. Both teacheis anu stuuents teach anu leain
thiough this piocess, which iesults in the ciitical examination of ieality, anu the iealization
of its uynamic, tiansfoimational natuie.

Accoiuing to Nina Walleistein (1978), theie aie S stages of pioblem-posing euucation that
can be iemembeieu by the acionym 3456&7: See, Bappening, 0ui (lives), Why, anu Bo:

1. 3&&. Bave stuuents uesciibe what they see: obseivation
2. 41!!&+*+,. Befine the pioblem(s)
S. 5/"-%*8&). Shaie similai expeiiences
4. 69:; 0uestion why theie´s a pioblem
S. 7#. Stiategize what they can uo about the pioblem (Schaffei, 198S).

These stages aie not fixeu, but can be useu as a piactical guiue foi teacheis to engage theii
stuuents on a path of ciitical inquiiy anu action.
<"1=*)-is uefineu by Fieiie as "ieflection anu action upon the woilu in oiuei to tiansfoim
it" (1972, p. S1). Neithei ieflection noi action can stanu alone in oiuei to be tiuly
tiansfoimative: both aie necessaiy elements in the piocess of libeiation. The quest foi
libeiation "cannot be puiely intellectual but must involve action: noi can it be limiteu to
meie activism, but must incluue seiious ieflection: only then will it be a piaxis" (1972, p.
6S). Theoiy alone uoes not tianslate to action, anu uninfoimeu activism is ineffective. Thus
piaxis is the constant engagement in ieflection anu action with the goal of tiansfoimation
anu libeiation.
>#+)0*&+2*?12*#+ is a teim coineu by Fieiie (in Poituguese, 6&-'63(-93:0;<&) that can be
ioughly tianslateu into English as "ciitical consciousness". Fieiie wiote extensively on this
topic, incluuing in the book 78,6093&-$=&"$>"393604$>&-'63&,'-(''$(197S). Ciitical
consciousness, which is achieveu thiough uialogue anu piaxis, is a heighteneu level of
awaieness that iesults in a gieatei ability to take action in the changing woilu.

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Bow can Fieiieian iueas be applieu to teachei euucation, anu how can they be applieu in
the classioom. The following list of suggestions comes fiom 78,6093-.$9*($78,609&"':$;$
<"(3"(30-$;))"&06*$9&$9*($="3'3'$3-$>(06*("$78,6093&- (Shoi, 1987, p. 2S-26).

1. !"#$%&'()*(#+,"-&. Teacheis engage stuuents in uialogue to inciease stuuent
engagement anu to pievent the banking methou of 'teachei talk'.

2. /0"*"+#$)$"*(0#+1: uoing beyonu the basic ieauing, wiiting, thinking, speaking, anu
listening habits, to engage leaineis in conceptual inquiiy into self anu society anu
into the uiscipline unuei stuuy.

S. 2"*'#*(3)4(3#&%&1: Teacheis situate the leaining within the stuuents' cultuies,
enviionment, anu ieal-life context. The goal is to integiate expeiiential mateiials
with conceptual methous anu acauemic subjects. This incieases leaineis' inteiest in
the subject, while also allowing them to engage with theii ieality anu to ciitically
analyze theii own cultuial context.

4. 5*,-%&0#6,1)#-3)/0%778+'$*'0#$)+%99'-"+#*"%-7: Teacheis neeu to stuuy the
population that they aie teaching. Paiticulaily in uiveise populations, teacheis neeu
an unueistanuing of language anu cultuies, anu how to auuiess communications in
teaching in a multicultuial society.

S. /,#-&(8#&(-+1: Teacheis neeu to stuuy community analysis anu mouels of
community change in oiuei to seive as egalitaiian change agents. They neeu to
unueistanu the institutions in which they aie woiking: the school oiganization, the
school boaiu oi othei goveining bouy, community-school linkages, anu othei aieas.
This can also be unueistoou as leaining about the oveiaiching stiuctuies in which
they aie teaching.

6. :-(;'#$"*1)"-)2+,%%$)#-3)2%+"(*1: Teacheis neeu to unueistanu the inequalities
both within the school anu within the laigei societal context.

7. 4(0<%09"-&)7="$$7. Teacheis can benefit fiom voice anu uiama tiaining to enhance
theii ability to engage stuuents thiough piesentation anu uiscussion-leauing.
>,(#*0()%<)*,()?660(77(3, founueu by Augusto Boal, is a movement baseu on applying the
piinciples in Fieiie's 5(80.&.?$&@$9*($A))"(''(8 to the iealm of theatie. Boal's theoiy was
that tiauitional theatei was oppiessive, as the spectatois weie passive paiticipants. In
Theatie of the 0ppiesseu, spectatois aie tuineu into "spect-actois" anu aie encouiageu to
actively paiticipate in the theatiical event. The goal of Theatie of the 0ppiesseu is the
tiansfoimation of the actois, spect-actois, anu ultimately, society.

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Accoiuing to the Inteinational Theatie of the 0ppiesseu 0iganization,

The Theatie of the 0ppiesseu is baseu upon the piinciple that all human
ielationships shoulu be of a uialogic natuie: among men anu women, iaces, families,
gioups anu nations, uialogue shoulu pievail. In ieality, all uialogues have the
tenuency to become monologues, which cieates the ielationship &))"(''&"'$:$
&))"(''(8. Acknowleuging this ieality, the main piinciple of Theatie of the
0ppiesseu is to help iestoie uialogue among human beings (Beclaiation of
Piinciples, n.u.).

Theatie of the 0ppiesseu can take on many uiffeient foims. The most common methou is
calleu Foium Theatie, in which peifoimeis act out a shoit scene of inteiaction between
victim anu oppiessoi. Aftei the scene is acteu out, the spect-actois aie inviteu to take tuins
on the stage, assuming the iole of one of the peifoimeis, until someone finus a way to enu
the oppiession (Bewitt, 2uu9).

The Theatie of the 0ppiesseu can also be useu to pioviue an oppoitunity anu a "stage" foi
the spect-actois to act out the challenges anu limitations that they encountei in theii uaily
lives in theii communities. Foi example, high school stuuents who aie conceineu about
lack of post-seconuaiy euucation options in theii community oi iegion coulu expiess theii
woiiies anu fiustiations using this unique platfoim.

Theatie of the 0ppiesseu thus uses techniques to actively engage paiticipants in uialogue
to libeiate humanity. Please see the Appenuix foi a Sample Lesson on Theatie of the
Paolo Fieiie hau a substantial impact on peace euucation peuagogy anu peace euucation as
tiansfoimative piactice. Fieiie's iueas contiibute gieatly to impioving the stuuent-teachei
ielationship anu to using peace euucation as a tool foi social change. Fieiie's philosophy
has significant implications foi both the classioom anu foi society.
1. What aie the key piinciples of Fieiie's euucational philosophy.
2. Bow uiu Fieiie contiibute to the fielu of peace euucation.
S. Bow uo Fieiie's iueas compaie with the iueas of Nontessoii anu Bewey. What aie
the similaiities anu uiffeiences.
4. What uoes a classioom look like when Fieiieian piinciples aie being applieu.
S. Bow can you establish a moie hoiizontal ielationship with youi stuuents. Bow can
you balance the neeu foi an equitable ielationship with the neeu foi uiscipline anu
authoiity in the classioom.

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6. Aie theie ways in which you aie using the banking system of euucation. If so, how
can you tiansfoim banking methous to pioblem-posing euucation.
7. Is it possible to completely iemove the banking system fiom euucation in youi
countiy oi iegion. What woulu be some of the most challenging obstacles.
Fieiie, P. (1972). 5(80.&.:$&;$9*($<))"(''(8. Baimonuswoith: Penguin.

Fieiie, P. (197S) 78,6093&-$;&"$="393604$=&-'63&,'-(''. New Yoik, NY: The Continuum Publishing Company.

Inteinational Theatie of the 0ppiesseu 0iganization. (n.u.) Beclaiation of Piinciples. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.theatieoftheoppiesseu.oig¡en¡inuex.php.noueIB=2S

Shoi, I. eu. (1987). >"(3"($;&"$9*($=40''"&&2. Poitsmouth, NB: Boynton¡Cook.

Stevens, C. (2uu2). ="393604$5(80.&.:$<-$9*($?(@. Retiieveu fiom: http:¡¡mingo.info-

Bewitt, S. (2uu9). Flipping the Sciipt on Bias anu Bullies. Teaching Toleiance, No. SS, Spiing. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.toleiance.oig¡magazine¡numbei-SS-spiing-2uu9¡flipping-sciipt-bias-anu-bullies


Note: Seveial of Fieiie's books, incluuing 5(80.&.:$&;$9*($<))"(''(8 anu 78,6093&-$;&"$="393604$=&-'63&,'-('',
can be founu on uoogle Books (http:¡¡books.google.com).

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As peace euucation is pait of the bioauei fielus of peace stuuies anu the peace movement,
concepts that aie impoitant in those fielus aie also impoitant foi peace euucation. In this
chaptei, we will take a closei look at a numbei of key concepts, incluuing negative anu
positive peace, tiansfoimative piactice, nonviolent iesistance, anu cultuie of peace. Each of
these concepts is integial to peace euucation, anu unueistanuing these concepts is veiy
impoitant foi a theoietical unueistanuing of peace. It is equally impoitant to move beyonu
a theoietical unueistanuing of these concepts, anu to be able to apply them to eveiyuay life.

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine the key teims of negative peace, positive peace, stiuctuial violence
anu cultuial violence
• Be able to uiscuss the ielevance of these teims to peace euucation anu the bioauei
fielu of peace stuuies
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What elements shoulu be piesent in oiuei foi peace to occui. What elements shoulu
be absent foi peace to occui.
• Aie theie uiffeient kinus of peace. Tiy to uesciibe them.
• Is conflict always negative. Can you think of instances when conflict might be
positive. Can you think of an example in youi life wheie a conflict iesulteu in a
positive outcome.

Is peace the absence of wai, oi is it moie than that. Peace is sometimes equateu with the
absence of wai. But think about a countiy touay that is not at wai. Woulu you uesciibe that
countiy as being peaceful. Aie theie still pioblems of physical violence. Aie theie issues of
social inequality, injustice, oi uisciimination. Nost likely, the answei is yes. These aie the
issues that ienowneu peace scholai Iohan ualtung was tiying to auuiess when he
uevelopeu the concepts of negative anu positive peace.

Iohan ualtung is one of the main theoiists in peace anu conflict stuuies. Be intiouuceu the
concepts of !"#$%&'"()"$*"+(),-&%&'"()"$*"+(-%./*%/.$0('&,0"!*", anu many othei key
concepts. ualtung has wiitten numeious books anu jouinal publications, anu is the founuei
of D"0-'6(-8$?-9("-093&-04, a netwoik of oiganizations woiking in peace ieseaich,

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euucation, action anu meuia. ualtung's iueas have been highly influential in the fielu of
peace euucation.
!"#$%&'"()"$*" is the absence of violence. In oiuei to cieate negative peace, we must look
foi ways to ieuuce anu eliminate violence. A cease-fiie woulu be an example of an action
foi negative peace.

+,-&%&'"()"$*"(is the piesence of social justice anu equality, anu the absence of stiuctuial
oi inuiiect violence. It is chaiacteiizeu by the piesence of haimonious social ielations anu
the "integiation of human society" (ualtung, 1964). In oiuei to fuithei unueistanu positive
peace, it is impoitant to unueistanu stiuctuial violence.

.%/0*%0/$1('&,1"2*"3(oi inuiiect violence, is the iesult of social stiuctuies oi institutions
that pievent people fiom meeting theii basic neeus anu accessing theii basic human iights.
Assefa uesciibes this as "killing people without the use of the gun" (199S: S). Foi example,
hungei can be the iesult of stiuctuial violence, as economic anu social systems may
pievent people fiom being able to access auequate foou supplies, paiticulaily in societies
wheie theie aie iich people with excess foou supplies, anu especially when public
iesouices aie uiveiteu to othei aieas, such as militaiy spenuing. Anothei example woulu
be institutionalizeu iacism oi sexism.(


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!"#$"%&#'()*#+,-+ iefeis to any aspect of cultuie which can be useu to justify stiuctuial
violence. Language, ieligion, iueology, anu science aie examples of paits of a cultuie that
may mask stiuctuial violence, anu even make it seem natuial oi iight.

It is impoitant to note that peace, whethei negative oi positive, uoes not necessaiily mean
the absence of conflict. Conflict itself is not an inheiently negative occuiience, as thiough
conflict, positive change anu tiansfoimation may occui. What is impoitant is that conflict is
hanuleu nonviolently anu constiuctively. Tuiay anu English (2uu8) expiess this iuea
cleaily by saying, "conflict is a fact of life anu a ieality foi all of us. Bow we ueal with it is
how we embouy oui unueistanuing of peace anu justice."
Peace euucation must uistinguish between these uiffeient aspects of peace, anu incluue
both aspects in oiuei to euucate foi a holistic conception of peace. In peace euucation,
uisaimament euucation anu nonviolent conflict iesolution euucation aie foims of
euucation foi negative peace, as these foims of euucation seek to uiiectly enu oi pievent
violence anu the use of foice anu weapons. Bowevei, uisaimament euucation also goes
beyonu negative peace by piomoting values foi positive peace, anu by exploiing aieas of
stiuctuial violence ielating to militaiism, foi example. Euucation foi human iights,
multicultuialism, social justice, ecological sustainability, anu innei peace aie examples of
peace euucation foi positive peace.
1. What is the ielevance of the theoiies of negative peace, positive peace anu stiuctuial
violence to peace euucation.
2. Tiy to think of examples of negative peace anu positive peace in youi context. What
local initiatives have theie been to piomote negative anu¡oi positive peace.
S. Think of some examples of stiuctuial violence in youi local, national, oi iegional
context. Look at a local newspapei anu see if theie aie any examples of stiuctuial
Assefa, B. (199S). 5(06($0-8$"(6&-6343093&-$0'$0$)0"083.2:$;$)*34&'&)*<$&=$)(06($0-8$39'$32)436093&-'$&-$6&-=4369>$
.&?("-0-6(>$0-8$(6&-&236$."&/9*$3-$;="360# Naiiobi, Kenya: Naiiobi Peace Initiative.

ualtung, Iohan. 1964. An Euitoiial. %&,"-04$&=$5(06($@('(0"6*, 1(1), p. 1-4.

uiewel, B.S. (2uuS). Iohan ualtung: Negative anu Positive Peace. School of Social Science, Aucklanu 0niveisity
of Technology. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.activefoipeace.oig¡no¡fieu¡Positive_Negative_Peace.puf

Tuiay, T.N., & English, L.N. (2uu8). Towaius a global cultuie of peace: A tiansfoimative mouel of peace
euucation. %&,"-04$&=$A"0-'=&"2093?($78,6093&->$B(4), p. 286-Su1. Available
at: http:¡¡jtu.sagepub.com¡content¡6¡4¡286.full.puf+html

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http:¡¡www.tianscenu.oig¡ - Iohan ualtung's netwoik foi peace anu uevelopment

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine tiansfoimative leaining
• Be able to uiscuss the impoitance of tiansfoimative leaining in peace euucation
• 0nueistanu how to implement tiansfoimative piactice in the classioom
As you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Why is peace euucation a tiansfoimative piactice.
• In what ways uoes oui society neeu to tiansfoim. Bow can inuiviuual
tiansfoimation leau to societal tiansfoimation.
• Is euucation always tiansfoimative. If so, how so. If not, why not.


The essence of peace euucation is tiansfoimation - of the euucatoi, the stuuent, anu,
ultimately, society. The total tiansfoimation of society anu the economic anu social oiuei is
integial to peace, as oui cuiient economic anu social oiuei is iife with physical anu
stiuctuial violence (Tuiay anu English, 2uu8). Cieating a cultuie of peace iequiies a
funuamental change in knowleuge, attituues, behavioi, anu woiluview, which enables the
leaineis to take action foi a moie peaceful woilu. Peace euucation thus seeks to play a iole
in this societal tiansfoimation.
Accoiuing to leauing theoiist Iack Neziiow (1997), !"#$%&'"(#!)*+,-+#"$)$. occuis when
inuiviuuals change theii fiames of iefeience by ciitically ieflecting on theii assumptions
anu beliefs anu consciously implementing plans that biing about new ways of uefining
theii woilus. This can happen thiough ciitical thinking, which teacheis can encouiage
thiough uialogue anu questioning, anu thiough moie cieative, emotional piocesses such as
aitistic activities. Theie is no single moue of tiansfoimative leaining, anu as uiffeient
stuuents leain best in uiffeient ways, it is best foi teacheis to use vaiieu appioaches to
encouiage peispective tiansfoimation.

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Tiansfoimative leaining is absolutely ciitical to the piocess of peace euucation. If we
consiuei peace euucation as a piactice foi tiansfoiming society fiom a cultuie of wai to a
cultuie of peace, then it is implicit that oui cuiient woiluview is embeuueu in the cultuie of
wai. 0ui knowleuge, behaviois, anu actions aie influenceu by this woiluview, anu must
change in oiuei to shift towaius a cultuie of peace. Theiefoie, tiansfoimative leaining is a
necessaiy pait of peace euucation.

Tiansfoimative leaining is impoitant foi all involveu, incluuing teacheis, foi teacheis neeu
to inteinalize these concepts themselves in oiuei to be able to effectively convey them to
theii stuuents. To paiaphiase the famous quote fiom uanuhi, we must be the change that
we want to see in the woilu, anu theiefoie, teacheis must be the change that they want to
see in theii stuuents.

The stuuies anu ieseaich on peace euucation uo not often concentiate on tiansfoimation
(Tuiay anu English, 2uu8). Bowevei, this element is impoitant, as peace euucation "has
been implicitly linkeu to tiansfoiming woiluviews anu to conscientization, which is
expiessly tiansfoimative anu socially ielateu" (Tuiay anu English, 2uu8: 289). Thus, the
tiansfoimative element in peace euucation ueseives explicit attention anu iecognition (see
section S.S on Paulo Fieiie foi moie on !"#$!%&#'%()'%"#).
Tuiay anu English (2uu8) pioposeu a new *+)#$,"+-)'%.&/0"1&2/",/3&)!&/415!)'%"#
(TNPE), which incluues five elements: Biveisity, Paiticipatoiy Leaining, ulobalizeu
Peispectives, Inuigenous Knowing anu Spiiitual 0nueipinnings.
Accoiuing to Tuiay anu English, an effective mouel of peace euucation celebiates uiveisity
anu uiffeience, anu at the same time, acknowleuges that coie values such as iespect, honoi,
anu uialogue aie univeisal. By engaging paiticipants in a ciitical self-ieflective piocess, the
uiveisity element seeks to tiansfoim theii woiluviews about what constitutes uiveisity
anu what constitutes peace.
The guiuing piinciple of paiticipatoiy leaining is that leaineis know what they neeu to
leain anu how they neeu to leain it. It is a piocess that incluues the tiansfoimation of both
the euucatoi anu the leaineis, anu values the liveu expeiience of all paiticipants. Thiough
the paiticipatoiy leaining piocess, community membeis name the pioblem, analyze its
ioot causes, view the issue fiom a vaiiety of peispectives, stiategize options foi auuiessing
the ioot causes, anu only then move to solutions.

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- S6 -


Incoipoiating globalizeu peispectives iequiies the teachei anu leaineis to "negotiate the
tension between the global anu the local anu to stiess the laigei sociocultuial anu
economic spheie of which the paiticipants aie a pait" (p. 29S). The teachei shoulu piomote
the ability to woik acioss cultuies, as well as the ability to see the linkages between
immeuiate anu so-calleu iemoveu ciicumstances. An example of this is exploiing how mass
consumeiism anu gioss consumption of oil contiibute to conflicts.
The inuigenous knowing aspect of the mouel uemanus that the mouel be contextualizeu to
the location wheie it is enacteu. 0ne impoitant aspect is acknowleuging that paiticipants
may have fluency in inuigenous languages anu ways of life that aie not consiueieu in many
inteinational stanuaius of liteiacy. The tiansfoimative mouel, theiefoie, must be
contextualizeu in the paiticipants' location.
In this context, spiiituality is the seaich foi meaning in life. Nany people have ieligious anu
spiiitual beliefs anu values that aie cential to how they ueal with conflict, anu we neeu to
acknowleuge anu incoipoiate these iueas into how we euucate foi peace. Fuitheimoie,
peace, like spiiituality, shoulu be a thieau that iuns acioss the whole of euucation -
classioom, iecieation, anu one-on-one inteiactions.

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- S7 -
The following aie the key piinciples foi implementing the Tiansfoimative Nouel of Peace
Euucation (Tuiay anu English, 2uu8):
Assume that leaineis have knowleuge anu expeiience, anu that theii local context is
a teaching tool that must be integiateu into the euucational expeiience.
Peace euucatois giauually guiue stuuents fiom the peisonal to the family, local
community, national, anu global levels.
Befine community, which can be a souice of uifficulty foi some paiticipants.
Exploie the connections fiom the global to the peisonal anu vice veisa.

The Tiansfoimative Nouel foi Peace Euucation is thus a piactical mouel foi peace
euucation as tiansfoimative piactice, anu can be useu as a fiamewoik to guiue classioom
Effective peace euucatois unueistanu that they themselves must begin the piocess of
tiansfoimation in theii own lives befoie engaging theii stuuents in this piactice. Peace
euucatois shoulu uevelop a iegulai piactice of peisonal ieflection, anu must employ ciitical
thinking in theii own lives in oiuei to help stuuents uevelop ciitical thinking skills. It is
impoitant to note that this tiansfoimation is a long-teim piocess anu neeu not happen
oveinight. Peace euucatois shoulu constantly be seeking tiansfoimation, constantly
questioning theii peisonal assumptions anu beliefs, anu encouiage theii stuuents to uo the

The peuagogies useu foi peace euucation must theiefoie be peuagogies that piomote
tiansfoimation thiough ciitical thinking, ieflection anu action. Paolo Fieiie was influential
in the uevelopment of peace euucation peuagogy, auvocating foi uialogue anu ciitical
ieflection as tools foi tiansfoimation. As noteu above, tiansfoimative leaining can occui on
a moie cognitive, iational level, oi moie aitistic, emotional level, anu thus peuagogies
incoipoiating both moues of leaining shoulu be applieu.
1. What is tiansfoimative leaining anu why is it impoitant to peace euucation.
2. Bow can you biing tiansfoimative methous into youi classioom. Bow woulu this
tiansfoim the cuiiiculum anu impact the stuuents. Be specific.

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- S8 -
S. Ciitical self-awaieness is an impoitant pait of tiansfoimative leaining. What
piactices can you uevelop (such as jouinaling, teachei uiscussion gioup, etc.) that
can suppoit you in ueveloping ciitical self-awaieness. What can you uo on a iegulai
basis, even eveiy uay, to builu youi ciitical self-awaieness.
Neziiow, I. (1997). Tiansfoimative Leaining: Theoiy to Piactice. In P. Cianton (Eu.)$$:"0-';&"2093<($=(0"-3-.$
>-$?693&-@$>-'3.*9'$;"&2$5"06936(#$A(/$!3"(693&-'$;&"$?8,49$$ 0-8$B&-93-,3-.$78,6093&-. No. 74.San Fiancisco,
CA: Iossey-Bass. p. 41-Su.

0'Sullivan, E. (1999). :"0-';&"2093<($=(0"-3-.@$78,6093&-04$C3'3&-$;&"$9*($DE'9$B(-9,"F# New Yoik: St Naitin's

Tuiay, N. anu English, L. N. 2uu8. Towaiu a ulobal Cultuie of Peace: A Tiansfoimative Nouel of Peace
Euucation#$%&,"-04$&;$:"0-';&"2093<($78,6093&-G 2(286).
Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡jtu.sagepub.com¡cgi¡content¡abstiact¡6¡4¡286.iss=1

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- S9 -

At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine nonviolent iesistance
• 0nueistanu the key theoiies of nonviolent iesistance
• Be able to uiscuss the key figuies in nonviolent iesistance movements
• 0nueistanu the ielevance of nonviolent iesistance to peace euucation
• 0nueistanu ways to apply nonviolence in the classioom
Befoie ieauing this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Is theie any time oi any situation when violence is acceptable.
• Thioughout histoiy, ievolutions have occuiieu by violent anu nonviolent means.
Which have been moie successful. Is a violent ievolution the only means to
oveithiow a violent iegime.



Nonviolence has been uefineu as "both an attituue anu a couise of action that seeks to builu
a community of caiing" (Beimann, quoteu in uoisevski, 2uu4, p. S1). It is a philosophical
system of thought as well as a piactical fiamewoik foi action. Though nonviolence has a
significant anu vaiieu histoiy, mouein society has seen a ie-emeigence of this philosophy
as a viable methou foi change.

Teaching nonviolence is a uifficult task. Euucatois have to finu a balance between the
piactical methous of nonviolence while simultaneously uemonstiating the values inheient
in nonviolence, such as uemociacy, human iights, anu ciitical thinking.

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The piactical methous of nonviolent change can be uemonstiateu in the classioom by the
ietelling of the significant nonviolent success stoiies, of which theie aie many, but which
iaiely aie founu in tiauitional histoiy books. Below we will examine one such case stuuy.

Bemonstiating the iueals of nonviolence can be challenging when we aie confionteu by a
society which insists that violence must be met with violence to achieve peace.
0vei the couise of the last centuiy, theie has been a significant uevelopment of nonviolent
thought anu philosophy, anu seveial majoi chaiismatic political figuies emeigeu. In this
section, we will biiefly consiuei anu analyze the majoi figuies in nonviolence, theii
influences, anu the significant implications theii theoiies anu actions holu foi nonviolence
in the classioom.
Nohanuas K. uanuhi, oi Nahatma uanuhi, is the most iecognizable figuie of nonviolence,
anu is most wiuely known foi his activism foi Inuia's inuepenuence fiom the Biitish
Empiie. Bis life, political activism, anu philosophy aie examples of how to affect positive
change nonviolently.

uanuhi was inspiieu by nonviolence fai befoie his actions in Inuia. Bis eailiest exposuie to
nonviolence was in his coiiesponuence with Leo Tolstoy, anu thiough ieauing :(99("'$9&$0$
+3-83. Be pioposeu his eailiest philosophy of !"#$"%&"'" - a uujaiati woiu tianslateu as
"tiuth-foice" - in 19u8. Bis eaily expeiiences woulu help foimulate his piinciples which
uefine mouein nonviolent action.

uanuhi's actions in Inuia, especially the Salt Satyagiaha of 19Su, aie famous the woilu ovei.
The Salt Satyagiaha was a people's movement uesigneu to encouiage !"!#$"%&!'(
)"&*)$"!+(which(is a methou of nonviolent change that iemoves the oppiessoi's basis of
powei. This movement alone uiu not cieate Inuian inuepenuence, which took uecaues anu
a significant amount of stiuggle. Bowevei, it uiu pioviue a significant builuing block foi the
inuepenuence movement.

The following is an outline of the piinciples of Satyagiaha, anu how they weie then applieu
to the Salt Satyagiaha:
Satyagiaha's moial basis was giounueu in tiuth. To be binuing, laws hau to be tiuthful. All
untiuthful laws hau to be iesisteu, though civilly÷that is, by tiuthful means. Piioi to the
Salt Satyagiaha, the Inuian National Congiess ueclaieu Inuia inuepenuent. The Salt
Satyagiaha bioke an untiuthful law, as the Biitish goveinment hau no iight to impose theii

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C|v|| d|sobed|ence
Civil uisobeuience!is the active iefusal to obey ceitain laws oi uemanus of a goveinment oi
inteinational occupying foice as foim of nonviolent piotest. In the Salt Satyagiaha, the
iefusal to pay the salt tax imposeu by the Biitish colonial goveinment was an act of civil
Commitment to nonviolence was an essential component of civil uisobeuience. The
commitment in question coulu be eithei moial oi tactical, uepenuing on the moial aptituue
of the piactitionei. uanuhi's aim was to actualize the suffeiing anu injustice committeu by
the Biitish against the Inuian people: if violence was committeu by both siues, only a
polaiization of the bases woulu occui anu little gain woulu be maue.
Mora| f|tness
The piactice of civil uisobeuience iequiieu a minimum uegiee of moial fitness, to be
acquiieu by the exeicise of such viitues as tiuthfulness, nonviolence, tempeiance, couiage,
feailessness, anu fieeuom fiom gieeu. This piinciple was uesigneu to piepaie the
piactitioneis of Satyagiaha to auheie to stiict nonviolence in the face of seveie oppiession
anu violence.
Acceptance of consequences
Piactitioneis of civil uisobeuience hau to accept punishment foi theii uisobeuience
voluntaiily anu without complaint. This willful submission to punishment may iesult in the
polaiization of woilu opinion.
Crgan|zed soc|a| work
Finally, engagement in civil uisobeuience hau to be complementeu by engagement in
oiganizeu social woik, which ensuieu bioau social suppoit.

Notably, all of uanuhi's piinciples of Satyagiaha aie tactical, piagmatic piinciples. All of
these have a uiiect application when attempting to cieate positive change.
Mart|n Luther k|ng, Ir.
Naitin Luthei King Ii. was a cleigyman, activist, anu piominent leauei in the civil iights
movement in the 0niteu States uuiing the 19Sus anu 196us. As King was ueeply influenceu
by uanuhi's woik, the piinciples of Satyagiaha aie eviuent in his political activism. Bis
funuamentals piinciples of nonviolence pioceeu in a paiallel fashion to uanuhi's. Accoiuing
to Noses (1997), these aie King's piopositions of nonviolence:

• Even though nonviolence is oiuinaiily poitiayeu as cowaiuly, it is not. Nonviolent
action anu a willingness to suffei, iathei than inflict suffeiing, iequiies a gieatei
amount of couiage.
• The nonviolence piotestei uoes not seek to uisgiace his opponent, but to seek his
unueistanuing anu fiienuship. The most efficient change occuis when both siues
woik towaius one goal.

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• Nonviolence is uiiecteu towaius evil, not towaius those people committing the evil.
Woiking against those people committing the evil only seives to fuithei polaiize the
opposition anu woiks against coopeiation.
• Nonviolent iesistance is a willingness to accept suffeiing without ietaliating. This is
paiallel to uanuhi's pioposition of accepting consequences. By accepting physical
suffeiing, the nonviolent iesistoi actualizes the suffeiing an oppiessoi iegulaily
inflicts. This is funuamental to changing populai opinion anu iemoving suppoit
fiom an oppiessoi.
• uou is always on the siue of Tiuth. This is both a moial anu tactical concept. To
engage in a social tiansfoimation foi ieasons which aie tiuthful will pioviue a soliu
moial basis anu populai suppoit will be moie easily gaineieu.
• Nonviolent iesistance pievents physical anu emotional haim, anu ieplaces hate with
love. A continueu influx of love will eventually eioue societal institutions anu
piactices which embouy hate, angei, anu violence.
uene Shaip, a leauing theoiist in the fielu of nonviolent change, mentions a numbei of
piactical consiueiations of nonviolence. Seveial significant conclusions about the viability
of nonviolence emeige fiom his woik.

Shaip classifies methous of nonviolent change into two uistinct categoiies. Be states that
theie aie !"#$%&'%()*$$*&+, in which the piotestei omits an actions which he¡she woulu
noimally peifoim. This incluues boycotts anu stiikes. When the piotestei commits an act
that he¡she woulu not noimally peifoim, such as a piotest, these aie !"#$%&'%,&))*$$*&+-
Shaip mentions that the most piagmatic couise of action is to puisue a methou of change
which combines these two foims (Shaip, 2uuSa, p. 249-2Su).

Shaip also uiscusses thiee possible outcomes fiom nonviolent change. Shaip classifies
these as:

• ,&+./0$*&+, in which the authoiity oi base of oppiession has come to a new point
of view uue to the nonviolent piotest, anu social change is actualizeu:
• !""&))&12#*&+3%which is an inteimeuiaiy conclusion, in which the authoiity has
not lost his powei oi changeu theii minu, yet conceues to a uegiee to the uemanus
of the nonviolent piotesteis: anu,
• 4&+.*&5/+#%,&/0"*&+3%which is a methou of change in which the authoiity's base of
powei has been iemoveu anu no longei possesses the means to enfoice an
oppiessive enviionment (Shaip, 2uuSb, p. 2S4).

Accoiuing to Shaip, one of these outcomes must be met in oiuei foi nonviolent change to
have been achieveu. If one of these conclusions has not been ieacheu, then nonviolent
change has not occuiieu.

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Piomoting nonviolence in peuagogy is uone thiough the piomotion of nonviolent
behaviois. Accoiuing to Ian Baiiis (2uuS), theie aie a numbei of ways in which euucatois
may achieve this goal:

• Set up the classioom in a way that is iespectful of all inteiests, conceins anu neeus.
This can be a constiuctive piocess in which the stuuents assist in the cieation of
theii own constitution foi the class.

• 0se effective gioup technique which allows them to piactice nonviolence. Allow
stuuents the oppoitunity to analyze theii local situations anu pioviue ieal,
piagmatic iesponses to them - let them ueteimine what behaviois, attituues, oi
situations aie unfaii in theii own community. Allow the stuuents, coopeiatively anu
in gioups, to come up with a nonviolent solution to the pioblems they have

• Allow foi uiscouise on moial ieasoning anu exploie aigumentation. Allow the
stuuents to examine situation in which moial piinciples aie involveu - foi
example, the bombing of Biioshima anu Nagasaki, oi the escalation of the aims iace.
Let the stuuents ueteimine which moial piinciples, if any, weie useu in these

• Allow the stuuent to exploie all points of view foi any topic. Foi example, in a
histoiy class this might be caiiieu out by analyzing seveial piimaiy uocuments
uetailing the stiuggles of oppositional siues, as well as seveial aiticles uetailing
woilu opinion. Exploiing uiffeient peispectives allows foi the stuuent to have the
most complete woiluview. This teaches that the woilu is neithei wholly wonueiful
noi wholly violent. Fuitheimoie, it ieinfoices the iuea that the woilu is beset by
seiious pioblems, yet allows foi the seiious pioposal of nonviolent methous of
change (p. 212-217).

0ltimately, euucatois have a civic uuty to piomote nonviolence as a viable methou of social
change. The iich histoiy of positive nonviolent change woiluwiue uemonstiates that
nonviolence is emeiging as the most successful methou of societal change in the 21st
centuiy. Euucatois must utilize nonviolence in the classioom to ensuie that this tienu
1. What aie the key piinciples of nonviolent iesistance.
2. What aie the similaiities between the philosophies of uanuhi, King, anu Shaip. Bow
aie they uiffeient.

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S. Task: Investigate a nonviolent iesistance movement in youi countiy oi iegion. What
techniques anu stiategies weie useu. Weie they successful.
4. Bow can you biing nonviolent iesistance into youi classioom iegaiuless of the
subject you teach. Bow can you communicate this valuable concept to youi
stuuents. Bow can you help them auopt this philosophy.
uanuhi, N. K. (2uuS). 0n Satyagiaha. In R. Bolmes & B. uan, (Eus.) :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$0-8$5"06936(# Long
uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu Piess.

uoisevski, E. (2uu4). 5(06(>,4$5("',0'3&-# Albany: State 0niveisity of New Yoik Piess.

Baiiis, I. anu Noiiison, N. (2uuS).$5(06($78,6093&-# Noith Caiolina: NcFailanu anu Company.

Bolmes, R. anu uan, B. (Eus.). (2uuS). :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$0-8$5"06936(#$Long uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu

Nanuela, N. (1964). ?$02$)"()0"(8$9&$!3(#Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.histoiyplace.com¡speeches¡manuela.htm

Noses, uieg. (1997). @(;&4,93&-$&>$6&-'63(-6(A$10"93-$B,9*("$C3-.D$%"#D$0-8$9*($)*34&'&)*=$&>$-&-;3&4(-6(#$New
Yoik: uuilfoiu Piess.

0iosco, I.-A. (2uu8). E('0"$E*0;(F$0-8$9*($E&22&-$G(-'($&>$:&-;3&4(-6(#$Albuiqueique: 0niveisity of New
Nexico Piess.

Shaip, u. (2uuSa). Nonviolent Action: An Active Technique of Stiuggle. In R. Bolmes & B. uan,
(Eus.) :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$0-8$5"06936(# Long uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu Piess. p. 247-2SS.

Shaip, u. (2uuSb). The Technique of Nonviolent Action. In R. Bolmes & B. uan, (Eus.) :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$
0-8$5"06936(# Long uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu Piess. p. 2SS-2S6.
Ackeiman, P. anu Buvall, I. (2uuu). H$I&"6($1&"($5&/(">,4A$H$E(-9,"=$&>$:&-;3&4(-9$E&->4369# New Yoik:
Palgiave Publishing.

Bonuuiant, I. (2uuS). Satyagiaha in Action. In R. Bolmes & B. uan, (Eus.) :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$0-8$5"06936(#
Long uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu Piess. p. 8S-9S.

ualtung, I. (1996). 5(06($J=$5(06(>,4$1(0-'# Lonuon: SAuE Publications.

Buuson, F. (2uuS). E40"0$B,)("A$E3;34$@3.*9'$1&;(2(-9$3-$KL40*&20$E39=. Inteiview with Claia Lupei. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.iose.euu¡E0CRBC¡0ial-Lupei,C.htm.

0iosco, I.-A. (2uuS). Cesai Chavez anu Piincipleu Nonviolent Stiategy. In R. Bolmes & B. uan,
(Eus.) :&-;3&4(-6($3-$<*(&"=$0-8$5"06936(# Long uiove, Illinois: Wavelanu Piess. p. 261-27u.

Wolpeit, S. (1999). ?-830. Beikeley: 0niveisity of Califoinia Piess.

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ielationships, powei uynamics anu one's ielationship with natuie. The cultuie of wai
manifests itself in a myiiau of ways, anu is often ueeply entiencheu in beliefs that can make
it seem "noimal" oi "natuial." Bowevei, as cultuie is a human constiuct, the cultuie of wai
is human-maue, anu as such, can be equally uismantleu anu ieplaceu with a cultuie of

The following table (Auams, 2uuS) contiasts the cultuie of wai anu cultuie of peace.

Culture of War and Violence Culture of Peace and Nonviolence
Belief in power that is based on force
Male domination
Exploitation of nature
Exploitation of people
Having an enemy
Authoritarian governance
Secrecy and propaganda
Education for a culture of peace
Equality of women and men
Sustainable development
Human rights
Understanding, tolerance and
Democratic participation
Free flow of information


Accoiuing to Auams (2uuS):

A cultuie of peace is an integial appioach to pieventing violence anu violent
conflicts, anu an alteinative to the cultuie of wai anu violence baseu on euucation
foi peace, the piomotion of sustainable economic anu social uevelopment, iespect
foi human iights, equality between women anu men, uemociatic paiticipation,
toleiance, the fiee flow of infoimation anu uisaimament.

Anothei uefinition by Auams (199S) states that "a cultuie of peace consists of values,
attituues, behaviois anu ways of life baseu on nonviolence, iespect foi human iights,
inteicultuial unueistanuing, toleiance anu soliuaiity, shaiing anu fiee flow of infoimation
anu the full paiticipation of women" (p. 16). A cultuie of peace incluues eliminating

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violence, but goes beyonu this thiough piomoting human iights, multicultuialism,
soliuaiity, iespect, anu enviionmental stewaiuship fiom local to global levels.

A cultuie of peace is a piocess, iathei than an enu point, anu a vision of moving all aspects
of society towaius peacefulness. It is not static, but iathei uynamic, always changing baseu
on how a community changes (Auams, 2uu9). When thinking of a cultuie of peace, it is
useful to think of a spectium, with a cultuie of wai at one enu anu cultuie of peace at the
othei, anu a multituue of possibilities anu combinations in between.

We often talk about 6,493:093-.$oi$)"&2&93-.$a cultuie of peace, as if it weie something
that is in constant, continuous uevelopment. This piocess uoes not mean that theie will not
be conflict. Biveise communities encountei conflict, anu it is not the conflict itself that is
negative, as conflict can cieate tension that leaus to cieative solutions that actually impiove
oui lives: it is when we hanule conflict violently that it becomes pioblematic. Thus, a
cultuie of peace is a constantly evolving piocess of nonviolence anu justice, in contiast to
the cuiient cultuie of wai in which violence anu injustice aie peivasive.

It is impoitant to note that theie is not a singulai concept of cultuie of peace, anu the
uefinition of a cultuie of peace must make ioom foi cultuial pluiality. uioff anu Smokei
(1996) uiscuss the existence of uiffeient uefinitions foi "cultuie" anu "peace", anu how both
of these teims inuepenuently can be haiu to uefine. Accoiuing to Bienes (2uu4), the values
anu piinciples of a cultuie of peace "can be expiesseu in uiveise ways in uiffeient cultuies"
(p. 79). Wessells (1994) notes that "it woulu be cultuially insensitive to piesciibe an exact
meaning of 'cultuie of peace'" (p. 6). A cultuie of peace will peihaps look uiffeiently in each
school oi community, but will have univeisal oveiaiching piinciples as outlineu in the
mouels below.
A numbei of uiffeient fiamewoiks have been uevelopeu to uefine a cultuie of peace,
incluuing the 0NESC0 fiamewoik, Toh & Cawagas's flowei mouel (2uu2), anu the Integial
Nouel foi Peace Euucation (Bienes, 2uu4). In oiuei to fully uefine a cultuie of peace, it may
be necessaiy to combine uiffeient aspects of these mouels, anu uepenuing on the context,
some of these fiamewoiks may be moie ielevant oi useful. A combination of uiffeient
fiamewoiks is iueal foi ueveloping a concept of cultuie of peace foi a paiticulai context oi
setting. These fiamewoiks aie holistic anu compiehensive, anu have many oveilapping anu
complementaiy components.
Accoiuing to the Piogiamme of Action on a Cultuie of Peace, the 0niteu Nations uefines a
cultuie of peace as "a set of values, attituues, moues of behavioui anu ways of life that
ieject violence anu pievent conflicts by tackling theii ioot causes to solve pioblems
thiough uialogue anu negotiation among inuiviuuals, gioups anu nations" (0NESC0,
2u1u). The 0NESC0 mouel is the most univeisally iecognizeu anu incoipoiates many
aspects of a cultuie of peace.

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- 49 -

The 0N ueneial Assembly (1999) ueclaieu action in the following aieas necessaiy to
tiansition to a cultuie of peace anu nonviolence:

1) A cultuie of peace thiough euucation:
2) Bemociatic paiticipation:
S) Buman iights:
4) Sustainable uevelopment:
S) Equality between men anu women:
6) Auvancing unueistanuing, toleiance anu soliuaiity:
7) Suppoiting paiticipatoiy communication anu the fiee flow of infoimation anu
knowleuge, anu
8) Piomoting inteinational peace anu secuiity.

The 0NESC0 fiamewoik uses an inteinational lens, anu thus is veiy applicable at the global
level anu foi inteinational contexts. Bowevei, it can also be useu at the local oi institutional
level. Foi example, "inteinational peace anu secuiity" coulu be tianslateu as "local peace
anu secuiity," anu local issues coulu be assesseu anu monitoieu. The 0NESC0 mouel lacks a
peisonal conception of peace, such as innei peace¡peisonal peace.

The flowei-shapeu cultuie of peace mouel was uevelopeu by viiginia Cawagas anu Swee-
Bin Toh (2uu2). Toh was the iecipient of the 0NESC0 Piize foi Peace Euucation in 2uuu.
This mouel has "euucating foi a cultuie of peace" at the centei, anu six petals foi: 1)
uismantling the cultuie of wai: 2) piomoting human iights anu iesponsibilities: S) living
with justice anu compassion: 4) builuing cultuial iespect, ieconciliation anu soliuaiity: S)
living in haimony with the eaith, anu 6) cultivating innei peace.

This mouel offeis seveial notable contiibutions. Fiist is the aiea of uismantling a cultuie of
wai, which most closely coiiesponus to piomoting inteinational peace anu secuiity in the
0NESC0 mouel. Iueally, in a cultuie of peace, inteinational secuiity woulu be equateu with
total uisaimament. The flowei mouel goes faithei by explaining that ieal inteinational
peace anu secuiity will iequiie uismantling the cultuie of wai, ianging fiom uisaimament
at an inteinational level, to nonviolent conflict iesolution at micio levels, such as in
communities anu schools, as well as piomoting attituues anu values of nonviolence. This
petal incluues uisaimament euucation.

Seconuly, the iuea of "living in haimony with the eaith" ielates to "sustainable social anu
economic uevelopment," but goes ueepei by highlighting the neeu foi a haimonious
ielationship with the enviionment. The woiu "uevelopment" has veiy uiffeient
connotations anu uefinitions, anu the giowth-centeieu appioach to uevelopment is
aiguably the souice of much enviionmental uegiauation. While these two themes imply
similai iueas, the flowei mouel emphasizes the neeu to live in a way that is not only
sustainable, but in union with the natuial woilu.

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- S1 -


The Integial Nouel incluues piinciples fiom the 0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights
(1948) anu the Eaith Chaitei (1997), anu takes an ecological sustainability-focuseu
appioach to a cultuie of peace. Accoiuing to the Eaith Chaitei pieamble (1997), at this
ciitical moment in Eaith's histoiy, "we must join togethei to biing foith a sustainable
global society founueu on iespect foi natuie, univeisal human iights, economic justice, anu
a cultuie of peace." The Eaith Chaitei contains sixteen piinciples, guiueu by the following
themes: iespect anu caie foi the community of life, ecological integiity, social anu economic
justice, anu uemociacy, nonviolence anu peace. Each of the sixteen themes is elaboiateu
with moie specific actions foi how the piinciple tianslates into action. In the Eaith Chaitei,
the piinciple of univeisal iesponsibility goes beyonu oui ielationship one anothei to
incluue futuie geneiations anu the biospheie (Bienes, 2uu4). The Eaith Chaitei is also an
excellent iesouice foi Enviionmental Euucation (see 0nit 2, Section 8).

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While the 0NESC0 mouel takes an inteinational appioach, the Flowei anu Integial mouels
incoipoiate peisonal peace oi innei peace as ciitical components of a cultuie of peace. As
the woilu is maue up of billions of inuiviuuals, each inuiviuual can uevelop peisonal peace
piactices to cieate a sense of innei peace, which will then expanu into theii peisonal
ielationships anu community, anu out to the wiuei woilu. Equally, conuitions at the global
level have impacts on inuiviuuals. Thus, when thinking about a cultuie of peace, we neeu to
consiuei both the micio (self) anu macio (global) levels.

As inuiviuuals, we can uevelop peisonal peace anu move beyonu ouiselves into oui wiuei
social ciicles. Since oui global family is a collection anu coalition of many smallei families,
we must iemembei that in attempting to establish a global cultuie of peace, we neeu to
establish a cultuie of peace at the family level, which can expanu into a community cultuie
of peace anu eventually into a global cultuie of peace. The family unit vaiies cultuially,
fiom small nucleai families to extenueu families. A family cultuie of peace woulu mean
having peaceful ielationships with one's paients, siblings, spouses, chiluien, anu othei

In cieating a cultuie of peace, we neeu to establish values, attituues, knowleuge anu actions
at all levels of human ielationships, staiting with one's ielationship to oneself, anu
extenuing to the family anu wiuei community. In this way, all people will be able to leain
the way of living in peace fiom theii family, anu will acquiie the necessaiy values,
knowleuge anu skills to be able to live in peace with othei membeis of the wiuei society.

It shoulu be noteu that a cultuie of peace can be piomoteu at all levels at all times, anu uoes
not neeu to happen in a lineai fashion. Fiom the inuiviuual to the family level, peace
extenus outwaiu into the local community. Local communities can uevelop initiatives to
cieate a local cultuie of peace. This they can then extenu beyonu, iegionally anu to the
woilu. In the section :,3483-.$0$;,49,"($&<$5(06($3-$=&,"$>6*&&4, in 0nit S, we will exploie
how to apply these piinciples to eveiyuay life in youi school, community, anu beyonu.
1. What aie some examples of how the cultuie of wai manifests itself in youi life,
community oi countiy. What aie some ways that you can take action to uismantle
the cultuie of wai.
2. Review the 0NESC0, Flowei, anu Integial mouels foi a cultuie of peace. What aie
the stiengths anu weaknesses of each mouel. Which one applies best to youi
community. Consiuei tiying to uevelop youi own mouel by integiating aspects
fiom the uiffeient mouels oi othei aspects that aie not incluueu.
S. Think about the cultuie of peace in youi life, fiom the peisonal level, to youi family,
to the iegional, to the global. What aie some ways that you can act now to piomote

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- SS -
a cultuie of peace at uiffeient levels. Nake a list of uiffeient actions anu commit to
at least one piactical, feasible action that you can stait with touay.
4. Bow can you ensuie that youi classioom piactice anu youi cuiiiculum piomote the
cultuie of peace. What will you uo tomoiiow to stait that piocess oi stiengthen it.
Auams, B. (199S). :;7<=>$0-8$0$=,49,"($&?$5(06(@$5"&2&93-.$0$A4&B04$1&C(2(-9. 0iiginal euition out of piint.
Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.cultuie-of-peace.info¡monogiaph¡page1.html

Auams, B. (2uuS).$!(?3-393&-$&?$=,49,"($&?$5(06(. Retiieveu fiom: http:¡¡www.cultuie-of-

Auams, B. (2uu9). D&"48$5(06($E*"&,.*$9*($E&/-$+044. Self-publisheu. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.cultuie-of-

Bienes-Castio, A. (2uu4). An Integial Nouel of Peace Euucation. In A.L. Wenuen (Eu.), 78,6093-.$?&"$0$
=,49,"($&?$<&6304$0-8$76&4&.3604$5(06(# Albany: State 0niveisity of New Yoik Piess. p. 77-98.

Eaith Chaitei. (1997). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.eaithchaiteiinaction.oig¡content¡pages¡Reau-the-

uioff, L. & Smokei, P. (1996) Cieating global¡local cultuies of peace. In 0NESC0 (Eu.)$F"&2$0$6,49,"($&?$
C3&4(-6($9&$0$6,49,"($&?$)(06(. Paiis: 0NESC0. p. 1uS-127.

Toh, S.B. & Cawagas, v.F. (2uu2). G$+&43'936$:-8("'90-83-.$&?$0$=,49,"($&?$5(06(. Piesenteu at the APCEI0
Expeit Consultation on EI0, Fiji.

Wessels, N. (1994). The Role of Peace Euucation in a Cultuie of Peace: A Social-Psychological Analysis.$5(06($
78,6093&-$13-3)"3-9' No. 6S. Nalmo, Sweuen: School of Euucation.

0N ueneial Assembly. (1948). The 0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.un.oig¡en¡uocuments¡uuhi¡

0N ueneial Assembly (1999). GHI7<HJKHLMK@$!(640"093&-$0-8$5"&."022($&?$G693&-$&-$0$=,49,"($&?$5(06(#
Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡wwwS.unesco.oig¡iycp¡uk¡uk_sum_cp.htm

0NESC0. (2u1u). =,49,"($&?$5(06(@$D*09$3'$39N Retiieveu
fiom: http:¡¡wwwS.unesco.oig¡iycp¡uk¡uk_sum_cp.htm

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- S4 -
Congiatulations! You have completeu 0nit 1. In this 0nit, we have coveieu the founuational
concepts of peace euucation, anu set the stage foi the piactical units, which follow. Befoie
piogiessing to 0nit 2:

• Review the key concepts of 0nit 1, anu see if theie is anything that you neeu to
claiify oi ieview.
• Take the quiz.
• Biainstoim questions that you have about peace euucation.
• Stait making a list of iueas on how you can begin biinging peace euucation into youi

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- 1 -

At the enu of this unit, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the wiue iange of fielus that peace euucation encompasses
• 0nueistanu the knowleuge, values anu skills that each fielu seeks to piomote
• 0nueistanu conciete classioom applications foi each fielu
As you ieau this unit, consiuei the following question:

• Bow can I integiate these themes into the cuiiiculum that I cuiiently use. Bow can I
finu "spaces" foi peace euucation.
As uiscusseu in the Befinitions section in 0nit 1, the fielu of peace euucation is haiu to
uefine anu encompasses many othei fielus. In this unit, we will exploie some of the main
fielus that fall unuei the umbiella of peace euucation. Each section will exploie the key
theoiies, knowleuge, values, anu skills neeueu foi the piomotion of that fielu, anu will
incluue one example of a classioom lesson. The lessons aie heie to seive as a piactical
guiue on how to implement peace euucation piinciples, as well as to help get youi cieative
iueas flowing about how you can uesign youi own lessons foi youi context. As peace
euucation is by natuie highly contextual anu shoulu ueal with the ieality of youi stuuents,
it is impoitant that you uevelop the confiuence anu the skills iequiieu to auapt existing
lessons anu cieate youi own. 0nits S anu 4 will auuiess the piactical applications of peace
euucation in gieatei uepth.

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- 2 -

At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uistinguish between euucation :&" peace anu euucation 0;&,9 peace
• 0nueistanu the key piinciples of the Euucation Foi Peace (EFP) piogiam
As you ieau this section, consiuei the following question:

• What knowleuge, skills, attituues anu behaviois aie necessaiy foi peace.

Euucation :&" peace anu euucation 0;&,9 peace aie two main appioaches to peace
euucation, anu all peace euucation fielus can be uefineu by one oi both of these appioaches.

!"#$%&'()*!"#*+,%$,*answeis the question, "What skills, attituues anu knowleuge uo we
neeu to uevelop to cieate peace." Accoiuing to Reaiuon (1999), euucation foi peace is
"euucation to cieate some of the pieconuitions foi the achievement of peace" (p. 8).
Euucation foi peace involves ueveloping values, skills anu attituues that aie conuucive to
builuing peace. Peace euucation fielus that woulu be consiueieu pait of euucation foi peace
incluue: inteinational euucation (oi global euucation, woilu stuuies), multicultuial
euucation, anu enviionmental euucation.

Foi example, multicultuial euucation involves ueveloping attituues, peispectives anu
knowleuge that aie necessaiy foi people fiom uiffeient cultuies to inteiact with each othei
on positive anu constiuctive teims (Reaiuon, 1999). These attituues anu peiceptions aie
pieiequisites to having positive inteiactions. If, thiough multicultuial euucation, a leainei
uevelops an attituue of openness anu iespect foi othei cultuies, then latei, when leaining
about anothei cultuie, the leainei is moie likely to appioach the cultuie with an attituue of
iespect anu openness, iathei than feai oi uisciimination.

!"#$%&'()*$%"&'*+,%$, answeis the question "What is peace." Accoiuing to Reaiuon
(1999), euucation about peace is "euucation foi the uevelopment anu piactice of
institutions anu piocesses that compiise a peaceful social oiuei" (p. 8). These appioaches

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- S -

incluue conflict iesolution euucation, human iights euucation, anu tiauitional peace stuuies
(which tenus to ueal with nonviolence anu the abolition of wai), all of which aie conceineu
with avoiuing, ieuucing, oi eliminating violence. Euucation about peace emphasizes
knowleuge anu skills of peacemaking, anu foi this ieason Reaiuon calls it "essential peace
euucation" (p. 1S). Without this knowleuge, peace cannot be puisueu oi achieveu.

Let's use an analogy: If we think of peace euucation as faiming, then euucation foi peace
woulu be like tilling the fielu, feitilizing it with iich oiganic nutiients, anu wateiing it so
that the seeus can giow. It is piepaiing the seeubeu. Euucation about peace woulu be the
seeus, which can spiout anu thiive on this well-piepaieu lanu. Euucation foi peace is
piepaiing the minus anu heaits of leaineis thiough attituues anu peiceptions, anu
euucation about peace is the knowleuge that leaineis neeu to cieate a peaceful woilu.

Any fielu can be euucation :&" !"# 0;&,9 peace, uepenuing on how the fielu is appioacheu.
Nost fielus of peace euucation use both appioaches. Buman iights euucation is euucation
about peace when it auuiesses the knowleuge of human iights uocuments, instiuments,
anu the legal system. Bowevei, pait of human iights euucation is also ueveloping the
attituues to cultivate a sense of univeisal human uignity, anu this woulu be euucation foi
peace. In the subsequent sections in this unit, we will look at the knowleuge, skills, values,
anu attituues foi uiffeient fielus of peace euucation.
Euucation foi Peace (EFP) also iefeis to a specific piogiam uesigneu by faculty at Lanuegg
Inteinational 0niveisity in Switzeilanu. This piogiam was initially implementeu in piimaiy
anu seconuaiy schools in post-wai Bosnia anu Beizegovina. The key piinciples of the EFP
piogiam aie:

• Tiaining anu suppoit of teacheis anu staff:
• Integiation of peace piinciples into eveiy subject, eveiy uay:
• Cultivation of stuuent cieativity by encouiaging stuuents to expiess themselves in
vaiieu ways:
• Involvement of the community-at-laige thiough iegional peace events (Claike-
Babibi, 2uuS).

The goal of this piogiam was to cieate a peisonal anu collective woiluview tiansfoimation
foi the stuuents anu the gieatei community, anu to piomote a cultuie of peace in a iegion
that was ueeply tiaumatizeu by yeais of civil wai. Accoiuing to Claike-Babibi (2uuS), the
effects weie piofounu anu involveu tiansfoimation on all fionts, incluuing enhancement of
teaching anu leaining piactices, intei-community ielationships, the initiation of a cultuie of
healing, incieaseu political will foi piogiam expansion, anu the cieation of local-
inteinational bonus. The EFP piogiam is a gieat example of a holistic peace euucation
piogiam that incluueu the entiie community.$

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- 4 -


The following lesson is an example of euucating
foi peace, as it piomotes the values of shaiing anu
coopeiation in leaineis. As the lesson explains,
coopeiation anu shaiing aie necessaiy elements
foi builuing peace.

,-&'!-"./+0'1"#&$(Reaiuon & Cabezuuo, 2uu2)
The following exeicise is intenueu to help leaineis
bettei unueistanu each othei anu to builu
ielationships of tiust anu appieciation foi otheis.
Conflicts often occui when people lack
unueistanuing of otheis' peispectives. To avoiu
the escalation of conflict anu to piomote peace
anu nonviolence, coopeiation is essential. Shaiing
anu cieating stoiies togethei is one way young
chiluien can begin to uevelop the skills anu
attituues necessaiy foi a cultuie of peace.
This leaining unit was piepaieu by Neg uaiuiniei
(2uu1) as pait of the TC Peace Euucation Team at
Teacheis College, Columbia 0niveisity.
Elementaiy giaues, 1 - S
Shaiing: stoiytelling: coopeiative leaining: active
listening anu uiscussion
Shaiing, peace, coopeiation, nonviolence,
appieciation of otheis
Stuuents will
• Shaie stoiies about something special to them:
• Piactice active listening skills:
• Woik togethei with otheis in a cieative
• Bevelop anu uiscuss iueas about peace.

Pioceuuies (to be caiiieu out ovei seveial class

Ask stuuents to biing to class an object that is
special to them such as a toy, a photo, a book, a
piece of clothing, a foou, oi any othei item that
they woulu like to show fiienus anu classmates.
Explain the "iules" of the game to stuuents:
• Fiist, all stuuents will have an oppoitunity to
tell the class about theii special objects.
• While a fellow stuuent is shaiing the stoiy of
his oi hei object, otheis in the class shoulu be
listening anu giving full attention to that
stuuent. Eveiyone shoulu listen veiy caiefully,
because they neeu to leain why the object is
impoitant to theii classmate. Listening to each
othei is how people become fiienus.
• Next, stuuents can be encouiageu to ask
questions to leain moie about the special
objects of otheis. The teachei can piomote a
uiscussion that enables stuuents to leain about
each othei anu the things that aie special anu
impoitant to each of theii classmates.
• When the uiscussion inuicates unueistanuing
of the impoitance theii classmates attach to
the objects, foim gioups of S stuuents into
"stoiy teams." Each stoiy team will then use
the objects they biought to cieate a stoiy about
• To enu the game, all the peace stoiies will be
shaieu with the whole class.
Aftei these "iules" aie explaineu, the teachei anu
stuuents gathei in a ciicle to heai
the stoiies about stuuents' special objects. Nake
suie eveiyone has a place in the ciicle anu that all
stuuents can heai the peison speaking. All
stuuents shoulu have an equal amount of time to
shaie the stoiy of theii special object.
When stuuents have all shaieu, anu theii
questions have been answeieu, the teachei
can intiouuce the next pait of the game. In a ciicle,
ask stuuents to uiscuss theii thoughts anu feelings
about the stoiies they heaiu.

The teachei can explain that when people shaie
with anu listen to one anothei, as the class has just
uone, they aie helping to make the woilu a moie
peaceful place. Fighting often staits when people
stop listening to one anothei. By heaiing the
stoiies of otheis anu cieating new stoiies
togethei, stuuents can piactice activities that

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- S -

make peace possible.!
Next, ask stuuents to foim teams of 2 oi S people
to woik togethei to cieate a stoiy about peace.
These peace stoiies shoulu incluue theii special
objects in some way. Foi instance, if one stuuent
biought a pictuie of hei mothei anu anothei
stuuent biought a favoiite toy, these two stuuents
coulu cieate a stoiy about a family that lives in
peace anu has lots of time to play. 0i if one
stuuent biought a pictuie he uiew anu anothei
biought a favoiite foou, togethei they coulu cieate
a stoiy about a peaceful town wheie aitists anu
cooks biing each othei gifts of uiawings anu foou.
The possibilities foi stoiies aie enuless, anu
stuuents shoulu be encouiageu to be as cieative as
they can.

The only "iule" is that all stuuents in the team
shoulu help cieate the stoiy.
0nce all the teams aie ieauy to piesent theii
stoiies, foim a ciicle with the whole class.
Nake suie that eveiyone is incluueu in the ciicle
anu that all stuuents can heai the pei- son
The teachei shoulu allow time foi all the stoiies to
be shaieu. When the activity is complete, the class
can talk about what they thought anu felt about
the stoiies. If stuuents enjoyeu listening to one
anothei, shaiing theii stoiies, coopeiating in
teams, anu being heaiu, encouiage them to
continue the "shaiing game" at home anu in othei
places. Reminu them that shaiing anu coopeiation
aie veiy impoitant foi cieating a peaceful woilu.
1. What aie the uiffeiences between euucation :&" peace anu euucation 0;&,9 peace.
Think of an example foi each one.
2. Why is the sample lesson euucation foi peace. Coulu it also be consiueieu euucation
about peace.
S. What kinus of things uo leaineis neeu to <-&/ in oiuei to fostei peace. What '<344'
anu =04,(' uo they neeu to have to embiace anu piomote peace.
Claike-Babibi, S. (2uuS). Tiansfoiming Woiluviews: The Case foi Euucation foi Peace in Bosnia anu
Beizegovina. %&,"-04$&:$>"0-':&"2093=($78,6093&-, S(1). P. SS-S6.

Reaiuon, B. A. (1999). 5(06($7,8,6093&-?$@$A(=3(/$0-8$5"&B(693&-. Peace Euucation Repoits: Bepaitment of
Euucational anu Psychological Reseaich. School of Euucation, Nalmo 0niveisity. August, No. 17.

Reaiuon, B. A. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2).$Book 2: Sample Leaining 0nits#$C(0"-3-.$9&$@;&43'*$D0"?$>(06*3-.$
>&/0"8$0$E,49,"($&:$5(06(. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.

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At the enu of this session, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine ciitical peuagogy anu ciitical peace euucation
• Be able to uesciibe the key piinciples of ciitical peuagogy anu ciitical peace
• 0nueistanu uiffeient ways to apply ciitical peuagogy anu ciitical peace euucation
in classioom piactice
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What is the ielationship between euucation anu social action.
• Can euucation evei be neutial.
• As a teachei, what aie some ways that you empowei youi stuuents.


Ciitical peace euucation is the iesult of applying !"#$#!%&'()*%+,+- to the issues that
concein the uevelopment oi uegiauation of peace. These issues aie often seen as the
spheies of foieign anu uomestic policy, the uecisions conceining societal institutions - any
of which have an impact on the society, most notably schools, anu the powei uynamics
within the countiy anu outsiue of it. The lofty goal foi such peuagogy is to cieate "a
citizeniy capable of genuine public thinking, political juugment, anu social action", as
Ameiican political theoiist Benjamin Baibei (1984) has stateu. It aims to builu
a population that can inuepenuently analyze theii situation, anu pievent situations of
physical oi stiuctuial violence, while simultaneously piomoting equality, iespect,
sustainability, anu othei elements of positive peace.

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0ltimately, the goal of ciitical peace euucation is to cieate a stuuent that is empoweieu
with both the skills anu uesiie to engage in his¡hei local society anu tiansfoim it into a
moie peaceful one. To this enu, as euucatois we must stiess two ielevant aspects of ciitical
peace euucation: the ways in which societies can uegiaue into violence, anu the cieation of
the ciitical consciousness, oi the ability to inuepenuently analyze a situation anu uevelop
unique, local solutions.

Thiough ciitical peace euucation, euucatois seek to empowei stuuents with ciitical
knowleuge anu the uesiie to act so that they might inuepenuently evaluate societal
institutions anu tiansfoim society thiough this piocess.
Ciitical peace euucation anu ciitical peuagogy aie baseu upon a numbei of assumptions,
such as:

• Theie is an inheient link between ciitical empoweiment anu social action.
• Ciitical empoweiment consists of two tenets: unueistanuing the uialectic piocess
anu the couiage to use that piocess on local issues.
• Ciitical empoweiment only assumes ielevance when local issues aie examineu anu
• Ciitical uiscussion of local anu global issues is necessaiy foi social piogiess.

Theie aie a few funuamental assumptions iegaiuing ciitical peace euucation which uefine
the fielu, sepaiate fiom ciitical peuagogy. These aie:

• To engage in social tiansfoimation, we must focus a ciitical lens upon societal
institutions, uomestic anu foieign policy, anu local anu global powei uynamics.
• Euucatois must emphasize multiple peispectives, which the stuuents may use to
ciitically analyze theii local situation.
• As the citizeniy must be capable of unueistanuing anu accepting the failings of theii
social institutions, ciitical peace euucation shoulu involve a ciitique of piesent
society in oiuei to cieate positive change towaius peace.

Fiom this theoietical fiamewoik, we can unueistanu that ciitical peace euucation is an
application of ciitical peuagogy to the issues that concein the uevelopment oi uegiauation
of peace. The uiffeience between ciitical peace euucation anu ciitical peuagogy is one of
Any uiscussion of ciitical peace euucation cannot be uivoiceu fiom ciitical peuagogy.
!"#$#%&'()*+&,-,. is the methou in which euucatois piepaie theii stuuents to assess,

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evaluate, anu challenge conventional beliefs oi noims thiough iational ciitique. The
peuagogy contains two inheient methous: euucatois must uevelop the skills foi the stuuent
to iationally assess any iuea, anu euucatois must also uemonstiate to the stuuent the
ielationship between empoweiment anu social tiansfoimation. Ciitical peuagogy has been
bioauly uefineu by ciitical peuagogue Iia Shoi (1992) as:

Babits of thought, ieauing, wiiting, anu speaking which go beneath suiface meaning,
fiist impiessions, uominant myths, official pionouncements, tiauitional clichés,
ieceiveu wisuom, anu meie opinions, to unueistanu the ueep meaning, ioot causes,
social context, iueology, anu peisonal consequences of any action, event, object,
piocess, oiganization, expeiience, text, subject mattei, policy, mass meuia, oi
uiscouise (p. 129).

Thus, ciitical peuagogy involves moie than just 6"39363:3-.$society. It is also unueistanuing
why things aie the way they aie, how they came to be, anu what can be uone to change
Ciitical peuagogy is ielevant because of the inheient link between the empoweiment of the
stuuents anu the task of !"#$%&'()%*!+"),%($"*. The impact of a ciitically empoweieu
citizeniy woulu be massive. Pioviuing stuuents with the skills to foimulate ciitical anu
analytical thought as well as the values to engage anu tiansfoim theii local society has
benefits anywheie. Social tiansfoimation can occui with any action - it may be the cieation
of a local gym foi impoveiisheu youth oi action within a local goveinment.
Bowevei, ciitical peuagogy involves a piocess$in which the actoi finus cause oi
motivation thiough analytical thought, anu then uses this thought to infoim hei
actions. This ielates to Fieiie's concept of -)%.$!, thiough which leaineis constantly move
between theoiy anu piactice by using analytical thought to guiue theii actions, then
ietuining to analytical thought foi ieflection anu to infoim fuithei action.
The application of ciitical peuagogy shoulu be infoimeu by the local situation. Insteau of
cieating global content, euucational scholais emphasize that to cultivate ciitical
consciousness in stuuents, euucatois must help stuuents analyze theii local situation.
Euucatois must extiapolate local beliefs, theoiies, stoiies, expeiiences anu histoiies anu
allow the stuuents the safety to assess beliefs that might be cential to theii cultuie (uiioux,
1988, 1989). Theie can be no untouchable subject in the uevelopment of ciitical
consciousness - all topics must be up foi uebate.

The ability to cieate such an enviionment in the classioom is uepenuent upon local issues.
Bowevei, euucatois have uevelopeu a few methous in which ciitical thought is emphasizeu.
A tool that must be useu in any classioom wheie ciitical consciousness is the goal is the$
/$%&0#($#'-)"#0!!, in which thesis anu antithesis come togethei to cieate a mouifieu
conclusion. To apply a theoietical concept such as this in the classioom, euucatois must

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fiist pioviue the stuuent with a belief oi philosophy that is geneially accepteu by theii local

Foi example:
:(43(;! <0-080$3'$0$)(06(;,4=$9&4("0-9=$0-8$2,493"06304$'909(#
What must be uone next must be uone uelicately: the teachei must contiast this viewpoint
with anothei. Bowevei, eviuence pioviueu by the instiuctoi cannot be in favoi of one siue
oi anothei. The instiuctoi's bias must be iemoveu fiom the classioom as much as possible.
An example of such a ciitique may be:


At this point, the instiuctoi must iemove heiself fiom the situation anu pioviue the
stuuents with the oppoitunity to foimulate theii own opinion iegaiuing these two
contiasting piopositions. The iesultant conclusion will be achieveu thiough iational anu
analytical logic anu well as ieseaich. This seives to piomote both an unueistanuing of the
ciitical piocess anu, when local issues aie examineu, it allows the stuuents to constiuct
theii own unueistanuing of the ielationship between ciitique anu social tiansfoimation.
Ciitical peace euucation is the iesult of applying ciitical peuagogy to iealms anu issues that
concein the uevelopment oi uegiauation of peace. Although the scholaily uiscouise in the
fielu has not been wiuespieau, seveial notable scholais have contiibuteu to the theoiy. The
woik of "#$%&'()*+)*, as uiscusseu in an eailiei section, was influential in the uevelopment
of ciitical peuagogy foi peace euucation. The theoietical fiamewoik has been uiscusseu by
only a few - notably ,-)+./&0-'1$%2 in the eaily 197us anu, moie iecently, 3&$)4*.'5+#6'
7&/&. The impact of this theoietical fiamewoik, howevei, has been uemonstiateu by the
woiks of Cail Niiia anu Ken Nontgomeiy, both of whom take ciitical peace euucation
peispectives in theii woik, tuining the iueas pioposeu into specific ciitiques which may be
useu as examples foi ciitical peuagogues eveiywheie.
Chiistoph Wulf is a seminal figuie in ciitical peace euucation. Wulf's theoiy ievolves
aiounu tiacing the ioots of violence back to the oiiginal cause. At the time of Wulf's wiiting
in the 197us, moie attention was iegulaily paiu to the uiiect causes of violence, iathei than
an in-uepth examination of societal institutions that can leau to stiuctuial violence. Wulf
uemonstiateu the timeless 0)+89+0%*'&2'+8/*)4*0*84*89*: that is to say, all things aie with
cause. The concepts cential to Wulf's woik weie stiuctuial violence, oiganizeu
peacelessnesss, anu paiticipation (Bajaj, 2uu8, p. 1S7-1S8).

Theie aie a numbei of themes that emeige in Wulf's woik that became cential tenets of
peace euucation - most notably that social anu economic justice aie necessaiy foi

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compiehensive peace. This piinciple emphasizes that local powei uynamics, such as
excessive uisciepancies in powei, tenu to leau to negative peace oi stiuctuial violence.

Wulf attempteu to uiaw attention to the conuitions in which peace ueteiioiates into
violence. Be has stateu that "ciitical peace euucation stems fiom an explicit unueistanuing
of peace euucation as a ciiticism of society" (Bajaj, 2uu8, p. 1S8) Ciitical peace euucatois
must fostei in theii stuuents the ability to question anu ciiticize theii stiuctuial
institutions anu powei uynamics in theii contexts: local, iegional, anu global. We must be
able to look back anu see with claiity what has cieateu violence in othei societies, anu we
must ask if these conuitions exist in oui own society.

Two ciitical components of this euucation aie now appaient: stuuent compiehension of
societal institutions anu how powei imbalances can cieate stiuctuial violence, anu the
cieation of a ciitical consciousness in oui stuuents. The foimei is achieveu thiough
ieseaich, anu the lattei thiough ciitical peuagogy. This summation of these two becomes
Ciitical Peace Euucation.
Louiues Biaz Soto ieviveu ciitical peace euucation in hei 2uuS woik, 5&/("$0-8$:&36($;-$
<('(0"6*$=39*$>*348"(-. It shoulu be noteu that while Biaz Soto uses the same phiasing as
Wulf, theii iueas of what constitutes ciitical peace euucation vaiy. Biaz Soto uefines hei
goal within the 0niteu States' uomestic spheie, yet hei piinciples of what shoulu constitute
ciitical peace euucation may be tiansfeiieu globally. Biaz Soto (2uuS) uefines that ciitical
peace euucation shoulu:

• Ensuie that issues of powei aie cential to collaboiative uialogues.
• Recognize the neeu to puisue spiiitual aspects of questions.
• Allow Fiieie's tiansfoimative peuagogy to guiue the neeu foi consciousness iaising.
• Nove beyonu Euiopean colonizing lens while iecognizing the neeu foi a
uecolonizing lens.
• Realize the neeu foi inclusivity, theieby uiiving us beyonu iuentity politics.
• Implement neeueu community actions piojects with a Paiticipatoiy Action
Reseaich¡feminist lens.
• Reach oui Bieamspace foi social justice with equitable economic uistiibution.
• Rely on Love as an inclusive alteinative paiauigm in soliuaiity tianscenuing existing
conuitions anu ieality (p. 96).

These piinciples pioviue a numbei of consiueiations foi ciitical peace euucatois, which
they may uemonstiate to theii stuuents so that the stuuents might unueistanu possible
lenses of ciitique. Thiough this ciitique, questions aiise, anu answeis aie exploieu.
Stuuents anu euucatois then have a fiamewoik of concepts that allow foi in-uepth analysis
of complex topics - peihaps the most significant aspect of ciitical peace euucation.

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This ciitical peispective is what euucatois must focus on in ciitical peace euucation.
Specific cases must be tailoieu foi the local context: in the case of histoiy, it must be the
local naiiatives that aie challengeu so the ciiticisms assume a ielevance to the stuuents
(uiioux, 1989, p. 146-1Su).

It may also empowei stuuents when a local wiuespieau belief is challengeu anu ciitically
analyzeu. This can be uone thiough a uiiect in-class examination of such a belief, when the
instiuctoi piesents the belief anu invites the stuuents to woik thiough specific case stuuies
in gioups. The instiuctoi will ask the stuuents to uistill a naiiative of whethei oi not the
actions in the mateiial pioviueu suppoit the belief. The ciitical piocess is then iealizeu in
the stuuent.

Bowevei, such a piocess shoulu not be useu when attempting to cieate a ciitical peace
consciousness, as the natuie of the uiiecteu ieauings will necessaiily leau towaius the
inclusion of the instiuctoi's bias (uiioux, 1989, 1S8). The cieation of a !"#$#!%&'
!()*!#(+*),** focuseu aiounu peace uemanus that euucatois stiike a balance between
pioviuing stuuents with inuepenuence anu focusing on issues that aie key to peace. This is
most effectively uone by the intiouuction of a topic anu all ielevant iesouices, anu then
asking the stuuents to ieseaich the topic in uepth to aiiive at theii own point of view. The
instiuctoi shoulu be inuiiectly involveu only in the seconu stage, by uiiecting the stuuent
towaius iesouices conceining the issues selecteu by the stuuent. It is absolutely essential
that teacheis uo not pioviue a peisonal inclination towaius one siue oi the othei. The
classioom must be a safe enviionment in which the stuuent is alloweu to come to any
conclusion - even one the instiuctoi uisagiees with.

As instiuctois, we must be conscious of the political natuie of ciitically auuiessing social
issues. Though ciitical peuagogy uoes not necessitate uiffeience fiom the status quo, often
it mateiializes as such. Bowevei, Beniy uiioux has noteu that schools nevei exist as
apolitical institutions: insteau, thiough a seiies of funuing, giants, teachings, anu suppoiteu
cuiiiculum, often schools iepiesent tiuth as the naiiative of the uominant class. Insteau of
attempting an impossible apolitical peispective, ciitical euucatois attempt to uemonstiate
the inheient multi-siueu natuie of all situations, naiiatives, explanations, anu tiuths. If
stuuents iealize ciitical consciousness, then both siues shoulu be examineu (uiioux, 1989,
p. 1S8-141).
The final subject to be auuiesseu is the univeisality to which ciitical consciousness applies.
It uoes not apply only to stuuies such as histoiy oi language: ueveloping a ciitical
consciousness can be uone with any content. Nathematics is often seen as the fielu wheie it
is veiy uifficult to apply ciitical consciousness. The following example uemonstiates
applying ciitical consciousness to the simple task of memoiizing the multiplication
tables. This example is one of ciitical peuagogy, iathei than specifically ciitical peace
euucation. Bowevei, theie is a veiy laige uemonstiable oveilap between the two fielus.

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Empoweiment anu ciitical thought, though not focuseu on peace, still have echoes in social

As can be seen, the multiplication
table has 1uu squaies to memoiize.
To memoiize 1uu piouucts of all
peimutations between 1u uiffeient
numbeis is a momentous task, anu
not a goou use of the stuuent's time.
To emphasize ciitical consciousness,
we must ask the stuuent which
piouucts they uo not neeu to
memoiize. The stuuent may
ciitically analyze the situation anu
come to the following conclusions:
!"#$%&'("#)*+ 6x7 = 42 anu 7x6 =
42: half of this table iepeats itself,
with the exception of squaies, anu
theiefoie uoes not neeu to be
memoiizeu. SS piouucts iemain to
be memoiizeu.
!"#$%&'("#),+)Theie aie a numbei
of multiplication piouucts that
follow a pattein, anu we only neeu
to memoiize the pattein. Examples
of this aie the x1 , x2, xS, x9 anu x1u
tables. Theie aie 21 piouucts that
iemain to be memoiizeu.
!"#$%&'("#)-+)Bepenuing on the
level of the stuuent, they may
believe xS anu x4 tables aie simple, anu may be calculateu on-the-spot. If this conclusion is
maue, then only 1u piouucts iemain to be memoiizeu.

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

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x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70
8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

{6x6, 6x7, 6x8, 6x9, 7x7, 7x8, 7x9, 8x8, 8x9,

Allowing the stuuents to come to these conclusions by pioviuing the time foi ciitically
evaluating the mateiial has value that fai exceeus the value gaineu fiom stiong numeiacy
skills. It also uemonstiates that any mateiial can be ciitically evaluateu.
Fiom ciitical peace euucation, we must unueistanu a few piinciples, iathei than a few
piactices. Euucatois must come to iealize that pioblems must be uefineu on a local basis:
they must emphasize ieseaich anu ieason as the methous in which stuuents foimulate
theii own solutions. Finally, they must allow the stuuent to cieate this unueistanuing on his
own. Theie aie innumeiable ways to cieate a ciitical consciousness in a stuuent, as long as
it is uone in a way that is ielevant to the stuuent's context. As Beniy uiioux has saiu, we

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must uo one thing - euucatois must aigue anu insist that schools function as a social foim
that expanus human capability - on all fionts (uiioux, 1988, p. 2S7).

The following leaining activity is a uevice to
encouiage leaining foi iesponsible social action,
anu paiticipation foi civil society action
campaigns foi justice anu peace, majoi
euucational goals foi peace euucation (Reaiuon &
Cabezuuo, 2uu2).

Auapteu fiom the New Zealanu Founuation foi
Peace Stuuies, Extenuing Peifect Relationships: A
Selection of Activities foi Classes anu uioups of
Seconuaiy Age (ages 11-14), 1986, Aucklanu, p.

uiaue Level anu Subjects
Niuule uiaues 6-1u: social stuuies, global issues,
woilu cultuies, cuiient affaiis

Backgiounu stuuy mateiials, mateiials on
uisaimament, etc., copies of the Bague Agenua,
copies of The Staiicase

Positing alteinatives, active uialogue

Citizen action, civil society, coopeiation

Stuuents will
• 0nueistanu the value of social
• uain skills in uevising anu pioposing
alteinative solutions to pioblems
• Eniich knowleuge of piactical
possibilities foi uisaimament

1. Begin by intiouucing the topic of
uisaimament as the most piomising ioute
to the pievention of aimeu conflict anu
wai. Explain the concept of uisaimament,
explaining that uisaimament will iequiie
moie vigoious effoits anu stiongei
institutions foi nonviolent conflict
iesolution. Assign the Bague Agenua foi
homewoik ieauing.
2. What can be uone to ease¡solve the
pioblems of aimeu conflict anu wai (oi
othei global pioblems) that we aie
stuuying at the piesent. Consiuei the Su
points of the Bague Agenua. Which of
these points oi pioposals coulu leau to
uisaimament. Follow the steps of the
staiicase below to consiuei the tieis of
possible action. Foi each step, think about
ways to achieve the given pioposals you
have iuentifieu oi the bioau social goal
you woulu like to see iealizeu.
S. Review the Su Recommenuations of the
Bague Agenua, focusing special attention
on the iecommenuations piesenteu on
the stianu foi "Bisaimament anu Buman
Secuiity." Wiite the numbei of the
iecommenuation in the staii level at
which each might be most effectively
4. Stuuents shoulu then take time to
consiuei the many alteinatives anu
uiscuss the vaiious levels of action,
incluuing all pioposals.
S. 0nce these alteinatives have been
uiscusseu anu consiueieu, plan action
steps in which the stuuents coulu be
involveu at each level. Explain the many
uevelopments to enhance peace anu
justice at the inteinational level begin
with steps taken by inuiviuuals anu small
gioups of citizens: stuuents can take
action as global citizens that can
ultimately leau to majoi global changes.

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The Staiicase:

• What aie the key piinciples of ciitical peuagogy anu ciitical peace euucation.
• Why is ciitical peuagogy impoitant foi peace euucation.
• What aie some ways in which you can integiate ciitical peace euucation into youi
classioom piactice. Bow can you piomote ciitical thinking given youi existing
cuiiicula. Be specific.
Bajaj, N. (2uu8). Ciitical Peace Euucation#$In N. Bajaj, (Eu.), 7-6:64&)0(830$&;$5(06($78,6093&-# New Yoik:
Colombia Teachei's College.

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Baibei, B. (1984). :9"&-.$!(2&6"06;<$50"9363)093-.$5&43936'$=&"$0$>(/$?.(#$Beikeley: 0niveisity of Califoinia

Buxton, L. (198S). 109*(20936'$=&"$7@(";&-(#$New Yoik: Schocken Books.

Biaz-Soto, L. 2uuS. Bow can we teach peace when we aie so outiageu. A call foi ciitical peace euucation.
A0B&&<$A*($%&,"-04$&=$C,49,"($0-8$78,6093&-#$Fall-Wintei, p. 91-96.

uiioux, B. (1988). :6*&&43-.$0-8$9*($'9",..4($=&"$),B436$43=(<$C"393604$)(80.&.;$3-$9*($2&8("-$0.(.$Ninneapolis:
0niveisity of Ninnesota Piess.

uiioux, B. (1989). Schooling as a Foim of Cultuial Politics: Towaiu a Peuagogy of anu foi Biffeience#$In B.
uiioux anu P. NcLaien, (Eus.), C"393604$5(80.&.;D$9*($:909(D$0-8$C,49,"04$:9",..4(#$Albany: State 0niveisity of
New Yoik Piess.

Livingstone, Baviu. (1987). C"393604$5(80.&.;$0-8$C,49,"04$5&/("#$Nassachusetts: Beigin anu uaivey

Niiia, C. (2uu8). E#:#$=&"(3.-$)&436;$0-8$9*($)"&')(69'$=&"$)(06($(8,6093&-# Ieffeison, NC: NcFailanu & Co.

Shoi, I. (1992). 72)&/("3-.$78,6093&-<$C"393604$A(06*3-.$=&"$:&6304$C*0-.(# Poitsmouth, NB: Beinemann.

Wulf, C. (197S). F"3'936*($G"3(8(-H("*,-.#$Fiankfuit: Suhikamp.
Wulf, C. (1974). +0-8B&&I$&=$)(06($(8,6093&-# Fiankfuit, ueimany: Inteinational Peace Reseaich
Association.$$ $

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine uisaimament anu uisaimament euucation
• 0nueistanu the ielevance of uisaimament euucation within the fielu of peace
• Biscuss piactical ways in which uisaimament euucation can be implementeu in the
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What woulu a woilu without aimaments look like. Woulu human secuiity be
possible in a uisaimeu woilu.
• What aie the oppoitunity costs of militaiy spenuing. If youi countiy wasn't
spenuing money on the militaiy, what coulu it be using that money foi.
• What aie the connections between:
o uisaimament anu human iights.
o uisaimament anu the enviionment.
o uisaimament anu social justice.

Bisaimament euucation is baseu on the iuea that achieving uisaimament is the piimaiy
institutional iequiiement to uevelop a cultuie of peace anu establish the founuations foi
compiehensive human secuiity (Reaiuon, 2uu2). The ultimate goal of uisaimament
euucation is "nothing less than geneial anu complete uisaimament" (Reaiuon, 2uu2, p. 21).
Bisaimament euucation is a key component foi uismantling the cultuie of wai (see Cultuie
of Peace section).

The Repoit anu Final Bocument of the Woilu Congiess on Bisaimament Euucation
uesciibes uisaimament as follows:

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Foi the puiposes of uisaimament euucation, uisaimament may be unueistoou as
any foim of action aimeu at limiting, contiolling oi ieuucing aims, incluuing
unilateial uisaimament unuei effective inteinational contiol. It may also be
unueistoou as a piocess aimeu at tiansfoiming the cuiient system of aimeu nation
states into a new woilu oiuei of planneu unaimeu peace in which wai is no longei
an instiument of national policy anu peoples ueteimine theii own futuie anu live in
secuiity baseu on justice anu soliuaiity (0NESC0, Paiis, 198u, Section A, paia. 2).

The fielu of uisaimament euucation aiose in the 19Sus anu 196us, in the afteimath of the
atomic bomb attacks in Biioshima anu Nagasaki. At this time, uisaimament euucation was
piimaiily conceineu with nucleai uisaimament. Accoiuing to Nuiakami (199S), peace
euucation in Iapan is still laigely conceineu with anti-nucleai euucation. As nucleai
weapons aie still a piessing global issue, nucleai uisaimament is still a ciitical issue in
uisaimament euucation.

0thei weapons shoulu not be foigotten, howevei. Weapons of mass uestiuction, such
as nucleai weapons, tenu to ieceive the most inteinational attention. Neanwhile, small anu
light weapons account foi the vast majoiity of violence anu illegal weapons tiaue in the
woilu (Shah, 2uu7). Theiefoie uisaimament euucation must go beyonu euucation about
weapons of mass uestiuction, anu incluue weapons of all sizes, incluuing guns, mines, anu
clustei bombs, just to name a few.
Like all peace euucation, uisaimament euucation can be euucation :&" oi 0;&,9
uisaimament. !"#$%&'()*!"#*"'+%,-%-.)& involves ueveloping the competencies
necessaiy foi euucation about uisaimament. These competencies involve cultivating
inteiest, ciitical thinking fiom acquiieu knowleuge anu infoimeu uecision-making.
Fuitheimoie, theie aie two key peiceptual elements in uisaimament euucation. Fiist,
stuuents must peiceive that uisaimament is not only possible, but piobable. This can be
linkeu to Futuies Euucation (see Section 1u of this 0nit) as stuuents tiy to imagine what a
uisaimeu woilu woulu look like. Seconu, stuuents must be able to see that the secuiity of
otheis - with whom they shaie the woilu - is valuable (Reaiuon, 2uu2). Accoiuing to
Reaiuon, "this pieuisposition is best uevelopeu at the elementaiy level in which the
founuations of social values aie laiu" (2uu2, p. 24). This can be linkeu to ulobal Citizenship
Euucation, Nulticultuial Euucation, anu Buman Rights Euucation, among otheis.

!"#$%&'()*$%"&'*"'+%,-%-.)& encompasses the issues anu pioblems of uisaimament as
well as actions iequiieu to builu a woilu without aims. Euucation about uisaimament
incluues topics such as aimeu conflicts, iising weapons-ielateu expenuituies, piolifeiation
of weapons of mass uestiuction anu conventional aims, anu othei thieats that continue to
challenge the founuations of inteinational peace anu secuiity (0niteu Nations, 2u1u). Foi
example, a lesson on knowleuge about uisaimament might exploie how militaiy
spenuing is linkeu to human iights violations when some citizens' basic human iights go
unmet while militaiy spenuing incieases. Stuuents coulu compaie militaiy spenuing

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figuies on health, euucation, foou, etc. The lesson coulu involve soliciting possible actions
that stuuents coulu take in iegaius to this pioblem (foi example, senuing a lettei to theii
goveinment iepiesentative auvocating foi uecieaseu militaiy spenuing anu incieaseu
spenuing on euucation).
Since uisaimament is linkeu to so many othei topics anu themes, it can be easiei to
integiate it into existing cuiiicula. Bisaimament euucation can anu shoulu be placeu in the
bioauei fielu of peace euucation, anu linkeu uiiectly to othei bianches in the fielu, such as
human iights, uevelopment, anu enviionmental euucation. Bisaimament euucation shoulu
incluue (oi be pait of a cuiiiculum that incluues) nonviolent conflict iesolution anu conflict
tiansfoimation euucation, so that leaineis aie piepaieu to auuiess conflicts, which will
inevitably aiise, without the use of aims.
Bisaimament euucation can be contioveisial, anu may be challenging to integiate into the
cuiiiculum, uepenuing on youi school. As most nations have militaiies, ieuucing militaiy
spenuing - let alone completely abolishing the militaiy - can be a taboo topic. If you aie a
teachei in the public school system, even in a countiy wheie uisaimament euucation might
be fiowneu upon by the national goveinment, you can still finu ways to euucate foi
uisaimament, such as by teaching the value of human secuiity foi eveiyone anu teaching
ciitical thinking skills. You can look foi "gaps" oi "holes" wheie you can inseit uisaimament
themes oi questions. Even if uisaimament is stiictly against youi goveinment's national
policy, you can still cieatively finu ways to implement uisaimament euucation.

Bisaimament euucation is an impoitant aiea of peace euucation that is sometimes
oveilookeu. While peace is moie than just the absence of wai, the absence of wai is an
absolutely necessaiy component of cieating a cultuie of peace. Weapons aie one of the
gieatest thieats to peace in touay's woilu, anu weapons piolifeiation is a majoi souice of
stiuctuial violence when public funus aie spent on weapons in lieu of foou, health caie,
euucation, anu nonviolent means of secuiity.
Note: If you aie unable to obtain the iesouices
suggesteu in this lesson plan, feel fiee to use any
mateiials that aie ielevant anu can be obtaineu
"#$%&'%'()*!"#+*#,)%&-$(Reaiuon & Cabezuuo,

This unit fulfills a numbei of stanuaiu leaining
puiposes. Fiist is the uevelopment of language
skills thiough the use of uictionaiies anu
thesauiuses to enhance chiluien's vocabulaiy anu
cieative use of language in expiessing theii own
iueas. By examining the ielationship between the
micio (local) anu macio (global) effects of small
aims anu light weapons, ieasoning anu ielational
skills will be enhanceu. Cieativity anu expiessive
skills can be uemonstiateu thiough the use of
aitistic (uiawing) anu linguistic (speaking anu
wiiting) expiession.

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- 2u -

This leaining unit is intenueu to uevelop an
awaieness of the thieat that small aims anu
weapons pose to chiluien locally anu globally.
These activities allow stuuents the oppoitunity to
actively iuentify anu uesciibe theii conceins about
the effects that guns anu small aims have on
chiluien's lives in all iegions of the woilu. This
lesson is also intenueu to uevelop stuuents' sense
of civic anu social iesponsibility by allowing them
to take action in builuing public awaieness about
issues that concein anu affect chiluien. It is oui
intention that by using the Bisaimament
Bictionaiy as a leaining tool to teach othei
stuuents about uisaimament anu human secuiity,
these goals will be ieacheu.
Noima T. Nemeh (2uu1) Teacheis College,
Columbia 0niveisity. This unit was piepaieu foi
use in a teachei tiaining woikshop at Teacheis
College, Columbia 0niveisity.
Elementaiy giaues S - S, anu auaptable to othei
giaues: language aits, social¡global stuuies
Bictionaiies, thesauius: constiuction papei,
pencils, maikeis: magazine pictuies illustiating
youth anu violence, small aims: possible ieauings
foi teachei's backgiounu anu illustiations to use
in the unit incluue:

• Tuibulent Times, Piophetic Bieams: Ait fiom
Isiaeli & Palestinian Chiluien. Baiolu
Koplewicz, uail Fuiman, anu Robin uoouman.
Bevoia Publishing: Piinteu in Isiael, 2uuu.
• 0ne Bay We Bau To Run: Refugee Chiluien
Tell Theii Stoiies in Woius anu Paintings.
Sybella Wilkes. Nillbiook Tiaue, 199S: ISBN:
• The New Yoik Times Nagazine, Iune 1uth
2uu1, "The Age of Anxiety," p. S6.
Reauing of chiluien's books: viewing anu making
uiawings: consulting uictionaiies: piepaiing a
uictionaiy: coopeiative leaining: communal
shaiing of leainings
1. Chiluien will be encouiageu to specify anu
ieflect on the negative effects that guns, small
aims, anu weapons have on chiluien. Reflection
will be baseu on an examination of a seiies of
chiluien's uiawings anu aitwoik fiom vaiious
woilu iegions.

2. Stuuents will analyze the effect that guns, small
weapons anu lanu mines have hau on chiluien's
lives in vaiious iegions of the woilu anu theii own
community by ieauing the iecommenueu texts,
viewing the uiawings of chiluien who aie
expeiiencing aimeu conflict uiiectly.

S. Stuuents will iuentify anu uesciibe the haimful
effects that guns, small weapons, anu lanu mines
have on chiluien's safety anu secuiity by listing
aujectives anu¡oi auveibs that uesciibe the effects
of guns anu small weapons on societies anu
chiluien's lives in paiticulai.
N0TE: This leaining unit woulu best be conuucteu
ovei a peiiou of two weeks of language aits

1. Teachei piesents :-($!0;$<($+08$9&$=,-, oi
similai pictuie books with chiluien's illustiations
anu stoiies. Reau one stoiy foi each session. Aftei
each ieauing, pose the following questions oi
similai ones:

a) What was the stoiy about. Who weie the
people in the stoiy. Weie theie any chiluien
of youi age, oi the ages oi youi sisteis,
biotheis, oi fiienus.
b) What uiu you see in the pictuies. Biu you
notice guns oi othei weapons in the pictuies.
Bow uiu the guns make you feel.
c) Why uo people have guns. What uo guns uo
to people. u) Bow uo you think the chiluien
who uiew these pictuies felt about guns.
What happeneu to them because of the guns.
u) Coulu the people using the guns have founu
othei ways to uo what they weie tiying to
uo. What othei ways can you imagine.

2. Begin a uiscussion on the effects that guns,
small weapons, anu lanu mines have hau on the
chiluien who illustiateu the books anu ask
stuuents to shaie theii own iueas, expeiiences,
anu knowleuge about guns, weapons, anu wai.
Ask stuuents how they leaineu what they know
about such things.

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S. Ask stuuents to give iuentifying oi uesciiptive
woius (aujectives anu auveibs) to uesciibe the
moou anu feeling founu in the chiluien's
illustiations anu theii own feelings about the
illustiations. If stuuents aie not familiai with
aujectives anu auveibs piioi to conuucting the
lesson, explain the concept anu technique of
uesciiption, noting that they have been using
aujectives anu auveibs to uesciibe what they saw
anu to expiess feelings.

4. Recoiu chiluien's iesponses on the boaiu oi
newspiint, making a list of aujectives anu auveibs
to be useu latei in composing the Bisaimament

S. Intiouuce anu uefine the teim "uisaimament" to
the chiluien anu elicit theii ieactions anu
iesponses as to how uisaimament coulu
contiibute to chiluien's safety anu secuiity. Ask
them to think about what makes them feel safe
anu secuie. Explain to the chiluien that many
people all ovei the woilu aie woiking foi
uisaimament as a way to cieate peace. Tell them
about the 0niteu Nations Becaue foi a Cultuie of
Peace anu Nonviolence foi the Chiluien of the
Woilu (0niteu Nations Bocument A¡Res¡SS¡2S),
ten yeais of activity to tiy to assuie that they anu
all chiluien can be secuie anu live in peace.

6. Intiouuce the activity of cieating the
Bisaimament Bictionaiy to explain to othei
stuuents why they think that the issue is an
impoitant one that othei chiluien neeu to leain
about, too.

7. Announce that stuuents, in gioups, will be
assigneu a lettei oi gioup of letteis fiom the
alphabet anu be askeu to iuentify an aujective oi
auveib beginning with that lettei. They will then
be askeu to constiuct a sentence using the auveib
oi aujective to uesciibe theii thoughts, feelings, oi
expeiiences ielateu to small aims (such as
hanuguns) anu¡oi ielateu to how they thieaten
the secuiity of chiluien.

Stuuents will use uictionaiies anu a thesauius to
locate anu iuentify aujectives oi auveibs fiom
each lettei of the alphabet that ieflect oi uefine
the uisaimament concept they woulu like to
incluue in the Bisaimament Bictionaiy.
Stuuents will list the woius alphabetically,
compose sentences using the woius anu
aiticulating theii iueas about guns, anu illustiate
one page in the Bisaimament Bictionaiy to
coiiesponu to the lettei(s) they weie assigneu.

8. 0iganize stuuents into coopeiative leaining
gioups anu assign seveial letteis of the alphabet
to each gioup. Each gioup will compose a section
of the Bisaimament Bictionaiy:

• Assuiing that theie aie sentences anu
illustiations foi eveiy lettei:
• Putting the letteis, sentences anu
illustiations in alphabetical oiuei: anu
• Naking a covei anu a binuei foi theii pait of
the uictionaiy.

9. If possible, make photocopies of the
Bisaimament Bictionaiy so each chilu may have
one to keep, ieau again, anu shaie with families
anu otheis.

1u. 0pon completion of the Bisaimament
Bictionaiy, stuuents can plan activities to
intiouuce theii woik to othei stuuents in the
school. Some iueas incluue:

• A hall uisplay of all the pages:
• A special assembly in which stuuents piesent
theii uiawings anu sentences as skits:
• visits to othei classes to explain the pioblem
of guns anu iueas about uisaimament by
piesenting theii Bisaimament Bictionaiy.
1. What aie the key components of uisaimament euucation.
2. Why is uisaimament euucation an impoitant component of peace euucation.
S. What aie the challenges to implementing uisaimament euucation in youi context.
Bow can you auuiess these challenges. What aie some ways you can imagine
integiating uisaimament euucation in youi context.

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4. Reseaich the militaiy spenuing in youi countiy, anu compaie it with euucation,
health caie, oi othei types of goveinment spenuing. If youi countiy uoes not have a
militaiy, peihaps examine anothei countiy, oi look at global figuies.
S. Bow woulu you mouify the sample lesson in this section foi use with oluei chiluien
oi in the context of a uiffeient subject.
Nuiakami, T. (199S). "Peace Euucation in Biitain anu Iapan: A Compaiison." In A. Bjeisteut (Eu.) 5(06($
78,6093&-:$;4&<04$5("')(693=('# Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell Inteinational. p. 79-9u.

Reaiuon, B. (in consultation with A. Cabezuuo). (2uu2). Tasks anu uiiections foi the ulobal Campaign foi
Peace Euucation. !3'0"202(-9$>&",2, pp. 19-26.

Reaiuon, B. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2). Book 2: ?(0"-3-.$9&$@<&43'*$A0":$B(06*3-.$B&/0"8'$0$C,49,"($&D$5(06(.
Sample Leaining 0nits. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.

Shah, Anup (2uu7). B*($0"2'$9"08($3'$<3.$<,'3-(''. ulobalIssues.oig. Retiieveu fiom

0niteu Nations. (2u1u). Bisaimament Euucation: Resouices foi Leaining. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.un.oig¡uisaimament¡euucation¡inuex.html
Excellent lesson plans on uisaimament anu othei peace euucation issues, available online:

online: http:¡¡www.cnuuk.oig¡inuex.php¡infoimation¡peace-euucation¡peace-euucation.html
A comic book about 0S militaiism anu the militaiy-inuustiial complex: an iueal classioom iesouice foi
uisaimament euucation: http:¡¡www.auuicteutowai.com¡book.html

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- 2S -

At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine Buman Rights Euucation (BRE)
• Besciibe the key piinciples of human iights euucation
• 0nueistanu the key uocuments ielateu to human iights euucation
• 0nueistanu ways to integiate human iights euucation in the classioom
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Aie human iights cultuially ielative. (Bo they vaiy fiom cultuie to cultuie, oi aie
they univeisal.)
• When you think of "human iights," what fiist comes to minu.

$$$$$$@$5&)($50,4$A:$BCDEF@CEFDG $
Accoiuing to the 0N 0ffice of the Bigh Commissionei foi Buman Rights, Buman Rights
Euucation is uefineu as:

Tiaining, uissemination, anu infoimation effoits aimeu at the builuing of a univeisal
cultuie of human iights thiough the impaiting of knowleuge anu skills anu the
moluing of attituues uiiecteu to:

a) the stiengthening of iespect foi human iights anu funuamental fieeuoms
b) the full uevelopment of the human peisonality anu the sense of uignity
c) the piomotion of unueistanuing, toleiance, genuei equality, anu fiienuship
among all nations, inuigenous peoples anu iacial, national, ethnic, ieligious anu
linguistic gioups
u) the enabling of all peisons to paiticipate effectively in a fiee society.
(0niteu Nations, 0ffice of the Bigh Commissionei foi Buman Rights, 1997).

!"#$%&'(#)*+,$-#.,+)+/'0&$01$234+&$5'6"/*$7%-258 anu ielateu inteinational
conventions anu tieaties foim the founuation of Buman Rights Euucation (BRE). BRE seeks
to piomote knowleuge of the iights within these tieaties, ways to piomote iights, anu the
mechanisms foi hanuling iights violations. Leaining 0H&,9 human iights is laigely

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- 24 -

cognitive, anu incluues human iights histoiy, uocuments, anu implementation mechanisms
(Floweis, 2uuu).

BRE is moie than just unueistanuing iights, howevei. As mentioneu above, BRE is
euucation foi the full human uevelopment anu paiticipation of all membeis of society.
Reaiuon (1999) explains that the BRE fielu seeks to

• uevelop the geneial acceptance of human uignity as a funuamental piinciple to be
obseiveu thioughout society:
• assuie that all people aie awaie that they aie enuoweu with iights that aie
univeisal, integial, anu iiievocable, anu:
• uemonstiate the connection between human iights issues to a bioau iange of social
pioblems (p. 1S).

Theiefoie, human iights euucation is both !"#$%&'()*!"#*%)"*$%"&'(+#,%)*-'.+&/. When
BRE is euucation :&" human iights, it piomotes unueistanuing anu embiaces the piinciples
of human equality anu uignity anu the commitment to iespect anu piotect the iights of all
people (Floweis, 2uuu). This iequiies values such as unueistanuing, toleiance, equality,
anu fiienuship. The objectives of euucation :&"$human iights aie moie peisonal anu incluue
values claiification, attituue change, uevelopment of soliuaiity, anu the skills foi auvocacy
anu action (Floweis, 2uuu). BRE is euucation 0;&,9 human iights when stuuents aie
leaining about the human iights tieaties, mechanisms, teiminology, anu institutions.

Since BRE seeks to piomote justice, it involves examining existing powei imbalances*anu
inequalities anu seeking to auuiess these thiough action. BRE, like all of peace euucation, is
gieatly influenceu by the woik of Paulo Fieiie anu his peuagogies foi enuing the cycle of
oppiession. Fieiie's peuagogies aie useu wiuely in BRE. Exeicises such as Powei Napping
(explaineu below) can be useu to examine powei ielations anu finu the souice of
imbalance, anu winuows of oppoitunity foi action.

BRE emphasizes the iecipiocal ielationship between*iights anu iesponsibilities. We all
have iights, anu we also have the iesponsibility to exeicise oui own iights, as well as
piotect anu piomote the iights of otheis.
Buman iights uocuments anu basic piinciples aie the key component of knowleuge
uevelopment in BRE.
The 0BBR is the piimaiy uocument of human iights euucation. It was auopteu by the
0niteu Nations ueneial Assembly in 1948 in the afteimath of the hoiiible human iights
violations anu atiocities that took place uuiing Woilu Wai II. It is impoitant foi peace
euucatois to be familiai with this uocument anu apply it piactically to BRE. (Please see
the Appenuix foi the full text).

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Accoiuing to Nancy Floweis (1999), the founuational piinciples of the 0BBR incluue:

• !"#$%&'(- Aiticle 1 of the 0BBR pioclaims that "all human beings aie boin fiee anu
equal in uignity anu iights".
• )*&+,-.$%&'( - Buman iights aie univeisal: they aie baseu on ceitain moial anu
ethical values that aie shaieu by all iegions of the woilu. uoveinments anu
communities have the iesponsibility to iecognize anu upholu them. Bowevei, this
uoes not mean that human iights cannot change oi that they aie expeiienceu in the
same way by all people.
• /0*1&.2-&3&*$'&0* - Buman iights apply equally to all people, iegaiuless of any
aspect of theii iuentity oi iole.
• 4*1&+&.&5&%&'( - Buman iights shoulu be auuiesseu as an inuivisible bouy, incluuing
civil, political, social, economic, cultuial anu collective iights.
• 4*',-1,6,*1,*2, - Buman iights aie connecteu, much like petals of one flowei, oi
beaus on one necklace. The iights of one peison aie connecteu to the iights of
otheis. violation of one iight uetiacts fiom othei iights. Conveisely, piomotion of
one iight suppoits othei iights.
• 7,.60*.&5&%&'( - iesponsibility falls upon goveinments anu inuiviuuals.
uoveinments have the iesponsibility to iespect anu piotect the human iights of all
citizens. Inuiviuuals also have the iesponsibility to upholu human iights, anu to holu
violatois accountable (incluuing goveinments anu othei institutions).
The Convention on the Rights of the Chilu (CRC) is the key human iights uocument, in
auuition to the 0BBR, that explicitly outlines the iights of chiluien (0N ueneial Assembly,
1989). While the 0BBR equally applies to chiluien, chiluien iemain one of the most
vulneiable gioups in teims of iights violations. This is why a convention that explicitly
states theii iights was necessaiy. It is impoitant foi peace euucatois to be familiai with the
complete text of this convention. (Please see the Appenuix foi the full text).

The Convention on the Rights of the Chilu can be uiviueu into S categoiies: suivival anu
uevelopment iights, piotection iights, anu paiticipation iights. Suivival anu uevelopment
iights ensuie access to the iesouices, skills anu contiibutions necessaiy foi the full
uevelopment of the chilu. Piotection iights incluue piotection fiom all foims of abuse,
neglect, anu ciuelty. Paiticipation iights piotect chiluien's iight to fiee speech anu iight to
paiticipate in matteis affecting theii social, cultuial, ieligious, political, anu economic life.

The Convention on the Rights of the Chilu is an impoitant tool in human iights euucation. It
is veiy impoitant foi chiluien to know anu unueistanu theii own iights, anu to begin to
uevelop a sense of iesponsibility foi the iights of otheis.

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Euucation itself is a human iight. The human iight of euucation has thiee aspects: access,
quality, anu a iespectful leaining enviionment (0NESC0, 2uu7). Fiist anu foiemost,
eveiyone has the iight to access euucation. Fuitheimoie, eveiyone has a iight to quality
euucation, which incluues a bioau, inclusive, ielevant cuiiiculum anu a healthy, chilu-
fiienuly leaining enviionment (0NESC0, 2uu7). Auuitionally, all leaineis have the iight to
iespect in the leaining enviionment. 0sing these piinciples anu the othei human iights
piinciples as a fiamewoik foi euucation is calleu the !"#$%&'()!*+,-$+./&$00'1$2!&*1&
./"2$*(1%3&The goal of the human iights-baseu appioach is "to assuie eveiy chilu a quality
euucation that iespects anu piomotes hei oi his iight to uignity anu optimum
uevelopment" (0NESC0, 2uu7, p.1).
Powei mapping is an inteiesting tool that can be useu to examine the powei ielations in a
given situation. This exeicise involves looking at a pioblem oi issue, anu examining the
institutions anu inuiviuuals connecteu to the issue, anu the powei ielations between them.
While this activity is piobably most ielevant to uppei level leaineis, it coulu also be
auapteu foi leaineis at eailiei uevelopmental phases.

Foi this exeicise, you will neeu a white boaiu¡black boaiu oi laige papei anu maikeis. The
iuea is to stait with a ciicle in the centei, anu then auu each step moving outwaiu in
concentiic ciicles.

1. Iuentify a key issue oi pioblem that you woulu like to solve, oi a peison oi
institution that you think can solve the pioblem. Place this issue¡peison¡entity in
the centei (on a flip chait, on a blackboaiu).
2. Iuentify the key institutions oi associations ielateu to that issue¡peison¡entity:
Place these institutions in a iing aiounu the item in the centei.
S. Nap inuiviuuals associateu with the institutions in #2. Place these inuiviuuals in
a iing outsiue the seconu iing.
4. Nap all othei associations with the inuiviuuals in the seconu iing (foi example,
connections that gioup membeis might have to the inuiviuuals, etc.).
S. Beteimine powei ielations - uiaw lines connecting inuiviuuals anu institutions that
have ielations to one anothei.
6. Taiget piioiity ielationships - looking at the powei ielations, look at the paths that
aie easily accessible, oi paths that have the most potential foi impact.
7. Nake an action plan.

This exeicise helps leaineis to unueistanu the inteiconnecteuness of an issue, anu helps to
claiify the powei ielations that aie opeiating. Fuitheimoie, this exeicise is veiy helpful in
cieating a stiategic action plan. While this exeicise is veiy useful foi stuuents, it is also veiy
useful foi auult leaineis. Tiy it out with a gioup of fellow teacheis oi community membeis!

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The following lesson foi piimaiy giaues is an
example foi how to apply the CRC in the

(Reaiuon & Cabezuuo, 2uu2)

The 0nit that follows intiouuces the Convention
on the Rights of the Chilu anu pioviues an
oppoitunity to uemonstiate how human iights
issues ielate to othei woilu questions such as the
health of the enviionment, anu how symbols anu
folk ait can expiess human expeiience anu
meaning. The tiee of life is a wonueiful metaphoi
foi use in human iights euucation. Netaphois of
living systems also help to intiouuce leaineis to
holistic anu ecological thinking. This 0nit |anu
0nit 8] weie uesigneu by Susan Lechtei, a
Canauian giauuate of Baivaiu 0niveisity anu
Teacheis College, Columbia 0niveisity."
0uoteu anu auapteu fiom Betty A. Reaiuon,
Euucating foi Buman Bignity: Leaining About
Rights anu Responsibilities, Philauelphia:
0niveisity of Pennsylvania Piess, 199S, pp. S1-S6.
Elementaiy giaues, S - 6: language aits, social
stuuies, ait
Newspiint, magic maikeis, a laige piece of
caiuboaiu, assoiteu maikeis, coloieu
constiuction papei: copies of the complete CRC
can be founu on-
line (www.unicef.oig¡cic¡cic.htm) oi oiueieu
fiom the 0niteu Nations.
Befining anu uistinguishing between iights anu
neeus: inteipieting the aiticles of the Convention
on the Rights of the Chilu (CRC)
Inteinational conventions, piinciples, human
iights, basic neeus
Stuuents will acquiie infoimation about chiluien's
iights thiough stuuy of specific aiticles fiom the
Convention, anu they will also be intiouuceu to
infoimation about some obstacles to the
fulfillment of these iights:

• Recognize some uenials of the human iights
of chiluien, anu paiticipate in a gioup pioject
aimeu at helping to oveicome these uenials:
• Bevelop a sense of theii own inuiviuual
places in theii woilu, anu uevelop iespect
anu concein foi otheis aiounu them anu foi
chiluien who aie victims of unfoitunate anu
uiie ciicumstances.
• Leain to uistinguish between wants anu
• Iuentify basic suivival neeus:
• Become acquainteu with the piinciples anu
piovisions of the CRC.
1. Biaw the Tiee of Life on a laige piece of
caiuboaiu anu have stuuents coloi it. The ioots
can iepiesent the foui basic neeus of chiluien
outlineu in the convention. Tell the chiluien that
the tiee will not suivive without having its basic
neeus fulfilleu anu piotecteu, anu neithei will the
chiluien. Ask what tiees neeu to suivive anu
giow: note why tiees aie impoitant to oui life anu
the life of the planet. The futuie of the Eaith
uepenus a goou ueal on healthy tiees anu living
foiests. It also uepenus on healthy chiluien anu
peaceful communities. Ask what chiluien neeu to
suivive anu giow. A theme to stiess is that unless
the chiluien's neeus aie fulfilleu they cannot giow,
leain, anu uevelop. List the neeus iuentifieu on
newspiint anu post them in the classioom.

The tiunk is the entiie CRC fiom which the
bianches, twigs anu leaves giow. The bianches
may iepiesent the basic piinciples of the
Convention on the Rights of the Chilu. Explain that
piinciples aie iueas about what is goou anu
impoitant, guiuelines foi what neeus to be uone.
The CRC extenus these iueas out into the woilu foi
all to know, just as the bianches extenu the tiee
anu its leaves into the aii pioviuing us with
oxygen. When chiluien enjoy health anu wellbeing
the whole community is bettei off, just as we have
a healthiei enviionment when theie aie lots of
healthy tiees.

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The twigs can be the inuiviuual aiticles of the CRC.
The teachei can select an appiopiiate numbei of
the aiticles most ielevant to the topics to be
emphasizeu. Each leaf may iepiesent a chilu in the
class. This Tiee of Life will be a symbol to uiaw on
thioughout the lessons to follow.

2. 0n sepaiate pieces of laige papei piint a
summaiy of each CRC aiticle selecteu foi class
uiscussion. Biviue the chiluien into leaining
gioups. Each gioup is to ieceive one summaiy. As
you uistiibute them ieau each alouu to the entiie
class. Then allow a few minutes foi the chiluien to
uiscuss the aiticle while you pass out uiawing
papei. Ask the chiluien to ielate the neeus they
listeu to the iights they have uiscusseu. Wiite the
numbei of the aiticle stating the iight next to the
neeu it is intenueu to assuie.

S. In small gioups, stuuents will uo uiawings
iepiesenting one aiticle of the CRC. Put the
numbei of the aiticle iepiesenteu on each
uiawing, anu put the uiawings all aiounu the
classioom. The teacheis will then put the numbei
on a twig on the Tiee of Life.

4. Announce that stuuents will uo uiawings of the
aiticles at the enu of each lesson until all the
aiticles aie completeu. Repeat this exeicise until
all aiticles stuuieu aie on the Tiee of Life. Neeus
may be auueu to the list if otheis aie uiscoveieu in
uiscussing the iights.

Note: The chiluien neeu not tiy to iemembei all
the aiticles, but shoulu uiscuss them so that theii
puiposes aie unueistoou.

1. What aie the key piinciples of human iights euucation.
2. What aie the key piinciples of the 0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights.
S. Why uo the iights of chiluien iequiie the auuitional piotection of the Convention on
the Rights of the Chilu.
4. Sometimes human iights can seem veiy abstiact to leaineis. What aie some ways
that you can make human iights a ieality foi youi stuuents.
S. Will you use the uocuments in this section to teach 0:&,9 peace, ;&" peace, oi both.
Bow woulu incoipoiate these uocuments into youi cuiiiculum.
Floweis, N., (Eu.). (1999). +,20-$<3.*9'$+("($=$>&/?$@(4(:"093-.$9*($A-3B("'04$!(640"093&-$&;$+,20-$<3.*9'#
Ninneapolis: Buman Rights Euucatois' Netwoik of Amnesty Intainaional 0SA, Buman Rights Resouice
Centei, Stanley Founuation. Retiieveu fiom

Floweis, N. et. al. (2uuu). C*($+,20-$<3.*9'$78,6093&-$+0-8:&&D#$Ninneapolis: 0niveisity of Ninnesota
Buman Rights Resouice Centei. Retiieveu fiom

Reaiuon, B. A. (1999). 5(06($7,8,6093&-?$E$<(B3(/$0-8$5"&F(693&-. Peace Euucation Repoits: Bepaitment of
Euucational anu Psychological Reseaich. School of Euucation, Nalmo 0niveisity. August, No. 17.

Reaiuon, B. A. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2).$Book 2: Sample Leaining 0nits#$G(0"-3-.$9&$E:&43'*$H0"?$C(06*3-.$
C&/0"8$0$@,49,"($&;$5(06(. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.

0N ueneial Assembly. (1948). A-3B("'04$!(640"093&-$&;$+,20-$<3.*9'. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.ohchi.oig¡EN¡PiofessionalInteiest¡Pages¡InteinationalLaw.aspx

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- 29 -

0N ueneial Assembly. (1989). :&-;(-93&-$&-$9*($<3.*9'$&=$9*($:*348. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www2.ohchi.oig¡english¡law¡cic.htm

0NESC0. (2uu7). >$+,20-$<3.*9'?@0'(8$>))"&06*$9&$78,6093&-$A&"$>44. New Yoik: 0NESC0. Retiieveu fiom:
This inteinational oiganization has an extensive online uatabase of peace euucation mateiials, anu also offeis
online couises on BRE. They also have a listseiv that euucatois can subsciibe to.
An infoimative, step-by-step guiue to powei mapping

Anothei powei mapping tool
http:¡¡www.unicef.oig¡cic¡ 0NICEF web site on the CRC

http:¡¡www.amnestyusa.oig¡euucate¡page.uo.iu=11u2117 Amnesty Inteinational BRE site, with extensive
iesouices foi lesson planning

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uiscuss the impoitance anu ielevance of global citizenship euucation
• Be able to uesciibe the knowleuge, values, anu skills neeueu foi global citizenship
• 0nueistanu how to piactically implement global citizenship euucation in the
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What uoes it mean to be a citizen (national oi global). What aie the qualities, uuties
anu iesponsibilities of a citizen.
• Why is the iuea of global citizenship impoitant touay.

Euucation foi global citizenship has become incieasingly impoitant as the woilu has
become moie inteiconnecteu thiough globalization. Bowevei, this uoes not mean that
euucation to piomote global citizens is a new phenomenon that is inheiently linkeu to the
globalizeu woilu. The belief behinu this euucation is that euucation which piomotes
nationalism oi patiiotism to a specific countiy is limiting, anu can even be a souice of
conflict (see eailiei section on Iohn Bewey). Rathei, chiluien anu auults shoulu leain how
to become citizens of the woilu. ulobal citizenship euucation incoipoiates elements such
as enviionmental sustainability anu social justice (Anuizejewski & Alessio, 1999), with
skills such as nonviolent conflict iesolution anu ciitical awaieness anu iespect, to shape
stuuents to be well-iounueu anu conscientious citizens of the woilu. This means that
stuuents will be able to unueistanu the impacts of legislation anu actions on populations
aiounu the woilu anu want to woik foi change that piomotes the gieatest goou foi
eveiyone, not simply foi those of theii nation.

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0ne of the most impoitant theoiists in the aiea of euucation to piomote global citizenship
is Iohn Bewey. Iohn Bewey's plan foi Peace Euucation was a iesult of the uestiuction that
he saw uuiing Woilu Wai I, which he believeu to be causeu by iampant nationalism.
Theiefoie, Bewey pioposeu an euucation that was uesigneu to teach people to be global
citizens iathei than citizens of a specific nation. The tiauitional peuagogies that Bewey
applieu thioughout his euucational philosophy aie impoitant in his theoiy foi euucating
global citizens as well. Please see the eailiei section on Iohn Bewey foi moie on his
euucational philosophy.
Nakiguchi was also influential in ueveloping a philosophy foi global citizenship combineu
with euucation. Nakiguchi was a Iapanese citizen who was influenceu by the peiiou of
moueinization in Iapan. Be was a geogiaphy teachei anu cieateu Soka uakkai, which is
touay the laigest lay Buuuhist oiganization in Iapan anu has 12 million membeis
woiluwiue. Be stiongly believeu that ieligion anu euucation shoulu seive to cieate
happiness in the human population anu theiefoie shoulu seive the neeus of human beings.

Nakiguchi staiteu his caieei as an euucational iefoimei thiough his woik in elementaiy
schools, as a piincipal anu a teachei. Be took copious notes of his expeiiences, which
eventually leu to the cieation of his uoctiine, which he constiucteu with Iogai Toua, his
uisciple. Buiing his time in the euucational system he saw the change in the Iapanese
system towaius a mouel that piomoteu militaiism anu blinuly following of oiueis fiom
supeiiois. Nakiguchi believeu that stuuents anu society accepteu this change because they
hau pieviously been taught iote memoiization anu hau not leaineu the skills necessaiy to
think foi themselves. This influenceu his belief that euucation shoulu equip the leainei to
conuuct peisonal inquiiy anu ieseaich, anu to answei questions of peisonal anu societal
inteiest. Be believeu that most of the changes that weie occuiiing in Iapan, which he saw
as being uetiimental, weie a iesult of the people's belief that they hau to blinuly follow the
empeioi, iegaiuless of what he saiu oi pioposeu.

Nuch like Bewey, Nakiguchi suppoiteu euucation that connecteu with the uay-to-uay
iealities of chiluien. Be believeu that teacheis shoulu take on the iole of guiue oi helpei,
iathei than impaitei of all knowleuge. Be stiongly suppoiteu euucational ieseaich to
ensuie that stuuents weie benefiting fiom the best tactics available. Be also auvocateu foi
a shoitei school uay in which stuuents woulu spenu theii afteinoons engageu in
meaningful community activities, such as appienticeships oi seivice woik.

When Iapan began to take offensive action against othei countiies in the iegion Nakiguchi
stoou up in opposition. Bis opposition was baseu on his inteinal Buuuhist beliefs as well as
the iuea that the cultuie of militaiism was negatively impacting stuuents anu leaining. In
194S he was impiisoneu foi his opposition to the Iapanese goveinment. In 194S he uieu in

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- S2 -

a piison hospital. Bowevei, his woik liveu on thiough his uisciple, Iosei Toua, who was
ieleaseu fiom piison at the enu of the wai anu continueu his woik thiough the Soka uakkai
Inteinational oiganization (Soka uakkai Inteinational, 2u1u).
ulobal citizenship encompasses a multituue of iueas that span a laige amount of giounu.
0xfam has pioviueu a compiehensive fiamewoik that outlines the knowleuge, skills, anu
values¡attituues that global citizenship piactices anu iueologies piomote. The aspects of
each of these aieas come fiom the 0xfam uefinition anu aie supplementeu by infoimation
fiom othei cuiiicula.

Fiom an euucational psychology peispective, each of these aieas has theii own
impoitance. Cuiiently, many teacheis follow a methou which combines teaching
knowleuge anu skills. Knowleuge is impoitant so that stuuents have a contextual
knowleuge to use anu unueistanu the skills. Bowevei, without ielevant skills stuuents will
not be able to use theii knowleuge in a meaningful anu impactful way. Finally, moial
euucation is incieuibly impoitant fiom an euucational psychology peispective. Stuuents
neeu to leain anu piactice impoitant values to ensuie that they aie able to tiansfei these
iueas in futuie situations (Woolfolk, 2uu7).
In ulobal Citizenship Euucation, stuuents shoulu uevelop knowleuge in the following aieas
in oiuei to have a gieatei unueistanuing of what it means to be a citizen of the woilu.
Social Iustice!is uefineu as piomoting faiiness, equality, anu soliuaiity in an effoit to cieate
an egalitaiian woilu. When focusing on this aiea stuuents shoulu uevelop unueistanuing of
inequalities that peisist aiounu the woilu, anu what can be uone to woik towaius equality.

The extent to which they unueistanu this is somewhat uepenuent on theii uevelopmental
level. Accoiuing to 0xfam, social injustice is most uiiectly linkeu to issues of income
inequalities anu poveity. Bowevei, social injustice is also linkeu to powei ielations, which
may connect to poveity, anu aie not exclusively tieu with wealth. Issues of social justice aie
goou examples of the inteiconnecteu natuie of the woilu.
Iueas about!uiveisity ielate to the iecognition of the fact that theie aie similaiities anu
uiffeiences between all people. Fuitheimoie, unueistanuing uiveisity iequiies the
examination of piejuuice anu uisciimination, how to combat these issues, anu how
stuuents can ensuie they live a life that is ueeply committeu to uiveisity thioughout the
ulobalization anu inteiuepenuence iefei to the phenomena in which the woilu is becoming
incieasingly anu moie iapiuly inteiconnecteu. While many uebate whethei oi not these

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aie new phenomena, it is ceitainly an impoitant one in piesent uay. This
inteiconnecteuness impacts numeious aspects of life, such as economics, cultuie, politics,
technology, anu linguistics.

This inteiconnecteuness also means that the woilu is inteiuepenuent. 0ne mannei in
which this inteiuepenuence can be seen is via the numbei of countiies who have been
impacteu by the economic collapse of 2uu8 that staiteu in the 0niteu States. Euucation
about this aiea looks at geneial powei ielations between vaiious countiies anu specifically
focuses on economic ielations. The goal is to teach stuuents about the vaiious connections
thioughout the woilu anu theii impact on justice.
Sustainable uevelopment!iefeis to meeting the neeus of piesent geneiations, while
pieseiving the enviionment to ensuie the neeus of futuie geneiations can also be met
(Biuutlanu Commission, 1987). While sustainability can also iefei to piomoting
sustainable ielations aiounu the woilu, this iuea is incoipoiateu into the othei categoiies
that have been explaineu. Theiefoie, stuuents who leain about sustainable uevelopment
focus on leaining about living things anu the ielationships between humans anu natuie
anu, theiefoie, how humans can leau sustainable lifestyles.

The fielu of peace anu conflict stuuies!aims to teach stuuents about past conflicts, how they
have been auuiesseu, anu how to iesolve conflicts peacefully. Thiough this fielu, stuuents
aie also taught the skills of peace builuing anu conflict iesolution anu aie encouiageu to
think thiough the vaiious, complex iealities that exist anu complicate conflict iesolution.
In ulobal Citizenship Euucation, the following skills shoulu be piomoteu:
Ciitical thinking!involves leaining how to listen anu ask questions. Stuuents use these
skills to then unueistanu uiffeient viewpoints anu biases that aie piesent in eveiything
they encountei. They then use these skills to ciitically evaluate issues that aie impoitant
anu multi-faceteu. This skill is impoitant to Paulo Fieiie, who believeu that we must look
ciitically at what is piesenteu to us to see the influence of powei ielations. This skill is also
impoitant in the theoiy of Tsunesabuio Nakiguchi, who believeu that people neeueu to be
euucateu global citizens to not blinuly follow abusive goveinments.
Bebating effectively iequiies the ability to expiess a view anu to suppoit that view with
eviuence. Aftei stuuents have masteieu this skill, they can then move into paiticipating in
political piocesses, since they aie now able to aiticulate theii opinions anu beliefs cleaily.
Since being a global citizen iequiies paiticipation in political piocesses, this is a key skill
that is iequiieu foi meaningful anu effective paiticipation.

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- S4 -

In oiuei to challenge injustice anu inequality, stuuents neeu to be able to iecognize
unfaiiness anu the factois that peipetuate it. 0nce stuuents aie able to iecognize the
existence of inequality, then they must leain how to woik to change it. Nuch like effective
uebating, this skill is key in oiuei foi stuuents to become active paiticipants. Theiefoie,
stuuents must leain not only what injustice is, but also what they can uo about it so they
can tiuly be active membeis of the global community.
As a global citizen, one must uevelop iespect, not only foi people, but also foi all things that
aie pait of this eaith. Stuuents must fiist leain how to caie foi otheis anu othei things.
When this has been masteieu stuuents must begin to think fiom the peispective of
someone else. Finally, stuuents shoulu uevelop a peisonal lifestyle that emphasizes
sustainability. Sustainability is typically, in touay's woilu, thought of as an enviionmental
concept. Bowevei, heie the teim is useu to encompass all aspects of life. Stuuents also
must ensuie that theii ielationships aie sustainable, by ensuiing that peaceful, non-violent
ielations aie an aspect of eveiything they uo. Stuuents shoulu uevelop skills to live in a
way that is iespectful to all life on the planet.
Coopeiation anu conflict iesolution!aie necessaiy skills foi stuuents to solve pioblems in
peaceful ways. Stuuents stait by leaining about coopeiation thiough shaiing anu how to
incluue otheis in uecisions. They piepaie to accept the uecisions of the majoiity even if
they uo not agiee with what has been ueciueu. Latei, stuuents shoulu leain how to
negotiate, meuiate anu iesolve conflict peacefully. Foi moie infoimation on conflict
iesolution, please see the section on Conflict Resolution Euucation.
ulobal Citizenship Euucation explicitly seeks to piomote the following values anu attituues:
Iuentity anu self-esteem aie necessaiy builuing blocks foi open-minueuness anu
compassion. 0nly stuuents who have a sense of peisonal woith anu value will have the
capacity to have the open minu that is neeueu foi global citizenship. In ulobal Citizenship
Euucation, teacheis shoulu allow stuuents to exploie the uiffeient facets of theii iuentity,
such as genuei, iace, ethnicity, nationality, anu abilities. In unueistanuing that theii own
iuentity is maue up of many uiffeient facets, they will be less likely to peipetuate
steieotypes, oi cieate a sense of "us vs. them" that is often a souice of conflict, as they will
have a bettei unueistanuing that each peison belongs to many uiffeient gioups in society.
Empathy is leaineu giauually by fiist focusing on concein foi those they intimately know,
anu moving this outwaiu to concein foi all people aiounu the woilu. This leaus to a sense
of the common humanity that unites us all. By cultivating this sense of empathy foi those
aiounu the woilu, stuuents will be effective global citizens.

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Without the belief that eveiyone can make a uiffeience stuuents will simply become
uisenchanteu by what they have leaineu in the othei aieas, anu may feel uisempoweieu to
take action. Theiefoie, stuuents neeu to believe that they can uo something to change what
they have leaineu about. To achieve this, stuuents must leain to make mistakes anu
iecovei fiom them. They must also leain that all actions have consequences. They shoulu
also leain to take a position on global issues, anu finally take action baseu on theii beliefs
anu opinions.
As with any euucational piactice it is impoitant to make suie that the uevelopmental levels
of youi stuuents aie unueistoou anu iespecteu. Euucation foi global citizenship is
appiopiiate foi all uevelopmental levels. The 0xfam cuiiiculum uefines the following age
gioups: youngei than five, S-7, 7-11, 11-14, 14-16 anu 16+. Within each uevelopmental
level, as uefineu by age, stuuents leain uiffeient concepts. Foi example, in the categoiy
"Belief that eveiyone can make a uiffeience," stuuents who aie youngei than S leain about
making mistakes. It is not until stuuents aie oluei that they aie consiueieu ieauy to leain
to take positions of global issues anu act on these beliefs.
Nany of the issues piesenteu when teaching euucation foi global citizenship will be
contioveisial. This is essential, since stuuents neeu to leain how to navigate in the ieal
woilu anu to builu theii own opinions. Bowevei, teaching contioveisial issues is not easy.
Befoie teaching a contioveisial issue, you shoulu auuiess seveial consiueiations. Fiist, as a
teachei you must always be piepaieu foi a contioveisial uiscussion to aiise, even if you
youiself uo not believe the issue to be contioveisial. You shoulu have some classioom
guiuelines that establish iespect anu positive conveisations foi all ciicumstances. Seconu,
as a teachei you neeu to ueciue what iole you wish to take. Theie aie vaiious ioles you can
play, such as piesenting youi own opinion, piesenting all options oi being the uevil's
auvocate. Theiefoie, you neeu to be piepaieu to aujust youi iole to the piesent situation.
Finally, teacheis neeu to ensuie that they avoiu uiuacticism anu telling theii stuuents what
is iight oi wiong. Activities that open up uiscussion, such as the use of photos, oi that
piomote the skills necessaiy foi infoimeu uiscussion, aie goou choices to ensuie that all
stuuents can shaie theii opinions.
Euucation foi ulobal Citizenship can be integiateu
into all aieas of the cuiiiculum. The following
activities uevelop some of the skills anu values
that aie cential to ulobal Citizenship. They can be
auapteu foi use in many uiffeient cuiiiculum
aieas with a wiue iange of age gioups anu ability
levels. Although they aie useu heie to examine
paiticulai issues, they coulu be useu to extenu
pupils' thinking about many othei issues
associateu with ulobal Citizenship.
Us|ng photographs (Ioundat|on stage/Lar|y years)
Water for a||: from |oca| to g|oba| th|nk|ng (age 7+)
Invest|gat|ng Conf||ct, Interrogat|ng the Med|a
(Ages 11+)
Letter/Lma|| Lxchange
%9$((#(? !
Get G|oba|! (Þr|ce, 2003)
Act|v|ty 1: Idea| futures - An act|v|ty for exp|or|ng
percept|ons of the wor|d

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- S7 -

Think of ways of iepiesenting school, anu uiaw
symbols to illustiate this, e.g., something that
iepiesents leaining. Place the symbols on a space
on the wall oi flooi. Each stuuent uiaws a symbol
to iepiesent wheie they live anu places it on the
wall oi flooi in ielation to the school. Biaw
symbols to iepiesent places outsiue of the local
aiea which stuuents have connections with, e.g.
places visiteu oi othei countiies wheie fiienus oi
family live. Place these in ielation to the school.
When the map is complete explain each symbol
anu ask questions like:

What uiu we talk about. What uiu we leain. What
else can be auueu.
Bow is the map useful. Who owns the map.
Biscuss what influence means, i.e. affecting the
way someone thinks anu behaves. Biaw a spiuei
uiagiam of the people who influence you, e.g.
inuiviuuals such as paients oi fiienus, anu gioups
such as pop gioups, oiganizations. Wiite theii
name in the miuule of a piece of papei anu uiaw
lines linking theii name to othei people's names.
The length of the line iepiesents how much the
peison influences them. A shoit line iepiesents a
lot of influence because it is neaiei to them, anu a
long line iepiesents less influence because it is
fuithei away fiom them. Wiite how each peison
influences you along each line, e.g. Ny mum
influences me by telling me to eat piopeily. Biaw
a seconu spiuei uiagiam of people who you
influence, with those you influence most neaiest
to the centei, anu those you influence least fuithei
away fiom the centei. Compaie the two spiuei
uiagiams consiueiing the similaiities anu
uiffeiences, e.g. whethei the people who influence
you aie the same people you influence. Compaie
each othei's spiuei uiagiams, e.g. whethei
eveiyone has the same amount of influence.
Consiuei how the people on youi spiuei uiagiams
may influence each othei, anu uiaw labeleu lines
showing how. It will begin to look like a
spiuei's web. It is also possible to act out this
Biscuss the uiffeience between influence anu
powei. Think of people who influence you anu
people who have powei ovei you at local, national
anu global levels. Piesent conclusions by uiawing
a Chappati (venn) uiagiam oi by sticking post-it
notes on laige ciicles on the wall oi flooi.
Calculate the piopoition of people who have
influence, anu the numbei who have powei ovei
you at local, national anu global levels. Biscuss
the finuings anu whethei oi not it is what you
expecteu. Aie theie any names in the oveilapping
ciicles. What uoes this mean. Repeat the activity
focusing on people you have influence ovei anu
people you have powei ovei. Auu this to the
Chappati uiagiam using a uiffeient coloi pen.
Nake a key.

1. What aie the coie iueas of global citizenship euucation.
2. Why is global citizenship euucation impoitant foi peace.
S. Aie you a global citizen. What uo you mean when you say that about youiself. What
uo you uo to ensuie that this uesciiption applies to you.
4. Bow can you ensuie that youi stuuents become global citizens. What changes, if
any, woulu this iequiie to youi classioom piactice anu¡oi the cuiiiculum you
Anuizejewski, I., anu Alessio, I. (1999). Euucation foi ulobal Citizenship anu Social Responsibility. 5"&."(''3:($
5("')(693:('. The 0niveisity of veimont, Spiing 1999. Retiieveu fiom

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- S8 -

Biunutlanu Commission. (1987). 0ui Common Futuie. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡woiluinbalance.net¡intagieements¡1987-biunutlanu.php

Ikeua, B. (1996). Thoughts on Euucation foi ulobal Citizenship. Speech ueliveieu at the Teacheis College of
Columba 0niveisity.Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.uaisakuikeua.oig¡sub¡iesouices¡woiks¡lect¡lect-u8.html

Latham, A. A. (2uuS). Libeial Euucation foi ulobal Citizenship: Renewing Nacalestei's Tiauitions of Public
Scholaiship anu Civic Leaining"." 5"&:(69$5("364('. Nacalestei College, Feb. Retiieveu fiom

0xfam. (2uu6). Euucation foi ulobal Citizenship: A uuiue foi Schools. ;<=02$78,6093&-. 0xfam uB. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.oxfam.oig.uk¡euucation¡gc¡

Piice, I. (2uuS). >(9$>4&?04@$A$'B344'C?0'(8$0))"&06*$9&$0693D($.4&?04$6393E(-'*3)# ActionAiu, CAF0B, Chiistian
Aiu, 0xfam, Save the Chiluien, anu the Bepaitment foi Inteinational Bevelopment. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.oxfam.oig.uk¡euucation¡iesouices¡get_global¡files¡section_one_get_gl obal_steps_english.puf

Soka uakkai Inteinational (2u1u). F',-('0?,"&$10B3.,6*3. N.p., n.u. Retiieveu fiom

Woolfolk, A. E. (2uu7). 78,6093&-04$)'G6*&4&.G$H9(-9*$(8393&-I# Boston, NA: Allyn anu Bacon.
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- 4u -

1. Buman beings aie cultuially embeuueu (they giow up anu live within a cultuially
stiuctuieu woilu anu oiganize theii lives anu social ielations in teims of a cultuially
ueiiveu system of meaning anu significance),
2. Biffeient cultuies iepiesent uiffeient systems of meaning anu visions of the goou
life, anu
S. Eveiy cultuie is inteinally pluial anu ieflects a continuing conveisation between its
uiffeient tiauitions anu stianus of thought.

Nulticultuialism can be vieweu within the spectium of philosophies of !""#$#%!&#'( anu
#(&)*+!&#'(. With assimilation, minoiity cultuies aie absoibeu into the majoiity cultuie to
the point wheie the minoiity cultuie loses its iuentity. This is a one-way appioach, wheie
the minoiity cultuies neeu to auapt to the majoiity cultuie. This is exemplifieu in the
"melting pot" metaphoi of Ameiican immigiation uoctiine, which encouiages immigiants
to "melt" into Ameiican cultuie thiough assimilation. If you imagine auuing spices into
soup in a pot, the spices will be blenueu into the soup, so that peihaps they aie not visible
oi uistinguishable. This is how minoiity cultuies aie absoibeu into the majoiity cultuie
with assimilation. While the minoiity cultuie may auu ceitain chaiacteiistics to the
majoiity cultuie, it is absoibeu by the majoiity cultuie.

With #(&)*+!&#'(, the minoiity cultuies aie still visible within the majoiity cultuie, anu
theie is a two-way appioach of social inteiaction thiough which minoiity anu majoiity
cultuies take action to facilitate integiation. This is exemplifieu by the "cultuial mosaic"
metaphoi useu in Canaua, which biings the image of many uiffeient cultuies living
haimoniously in one place to cieate a uiveise whole. With this metaphoi, the minoiity
cultuies maintain uistinguishable chaiacteiistics anu aie able to ietain theii iuentities
within the majoiity cultuie. In this case, the minoiity cultuies make up the gieatei whole,
like small pieces of uiffeient coloieu glass make up a mosaic.

Accoiuing to Nouoou (2uuS), multicultuialism uiffeis fiom integiation because it
iecognizes the social ieality of gioups - foi example, the sense of soliuaiity with people of
similai oiigin, faith, oi language. Nulticultuialism also acknowleuges the uiveise iuentities
of each inuiviuual. Foi example, inuiviuuals belong to many uiffeient cultuies, uepenuing
on theii ethnicity, iace, ieligion, language, national iuentity, genuei, sexuality, ability,
socioeconomic status, etc. Each inuiviuual has the potential to iuentify with multiple
cultuial iuentities anu theiefoie is not limiteu to theii "piece of glass" within the mosaic.
Nulticultuial euucation seeks to uevelop the attituues, peispectives, anu the knowleuge
iequiieu foi people of uiffeient cultuial backgiounus anu tiauitions to inteiact with one
anothei on positive anu constiuctive teims (Reaiuon, 1999).

The piinciples of multicultuial euucation incluue:

• The theoiy of cultuial pluialism:

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• Iueals of social justice anu the enu of iacism, sexism, anu othei foims of piejuuice
anu uisciimination:
• Affiimations of cultuie in the teaching anu leaining piocess: anu
• visions of euucational equity anu excellence leauing to high levels of acauemic
leaining foi all chiluien anu youth (0uezaua & Romo, 2uu4, p. 4).

The objectives of multicultuial euucation aie cognitive anu attituuinal:

• Cognitive - to uevelop uetaileu knowleuge of one oi moie othei cultuies as a means
to compiehenu that theie aie vaiious ways to be human anu expeiience the woilu
• Attituuinal - to uevelop !"#$%&'($)of ways of life uiffeient fiom one's own, %$*+$(!)
foi the integiity of othei cultuies, anu &++%$(,&!,"')of the positive potential foi
cultuial uiveisity (Reaiuon, 1999).

Thiough ueveloping knowleuge about anothei cultuie, stuuents begin to unueistanu the
myiiau of ways theie aie to be human, anu come to iealize that theii way of living is not
"coiiect" oi "bettei" than othei ways, but is simply pait of the uiveise spectium of
humanity. As they leain about othei cultuies, they become toleiant of othei ways of life,
uevelop iespect foi othei ways of life, anu appieciate the positive aspects of uiveisity.

When we think of cultuie, we often think of the "4 Bs": Bance, Biet, Bialect anu Biess.
These elements - a cultuie's foou, music, language, anu clothing - aie often the focus of
cioss-cultuial leaining. Bowevei, these aie just the tip of the cultuial icebeig. While these
elements aie often the most visible anu well known, theie aie many elements of a cultuie
that iemain invisible, below the suiface, much like the laigei bouy of an icebeig. These
hiuuen elements incluue values, attituues, customs, anu beliefs. While the "4 Bs" aie an
impoitant pait of cultuie, anu aie also an impoitant way to get leaineis inteiesteu in othei
cultuies, it is impoitant in multicultuial euucation that teacheis go beyonu this supeificial
level, anu ieach ueepei levels of cultuial unueistanuing.
The iole of multicultuialism in peace euucation is two-folu. Fiist, multicultuial euucation is
meant to instill anu uevelop a sense of iespect anu appieciation foi uiffeiences, whethei
they aie cultuial, ieligious, linguistic, oi otheiwise. Seconu, multicultuial
euucation piomotes the iight to euucation foi all stuuents. 0sing the inclusive peispective
of multicultuialism, the hope is that no chilu is excluueu fiom ieceiving a faii anu equal

Nulticultuial euucation is also stiongly linkeu to human iights euucation, as it teaches
iespect foi othei cultuies, which shoulu leau to iespect foi the funuamental humanity of all
people (Reaiuon, 1999). This iespect helps to mitigate uisciimination, piejuuices anu
iacism, anu leaus the leaineis to unueistanu that all people shoulu be tieateu equally
iegaiuless of cultuial, ieligious, oi ethnic uiffeiences.

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Beie aie some key concepts ielateu to multicultuial euucation. As you ieau, think about
why these concepts aie impoitant to multicultuial euucation. Also think of ways in which
you can encouiage stuuents to ieflect on these concepts.

!"#$%- subjective opinion oi pieuisposition. A bias uoes not have to be baseu on fact, but
iathei may come fiom cultuial conceptions of otheiness. :,49,"04$;30' is inteipieting anu
juuging phenomena in teims paiticulai to one's own cultuie.

&'()*+",(%- piejuugement: a pieconceiveu notion oi belief maue without ieason.
Accoiuing to Iones (2uuu), piejuuice is uiffeiential assumptions about the abilities,
motives, anu intentions of otheis accoiuing to some chaiacteiistic (ethnicity, iace, genuei,
ability, sexuality, etc). Bias anu piejuuice aie sometimes useu synonymously.

-"$,'"."/#0"1/ - behavioi that iesults in the unequal tieatment of people because they
aie membeis of a paiticulai gioup. Accoiuing to Iones (2uuu), uisciimination is uiffeiential
actions towaius otheis accoiuing to a chaiacteiistic (ethnicity, iace, genuei, ability,
sexuality, etc.). Note that the uiffeience between piejuuice anu uisciimination is laigely in
action: piejuuice is laigely a mental piocess (which may manifest veibally), wheieas
uisciimination manifests as behavioi anu action.

20('(1034( - a stanuaiuizeu set of iueas that iepiesent an oveisimplifieu uepiction of a
paiticulai gioup (ethnic, iacial, genuei, etc.).
506/1,(/0'"$.%- thinking that one's own gioup is supeiioi to otheis: juuging othei gioups
as infeiioi to one's own: making false assumptions about otheis baseu on own limiteu
expeiience (Baigei, 2uu8). Baigei aigues that we aie all ethnocentiic, as we all make
assumptions about otheis baseu on oui own limiteu expeiience. The pioblem with
ethnocentiism is that it leaus to misunueistanuing otheis anu can involve false negative (oi
false positive) juugments. An example of a false negative juugment woulu be juuging
anothei cultuie as being "lazy" foi having a uiffeient (oi seemingly uiffeient) attituue
towaius woik than one's own cultuie. An example of a false positive juugment woulu be to
iuealize oi glamoiize anothei cultuie, such as someone fiom a city thinking that people in
the countiysiue enjoy a bettei lifestyle because they aie "fiee of the stiesses of mouein
society," while not taking into consiueiation the many stiesses of the iuial way of life, such
as ciop instability, oi foou secuiity.

What can we uo about ethnocentiism, steieotypes, anu bias. The fiist step is to iecognize
that we uo not unueistanu, anu that we aie falsely assuming something. Accoiuing to
Baigei (2uu8), one of the most effective means of iecognizing oui own ethnocentiism is to
watch foi oui immeuiate ieactions (thoughts such as "that uoesn't make sense" oi "that's
wiong," feeling offenueu, confuseu). 0nce you iealize that you aie not unueistanuing, you
can seek unueistanuing by taking a iespectful attituue anu inquiiing into the meaning anu
function of a paiticulai context.

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- 4S -

!"#$%&'&() - ielativism usually means not juuging otheis anu accepting them as equals
(Baigei, 2uu8). Cultuial ielativism is often uebateu on issues ielateu to human iights anu
genuei equality. Foi example, aie human iights cultuially ielative. Bo they uepenu upon
the cultuie that you come fiom, oi aie they univeisal. Is genuei equality cultuially ielative,
oi cultuially uepenuent. Accoiuing to Baigei, the ieal issue of ielativism is "at what point
is one gioup justifieu in inteivening in the behavioi of anothei gioup." (2uu8, p. 8).

!$*&()+has to uo with piejuuice, baseu on uiffeiences in iace, in combination with powei
uynamics. "Race" is not biological oi scientific, but iathei is a social anu political constiuct
which chaiacteiizes people baseu on physical chaiacteiistics (skin coloui, shape of eyes,
textuie of haii, bouy size, physique, etc). 0nequal powei ielations aie at the centei of
iacism. Iones (2uuu) iuentifies thiee types of iacism:

• !"#$%$&$%'"()$"063'2 - uiffeiential access to the goous, seivices anu oppoitunities of
society by iace. Institutional iacism may be legalizeu anu manifest as uisauvantage,
anu may stiuctuial, couifieu in institutions. If this is the case, theie may not be an
iuentifiable peipetiatoi.
• *+,#'"())-./+0%($+0$"063'2 - piejuuice anu uisciimination, wheie piejuuice
means uiffeiential assumptions about the abilities, motives, anu intentions of otheis
accoiuing to theii iace, anu uisciimination means uiffeiential actions towaius
otheis accoiuing to theii iace. This is what most people think of when they heai the
woiu "iacism": peisonally-meuiateu iacism may be intentional oi unintentional:
• !"$+,"()%1+0$"063'2$- acceptance by membeis of the stigmatizeu iaces of negative
messages about theii own abilities anu intiinsic woith: ieflects systems of piivilege
anu societal values: eioues inuiviuual sense of value anu unueimines collective

Iones aigues that the key to auuiessing all foims of iacism is thiough eliminating
institutional iacism, which will leau to the subsequent elimination of the othei foims.
0ne of the ioots of multicultuial euucation is anti-iacism euucation. As uefineu by Sefa Bei
(1997), anti-iacism euucation is an action-oiienteu stiategy foi institutional, systemic
change to auuiess iacism anu the inteilocking systems of social oppiession. The puipose of
anti-iacism euucation is to cieate a just anu humane society foi the wellbeing of all people.
Powei ielations aie at the centei of the uiscouise. Anti-iacism goes beyonu inuiviuual
piejuuices to examine how iacist iueas aie entiencheu anu suppoiteu in institutional

Sefa Bei (1997) outlines ten basic piinciples of anti-iacism euucation:

1. Examining the social effects of "iace":

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2. 0nueistanuing all foims of social oppiession, such as oppiession baseu on genuei,
class, anu sexuality:
S. 0nueistanuing white male powei anu piivilege anu the iationality foi uominance in
4. Acknowleuging the subjugation of knowleuge anu expeiience of suboiuinateu
gioups in euucation systems:
S. Pioviuing foi a holistic unueistanuing anu appieciation of the human expeiience:
6. Biscussing notions of iuentity, anu how iuentity is linkeu to schooling:
7. Confionting the challenges of uiveisity anu uiffeience via appiopiiate peuagogy:
8. Acknowleuging¡0nueistanuing the tiauitional iole of the euucational system in
peipetuating inequalities:
9. 0nueistanuing school pioblems within mateiial anu iueological ciicumstances:
1u. Piomoting stuuent-teachei-paient-community ielations baseu on the impoitant
iole that family anu¡oi home enviionment plays in the stuuent's euucation.

Anti-iacism euucation thus oveilaps with multicultuial euucation anu human iights
euucation, anu is a key component of peace euucation effoits.
A theoiy ielevant to the fielu of multicultuial euucation is the !"#$%&'#()*'+,#$!"#-).$-/$
0#*1#$2%!03, which is "baseu on the concept that peace is, at once, a psychological, social,
political, ethical anu spiiitual state with its expiessions in intiapeisonal, inteipeisonal,
inteigioup, inteinational, anu global aieas of human life" (Banesh, 2uu6, p. SS).

The Integiative Theoiy of Peace incluues foui tenets:

1. Peace is a psychosocial anu political as well as a moial anu spiiitual conuition.
2. Peace is the main expiession of a 4&+'.56*7#8$9-):8,+#9.
S. The unity-baseu woiluview is the pieiequisite foi cieating both a cultuie of peace
anu a 14:'4)#$-/$"#*:+&(.
4. A compiehensive, integiateu anu lifelong euucation within the fiamewoik of peace
is the most effective appioach foi a tiansfoimation fiom the conflict-baseu meta-
categoiies of suivival-baseu anu iuentity-baseu woiluviews to the meta-categoiy of
unity-baseu woiluview (Banesh, 2uu6).

Banesh (2uu6) uesciibes thiee uiffeient kinus of woiluviews: suivival-baseu, iuentity-
baseu, anu unity-baseu. The suivival-baseu woiluview is noimal uuiing infancy anu
chiluhoou anu coiiesponus to agiaiian anu pie-inuustiial peiious of uevelopment. 0nequal
powei ielations anu use of foice aie common manifestations of this woiluview, anu it
iequiies confoimity, blinu obeuience, anu passive iesignation. This woiluview is not
conuucive to peace, as it tenus to concentiate wealth anu powei, anu iesults in
uisauvantage foi laige segments of the population.

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The iuentity-baseu woiluview coiiesponus to the coming-of-age of an inuiviuual oi society,
anu is typically chaiacteiizeu by incieaseu uemociacy. Bowevei, this phase is also
chaiacteiizeu by extieme competition anu powei stiuggle, anu an inuiviuualistic "suivival
of the fittest" mentality. Both the suivival-baseu anu iuentity-baseu woiluviews aie
conflict-baseu woiluviews, in which conflict is seen as an inevitable pait of human

With the unity-baseu woiluview, a new level of consciousness is ieacheu anu humanity
becomes awaie of its funuamental oneness. In this woiluview "society opeiates accoiuing
to the piinciple of unity in uiveisity" (Banesh, 2uu6, p. 68). The unity-baseu woiluview
suppoits the equality of all membeis of society thiough a coopeiative powei stiuctuie.

The unity woiluview encompasses a uiffeient view of conflict. While othei woiluviews holu
that conflict is an inheient pait of being human, the unity woiluview pioposes that once
unity is establisheu, conflicts aie often pieventeu oi easily iesolveu (Banesh, 2uu6).
Banesh uiaws the analogy of health in the human bouy - the unity woiluview woulu be a
piocess of cieating health, iathei than tiying to eliminate the symptoms of a uisease (p.
69). Thus, within the unity woiluview, conflict is not inevitable, it is pieventable.

0ltimately, "peace is achieveu when both the oneness anu the uiveisity of humanity aie
safeguaiueu anu celebiateu" (Banesh, 2uu6, p. 69). The celebiation of unity thiough
uiveisity is piecisely the goal of multicultuial euucation. Fuitheimoie, the Integiative
Theoiy of Peace biings to light the impoitant question of whethei conflict is actually an
inheient pait of human existence, oi if it is tiuly a mattei of woiluview.
A key component of multicultuial euucation is achieving the balance between accepting
uiffeiences anu woiking towaius unification. Similaiities aie often tuineu to anu
emphasizeu in oiuei to biing people togethei anu piomote soliuaiity. Incoipoiating
uiffeiences becomes complicateu when the focus is too intensely on sameness. Focusing
stiictly on similaiities can be pioblematic since it piomotes the iuea that we can only woik
with those who aie similai to us. It can also piomote a false iuea of homogeneity, if
uiffeiences aie ignoieu. Theiefoie, it is impoitant foi teacheis to take the moie uifficult
ioau anu uiscuss how uiffeiences play out anu how stuuents can be accepting of

Anothei key issue is finuing the balance between toleiance anu contiol. In pluialistic
societies with laige immigiant populations, theie is a wiue assoitment of beliefs, cultuies,
ieligions, anu tiauitions. Sometimes these cultuial aspects blenu well togethei, but othei
times they aie in opposition to one anothei. Similaily, theie is geneially one cultuie that is
seen as the majoiity oi uominant gioup. While inuiviuual fieeuom is accepteu anu
encouiageu, it is not absolute: bounuaiies exist that limit peisonal choices, especially when
they challenge the common goou oi when they uo not coinciue with the beliefs anu values

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of the majoiity. In shoit, finuing the balance between toleiance anu contiol is a laige pait of
any uiscussion of multicultuialism.
5amp|e Lesson
D|vers|ty and D|scr|m|nat|on (keardon & Cabezudo,
2002, p. 24-26)

The following exeicise is intenueu to help leaineis
bettei unueistanu the ielationship between
uiffeience anu uisciimination, anu to consiuei that
the piesence of uiveisity, an impoitant pait of a
cultuie of peace, neeu not leau to uisciimination
on the basis of uiffeience.
Auapteu fiom Sanaa 0sseiian, et al., +0-8:&&;$
!(2&6"06A, publisheu by the Euucational Centie
foi Reseaich anu Bevelopment (ERCB), Beiiut,
Lebanon, in collaboiation with the Inteinational
Peace Reseaich Assosciation (IPRA) anu 0NESC0,
1994, p. 48.
Grade |eve| and sub[ects
Niuule giaues, 6-8: social stuuies, histoiy, cuiient
Chalk anu chalk boaiu
Biainstoiming: gioup uiscussion
Iustice, uiveisity, ethnicity, uisciimination, human
iights, toleiance
Stuuents will:

• Expanu unueistanuing of the meaning of
uiveisity, the meaning of uisciimination, anu
the uiffeience between them
• Be exposeu to ieal examples fiom uaily life in
oiuei to apply anu analyze ielateu issues
1. Teachei wiites the woiu "uiveisity" on the
boaiu, asks paiticipants to say simply anu
biiefly what this woiu means foi them.
Explain that this is a biainstoim activity, in
which stuuetns can shaie all iueas anu
iesponses without being juugeu
2. Teachei notes iesponses in oiuei on the
boaiu without making any comment oi
S. Teachei pioceeus to the classification of the
answeis accoiuing to theii similaiity oi
uispaiity so as to illustiate vaiious concepts
ielateu to "uiveisity."
4. Teachei leaus uiscussion to uistinguish
between uiveisity anu uisciimination. Tiy to
uefine fuithei the meaning of uiveisity by
giving instances anu explaining the uiffeience
between the woiu¡concept anu that of
uisciimination. Elaboiate how uiveisity is
uispaiity, eithei natuial oi social, between
two oi moie matteis, oi two oi moie things.
Bisciimination is auuing to uiveisity some
soit of social inequality anu juugment of the
social value anu woith of the vaiious uiveise
S. Woik with the class as a whole to exploie how
uiveisity can be a souice of eniichment.
Biscuss the ways in which uisciimination, on
the othei hanu, is in many instances a souice
of injustice anu violence. While uiveisity
incoipoiates natuial uiffeiences (similai to
ecological systems anu the notion of bio-
uiveisity as ecological balance),
uisciimination is socially manipulateu anu
cieateu by people to benefit some while
huiting otheis.
6. If uesiieu, exploie with the class what
uiveisity without uisciimination woulu look
like in theii lives anu communities. What
coulu be uone to begin to cieate such an

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1. What aie the key piinciples of multicultuial euucation.
2. Why is multicultuial unueistanuing a necessaiy component foi piomoting peace.
S. When you think about youi own expeiience with people fiom othei ethnic gioups
anu with attituues expiesseu about ielations with othei countiies, what examples
come to youi minu wheie you may have imposeu youi own views anu feelings about
life on theii expeiience.
4. Look at Step 6 of the Sample Lesson. Tiy this exeicise foi youi community,
envisioning what a uiveise community without uisciimination woulu look like, anu
some possible actions to take towaius this vision.
S. Bow uo the cognitive anu attituuinal objectives of multicultuial euucation manifest
themselves in youi classioom.
6. Bo you celebiate the inuiviuual backgiounus anu stoiies of youi stuuents. If so,
how. If not, how can you biing theii lives anu iuentities into youi classioom.
Baigei, K. (2uu8). :*09$3'$(9*-&6(-9"3'2;$I0P0I. Retiiveu fiom

Claike-Babibi, S. (2uuS) Tiansfoiming Woiluviews: The Case of Euucation foi Peace in Bosnia anu
Beizegovina. %&,"-04$&<$="0-'<&"2093>($78,6093&-, S(1), pp. SS-S6. Retiieveu fiom

Banesh, B.B. (2uu6). Towaius an integiative theoiy of peace euucation, %&,"-04$&<$5(06($78,6093&-? S(1),
Naich, pp. SS-78. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.efpinteinational.oig¡publications¡Towaius_an_Integiative_Theoiy_of_Peace_Euucation.puf

Iones, C. P. (2uuu). Levels of iacism: A theoietical fiamewoik anu a gaiuenei's tale. @2("360-$%&,"-04$&<$5,A436$
+(049*, 9u (8): 1212-1214. Retiieveu fiom

Paiekh, B. (1999). What is multicultuialism. 1,4936,49,"043'2B$@$'C2)&'3,2$&<$8(2&6"06C$3-$6,49,"044C$83>("'($
'&63(93('#$No. 484, Becembei. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.inuia-seminai.com¡1999¡484.htm$

0uezaua, R & Romo, I. (2uu4). The Role of Institutions of Bighei Euucation anu Teachei Euucation in
Piomoting Peace Euucation anu Iustice.$1,4936,49,"04$78,6093&-$10.0D3-(, Spiing. Repiinteu in Annual
Euitions. Ncuiaw-Bill Publisheis.

Reaiuon, B. A. (1999). Peace Euucation: A Review anu Piojection.$5(06($78,6093&-$E()&"9', Bepaitment of
Euucational anu Psychological Reseaich, Nalmo 0niveisity. August.

Sefa Bei, u. (1997). @-93F"063'2$(8,6093&-$0-8$)"06936(. Balifax: Feinwoou, Chap. 2.

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine genuei
• Be able to uiscuss the impoitance of genuei in peace euucation
• 0nueistanu uiffeient ways to integiate genuei into classioom piactice
• Bevelop specific lesson plans that focus on genuei
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions

• What uoes genuei mean to you. Bow uo genuei ioles play out in youi life.
• In youi cultuie, aie theie assigneu genuei ioles foi men anu women. If so, what aie


M$N3-."&-.$10 $
!"#$"% can be uefineu as

the social uiffeiences anu ielations between men anu women which aie leaineu,
vaiy wiuely among societies anu cultuies, anu change ovei time |.] They conuition
which activities, tasks anu iesponsibilities aie peiceiveu as male anu female. uenuei
ioles aie affecteu by age, class, iace, ethnicity anu ieligion, anu by the geogiaphical,
economic anu political enviionment (Inteinational Laboi 0ffice, 2uuu).

The concept of genuei must be uiffeientiateu fiom that of sex: sex is a puiely biological
uesciiption, while genuei connotes socially constiucteu categoiies.

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uenuei is an impoitant consiueiation in the context of peace euucation foi a numbei of
ieasons. The most funuamental of these ieasons is that women's empoweiment anu
equality in all spheies is absolutely necessaiy in oiuei to achieve a sustainable peace. As
affiimeu by the 0N's Beijing Beclaiation, "local, national, iegional anu global peace is
attainable anu is inextiicably linkeu with the auvancement of women, who aie a
funuamental foice foi leaueiship, conflict iesolution anu the piomotion of lasting peace at
all levels" (0niteu Nations, 199S).

The implications of genuei on peace euucation aie many anu uiveise. Fiist, society must
iecognize the potential of women as peace-builueis, anu actively piomote theii inclusion in
peace-making piocesses. Seconu, violence against women, which is one of the most
common foims of violence woiluwiue, must be eliminateu, with awaieness euucation
about the issue as the fiist step towaius this goal. Finally, societal consciousness of genuei
inequalities anu uisciimination against women in all spheies must be iaiseu so that these
issues can be iecognizeu anu auuiesseu. The uiffeiences in the socialization of boys veisus
giils anu genuei equality in euucation aie especially ielevant topics unuei this categoiy. A
key aspect of 0NESC0's campaign to fostei a woiluwiue cultuie of peace is to "ensuie
equality between women anu men," thus affiiming that genuei is an impoitant
consiueiation with iegaius to peace euucation (0NESC0, 2uuu). Theie aie many ways in
which teacheis can incoipoiate genuei-infoimeu peace euucation into theii classiooms,
which we will exploie in moie uetail below.
Bistoiy has uemonstiateu that women, in both an inuiviuual anu gioup capacity, aie
extiemely effective as peace-builueis. This is not to say that men aie not also peacemakeis,
noi that women aie nevei violent, but iathei that the achievements of women in this
capacity aie often oveilookeu anu meiit fuithei attention. Bowevei, the inequalities
between men anu women that still pievail in oui societies limit the impact of women in
cieating a cultuie of peace to much less than theii tiue potential. Accoiuing to Biock-0tne
Even though women fiequently builu the backbone of peace oiganizations, they aie
seluom given cieuit foi theii woik. They aie mostly maue invisible in histoiy books
which fiequently aie "his - stoiy" books, uesciibing the uevelopment of violent
conflicts oi wais staiteu by men. Conflicts which aie solveu non-violently oi the
woik foi peace, especially the woik of women foi peace, uo not finu theii way into
histoiy books. This natuially has consequences foi peace euucation. It is uifficult to
euucate about peace when the textbooks youngsteis aie iequiieu to ieau aie mostly
on wai (p. 21S).
The capacity of women as peacemakeis must be iecognizeu anu piomoteu in goveinments,
in nonpiofit oiganizations, anu in inteinational ielations, as well as in the classioom. The
0N has stateu its suppoit foi the active engagement of women in the peace piocess in
numeious official iesolutions anu ueclaiations, anu now it iemains foi the woilu to follow

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thiough (0niteu Nations, 198S, 2uuu). Teacheis can fuithei this goal in theii classiooms by
uiscussing the peace piocesses thioughout histoiy anu not just the iole of wais. Teacheis
shoulu also make suie that the iole of women thioughout histoiy is not omitteu. 0ne
possible exeicise foi stuuents might be to ieseaich women's peispectives fiom a ceitain
histoiical peiiou, if these aie not poitiayeu in theii histoiy textbook.
The teim "violence against women" iefeis to "any act of genuei-baseu violence that iesults
in, oi is likely to iesult in, physical, sexual oi psychological haim of suffeiing to women"
(0niteu Nations, 1994). The continuing woiluwiue pievalence of such violence iemains a
significant obstacle to builuing a lasting peace, as women living in feai of genuei-baseu
violence cannot achieve tiue equality.

Not only is violence against women an unacceptable act in itself, but accoiuing to the 0N
(1994), it is also

a manifestation of histoiically unequal powei ielations between men anu women,
which have leu to uomination ovei anu uisciimination against women by men anu
to the pievention of the full auvancement of women, anu violence against women is
one of the ciucial social mechanisms by which women aie foiceu into a suboiuinate
position compaieu with men.

violence against women both causes inequality anu is causeu by inequality. Accoiuing to
Biock-0tne (2uu9), "the unequal powei between men anu women is consiueieu to be the
main ieason foi violence against women" (p. 2u6). !"#$"%&'()"$*+,-."#/" is the most
biutal anu oveit foim of the inequality that is piesent in all spheies of society. Thus, a
ciucial pait of peace euucation must be the uissemination of infoimation about the
wiuespieau occuiience of such violence anu its negative impacts on women anu on
piogiess towaiu cieating a cultuie of peace.

An impoitant consiueiation when thinking about violence against women is the effect of
the meuia on social peiceptions of women anu acceptable behavioi towaius women. The
meuia as a whole tenu to peipetuate negative steieotypes of women, anu an impoitant step
in genuei-infoimeu peace euucation is to iecognize this tienu anu uevelop awaieness
about it. Kempauoo, Naxwell, anu Smith (2uu1) uesciibe this meuia bias as follows:

Theie is a link between meuia images of women anu inciuences of violence against
women. Piouucts fiom liquoi to cais aie solu using women's bouies: women aie
shown piimaiily iesponsible foi the home anu family. What uoes this say about
women. What message is the meuia senuing when it constantly juxtaposes sex anu
violence. Women aie beaten anu iapeu in movies, populai songs emphasize
women's bouies as objects to be useu anu abuseu. |.] Negative meuia images aie
haimful in a society wheie violence against women is incieasing. The uangei is that
violence against women is becoming accepteu as the noim (p. 9).

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Someone who is conscious of the bias piesent in the meuia's iepiesentation of women is
less likely to be subconsciously socializeu oi conuitioneu by the images they see, anu moie
likely to piotest the injustices in the meuia that negatively impact women. Populai cultuie
must evolve to piomote genuei justice anu equality iathei than violence anu abusive
behavioi towaius women.

In the classioom, theie aie many ways in which a teachei can woik to fuithei this goal. Foi
instance, the teachei shoulu choose pieces of liteiatuie, film, anu meuia caiefully anu in
consiueiation of how these souices might poitiay women in a negative way. If use of a
biaseu souice pioves necessaiy, this pioviues a wonueiful oppoitunity foi a lesson on
genuei steieotypes anu violence anu to iaise stuuents' awaieness of theii own, often
unconscious, behaviois that enable the status quo to continue.

Anothei way in which the teachei can help eliminate violence against women is to ensuie
that his¡hei own classioom is fiee of violence. Asiue fiom the obvious ban on physical
violence, uispaiaging iemaiks anu comments that enfoice unwanteu genuei steieotypes
shoulu also not be toleiateu. This iule shoulu apply to inteiactions between all stuuents,
but especially between boys anu giils.
In woilu society touay significant inequalities between men anu women peisist, ianging
fiom genuei-baseu violence anu outiight bias, to tiauition-suppoiteu uisciimination, to
unconscious uiffeiences in behavioi towaius men veisus women. Peace euucation can have
a positive impact on eiauicating these inequalities by iaising awaieness of the existence of
uisciimination in eveiyuay life, anu by inspiiing action to eliminate these inequalities.

The uiffeiences between society's tieatment of men anu its tieatment of women aie often
so customaiy that they have become ingiaineu in the collective minuset as peifectly noimal
anu coiiect. Bowevei, if we stop anu ieexamine these behaviois, it becomes eviuent that
many of the uiffeiences in society's attituues towaius men veisus women aie neithei
positive noi conuucive to builuing a cultuie of peace. Consiuei something as basic as the
toys giils anu boys commonly play with: foi giils it might be pietty uolls, while foi boys it
might be miniatuie soluieis. This uiviue begs the question: "To what extent aie giils anu
boys in oui society being socializeu equally oi uiffeiently when it comes to leaining how to
caie, empathize with otheis anu engage in oi enuuie violent behavioi." (Biock-0tne, 2uu9,
p. 2uS).

Issues of wai anu peace have become highly genueiizeu, so much so that associating
waifaie with men has become a iaiely-questioneu noim. Accoiuing to Biock-0tne (2uu9),

All ovei the woilu theie aie moie men than women in the militaiy. This fact
piobably has a pie-socializing effect on boys. In countiies with compulsoiy militaiy
seivice, this seivice is noimally compulsoiy foi boys only. |.] This socialization may

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explain why women aie moie likely than men to suppoit conscientious objectois, to
be against wai toys anu against wai (p. 2u9).

In stiiving to euucate foi peace, we must take these societal noims into account anu
actively tiy to counteiact them. If young boys focus on the heioics of wai in theii youthful
games, they builu an easy familiaiity with violence that fails to iecognize the tiue giavity
anu hoiioi that battle entails. violent meuia images, electionic games, anu toys only
ieinfoice such inaccuiate conceptions that emphasize wai insteau of peace. Even
something as basic as a histoiy book tenus to place the focus on battles iathei than
iesolutions. As noteu eailiei, it is uifficult to euucate foi peace when textbooks aie mostly
about wai. Thus teacheis as peace-builueis must make an active effoit to uiaw stuuents'
attention to achievements of peace iathei than of wai.
The following aie some suggestions foi teacheis to piomote genuei equality in theii
The fiist step foi teacheis wanting to counteiact this tienu of unequal socialization is to
become awaie of the genuei steieotypes that they (peihaps unconsciously) peipetuate. If
teacheis aie conscious of theii own peiceptions of genuei, they will be able to make an
active effoit not to iecieate them in the classioom.
Similaily, in the context of any class assignment oi uiscussion, the teachei can challenge
stuuents' iueas about genuei ioles anu inspiie them to think ciitically about the oiigins of
these inequalities.
Anothei way in which teacheis can pioactively suppoit genuei equality anu peace is by
emphasizing the iole of women, since many textbooks tenu to centei moie on men.
Similaily, teacheis can shift the focus to the peace-builuing piocesses of histoiy iathei than
the typical emphasis on wais. Both women anu peace aie often unueiiepiesenteu in
histoiy textbooks.
?5+)(+',+"8'+/%"01)10'(/0(+) )
Teacheis shoulu also tiy to use genuei-neutial language (which is easiei in some languages
than otheis). Foi example, using "police officei" insteau of "policeman." While the teachei
shoulu use genuei-neutial language as much as possible, the teachei shoulu also teach
about genuei neutiality in language, anu why using genuei-biaseu language peipetuates

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Although uisciimination against giils anu women exists in all spheies of society, possibly
the most impoitant aieas with iespect to oui focus on peace euucation is inequality in
euucation. Bata shows that eniollment iates of giils aie significantly lowei than those of
boys in both piimaiy anu seconuaiy school (0NuEI, 2u1u, p. 12-1S). uiils have less than
equal access to euucation foi vaiious ieasons, incluuing tiauitional genuei ioles, financial
limitations, cultuial consiueiations, anu eaily maiiiage oi piegnancy. All these obstacles
must be auuiesseu befoie equal eniollment can be ieacheu.

Bowevei, "achieving genuei paiity (equal numbeis of boys anu giils) in school is just one
step towaius genuei equality in anu thiough euucation. While paiity is a quantitative
concept, equality is a qualitative one" (Wilson, 2uuS, p. S). With piogiess being maue
towaiu equal access to euucation foi giils anu boys, theie now iemains the moie uifficult
task of cieating euucation that is tiuly genuei equitable. Accoiuing to 0xfam (2uuS),

The content anu ueliveiy of euucation |.] can ieflect anu iepiouuce genuei
inequalities. uiils' anu boys' leaining anu inteiaction with each othei, anu the
teachei, aie influenceu by ways of teaching, the content of the cuiiiculum, anu
ielations within the classioom (p. i).

Teacheis thus have a cential iole to play in fosteiing incieaseu genuei equality in society,
anu can uo this by making suie that theii classiooms aie enviionments that teach anu
ieinfoice positive genuei ielations.

The classioom can be the staiting point foi fosteiing genuei equality as a step towaius a
compiehensive cultuie of peace. As mentioneu in the section above with iegaius to histoiy,
cuiiiculum content must ieflect genuei equality. A seconu example woulu be to ensuie that
stuuents in a Language Aits class ieau an equal numbei of novels by men anu women
authois, with a mixtuie of male anu female piotagonists.

The classioom must also be an enviionment that enfoices genuei equality. Theie shoulu be
no uiffeience in the type of woik assigneu to boys anu giils, anu the same stanuaius anu
expectations must apply to all stuuents. In teims of achieving genuei paiity in schools,
teacheis can act as auvocates foi giils to continue theii euucation, both thiough
encouiaging theii female stuuents anu thiough uiscussing the issue with the stuuents'
paients, if necessaiy.
Buiing the summei anu fall of 2uuu, a small gioup
of Nu0 membeis active in women's conceins at
the 0niteu Nations uevelopeu anu puisueu a
stiategy to peisuaue the Secuiity Council to holu
an open uebate (a session on a geneial topic that
constitutes a thieat to peace anu secuiity iathei
than a paiticulai oi specific conflict oi ciisis) on
the iole of women in peace anu secuiity policy
foimation, conflict iesolution anu pievention, anu
global secuiity. The session was conveneu in
0ctobei 2uuu. This unit is baseu on key extiacts

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fiom the iesolution auopteu by the Secuiity
Council at the conclusion of this special session.
These extiacts appeai on the following pages as a
hanuout. (Copies of the full text of S.C. Resolution
1S2S aie available fiom the Bague Appeal foi
Peace anu online at
This unit was uesigneu by the authois of Leaining
to Abolish Wai.
Seconuaiy giaues, 1u - 12: histoiy, civics, social
stuuies, woilu pioblems¡global issues, human
iights, genuei stuuies
The hanuout exceipt of 0niteu Nations Secuiity
Council Resolution 1S2S (pages 122-12S), oi the
full uocument (available online
Reseaich anu piesentation of iepoits: ciitical
analysis anu uiscussion: iole playing: pioposing
uenuei, secuiity, peace, inteinational uiplomacy,
civil society
Stuuents will:
• Become acquainteu with the functioning of
the 0niteu Nations, incluuing pioceuuies anu
• Leain about women's stiategies foi peace anu
• Analyze the ielationship between
iepiesentations of genuei anu conflict in the
• Bemonstiate unueistanuing of the uiffeient
ways that conflict anu wai affect men anu
Activity 1
1. Assign the extiacts as ieauing to be uone
outsiue class.
2. At the next class session ieau the extiacts (oi
have stuuents ieau alouu one paiagiaph each)
S. Aftei a paiagiaph has been ieau, uiscuss it,
asking such questions as:
a. What pioblem oi obstacle to peace anu
women's paiticipation in conflict
iesolution anu¡oi secuiity policy making
is likely to have inspiieu this paiagiaph.
b. What paiticulai lines of action woulu the
0niteu Nations have to puisue to
oveicome the pioblems anu obstacles anu
achieve the aim embiaceu in the
c. What actions can Nu0s (non-
goveinmental oiganizations) anu citizens
take to assuie the implementation of the
aims expiesseu in the paiagiaph.
u. Aie theie actions stuuents might take.

Activity 2
1. Pioviue a list of the inteinational legal
instiuments ielevant to the Resolution. Foi
• ueneva Conventions of 1949 anu the
Piotocols of 1949
• Refugee Convention of 19S1 anu the
Piotocol of 1967
• Beclaiation on the Elimination of
violence Against Women (199S)
• Convention on the Elimination of All
Foims of Bisciimination Against Women
(1979) anu the 0ptional Piotocol of 1999

N0TE: Foi these anu othei ielevant inteinational
legal instiuments, visit www.un.oig¡iights¡.

2. Foim ieseaich gioups. Assign one convention
to each gioup to ieau, stuuy, anu uiscuss anu
then iepoit to the entiie class theii iesponses
to the following questions to enable them to
analyze the ielevance of the instiument to the
pioblems anu aims ieflecteu in 0niteu
Nations Secuiity Council Resolution 1S2S.
S. What aie the puiposes of the Convention.
4. What types of pioblems aie likely to have leu
to the uiafting anu auopting of the
S. To what goals anu iecommenuations of
0niteu Nations Secuiity Council Resolution
1S2S might this convention apply.
6. What piovisions of the convention woulu be
most ielevant.
7. Who shoulu be awaie of this convention if it
weie to help achieve the aims of 1S2S.
8. What shoulu oiuinaiy citizens know about the

Activity S

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1. Assign a news meuia pioject having each
stuuent iuentify a news uevelopment ielateu
to aimeu conflict.
2. See how it is iepoiteu in vaiious meuia.
Assess the piobable genuei uimensions of the
a. Bow is it affecting men anu women
b. Bo women have special neeus as a
iesult of the conflict. What aie they.
c. Aie these neeus being auequately
met. Who is attempting to meet
them. Aie theie othei agencies that
shoulu be involveu.
S. Aie the genueieu aspects of the conflict
piesenteu in the meuia. Is the piesentation
auequate to the pioblems.
4. Biaft a lettei to some of the meuia you have
ievieweu giving youi opinion on the genuei
coveiage anu youi suggestions foi changing
oi impioving it.
S. Reau the lettei in class. 0sing well-ieasoneu
aiguments, tiy to peisuaue youi classmates to
sign it with you anu mail the lettei to the

Activity 4
1. Assign ieauings on women's peace activities
anu uiscuss iepoits in class. (Nateiials aie
available fiom Women's Inteinational
Tiibune Centei, 777 0N Plaza, NYC 1uu17:
www.peacewomen.oig, a pioject of the
Women's Inteinational League foi Peace anu
Fieeuom: 0NIFEN: 0niteu Nations: 0NESC0,
Paiis: anu Inteinational Aleit, Lonuon.)
2. Weave the following topics into the
a. Inuiviuual peispectives anu motivations:
b. Styles of peace actions women puisue anu
why such actions might have been
c. Paiticulai constiaints anu auvantages foi
women's effectiveness in the puisuit of
Exceipt fiom: 0NITEB NATI0NS RES0L0TI0N
(S¡RES¡1S2S) Auopteu by the Secuiity Council on
S1 0ctobei 2uuu
(Pieamble omitteu)

The Secuiity Council
1. 0iges Nembei States to ensuie incieaseu
iepiesentation of women at all uecision-
making levels in national, iegional, anu
inteinational institutions anu mechanisms foi
the pievention, management, anu iesolution
of conflict:
2. Encouiages the Secietaiy ueneial to
implement his stiategic plan of action
(A¡49¡S87) calling foi an inciease in the
paiticipation of women at uecision-making
levels in conflict iesolution anu peace
S. 0iges the Secietaiy ueneial to appoint moie
women as special iepiesentatives anu
4. Fuithei uiges the Secietaiy ueneial to seek to
expanu the iole anu contiibution of women in
0niteu Nations fielu-baseu opeiations, anu
especially among militaiy obseiveis, civilian
police, human iights anu humanitaiian
S. Expiesses its willingness to incoipoiate a
genuei peispective into peacekeeping
opeiations, anu uiges the Secietaiy ueneial to
ensuie that, wheie appiopiiate, fielu
opeiations incluue a genuei component:
6. Requests the Secietaiy ueneial to pioviue to
Nembei States tiaining guiuelines anu
mateiials on the piotection, iights, anu the
paiticulai neeus of women...:
7. 0iges Nembei States to inciease theii
voluntaiy financial, technical, anu logistical
suppoit foi genuei-sensitive tiaining effoits...:
8. Calls on all actois involveu, when negotiating
anu implementing peace agieements, to auopt
a genuei peispective, incluuing, intei alia:
a. The special neeus of women anu giils
uuiing iepatiiation anu iesettlement
anu foi iehabilitation, ieintegiation,
anu post-conflict ieconstiuction:
b. Neasuies that suppoit local women's
piocesses foi conflict iesolution, anu
that involve women in all of the
implementation mechanisms of the
peace agieements:
c. Neasuies that ensuie the piotection
of anu iespect foi human iights of
women anu giils, paiticulaily as they
ielate to the constitution, the
electoial system, the police, anu the
9. Calls upon all paities to aimeu conflict to
iespect fully inteinational law applicable to
the iights anu piotection of women anu

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1u. Calls on all paities to aimeu conflict to take
special measuies to piotect women anu giils
fiom genuei-baseu violence, paiticulaily iape
anu othei foims of sexual abuse, anu all othei
foims of violence in situations of aimeu
11. Emphasizes the iesponsibility of all States to
put an enu to impunity anu to piosecute those
iesponsible foi genociue, ciimes against
humanity, anu wai ciimes incluuing those
ielating to sexual anu othei violence against
women anu giils:
12. Calls upon all paities to aimeu conflict to
iespect the civilian anu humanitaiian
chaiactei of iefugee camps anu settlements,
anu to take into account the paiticulai neeus
of women anu giils...:
1S. Encouiages all those involveu in the planning
foi uisaimament, uemobilization anu
ieintegiation to consiuei the uiffeient neeus
of female anu male ex-combatants anu to take
into account the neeus of theii uepenuents.
14. Reaffiims its ieauiness, whenevei measuies
aie auopteu unuei Aiticle 41 of the Chaitei of
the 0niteu Nations, to give consiueiation to
theii potential impact on the civilian
population, beaiing in minu the special neeus
of women anu giils, in oiuei to consiuei
appiopiiate humanitaiian exemptions:
1S. Expiesses its willingness to ensuie that
Secuiity Council missions take into account
genuei consiueiations anu the iights of
women, incluuing thiough consultation with
local anu inteinational women's gioups:
16. Invites the Secietaiy-ueneial to caiiy out a
stuuy on the impact of aimeu conflict on
women anu giils, the iole of women in peace-
builuing, anu the genuei uimensions of peace
piocesses anu conflict iesolution, anu fuithei
invites him to submit a iepoit to the Secuiity
Council on the iesults of this stuuy anu to
make this available to all Nembei States of the
0niteu Nations:
17. Requests the Secietaiy-ueneial, wheie
appiopiiate, to incluue in his iepoiting to the
Secuiity Council piogiess on genuei
mainstieaming thioughout peacekeeping
missions anu all othei aspects ielating to
women anu giils:
18. Beciues to iemain actively seizeu of the
1. What is genuei. What is the uiffeience between sex anu genuei.
2. Why is genuei inequality ielevant to peace euucation.
S. What aie some ways that genuei inequalities aie peipetuateu.
4. Bow can you integiate genuei issues into youi classioom piactice. Be specific.
S. Bow aie giils anu boys socializeu uiffeiently in youi cultuie. Is theie a ielationship
between this socialization, peace, anu violence. What iole cab the classioom play in
piomoting genuei equality.
6. Bow uo you ensuie that youi classioom is a genuei-inclusive enviionment. What
aie some of the things you uo oi avoiu uoing to achieve this.

Biock-0tne, B. (2uu9). A uenuei Peispective on Peace Euucation anu the Woik foi Peace. F-9("-093&-04$
;(G3(/$&?$78,6093&-@$SS(2-S), Nay, p. 2uS-22u.!

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- S7 -

Inteinational Laboi 0ffice. (2uuu). :;<$&=$/&2(-$/&">("'?$"3.*9'$0-8$.(-8("$(@,0439A.
Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.ilo.oig¡uyn¡genuei¡uocs¡RES¡68¡F1962744474¡ABC%2uof%2uwomen%2uw

Kempauoo, K., Lanua, 0., Naxwell, S., & Smith, N. (2uu1). B(-8("C$5(06($0-8$!(D(4&)2(-9$3-$9*($<0"3EE(0-F$
G('(0"6*$G()&"9$&-$9*($H&"9*("-$<0"3EE(0-C$5"()0"(8$=&"$IH7J<K. Retiieveu fiom

0xfam. (2uuS). B(-8("$7@,0439A$3-$J6*&&4'. Retiieveu fiom

0niteu Nations. (198S). H03"&E3$L&"/0"8MN&&>3-.$J9"09(.3('$=&"$9*($:8D0-6(2(-9$&=$O&2(-. Retiieveu fiom

0niteu Nations. (1994). B(-("04$:''(2E4A$G('&4,93&-F$!(640"093&-$&-$9*($74323-093&-$&=$P3&4(-6($:.03-'9$
O&2(-. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.unhchi.ch¡huiiuocua¡huiiuoca.nsf¡(symbol)¡a.ies.48.1u4.en

0niteu Nations. (Septembei 199S).$L&,"9*$O&"48$<&-=("(-6($&-$O&2(-F$;(3Q3-.$!(640"093&-#$Retiieveu fiom

0niteu Nations. (2uuu). J(6,"39A$<&,-634$G('&4,93&-$RSTU. Retiieveu fiom

0NESC0. (2uuu). <,49,"($&=$5(06(F$O*09$3'$39V. Retiieveu fiom

Wilson, B. (2uuS). +,20-$G3.*9'F$5"&2&93-.$B(-8("$7@,0439A$W-$0-8$X*"&,.*$78,6093&-. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.giileffect.oig¡viueo - Inteiesting viueo that piomotes¡emphasizes euucation foi giils.

Inteiesting book on the potential of women in context of inteinational uevelopment:
Kiistof, N.B. & WuBunn, S. (2uu9). +04=$9*($'>AF$X,"-3-.$&))"(''3&-$3-9&$&))&"9,-39A$=&"$/&2(-$/&"48/38(.
New Yoik: vintage Books.

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- S8 -

At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine enviionmental euucation
• Be able to uiscuss the connections between enviionmental euucation, social justice,
anu peace euucation
• 0nueistanu uiffeient appioaches to enviionmental euucation
• Be able to uevelop lesson plans that focus on enviionmental euucation anu integiate
into existing cuiiicula
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What aie the key enviionmental issues in the aiea wheie you live.
• Bow has the enviionment changeu since you weie a chilu.


!"#$%&"'(")*+,(-./*)$&",is baseu on ecological thinking anu iespect foi all life on the
planet. Peace euucation suppoits a holistic appieciation foi the value of life anu the
inteiuepenuence of all living systems. Auuitionally, enviionmental euucation is pait of
peace euucation since peace euucation iecognizes that peace cannot exist without
enviionmental sustainability anu iespect foi the eaith. Some of the many ways in which
this ielationship can be seen is in wais that aie fought ovei incieasingly scaice natuial
iesouices, anu how pollution uispiopoitionately impacts those with the fewest iesouices.

The mouein enviionmental euucation movement, which gaineu significant momentum in
the late 196us anu eaily 197us, stems fiom Natuie Stuuy anu Conseivation Euucation. The
movement comes fiom the success of Rachel Caison's text, F34(-9$F)"3-., which focuses on

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- S9 -

the feai of iauiation fallout anu geneial concein foi health, both of the planet anu its

Nuch has been wiitten about the theoiies anu applications of enviionmental euucation anu
it is beyonu the scope of this section to give a uetaileu account. Rathei, the focus will be on
the ielation between enviionmental euucation, social justice anu peace euucation. Relevant
anu usable examples will also be offeieu.
A basic, but nonetheless encompassing, uefinition of enviionmental euucation was offeieu
some 4u yeais ago by William B. Stapp et al (1969):

Enviionmental Euucation is aimeu at piouucing a citizeniy that is knowleugeable
conceining the biophysical enviionment anu its associateu pioblems, awaie of how
to help solve these pioblems anu motivateu to woik towaiu theii solution.

Latei, two moie uetaileu uefinitions came foith fiom the Belgiaue Woiking Confeience on
Enviionmental Euucation in 197S anu the Tbilisi Inteigoveinmental Confeience on
Enviionmental Euucation in 1977 (Stapp, 1997).

Accoiuing to the Belgiaue Woiking Confeience (197S),

Enviionmental Euucation shoulu be an integial pait of the euucational piocess,
aimeu at piactical pioblems of an inteiuisciplinaiy chaiactei, builu a sense of
values, anu contiibute to public well-being. Its focus shoulu iesiue mainly in the
initiative of the leaineis anu theii involvement in action anu guiueu by both the
immeuiate anu futuie subjects of concein.

Accoiuing to the Tbilisi Confeience (1977),

Enviionmental Euucation is a piocess aimeu at ueveloping a woilu population that
is awaie of anu conceineu about the total enviionment anu its associateu pioblems
anu has the attituues, motivation, knowleuge, commitment anu skills to woik
inuiviuually anu collectively towaius solutions of cuiient pioblems anu the
pievention of new ones.

0ften, when people think of enviionmental euucation, they think of sciences such as
biology anu ecology. Enviionmental euucation incluues, but is not limiteu to, these
elements. Foi example, enviionmental issues always have social anu political elements, anu
thus can just as easily be integiateu into social stuuies oi civics classes. It is impoitant to
note the inteiuisciplinaiy natuie of enviionmental euucation, anu that it can be integiateu
into all subject aieas.

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Enviionmental euucation has its basis in vaiious inteinational ueclaiations. Foui cential
uocuments aie the Stockholm Beclaiation, the Tbilisi Beclaiation, the Rio Beclaiation, anu
the Eaith Chaitei.
This uocument is key in enviionmental histoiy as it was the fiist inteinational uocument to
iecognize the iight to a healthy enviionment as a basic iight of all people. This iight is the
basis foi enviionmental euucation, which also woiks fiom the piemise that all people aie
entitleu to a healthy enviionment.

This ueclaiation was a iesult of the fiist 0.N. confeience about enviionmental euucation.
The ueclaiation notes that enviionmental euucation is key foi the piotection of the woilu's
enviionmental iesouices anu balanceu uevelopment. The Tbilisi Confeience enuoises
goals, objectives, anu guiuing piinciples foi enviionmental euucation.
Accoiuing to the Tbilisi Confeience, the .&04'$of enviionmental euucation aie:

• To fostei cleai awaieness of, anu concein about, economic, social, political, anu
ecological inteiuepenuence in uiban anu iuial aieas:
• To pioviue eveiy peison with oppoitunities to acquiie the knowleuge, values,
attituues, commitment, anu skills neeueu to piotect anu impiove the enviionment:
• To cieate new patteins of behavioi of inuiviuuals, gioups, anu society as a whole
towaius the enviionment.

Accoiuing to the Tbilisi Confeience, the &:;(693<('$of enviionmental euucation aie:

• !"#$%&%''(- to help social gioups anu inuiviuuals acquiie an awaieness of anu
sensitivity to the total enviionment anu its allieu pioblems.
• )&*"+%,-% - to help social gioups anu inuiviuuals gain a vaiiety of expeiiences in,
anu acquiie a basic unueistanuing of, the enviionment anu its associateu pioblems.
• !../.0,%' - to help social gioups anu inuiviuuals acquiie a set of values anu feelings
of concein foi the enviionment anu the motivation foi actively paiticipating in
enviionmental impiovement anu piotection.
• 12/++' - to help social gioups anu inuiviuuals acquiie the skills foi iuentifying anu
solving enviionmental pioblems.
• 3#$./4/5#./*& - to pioviue social gioups anu inuiviuuals with an oppoitunity to be
actively involveu at all levels in woiking towaiu iesolution of enviionmental

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Accoiuing to the !"#$#%#&'()$*+*,#-.:$enviionmental euucation shoulu:

• Consiuei the enviionment in its totality÷natuial anu built, technological anu social
(economic, political, cultuial-histoiical, ethical, esthetic):
• Be a continuous lifelong piocess, beginning at the pieschool level anu continuing
thiough all foimal anu nonfoimal stages:
• Be inteiuisciplinaiy in its appioach, uiawing on the specific content of each
uiscipline in making possible a holistic anu balanceu peispective:
• Examine majoi enviionmental issues fiom local, national, iegional, anu
inteinational points of view so that stuuents ieceive insights into enviionmental
conuitions in othei geogiaphical aieas:
• Focus on cuiient anu potential enviionmental situations while taking into account
the histoiical peispective:
• Piomote the value anu necessity of local, national, anu inteinational coopeiation in
the pievention anu solution of enviionmental pioblems:
• Explicitly consiuei enviionmental aspects in plans foi uevelopment anu giowth:
• Enable leaineis to have a iole in planning theii leaining expeiiences anu pioviue an
oppoitunity foi making uecisions anu accepting theii consequences:
• Relate enviionmental sensitivity, knowleuge, pioblem-solving skills, anu values
claiification to eveiy age, but with special emphasis on enviionmental sensitivity to
the leainei's own community in eaily yeais:
• Belp leaineis uiscovei the symptoms anu ieal causes of enviionmental pioblems:
• Emphasize the complexity of enviionmental pioblems anu thus the neeu to uevelop
ciitical thinking anu pioblem-solving skills:
• 0tilize uiveise leaining enviionments anu a bioau aiiay of euucational appioaches
to teaching, leaining about anu fiom the enviionment with uue stiess on piactical
activities anu fiist-hanu expeiience.
In Iune 1992, The 0niteu Nations Confeience on Enviionment anu Bevelopment was helu
in Rio ue Ianeiio, Biazil, anu piouuceu the Rio Beclaiation. The Rio Beclaiation pioviueu
an impoitant oppoitunity foi youth activism anu euucation ielating to the enviionment,
incluuing a Chiluien's Beaiing, which was conuucteu by The voice of Chiluien Inteinational
Campaign, a Noiwegian youth oiganization. The Chiluien's Beaiing pioviueu youth with
the oppoitunity to question anu appeal to woilu leaueis iegaiuing issues of the
enviionment anu uevelopment.
The iueas behinu the Eaith Chaitei weie being uiscusseu aiounu the time of the Rio
Summit, but it was not until the Rio+S Summit that the chaitei was foimally uiafteu, anu
not until 2uu2 at the Woilu Summit on Sustainable Bevelopment in Iohannesbuig that the
Eaith Chaitei was foimally iecognizeu. The Eaith Chaitei is an appioach to a cultuie of
peace that centeis on enviionmental sustainability.

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The Eaith Chaitei consists of 16 piinciples that aie outlineu unuei the following

1. Respect anu caie foi the community of life:
2. Ecological integiity:
S. Social anu economic justice:
4. Bemociacy, nonviolence anu peace.

The Eaith Chaitei uemonstiates the inteiconnecteuness between enviionmental issues,
social justice, peace anu uemociacy. The Chaitei can seive as an excellent euucational tool
in the classioom.
Enviionmental euucation, in its geneial goal of enviionmental justice, has in many ways
been falsely sepaiateu fiom, anu even pitteu against, social justice movements. Nany have
contesteu that enviionmentalists fail to acknowleuge the impoitance of social neeus anu
inveisely, that social justice auvocates fail to iecognize the impoitance of enviionmental
justice, with paiticulai emphasis on the uisiegaiu of the value of pieseiving the
enviionment simply in its own iight, apait fiom its utilitaiian value. Bowevei, moie
iecently (anu histoiically foi many inuigenous communities) theie has been incieasing
awaieness that this polaiization anu uuality is an inaccuiate iepiesentation of oui
inteiconnecteu ieality. In tiuth, enviionmental anu social justice aie intiinsically linkeu
anu mutually beneficial. Noieovei, enviionmental euucation anu social justice euucation
aie suppoitive of the same goals put foith by peace euucation.

To fuithei eluciuate this ielationship, we must consiuei that the health of the natuial woilu
anu human communities aie nevei sepaiate. Auuitionally, access to anu contiol ovei
natuial iesouices is a leauing cause of conflict, violence, anu waifaie (Amstei, 2uu9).
Nichael Klaie (2uu2) obseives in his book :('&,"6($;0"': "Conflict ovei valuable iesouices
- anu the powei anu wealth they confei - has become an incieasingly piominent featuie of
the global lanuscape |anu] has poseu a significant anu giowing thieat to peace" (p. ix).
0ppiesseu communities aie in geneial uispiopoitionately affecteu by enviionmental
uegiauation¡injustice, which, in tuin, tenu to sustain climates of poveity anu violence.
Enviionmental injustice, social injustice anu violence aie thus cyclical phenomena.

By the same token, enviionmental justice, social justice anu peace aie also cyclically
connecteu. Peihaps in the consiueiation of political anu peace topics, it is useful to consiuei
Aluo Leopolu's (1949) lanu ethic iueas: "A thing is iight when it tenus to pieseive the
integiity, stability, anu beauty of the biotic community. It is wiong when it tenus
otheiwise" (p. 24u). Bumanity's shaieu uestiny in ielation to the health of the enviionment
may veiy well cieate oppoitunities foi peace builuing as Caiius (2uu6) illustiates:

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As a mechanism foi peace, the enviionment has some useful, peihaps even unique
qualities that aie well suiteu foi peacebuiluing anu conflict iesolution.
Enviionmental pioblems ignoie political boiueis. They iequiie a long-teim
peispective, encouiage paiticipation by local anu non-goveinmental oiganizations,
help builu auministiative, economic anu social capacities foi action anu facilitate the
cieation of commonalities that tianscenu the polaiization causeu by economic
ielations. As enviionmental coopeiation uevelops anu societal anu political
stakeholueis aie systematically integiateu in negotiation piocesses to piotect
natuial goous, a simultaneous thiust is given to builuing tiust, initiating coopeiative
action anu encouiaging the cieation of a common iegional iuentity emeiging fiom
shaiing iesouices. (p. 11)
The synthesis of enviionmental anu social justice can be seen in a vaiiety of movements
incluuing the Zapatista movement in Nexico, the Confeueiation of Inuigenous Nationalities
of Ecuauoi (C0NAIE) anu Nobel Peace Piize winnei Wangaii Naathai's uieen Belt
Novement. The Zapatistas have connecteu theii fight foi autonomy anu justice with the
fight against lanu uegiauation causeu by neo-libeialism. C0NAIE uemanus vaiious cultuial
iights, such as bilingual euucation anu cultuially appiopiiate healthcaie, while also seeing
these iights as closely tieu to lanu iights anu the pieseivation of biouiveisity. C0NAIE
suppoits anu has helpeu establish the iuea of the "iights of natuie" wheiein no piouuctive
activity can thieaten the cycles anu stiuctuies of natuie (Benvii & Riofiancos, 2uu8). The
uieen Belt Novement planteu tens of millions of tiees acioss Afiica to slow uown
uefoiestation, caiiieu out piojects to pieseive biouiveisity, euucateu people about theii
enviionment, anu piomoteu the iights of women anu giils. Naathai cleaily saw the
connection between local enviionmental uegiauation (specifically uefoiestation), poveity,
anu genuei inequality. She stateu, "The enviionment is veiy impoitant in the aspects of
peace because when we uestioy oui iesouices anu oui iesouices become scaice, we fight
ovei that" (BBC News, 2uu4).

These aie only iepiesentative examples of movements that have connecteu enviionmental
justice, social justice, anu peace. Anothei excellent example of this connection is illustiateu
by the vaiious situations anu movements that suiiounu the issues of access to watei anu of
watei scaicity aiounu the woilu.!
All life is inteiconnecteu by watei. Watei cannot be confineu to a paiticulai enviionmental,
social, oi economic categoiy. Issues suiiounuing watei aie inheiently inteiuisciplinaiy.
Beie is only a biief list of the enviionmental anu social justice topics that can ielate to
watei: watei-boine uisease: watei tieatment: health impacts of synthetic contaminants in
watei: watei as a human iight: public¡piivate owneiship: enviionmental anu social
impacts of bottleu watei inuustiy: scaicity anu ovei-consumption: uams: watei

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conseivation: pollution: species loss: oui collective anu inuiviuual ielationship with watei
anu the Eaith.

In oui contempoiaiy woilu, a cential question in the watei ciisis that is connecteu to both
enviionmental anu social justice is whethei watei is to be tieateu as a commouity oi a
basic iight. This is a ciucial question because the owneiship, management, anu tieatment
of watei aie intiicately connecteu to who anu what gets to live. Theiefoie, issues ielateu to
watei aie of piimaiy impoitance to peace anu justice.

The uocumentaiy :;<=>$:&"$9*($;&?($&@$=09(",
has an accompanying cuiiiculum that can be useu
foi enviionmental euucation. If you aie unable to
obtain a copy of the movie, you can still use this
lesson, with some mouifications. What follows aie
seveial examples fiom the FL0W cuiiiculum,
uevelopeu by Rachel Ellis.
1.S his.
What uo I love about watei. What uoes a
fiienuship with natuie look like. Bow can we
cieate anu implement a local action pioject.
1. I can explain what I love about watei.
2. I can uiscuss what I think a fiienuship with
natuie looks like.
S. I can cieate with my classmates a plan of
action foi a watei pioject in my community.
"What uo we love about watei. Let's biainstoim
all the ways we love anu enjoy watei. (ex. love
uiinking watei, taking a bath, swimming, the iain,
the snow, going to a lake oi iivei, the feeling of
watei, etc.)" Cieate a class biainstoim list.
Input¡uuiueu Piactice

"While theie aie many things that we may love
about watei, watei is in uangei in many ways. In
many paits of the woilu it is polluteu, uiying up,
unsafe to uiink, anu¡oi being 'bought' by
companies who sell it anu (sometimes) take it
away fiom people. I want us to consiuei, to think
about, how we tieat oui watei heie. Boes anyone
know about watei in this aiea. Is some of it
polluteu, scaice anu¡oi owneu by a piivate
company." Biief class uiscussion.

"We'ie going to watch two clips fiom a film about
watei. We'll talk as a class aftei each one." Show
Ch. 18. "Let's think about what this clip meant.
Let's answei some of its questions (Biscuss each
question): 'Bow can you buy oi sell the sky. The
waimth of the lanu.' 'Can you own the fieshness
of the aii anu the spaikle of the watei.' 'What
uoes it mean foi the Eaith to be sacieu.' 'Bo we
think that we aie pait of the Eaith anu it is pait of
us.' 'Bow is the Eaith tieateu like an enemy
insteau of a biothei.' 'Bow can the Eaith be
kiunappeu fiom chiluien.' 'Shoulu anyone own
watei.' 'Is owning watei uiffeient than othei
things, like owning a cup oi a bag oi a pen.'

Show Ch. 22. "Let's think about this quote fiom
this clip: 'Bow much aie we taking fiom the
natuie. Touay we aie taking, taking eveiything
fiom the natuie. But we aie not giving to the
natuie. So this is the ielationship, youi life, youi
lifestyle, can suivive with the fiienuship with
natuie.' (Singh) Let's uiscuss these questions:
What uoes it mean to be fiienus with natuie.
What examples can we think of wheie we aie
fiienus with natuie."

"With both of the clips we've uiscusseu touay, let's
go back to what we talkeu about what we love
about watei. (Refei back to biainstoim fiom
beginning) Now let's biainstoim ways oi actions
we can take that aie ways of tieating watei like a
biothei, tieating the Eaith as sacieu anu having a

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fiienuship with natuie. We can think about it this
way too: What soit of actions can we take to show
that we love watei anu want to have it aiounu so
that we can enjoy it." Cieate a class biainstoim
Take pait in the uiscussion with stuuents anu
mouel intiospective thought anu uiscussion
"What actions fiom oui list can each of us uo.
Bettei yet, what action can we take on as a class
pioject." Begin foimulating an action pioject plan.
Biscussion contiibutions: Biainstoim
pens¡pencils: papei foi biainstoim list
Foimulate a plan anu stait a local action pioject.

1 hi.
What is a univeisal human iight. Why aie they
impoitant. Shoulu watei be a univeisal human
1. I can uesciibe anu uiscuss human iights anu
why they aie impoitant.
2. I can consiuei whethei oi not watei shoulu be
a human iight.
S. I can cieate a poem, stoiy, song, oi uiawing
about human iights anu uesciibe whethei oi
not I think watei shoulu be one.
"What aie the common things, foi eveiy human
being that we neeu to suivive." Biainstoim as a
class. (Foou, watei, sheltei.)
Input¡uuiueu Piactice

"Bas anyone evei heaiu of 'The Beclaiation of
Buman Rights'. Boes anyone know what it is.
What uo you think it might be. What exactly is a
'iight'." (Shoit shaie out) "The Beclaiation of
Buman Rights was cieateu about 6u yeais ago. It
was the fiist set of univeisal iights - which means
it was cieateu foi all human beings - that was
auopteu at the global level. This means that many
nations thioughout the woilu agieeu on it. Why
uo you think this might be an impoitant thing."
(Shaie out) "The Beclaiation encompasses many,
many things. We'ie going to focus on the paits
that talk about those basic neeus we just
uiscusseu. Let's look at this pait of it (have
hanuouts oi laige enough text so stuuents can
ieau along): 'Aiticle 2S - (1) Eveiyone has the
iight to a stanuaiu of living auequate foi the
health anu well-being of himself anu of his family,
incluuing foou, clothing, housing anu meuical caie
anu necessaiy social seivices, anu the iight to
secuiity in the event of unemployment, sickness,
uisability, wiuowhoou, olu age oi othei lack of
livelihoou in ciicumstances beyonu his contiol.'
What uoes this mean." (fiom:
http:¡¡www.un.oig¡en¡uocuments¡uuhi¡ )
(Bieak it uown anu uiscuss)

"Now, this toucheu on a few of those basic neeus
we talkeu about, like foou anu housing. Biu it
mention watei. (No) Theie is actually nowheie in
the Beclaiation of Buman Rights that specifically
mentions watei. But we all neeu watei to suivive
iight. Biu you know that we aie about 7u%
watei. It's one of those common things foi all
human beings anu actually foi all life foims. So
let's stait to think÷shoulu watei be in theie.
Think about that as we watch this chaptei fiom a
film about watei." Show Ch. 1u

Check foi 0nueistanuing¡uuiueu Piactice

"Can a few people summaiize the infoimation
fiom this chaptei." (Shaie out then
auuiess¡uiscuss some oi all of the following in
oiuei to claiify fuithei): "I'm wonueiing, uo you
think about wheie youi watei comes fiom. Watei
is scaice, we'ie iunning out. We'ie mistieating it.
Can we see any of this heie in this aiea. So this is
kinu of stupiu because we neeu watei foi suivival.
Then, heie's piobably a new piece of infoimation:
piivate companies know that we'ie iunning out

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anu think that watei shoulu be bought in oiuei foi
it to be useu moie efficiently. (Plus they can likely
make money off of it.) Watei is a $4uu billion
global inuustiy. That's a lot! Bas anyone evei
thought about whethei theii watei came fiom a
piivate company oi a public company. What's the
uiffeience. Shoulu someone be able to make
money fiom selling you watei. The movie
compaies watei anu aii. Bo we chaige foi aii. No.
Shoulu we chaige foi watei."

"So moie impoitantly, I want to uiiect us back to
the iuea of a human iight. The movie auuiesseu a
lot of things, but in geneial, it showeu that watei is
scaice anu that theie aie ceitain companies that
want to contiol peoples' access to watei. They
want watei to be a 'neeu' insteau of a 'iight.' If
watei is a 'neeu' it can be solu anu owneu like any
othei goou. Like youi pencil. If it's a 'iight' it's
moie piotecteu as something that shoulu be
available to eveiyone, even if they can't pay foi it.
Bo you want it to be a neeu oi a iight. What woulu
you uo if you coulun't get clean uiinking watei.
(0i how have you felt when you coulun't.) Bo you
think that this is something that shoulu be in the
Beclaiation of Buman Rights. Why." Biscuss as a
"With the infoimation we leaineu about human
iights anu watei, I want you to cieate a poem,
stoiy, song, oi uiawing about the human iights we
coveieu touay, why you think they aie impoitant
anu whethei oi not you think watei shoulu be
Class uiscussion iesponses: inuiviuual poem,
stoiy, etc. about human iights
pens¡pencils: papei: coloieu pencils¡ciayons
uet involveu with Aiticle S1: Check out Extia
Featuies-Call to Resistance-Steven Staii: Aiticle
S1: sign Aiticle S1: fuithei ieseaich on the
Beclaiation of Buman Rights: fuithei ieseaich on
iights guaianteeu by youi nation: potential action
pioject: cieate a class postei pioject on human
iights: euucate youi community¡school about
human iights anu¡oi the iight to watei.
Check out these iesouices:
http:¡¡www.aiticleS1.oig¡ :
1. What aie they key piinciples of enviionmental euucation.
2. What is the ielationship between enviionmental euucation anu social justice.
S. Choose an enviionmental issue fiom youi local oi iegional context (foi example,
watei pollution, ueseitification, etc.). Examine the social justice issues that aie
ielateu to this issue. Why shoulu youi stuuents be given oppoitunities to uiscuss
this in the classioom.
4. 0sing the same issue, uevelop a peace euucation lesson plan that woulu woik well in
the context of the subject¡cuiiiculum you aie teaching.
Amstei, R. (2uu9). Pax uaia: The ecology of wai, peace, anu how to get fiom heie to theie. In E. Nuuia-
0uéuiaogo & R. Amstei (Eus.), :,3483-.$6,49,"('$&;$)(06(<$="0-'83'63)43-0">$?&36('$&;$*&)($0-8$0693&-.
0K:Cambiiuge Scholais Publishing. p. 242-S7.

Caiius, A. (2uu6). Enviionmental coopeiation as an instiument of ciisis pievention anu peacebuiluing:
Conuitions foi success anu constiaints. Repoit commissioneu by the ueiman Feueial Ninistiy foi Economic
Coopeiation anu Bevelopment, Ianuaiy.

=#+'*#9#/!,2!M-2#!N:!3@N@!>',K!! &++LDOO-L(*/#/,P2P,'Q/;,'JOK$*2O#%-$/,'4$'%&*9#(4RSON3AA4#%-$/,'4

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the coie competencies foi conflict iesolution
• 0nueistanu the ioot causes of conflict
• Be able to suggest conflict iesolution stiategies
• Be able to use conflict iesolution in the classioom
• Be able to uevelop a lesson plan that incoipoiates the piinciples of Conflict
Resolution Euucation
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• Bow is conflict in oui peisonal lives the same oi uiffeient fiom conflict on a global
• Bow can conflict have a positive outcome.
• Is conflict an inevitable pait of human existence.
• What aie the tiauitional means of conflict iesolution in youi cultuie.

Conflict aiises when basic physical anu psychological neeus aie not met. Conflict in anu of
itself is neithei negative noi positive. Bowevei, the iesponse to conflict ueteimines
whethei theie is a constiuctive oi uestiuctive outcome. In oiuei to live peacefully it is
impoitant that inuiviuuals uevelop an unueistanuing of the causes of conflict anu the
guiuelines foi conflict iesolution.

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Theie aie thiee main causes of conflict. 0ften, one oi moie ieason is piesent making the
conflict moie uifficult to auuiess.

• !"#$%&'()*+,-,./*0-&"$$1( such as a sense of belonging, a feeling of iecognition
anu iespect, an oppoitunity to make choices anu an atmospheie of enjoyment.&
• 2/#/%$1&3$(,43*$( - often uisputes aiounu iesouices also involve unmet
psychological neeus. Both neeu to be auuiesseu anu iesolveu so conflict will not
occui again.&
• 5/66$3$"%&70-4$( - this cause of conflict is moie uifficult to iesolve. This type of
conflict is most easily iesolveu if siues aie able to unueistanu anu iespect each
othei's uiffeiences.&
Accoiuing to Ciawfoiu anu Bouine (1996) theie aie S ways to iesponu to conflict: soft,
haiu anu piincipleu. The fiist two ways typically iesult in a lose-lose oi win-lose outcome.
The piincipleu way to conflict piouuces a win-win situation. This appioach emphasizes
coopeiative inteiaction by means of "skilleu, active anu empathic" listening. Theie is also
mutual unueistanuing to uiffeient peispectives, anu when neeus anu inteiests of both
paities aie auuiesseu.!
Accoiuing to Ciawfoiu anu Bouine (1996), theie aie thiee stiuctuieu pioblem-solving
piocesses: negotiation, meuiation anu consensus uecision making.

• 8$.,%/0%/," - paities meet face to face anu attempt to iesolve theii uiffeiences
without outsiue assistance.
• 9$1/0%/," - paities meet face to face but aie assisteu by a neutial thiiu paity to
finu a iesolution to theii conflict.
• :,"($"(4(&5$*/(/,"&90;/". -a gioup piocess wheieby all paities collaboiate by
uevising a plan that all membeis can agiee upon. They may oi may not be assisteu
by an outsiue paity.

Accoiuing to Ciawfoiu anu Bouine, fuithei success of conflict iesolution is baseu on
unueistanuing of foui piinciples:

1. Sepaiate people fiom the pioblem,
2. Focus on inteiests, not positions,
S. Invent options foi mutual gain, anu
4. 0se objective ciiteiia" (p.1u).

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Since conflict is pait of eveiyuay life, oui task as peace euucatois is to finu constiuctive,
cieative, nonviolent ways foi stuuents to solve conflicts in a peaceful mannei. This is the
piimaiy goal of conflict iesolution euucation. Accoiuing to Reaiuon (1999), "Conflict
iesolution euucation compiises effoits to impait knowleuge anu unueistanuing of conflict
piocesses, the uistinctions between constiuctive anu uestiuctive piocesses, so that the
constiuctive piocesses may pievail ovei the uestiuctive" (p. 1S).

Accoiuing to CRETE (2u1u), conflict iesolution euucation teaches social anu emotional
competencies to chiluien anu auults to help them hanule conflict moie constiuctively, builu
healthy ielationships, anu cieate constiuctive communities. As a fielu, it oveilaps with
violence pievention, positive youth uevelopment, social anu emotional leaining, anu law-
ielateu euucation.

The coie competencies foi conflict iesolution euucation aie:

• Emotional awaieness
• Empathy anu peispective-taking
• Emotional management
• Pioblem solving
• Communication (listening, meuiation, negotiation)
• Effective uecision making (CRETE, 2u1u).

The most wiuespieau foim of conflict iesolution euucation is skills tiaining in uealing with
conflicts at school anu in the eveiyuay life of stuuents (Reaiuon, 1999). Key skills incluue
peei meuiation, nonviolent communication, anu active listening. These skills can be taught
thiough a vaiiety of appioaches anu foimats.

0ne such foimat is the !"#$%&&'()""*$)+),'-.."#/$0 in which stuuents leain about
conflict iesolution as pait of a sepaiate couise oi uistinct cuiiiculum oi a uaily lesson plan.
A seconu appioach is a 1%2*/3*#4'!"#5"/,'-.."#/$0 in which stuuents aie tiaineu "in
the meuiation piocess in oiuei to pioviue neutial thiiu-paity facilitation to assist those in
conflict to ieach a iesolution" (Ciawfoiu & Bouine, 1996).

60%'!%/$%/7+%'(+/&&"##,'-.."#/$0 is a whole-classioom methouology in which
"conflict iesolution euucation is incoipoiateu into the coie subjects of the cuiiiculum anu
into classioom management stiategies" (Ciawfoiu & Bouine, 1996). Although uiiect
tiaining in conflict iesolution skills is also impoitant, the moie holistic Peaceable
Classioom appioach is the most consistent with the values of peace euucation, anu the
most effective at fosteiing a tiue cultuie of peace. "In peaceable classiooms, youth leain to
take iesponsibility foi theii actions anu uevelop a sense of connecteuness to otheis anu
theii enviionment" (Ciawfoiu & Bouine, 1996, p. SS).

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The Peaceable Classioom Appioach can be extenueu beyonu just the classioom to the
Peaceable School Appioach which encompasses the entiie school anu its uaily opeiations.
While most Conflict Resolution Euucation piogiams focus on how to hanule immeuiate
conflict in the classioom, moie iecently effoits have been maue foi longei-iange,
tiansfoimative solutions that auuiess ioot causes such as stiuctuies, funuamental social
noims, oi political values that play into conflict foimations (Reaiuon, 1999). While some
conflict is inevitable, a gieat ueal of conflict coulu be avoiueu if theie hau initially been
gieatei effoit to ensuie unueistanuing. Conflict may not always be avoiueu, but by
ueveloping an attituue of iespect anu willingness to unueistanu, we can woik to ieuuce it.
Theie aie many ways to integiate Conflict Resolution Euucation into the uaily cuiiiculum.
Foi example, in a Language Aits class, stuuents coulu analyze stoiies to iuentify the causes
of conflicts anu possible ways foi iesolving them. In Physical Euucation class, you coulu
uiscuss the uiffeiences between competitive anu coopeiative games, play an example of
each type, anu have stuuents ieflect togethei afteiwaius. Foi fuithei examples of lesson
plans, please see the list of iesouices below.

Conflicts begin anu uevelop. They may escalate
into violence. They may be solveu in a way that
positively tiansfoims the ielationship of the
uisputants. 0i the piovocations may be uissipateu,
pieventing pioblems fiom giowing into conflicts.

The complexity of conflict situations pioviues
multiple oppoitunities befoie, uuiing, anu aftei
conflicts to builu anu iebuilu peaceful
ielationships. We have an obligation to pioviue
oui stuuents with examples of quality fiction anu
nonfiction wiiting at all times. Iueally, liteiatuie
shoulu be useu as the instiument foi the conflict
analysis. This enables teacheis to choose stoiies
wiitten in theii own language(s) anu fiom theii
own cultuies. It also eniiches the leaining unit by
employing both stoiytelling anu peisonal stuuent

The conflict piocess is a fiamewoik foi the stuuy,
iesolution, anu tiansfoimation of conflict.
Although we tiy to uefine the paiticulai stages oi
phases in which we might finu ouiselves in a
conflict, the stages often oveilap in the conflict
piocess. Theie is a constant inteiweaving, as in all
piocesses, that is not lineai oi ciiculai. Conflicts
aie uynamic, with many uimensions that
continuously influence one anothei. Each phase
anu component, as it changes, causes changes in
the otheis.

Foi example, when ielationships impiove,
pioblems that pieviously seemeu impossible may
become solvable. These chaiacteiistics shoulu be
piesenteu anu explaineu when teaching about

In piepaiing to use this mateiial, the concepts of
pievention, iesolution, anu tiansfoimation, noteu
in the Bague Agenua, can be uefineu anu
connecteu to the sub-concepts anu stages of
conflict uesciibeu in Chaptei 2, Book 1 of Leaining
to Abolish Wai.
This leaining unit was piepaieu by Ianet ueison
anu Iill Stiauss (2uu1) foi a teachei tiaining
woikshop at Teacheis College, Columbia
0niveisity. The authois note that, because conflict
piocess emphasizes the uynamic, oiganic natuie
of conflict, it is often best unueistoou in active
teims in which the stuuents' actions ueteimine
the leaining.

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Elementaiy giaues, S - 6: conflict iesolution,
ieauing, language aits
A stoiy iecounting a uisagieement, uispute, oi
bieak in a ielationship (one example is: "The Tiee
Bouse" by Lois Lawiy, in The Big Book foi Peace,
Ann Buiell anu Naiilyn Sachs, eus. New Yoik:
Button Chiluien's Books, 199u). 0thei mateiials
incluue papei anu pencil foi each stuuent.

Reauing: ieflection: laige anu small gioup
Conflict piocess in stages: anticipating, analyzing,
pioblem-solving÷iefiaming the conflict,
assessing options foi iesolution, planning foi
change, ieconciling, anu builuing positive
Stuuents will:
• Leain stages of conflict piocess:
• Bevelop cieative questions to uiscovei
possible nonviolent actions anu outcomes foi
a conflict:
• Envision anu plan actions foi positive
iesponses to conflict.
Pait 1: 0ui 0wn Expeiience of Conflict

u. Pioviue a cleai conceptual uefinition of
1. Ask stuuents about conflicts they expeiienceu
using the questions in pioceuuie 4 that aie
coiielateu with some of the stages anu
concepts of the conflict piocess.
2. Tell the stuuents that you will be asking them
to wiite about one of theii expeiiences.
S. Piesent the following questions to intiouuce
the conflict piocess:
(N0TE: The stages of the conflict piocess aie
inuicateu in paienthesis foi the teachei.)
"Bo you iemembei a conflict . . ."
a) when you hopeu not to have a conflict.
(Stage: anticipation)
b) when the conflict was ovei, you thought of
a way to hanule uiffeiences bettei. (Stages:
anticipation, conflict pievention)
c) when you woiiieu about not getting along
well with someone who is impoitant to you
(Stage: anticipation), anu thought aheau how
to make a situation woik out well. (Stages:
analysis, pioblem-solving)
u) when you felt uncleai anu uiu not
unueistanu the situation anu tiieu to figuie
out what was happening. (Stage: analysis)
e) that was solveu. (Stage: pioblem-solving)
f) when you askeu foi help to solve the
conflict fiom a meuiatoi, a ieligious leauei, a
teachei oi someone oluei in youi family.
(Stage: seeking mechanisms foi managing
g) when you thought about what to uo next.
(Stage: planning foi change)
h) when you wanteu to make changes in the
way you got along with the one(s) with whom
you weie in conflict oi in the way you hanuleu
conflict. (Stage: planning foi change)
i) when the ielationship was bettei aftei the
conflict. (Stage: ieconciliation)
j) when the conflict was ovei, you thought of a
bettei way to hanule uiffeiences. (Stage:
constiuction of positive ielationships)
S. 0utline the stages of the conflict piocess on
the blackboaiu anu ielate them to the
iesponses to the questions in Step 4.
6. Next, ask the stuuents to wiite about a conflict
expeiience anu ieau theii accounts in class.
7. Then ask what aspect¡stages of the conflict
piocess they expeiienceu. Belp the stuuents
to unueistanu the meaning of the stages of the
conflict piocess by connecting them with
theii own expeiiences.
8. Reflect togethei on the uiffeient ways you can
expeiience anu iesolve conflicts.

Pait Two: 0sing a Stoiy to Think About Bow to
Beal With Conflict

1. Biviue the stuuents into small gioups of 4-S.
Tell them that they will be listening to a stoiy
about a conflict. Ask them to pay attention to theii
feelings as things happen in the stoiy, anu see if
they can iuentify stages of the conflict piocess.

2. Reau alouu "The Tiee Bouse" oi a similai
chiluien's stoiy iecounting a conflict. Stop ieauing
at the moment befoie the chaiacteis iesolve theii

S. Ask stuuents to think about how they felt about
the chaiacteis' actions. Tell the stuuents to use

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theii feelings, anu what they iemembei of the
conflict piocess, to answei the questions below in
theii small gioups. Each gioup shoulu pick one
peison to take notes anu anothei to plan to iepoit
to the whole class.

N0TE: It may be necessaiy to auapt the following
questions to the actual stoiy ieau.
Bow might the stoiy enu so that the giils make up
(ieconcile) anu theii fiienuship becomes bettei.
(Stage: constiuct positive ielationships)
What coulu the giils have uone uiffeiently to
pievent the conflict in the fiist place. (Stages:
anticipation, analysis)
What might they uo uiffeiently in the futuie.
(Stage: planning foi change)

4. Ask stuuents to shaie theii iueas with the whole
class. Recoiu the iueas on the blackboaiu.

S. Reau the enu of the stoiy. Compaie the outcome
of the stoiy to the iueas iecoiueu on the
blackboaiu. Ask stuuents to consiuei this enuing
in ielation to conflict piocess stages anu theii own
suggestions. Ask stuuents to think about how the
iueas might apply to theii own conflicts.

6. Reflect on anu answei any questions about the
conflict piocess anu the stages that aie pait of it.

1. What aie some conflicts in youi eveiyuay life anu how can you iesolve them
2. Is conflict necessaiily bau, oi is theie a positive siue to conflict.
S. Aie stuuents in youi school familiai with conflict iesolution stiategies. What kinu of
suppoit oi guiuance uo they ieceive when they finu themselves in conflict
situations. Who is¡shoulu be iesponsible foi this kinu of suppoit anu guiuance.
4. What aie some of the issues that aie most likely to cause conflict in youi community
oi school. Bow aie these conflicts usually auuiesseu.
S. Bow can you incoipoiate the coie competencies of Conflict Resolution Euucation in
youi school oi classioom. Be specific.
6. Is youi classioom a Peaceable Classioom. If not, how can it become one. What steps
woulu you have to take to achieve this. If youi classioom alieauy possesses some of
the chaiacteiistics of a Peaceable Classioom, please uesciibe how you accomplisheu
Ciawfoiu, B. & Bouine, R. (1996). :&-;4369$<('&4,93&-$78,6093&-=$>$?,38($9&$@2)4(2(-93-.$5"&."02'$3-$A6*&&4'B$
C&,9*DA("E3-.$F".0-3G093&-'B$0-8$:&22,-39H$0-8$%,E(-34($$ %,'936($A(993-.'. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.ncjis.gov¡puffiles¡conflic.puf

CRETE Pioject (2u1u). Conflict Resolution Euucation in Teachei Euucation. Retiieveu
fiom: http:¡¡www.cieuucation.oig¡cie¡iesouices¡view¡1S6
Lantieii, L. & Patti, I. (1998).$I0.3-.$5(06($@-$F,"$A6*&&4'. Beacon Piess.

Reaiuon, B. A. (1999). Peace Euucation: A Review anu Piojection. Peace Euucation Repoits, August, No. 17.
Bepaitment of Euucational anu Psychological Reseaich, Nalmo 0niveisity.

Reaiuon, B. A. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2).$Book 2: Sample Leaining 0nits#$J(0"-3-.$9&$>K&43'*$I0"=$L(06*3-.$
L&/0"8$0$:,49,"($&;$5(06(. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.

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This website has an excellent 12 0nit cuiiiculum on conflict iesolution unit foi miuule school stuuents which
begins with "What is conflict." to "What is ieconciliation". Too extensive to uuplicate heie.
:&22,-39H$0-8$%,E(-34($%,'936($A(993-.'. http:¡¡www.ncjis.gov¡puffiles¡conflic.puf
This papei fully outlines the Peaceable Classioom¡School appioach to CRE, anu pioviues numeious examples
of how CRE can be integiateu into uaily lessons.
Site ueuicateu to CRE that pioviues extensive examples of lesson plans anu stiategies foi teaching conflict
This oiganization's online teachei centei offeis specific lesson plans specifieu by giaue level anu ielateu to
conflict iesolution, builuing community, unueistanuing otheis, anu othei similai topics.
This oiganization focuses on conflict tiansfoimation anu its web site contains extensive iesouices on basic
infoimation about conflict, as well as tiaining iesouices.
Although youi school will not be able to paiticipate uiiectly in the Seeus foi Peace piogiam, this
oiganization's effoits at conflict iesolution among youth in some of the woilu's most volatile aieas can seive
as both an inspiiation anu a mouel foi stuuents anu piogiams in youi community.
The book I0.3-.$5(06($@-$F,"$A6*&&4' is an excellent iesouice foi conflict iesolution euucation. The book
outlines a pioject calleu the Resolving Conflict Cieatively Piogiam, which was uevelopeu in the New Yoik City
public school system. This piogiam involveu the whole school in ieuucing conflicts anu solving conflicts in
constiuctive ways. The piogiam involveu tiaining in conflict iesolution skills, tiaining of peei meuiatois to
solve pioblems between stuuents, anu active listening tiaining.

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uefine Futuies Euucation
• 0nueistanu the iole of Futuies Euucation in Peace Euucation
• 0nueistanu ways to integiate Futuies Euucation into classioom piactice
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• 0nce we have leaineu about issues anu pioblems ielating to the cultuie of wai,
what can we uo about it.
• Bow can we cieate a peaceful futuie.
• What uo you imagine the futuie to be like in twenty yeais. Fifty yeais. 0ne hunuieu
yeais. 0ne thousanu yeais.
• Bevelop specific lesson plans to biing key aspects of Futuies Euucation into theii
classioom piactice.


!"#"$%&'()"*+#,-. focuses on solutions anu actions, as opposeu to othei issue-baseu
euucations (such as anti-iacist euucation oi sexist euucation), which piimaiily focus on
unueistanuing the natuie of contempoiaiy local-global issues (Bicks, 2uu4). While all
peace euucation initiatives seek to piomote action as the final outcome, Futuies Euucation
uoes so moie explicitly. Futuies Euucation encouiages stuuents to exploie the iange of
solutions foi issues, which can leau to a giowing sense of empoweiment, anu encouiage
the fiist steps in iesponsible global citizenship (Bicks, 2uu4).


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The futuies fielu is compiiseu of thiee inteiielateu stianus:

• !"#"$%&'!"#"$!%& - incluues tienu extiapolation, social anu economic foiecasting,
global moueling:
• !"#"$%&'#'()*"# - the acauemic fielu of enquiiy into futuies anu futuie-ielateu
• !"#"$%&'")(%$'*+, - the application of futuies iueas in foimal anu infoimal
euucation (Bicks, 2uu4, p. 167).

Influential woik in Futuies Euucation was caiiieu out by Butch sociologist, Fieu Polak, anu
Ameiican peace ieseaichei, activist, anu sociologist, Elise Bouluing. Fieu Polak aigueu that
the "potent images of the futuie can act like a magnet, uiawing society towaius its
envisioneu futuie" (Bicks, 2uu4). This theoiy illustiates the impoitance of envisioning
positive futuies, anu implies the uetiimental effects of negative images of the futuie.
Bouluing laigely baseu hei woik on Polak's book :*($320.($&;$9*($;,9,"($(1972), which
Bouluing tianslateu fiom Butch to English. Baviu Bicks (2uu4, 2uu8) is one of the
pieuominant voices in futuies euucation touay.
Accoiuing to ieseaich by uough (199u), the futuie is often missing fiom uiscouise in
euucation, anu when it is incluueu, it often falls into one of thiee categoiies:

• ()*+#',"#"$%& - assumeu but nevei biought out into the open:
• (-.%/',"#"$%& - clichés anu steieotypes that aie often piesenteu in a ihetoiical
• ().%/',-$'0$)/#%1',"#"$%& - when a futuie is uesciibeu as something we cannot

Futuies Euucation, in contiast, seeks to explicitly talk about the futuie, biinging it out into
the open, anu exploie vaiious iueas about what the futuie coulu be. Cliches, steieotypes,
anu "taken foi gianteu futuies" shoulu still be exploieu in a ciitical light, anu alteinatives
shoulu be imagineu.
Accoiuing to Bicks (2uu8), the aims of Futuies Euucation aie foi euucatois anu leaineis to:

• Bevelop a moie futuie-oiientateu peispective both on theii own lives anu events in
the wiuei woilu:
• Iuentify anu envision alteinative futuies which aie just anu sustainable:
• Exeicise ciitical thinking skills anu the cieative imagination moie effectively:
• Paiticipate in moie thoughtful anu infoimeu uecision making in the piesent:

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• Engage in active anu iesponsible citizenship, both in the local, national anu global
community, anu on behalf of piesent anu futuie geneiations (p. 78).

Futuies euucation is thus within the scope of peace euucation, which has similai aims anu
methous of teaching. Futuies euucation can be useu to stimulate cieativity, ciitical
thinking, anu paiticipatoiy leaining methous, with the iesult being actions that help cieate
a moie just, sustainable, peaceful woilu.
0ne of the key peuagogies in futuies euucation aie futuies woikshops, which weie initially
uevelopeu by Robeit Iungk in the 196us anu latei by Waiien Zieglei anu Elise Bouluing in
the 0S in the 197us anu 198us (Bicks, 2uu4). Iungk's woikshops have foui phases:

1. !"#$#%&' - complaints anu ciiticism about the immeuiate pioblem aie collecteu:
2. ()*$)+, - vaiious piocesses, such as biainstoiming, aie useu to geneiate "utopian
schemes" that might iesolve the pioblem:
S. -./0'.'*$)$#1* - the most populai suggestions foi action aie iuentifieu anu
checkeu foi piacticality:
4. (100123&/ - uetaileu action plans aie ievieweu anu finalizeu (Bicks, 2uu4).

The woikshops uevelopeu by Bouluing, which have similai yet unique activities, have the
following steps:

1. 4#+560#+$6- inuiviuuals iuentify what they most hope to see in theii piefeiieu futuie
as an aiu to imagining:
2. !5#0751176.'.1", - an example of holuing an image in the imagination. The iuea
behinu this step is an "imagination waim-up". By asking stuuents to think of a
chiluhoou memoiy, which eveiyone has, anu then holuing this image in theii
imagination, the paiticipants begin to engage theii imaginations in a way that is
veiy ielatable foi eveiyone. In asking stuuents to think of a memoiy, which ieally
happeneu, they aie still engaging theii imagination about something that happeneu,
by imagining who was theie, what was happening, colois, smells, sounus, etc.
Thiough this piocess, the paiticipants begin to engage theii imaginations, anu aie
thus "waimeu up" to begin imagining about the futuie.
S. 8$'//#*96#*$16$5'6:&$&"'$- a guiueu visualization to "see" uetails of theii piefeiieu
futuie. The facilitatoi guiues leaineis thiough the piocess of imagining theii iueal of
the futuie.
4. 85)"#*96#.)9'+ - in small gioups, uepicting images on papei. In this step, stuuents
woik togethei in small gioups, shaiing theii images of the futuie anu using aitistic
expiession oi woius to expiess the image.
S. 41"076;1*+$"&;$#1* - ueveloping shaieu scenaiios between gioup membeis.
Thiough this piocess, in small gioups the paiticipants see how theii piefeiieu
futuies can be linkeu togethei as pait of one unifieu piefeiieu futuie.

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6. !"#$%&'()*&&$&+ - the specific steps neeueu to woik towaius the chosen futuie
(Bicks, 2uu4). Bow can the piefeiieu futuie(s) be achieveu. 0sing the wish list,
images, anu woilu constiuction, paiticipants biainstoim conciete steps to make
theii iueal futuie a ieality.

While Futuies Euucation can be applieu in the classioom as a couise oi fielu of stuuy,
euucatois can also consiuei applying a ,-#-./0'(/.0(/"#$1/'oi'2$3/&0$%&4'This woulu
involve explicitly incoipoiating iueas of the futuie - such as thiough imaging exeicises - in
all aspects of stuuy.

Fuitheimoie, chiluien's peiception of the futuie vaiies uevelopmentally, anu thus theii
conception of time (paiticulaily with young chiluien) shoulu be consiueieu when planning
activities with a futuies peispective.
5amp|e Lesson
Cora's V|s|on$(keardon & Cabezudo, 2002)

0ne of the most effective peuagogical tools of
peace euucation is futuies "imaging" oi imagining
tiansfoimations of the woilu that embouy the
conuitions of peace anu justice that motivate the
Su iecommenueu steps towaiu a cultuie of peace
outlineu in the Bague Agenua. Peace euucatois
have long unueistoou the neeu to cultivate the
"moial imagination" of leaineis, so as to enable
them to see peace as an actual conuition of a
piefeiieu anu possible futuie. The euucational
task then becomes the uesigning anu impaiting of
the leaining iequiieu to biing about the changes
that can make the possible futuie a piobable one.
This leaining unit pioviues teacheis with a sample
of an exeicise in futuies visioning to be auapteu to
theii own peuagogical puiposes.
"vision foi Women in the 21st Centuiy" was the
substance of the closing statement of the Plenaiy
of the Couit of Women ueliveieu by Coia Weiss,
Piesiuent of the Bague Appeal foi Peace, on Naich
7, 2uu1, in Capetown, South Afiica.
Grade Leve| and 5ub[ects
uiaues 8-12: social stuuies, genuei issues, cuiient
Copies of "vision foi Women in the 21st Centuiy"
as it appeais at the enu of this unit: copies of
the Bague Agenua: newspiint oi blackboaius
Biscussion: analyzing text: envisioning a cultuie of
peace: planning tiansitional stiategies foi change:
biainstoiming possible actions to be taken:
iuentifying new leaining iequiieu to caiiy out
change piocess
Cultuie of peace, genuei justice, social change
Stuuents will
• Besciibe the woilu conuitions they believe
woulu chaiacteiize a cultuie of peace:
• 0utline the main woilu changes iequiieu to
achieve such conuitions:
• Iuentify actions to be taken by inuiviuual
citizens, civil society oiganizations, anu
goveinmental institutions to achieve the
• Besignate what they will neeu to leain to
paiticipate effectively in the change piocess:
• Consiuei the ielationships between genuei
anu peace.
5#/('67 Bistiibute the text, "vision foi Women in
the 21st Centuiy." Ask stuuents to ieau anu
iesponu to any of the questions embeuueu in the

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!"#$%&' Next, foim foui small gioups to uiscuss the
potential consequences of the numbeieu
questions. Assign one question to each gioup.

!"#$%(' Bave the gioups iepoit theii iesponses
outlining the consequences that woulu
occui shoulu the change be biought about.
!"#$%)' Ask stuuents to ietuin to theii gioups to
plan actions to biing about the changes they founu
uesiiable. Review the Su points of the Bague
Agenua to see if some of the iecommenuations
woulu be appiopiiate anu effective.

!"#$%*' Ask the gioups to uesciibe theii own
uieams of a cultuie of peace anu how to achieve

!"#$%+' Aftei the whole class uiscusses anu
compaies uieams anu action plans, ask what they
neeu to leain to woik foi peace.

!"#$%,' Nake a list of leaining objectives foi peace
I uieam
Not uay uieams
Noi nightmaie uieams
Not impossible uieams
I uieam, "what if" uieams
What if AIBS weie only a veib. As, "She aius hei
aging paients."
What if the people fighting phaimaceutical
companies anu people foi peace anu justice woulu
suppoit each othei. It woulu multiply oui
numbeis anu oui stiength.
What if the neaily one billion guns anu small aims
that aie in uncontiolleu ciiculation useu to kill
neaily 6 million people a yeai - moie than uie
fiom malaiia anu BIv - what if they weie all
What if the aims tiaue weie taxeu, oi stoppeu.
(0uestion #1)
What if chiluien went to school anu leaineu a new
skill. Reauing, wiiting, 'iithmetic, anu
What if peace weie leaineu. I uieam that peace
euucation is integiateu into all school cuiiicula.
What if we all leaineu nonviolent appioaches to
conflict. What if nucleai weapons weie all
abolisheu. (0uestion #2)
What if half the canuiuates iunning foi office at
eveiy level in eveiy countiy weie women.
(0uestion #S) I uieam that the women of East
Timoi aie half the membeis of pailiament, half the
new goveinment.
What if women weie at eveiy negotiating table.
(0uestion #4) Women, my fiienus, aie the glue
that holu societies togethei.
I uieam that human iights aie nevei sepaiateu
fiom peace anu justice.
I uieam - what if eveiyone unueistoou the Su
points of the Bague Agenua foi Peace anu Iustice
foi the 21st Centuiy. It's a way to get fiom a
cultuie of violence to a cultuie of peace.
I uieam that eveiy chilu ieaus anu unueistanus
the 0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights anu the
Convention on the Rights of the Chilu.
I uieam the iesults of the Tokyo Women's
Tiibunal foi the Tiial of Iapanese Sexual Slaveiy
be known to all people.
I uieam that no countiy is alloweu to have a
militaiy buuget that is laigei than its health anu
euucation buugets combineu.
I uieam that women nevei settle foi token
numbeis anywheie, anymoie.
Nen have iun the woilu since the beginning of
time, anu fiom the point of view of violence,
illiteiacy, poveity, iacism, anu genuei inequality -
they have faileu.
So I uieam that one uay women anu men will
shaie powei, anu that both will iun the show.
I uieam that the iesolution that women wiote anu
was unanimously auopteu by the Secuiity Council,
#1S2S, is fully implementeu, anu that we see, as a
iesult, women involveu fully anu equally in all
peace piocesses. *
What if, just as slaveiy, colonialism, anu apaitheiu
have been abolisheu, so, too, wai is abolisheu. 0ui
laws anu oui taxes woulu no longei suppoit men
to make weapons anu tiain young people to go to
wai to kill anu uestioy.
I uieam of peace anu justice. I uieam women will
make it happen.

* Copies of SC Resolution 1S2S aie available fiom
the Bague Appeal foi Peace oi online at

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1. What aie the key piinciples of Futuies Euucation.
2. Bow uoes Futuies Euucation contiibute to the oveiall fielu of Peace Euucation.
S. What is youi peisonal vision of the futuie. Foi youiself. Foi youi local community.
Foi the woilu.
4. What is the steieotype oi cliché view of the futuie in youi cultuie oi iegion.
S. Aie youi stuuents given oppoitunities to envision anu woik towaius alteinative
futuies. If not, how can you change this in youi classioom. If such oppoitunities
exist, please explain what they aie.
6. Which of the Futuies Euucation peuagogies aie you most inteiesteu in using in youi
classioom. Bow woulu they impact stuuent leaining. Bow woulu you incoipoiate
them into youi existing piactice anu cuiiiculum. uive examples.
Reaiuon, B. A. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2).$Book 2: Sample Leaining 0nits#$:(0"-3-.$9&$;<&43'*$=0">$?(06*3-.$
?&/0"8$0$@,49,"($&A$5(06(. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.

uough, N. (199u). Futuies in Austialian euucation: tacit, token anu taken foi gianteu. B,9,"(' 22(S), 298-S1u.

Baavelsiuu, N. (1996). 78,6093&-$3-$8(C(4&)2(-9'#$Noiway: Aiena Publisheis.

Bicks, B. (2uu4). Bow can futuies stuuies contiibute to peace euucation.$%&,"-04$&A$5(06($78,6093&- 1(2),
Septembei. pp. 16S-178.

Bicks, B. (2uu8). A Futuies Peispective: Lessons fiom the Schoolioom. In N. Bussy, S. Inayatullah, & Nilojevic,
(Eus.)$;49("-093C($78,6093&-04$B,9,"('>$5(80.&.3('$A&"$72(".(-9$=&"48'. Rotteiuam: Sense Pubblisheis. pp.
7S-89. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.teaching4abetteiwoilu.co.uk¡uocs¡uownloauS.puf

Bicks, B. Teaching Foi A Bettei Woilu. Web site. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.teaching4abetteiwoilu.co.uk

Polak, Fieu (1972). ?*($320.($&A$9*($A,9,"($(E. Bouluing, Tians. anu abi.). San Fiancisco, CA: Iossey-

Tofflei, Alvin (1974). :(0"-3-.$A&"$9&2&""&/>$9*($"&4($&A$9*($A,9,"($3-$(8,6093&-. New Yoik: vintage Books.

Woilu Futuies Stuuies Feueiation www.wfsf.oig
WSFS Peuagogical Resouices http:¡¡wfsf.meilot.oig¡inuex.html
Baviu Bicks, Teaching foi a Bettei Woilu http:¡¡www.teaching4abetteiwoilu.co.uk¡

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Congiatulations! You have completeu 0nit 2 on the Scope of Peace Euucation. In 0nit 2 we
lookeu at the uiffeient fielus that aie pait of the bioauei fielu of peace euucation. A holistic
peace euucation piogiam shoulu incluue elements fiom all of these fielus.

Befoie piogiessing to 0nit S:

• Review the key concepts in this unit.
• Take the quiz.
• Aie theie any fielus not incluueu heie that you can imagine as pait of a
compiehensive community, school, oi classioom peace euucation piogiam. If so,
what aie they.
• What aieas stuuieu in this unit will be easy to integiate into youi classioom
teaching. What aieas uo you see as potentially challenging. Why.
• Stait a list of specific iueas to engage youi stuuents in leaining 0:&,9 anu ;&" peace.

UNI1 3: Irom 1heory to Þract|ce. 1owards a Þeacefu|
C|assroom, 5choo| and Commun|ty.
Un|t 3 Introduct|on

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At the enu of this session, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu foim, content, anu stiuctuie anu the impoitance of consiueiing each in
peace euucation
• 0nueistanu the impoitance of peuagogy in peace euucation
• Be able to uiscuss the key peuagogical piinciples of peace euucation
• Apply key peuagogical piinciples of peace euucation in theii classiooms
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What appioaches uo I use in my classioom. Bo I use many uiffeient ones oi iely on
a few key ones. Tiy to make a "peuagogy inventoiy" of youi teaching style.
• What is the ielationship between /*("( I teach anu *&/ I teach.

In peace euucation, *&/ we teach is just as impoitant as /*09 we teach. Peuagogy is the
!"#$%that peace euucation takes, anu it consists of the teaching appioaches anu methous
useu by peace euucatois. Peuagogy answeis the question *&/. In eveiy euucational setting,
peace euucatois shoulu consiuei the content, stiuctuie, anu foim in which they aie
teaching. The peuagogical piinciples of peace euucation can be useu in any aiea of teaching.
The foim of peace euucation incluues peuagogy, but is also moie than just the teaching
methous useu. It also incluues elements such as the stuuent-teachei ielationship anu
communication style.

The &"'()'(%is /*09 is being taught anu stuuieu. The content may vaiy, but shoulu be
ielateu to the stuuents' lives. The euucatoi shoulu guiue the stuuents in making
connections between the content, theii own lives, anu possible contiauictions.

The *(#+&(+#) is the euucational setting, answeiing the question /*("(: but it is moie than
just the physical enviionment. Foi example, if one is teaching in a foimal school setting, the
physical space is one component. 0thei components might incluue the auministiation, the
iules anu iegulations of the school, the cuiiiculum (foi example, if theie is a manuatoiy
cuiiiculum that must be followeu), policies, etc.

Accoiuing to Baavelsiuu (1996), theie is a uialectical ielationship between the foim anu
content, in which the "foim ueteimines the content anu the content ueteimines the foim"

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(p. S9). Baavelsiuu fuithei points out that this ielationship is paiticulaily impoitant in
peace euucation because the content is not always known, but is iathei piouuceu thiough
the piocess of euucation (1996).

Foim, content anu stiuctuie shoulu be consiueieu in all euucational situations. Beie, we
will focus on the foim, oi peuagogy, of peace euucation.

Nost teacheis may not have as much contiol ovei the content anu stiuctuie in which they
teach. The aiea wheie you have the most contiol is the foim. Thus, if you finu it uifficult to
integiate peace euucation content into youi classioom, you can stait with foim - the how
of teaching - which can be applieu to any euucational setting.
Peace euucation peuagogy can be useu in all subjects anu aieas of teaching. While uiffeient
themes of peace euucation, such as human iights oi multicultuialism, can be taught as
subjects themselves, these themes can also be integiateu into othei subject aieas (foi
example, integiating human iights lessons into a math oi social science class). The
peuagogy of peace euucation can be applieu in any aiea, subject oi uiscipline.

The peuagogy useu in peace euucation is inextiicably linkeu to the content. Foi example, if
the teachei stanus in fiont of a classioom lectuiing about peace, this woulu not be peace
euucation. This is because this type of piactice ielies on the oppiessive, banking-style
methous ciiticizeu by Paulo Fieiie (see eailiei section on Fieiie foi moie on the banking

viiginia Cawagas (2uu7) has iuentifieu foui key peuagogical piinciples in peace euucation:

1. !"#$%&: Bemonstiating that all issues aie inteiielateu, multiuimensional, anu uynamic.
Bolism stanus in shaip contiast to the fiagmenteu way in which school subjects aie
often taught. A holistic vision allows us to see the complex ielationships of uiffeient
issues. A holistic vision involves looking at the tempoial (past, piesent, futuie, anu how
they inteiielate) anu spatial uimensions (fiom micio to macio, anu acioss sectois of
society) of an issue.

2. '(#)*%+,"-&(.$"/: Cawagas wiites, "Realizing that all knowleuge is nevei fiee of
values, euucating foi a cultuie of peace neeus to be explicit about its piefeiieu values
such as compassion, justice, equity, genuei- faiiness, caiing foi life, shaiing,
ieconciliation, integiity, hope anu non-violence" (p. Su2). Peace euucation involves
teaching foi these values in all euucational inteiventions.

S. 0$(#"1)*: Accoiuing to Cawagas, "a 8304&.3604$appioach cultivates a moie hoiizontal
teachei-leainei ielationship in which both uialogically euucate anu leain fiom each

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othei" (p. SuS). Bialogue is a key component of peace euucation peuagogy. In auuition
to class uiscussion, Cawagas suggests the following tools foi uialogic peuagogy:

• uuest speakeis: Foi example, invite stieet chiluien to a class to talk about theii
• Web chaiting: Nake a web chait using a theme (in a ciicle in the centei), anu sub-
themes connecteu to the centei, anu uiaw connections:
• Role-play: Bave stuuents act out a cioss-cultuial conflict:
• Simulation: Simulate a small-aims convention foi a lesson on uisaimament: have
stuuents play uiffeient ioles, such as that of an aims uealei, aims buyei, piotestei,
• Singing:
• Painting:
• Poetiy:
• Small gioup uiscussion.

4. !"#$#%&'()*+,-)"*).$: Cawagas wiites that "in ciitical empoweiment, leaineis
engage in a peisonal stiuggle to uevelop a ciitical consciousness that actively seeks to
tiansfoim the iealities of a cultuie of wai anu violence into a cultuie of peace anu non-
violence" (p. Su4). Thus, thiough ciitical empoweiment, leaineis uevelop a ueepei
unueistanuing of pioblems, anu aie also empoweieu to take action to solve these
pioblems. Ciitical empoweiment also iequiies an unueistanuing of powei: in a system
of inequitable powei ielations, empoweiment involves ieconstiucting this system to
one of moie equitable, hoiizontal ielations.

In the latei section, calleu Teaching anu Leaining Appioaches, we will exploie examples of
uiffeient types of peace euucation peuagogy.
1. What aie the key peuagogical piinciples of peace euucation.
2. Besciibe the content, foim, anu stiuctuie of youi teaching.
S. Bow can you use peace euucation peuagogy even when not uiiectly using peace
euucation content. uive an example.
4. Bow can you integiate peace euucation peuagogy into all of youi teaching. What
woulu it look like fiom the stuuents' point of view.
S. Which key peuagogical piinciples aie you most likely to auopt in youi classioom.
Cawagas, v. (2uu7). Peuagogical piinciples in euucating foi a cultuie of peace. In S. B. Toh & v. Cawagas
(Eus#:$;,493<093-.$=3'8&2>$+0"<('93-.$5(06(. Biisbane, 0ueenslanu: Nulti-Faith Centie, uiiffith 0niveisity.

Baavelsiuu, Nangus. 1996. 78,6093&-$3-$!(<(4&)2(-9'. Tiomso: Aiena.

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uiscuss the qualities that aie impoitant foi a peace euucatoi
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What aie the attiibutes of a peacemakei. Think of famous peacemakeis (Nahatma
uanuhi, Nothei Teiesa, Nelson Nanuela). What chaiacteiistics uiu they have that
maue them peacebuilueis.
• What aie the attiibutes of a peace euucatoi. Nake a list befoie you continue.
• What skills uoes a peace euucatoi neeu. Biainstoim befoie you continue.

Peace euucatois must inteinalize the concepts they aie teaching to theii stuuents. This
uoes not mean that as a teachei, you neeu to be a "finisheu piouuct" of peifect peace
knowleuge, skills, anu attituues. 0n the contiaiy, peace euucation is inheiently a piocess of
!"#$%!&'()!$*+'"'(, anu we aie all stuuents that aie peipetually seeking gieatei knowleuge
anu unueistanuing. It uoes mean, howevei, that you shoulu be constantly tiying to
"piactice what you pieach," anu constantly self-ieflecting on the alignment of youi teaching
anu youi actions anu behavioi, anu honestly acknowleuging youi limitations. This is
peihaps the most impoitant attiibute of a peace euucatoi.

Successful peace euucatois possess an aiiay of attiibutes. The following list is not an
exhaustive checklist: it is iathei a list of attiibutes that aie fiequently obseiveu in peace
euucatois. Befoie you ieau this list, be suie that you have answeieu the guiuing questions
above as best you can.

The attiibutes of an effective peace euucatoi incluue:

1. The teachei is a iesponsible global citizen anu has a vision foi positive change in the
futuie. S¡he believes that euucation is foi positive¡constiuctive change.
2. The teachei is motivateu by a uesiie to seive anu is actively involveu in the
community wheie s¡he teaches.
S. The teachei is a life-long leainei.

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4. The teachei is "both a tiansmittei anu tiansfoimei of cultuies." The teachei
tiansmits his¡hei own cultuie but is also ciitical anu ieflective to be an agent of
change anu unueistanuing of othei cultuies.
S. The teachei's ielationships with stuuents anu faculty must nuituie peace via the
cieation of a community.
6. The teachei must be awaie of iacism, sexism oi any othei foim of uisciimination
that may occui in the classioom anu both how s¡he peipetuates it anu how othei
stuuents peipetuate it.
7. The teachei uses constiuctive ciiticism to help his¡hei stuuents giow.
8. The teachei knows all of the leaineis as inuiviuuals anu iesponus effectively to theii
uiffeiences with a caiing attituue.
9. The teachei cieates an enviionment in which the stuuents aie fiee to inquiie by
cieating questions that auuiess issues. The teachei is the posei of questions iathei
than the answeiei.
1u. The teachei is constantly ieflective about his¡hei own teaching methouologies.
11. The teachei knows anu uses the skills foi communication anu conflict iesolution to
builu a community.
12. The teachei utilizes coopeiative leaining.
1S. The teachei is able to elicit uiscussion fiom the stuuents.
14. The teachei motivates anu inspiies his¡hei stuuents.
1S. The teachei is joyful anu positive: piomoting hope.
16. The teachei is passionate anu compassionate.
17. The teachei is gentle anu faii.
18. The teachei is comfoitable using peisonal stoiies to connect to the leaining
(Navaiio-Castio & Naiio-ualace, 2uu8).
The following is a list of stanuaiu skills that teacheis of peace euucation shoulu
uemonstiate (Caitei, 2uu6):

1. Facilitate stuuent constiuction of theii concepts of peace anu positive piocesses foi
incieasing it, baseu on theii collective expeiiences anu new infoimation.
2. Integiate positive contact with, as well as infoimation about, uiveise cultuies in the
local iegion anu afai to oveicome ignoiance, misinfoimation anu steieotypes.
S. Accommouate cultuial noims of stuuents incluuing theii uiveise leaining styles.
4. Engage in cioss-cultuial communication with multicultuial school paiticipants,
incluuing families, theieby moueling acceptance, accommouation anu celebiation of
uiveisity thiough pluialism.
S. Bemonstiate positive iegaiu foi all stuuents, iegaiuless of theii misbehaviois, to
convey unconuitional caie anu iespect foi them as valuable people.
6. 0se compassionate anu equitable communication in uialogic facilitation of
classioom management.
7. Tiain stuuents thiough moueling of uispositions anu skills that uevelop peace,
incluuing the piactice of nonviolence befoie anu uuiing conflicts.

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8. Cieate a nuituiing "school-home" enviionment which nouiishes anu pioviues a safe
place foi communication about conceins ielateu to violence.
9. Listen to families' iueas of how peace can be uevelopeu in the classioom anu school
anu then collaboiate with them in the facilitation of theii suggestions.
1u. 0se stiategies that suppoit peaceful inteiaction with the self anu all people,
incluuing iestoiative piactices in post-conflict situations.
11. Nouel action foi peace uevelopment on anu beyonu the campus, theieby
uemonstiating a community noim of social justice.
12. Cultivate anu suppoit the stuuent's iesponsibility foi theii own peaceful-pioblem
solving while you stay awaie of, anu iesponsive to, theii neeus.
1S. Integiate acioss multiple subject aieas infoimation about past, piesent as well as
futuie peace uevelopments anu stiategies.
14. Cieate anu suppoit venues foi expiessing cuiient anu futuie peace uevelopment.
1S. Show appieciation foi all stuuent achievements in, anu aspiiations foi, peace.
16. Attenu to anu teach ecological caie of the physical enviionment, incluuing
sustainable use of its iesouices.
17. Teach about socially anu enviionmentally iesponsible consumeiism anu the
conflicts which iesult fiom exploitation of piouuceis anu laboieis.
18. Teach about powei ielations in cuiient events as well as histoiy to help stuuents
iecognize souices of stiuctuial violence.
19. Facilitate stuuent examination of militaiism anu its impact on the social oiuei.
2u. Teach stuuents to ciitically evaluate souices, peispectives anu eviuence pioviueu in
infoimation they have access to while enabling them to iecognize the types of
infoimation they uo not have, but neeu, to uevelop cleai unueistanuing of spoken
anu wiitten piesentations.
21. Enable stuuents' uiscussions of contioveisy anu uniesolveu pioblems locally anu
globally, theieby cultivating theii intellectual anu communicative skills foi
compiehenuing anu analyzing conflicts.
1. Compaie the list you maue at the beginning of this section to the list piesenteu
above. What weie the similaiities anu uiffeiences.
2. Compaie youiself to the attiibutes on the list. What aie youi stiengths as a peace
euucatoi. What aie youi potential weaknesses. Choose one oi two attiibutes that
you feel you aie lacking, anu explain how you will go about making those attiibutes
pait of youi piofessional iuentity.
S. Review the list of stanuaiu skills foi teacheis of peace euucation. What skills uo you
alieauy have. What skills uo you neeu to impiove upon. Again, choose one oi two
skills that you aie lacking anu explain how you will woik towaius acquiiing them.

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Caitei, C. (2uu6). :90-80"8'$;&"$5(06($78,6093&-. A Floiiua Centei foi Public anu Inteinational Policy Papei.
Floiiua: 0niveisity of Noith Floiiua. Retiieveu fiom

Navaiio-Castio, L., & Naiio-ualace, I. (2uu8). 5(06($78,6093&-<$=$509*/0>$9&$0$?,49,"($&;$5(06(. 0uezon City,
Philippines: Centei foi Peace Euucation, Niiiam College. Retiieveu fiom

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• Be able to uesciibe effective communication
• Be able to uesciibe the piinciples of nonviolent communication
• 0nueistanu skills foi effective communication anu why this is impoitant foi peace
• Bow well uo you listen to youi stuuents. Bow uo you know that you aie listening
• Biu you listen to the news this moining. What weie the top news stoiies.


Aftei listening to the news in the moining, most people geneially cannot iemembei moie
than one oi two news items. This is geneially because people aie listening passively anu
not actively. Too often when we aie teaching, stuuents listen the same way. Communication
is a two-way piocess between the speakei anu listeneis. As such, effective communication
encompasses both speaking anu listening. It is impoitant foi peace euucatois to uevelop
effective peaceful communication skills anu to teach oui stuuents these same skills.

Conflict is often a iesult of miscommunication. This is paiticulaily common in cioss-
cultuial settings, as communication vaiies gieatly fiom cultuie to cultuie. It is absolutely
ciitical foi peace euucatois to communicate effectively, anu to unueistanu the uynamics of
communication in oiuei to help theii stuuents uevelop the same ciucial skills foi peaceful

As a peace euucation teachei you have a iesponsibility to uemonstiate the skills anu values
associateu with constiuctive anu peaceful living. !"#$"%&'($)**&+,$#-,)+ is a way foi
you to be a peacemakei in eveiy aspect of youi life. It is a tool you can use in the classioom

Note: Paits of this section weie auapteu fiom the INEE Peace Euucation Piogiamme (veiuiani, 2uuS)

Teacheis Without Boiueis | !"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02 | 0nit S

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anu teach to youi stuuents so that they, too, become poweiful communicatois. It is also
something you can integiate into youi uaily life foi peaceful living in youi home anu

To listen well is the fiist skill that you, a teachei, shoulu have, as this is how you come to
ieally unueistanu the leaineis in youi caie. Nany teacheis assume that the skill of listening
shoulu be a skill foi the leainei, not the teachei. But if this is tiue, how uoes the teachei
know when the chiluien unueistanu. Listening to the teachei is only one siue: the teachei
must also listen to the leaineis. By listening to them, the teachei knows what is unueistoou
anu what pioblems the leaineis aie having. The teachei can then help them to leain moie

Failing to listen effectively anu with empathy to people on the othei siue of a conflict often
makes matteis much woise, so this skill is neeueu as a tool of peace.

!"#$%&'($)#&*$*+ involves attentively listening to the speakei, using bouy language to show
that you aie listening, anu then paiaphiasing what you heaiu the speakei say. The use of
bouy language is cultuially ielative. In some cultuies, gestuies like eye contact can inuicate
listening, but in otheis, these gestuies may not be appiopiiate. Paiaphiasing is using youi
own woius to summaiize what the speakei saiu. This is not intenueu to show agieement,
but to show that you unueistanu what the speakei is saying. All of these skills aie an ait,
anu iequiie piactice.
Nany of the attiibutes associateu with peace euucation aie elements of communication.

,-&*'".//0*$"1#$.* - wheie people aie honest, wheie they listen anu wheie they tiy to
unueistanu the othei peison's point of view - is one of the coineistones of peace. This soit
of communication can happen only when both siues involveu in communicating aie willing
to tiy.

Nany conflicts aiise because of one-way communication, which is when one peison
uominates as the speakei, anu the othei peison uoes not have the oppoitunity to speak.
This is unfoitunate when we consiuei that much of the communication in schools is one
way, pioceeuing fiom the teachei to the stuuent. We neeu to look at the effectiveness of
one-way communication anu see if peihaps we can impiove the situation.

23.4315'".//0*$"1#$.* - when both paiticipants aie active speakeis anu listeneis is
also necessaiy foi peaceful inteiaction between people. People have a iesponsibility to
listen caiefully, to communicate cleaily, anu to claiify points anu summaiize infoimation so
that the communication is cleai anu piecise.
SLaae LxplanaLlon Lxample of phrase
CbservaLlons 1he concreLe acLlons LhaL affecL our well-belna LhaL we
observe wlLhouL [udaemenL.
When vou..
leellnas Pow we feel ln relaLlon Lo whaL we observe. ..l feel..
needs 1he needs, values, deslres, eLc. LhaL creaLe our feellnas. .because mv need for ___ ls noL
belna meL..
8equesLs 1he concreLe acLlons we requesL ln order Lo enrlch our llves. Would vou be wllllna Lo..?

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feelings. Foi example, "You make me angiy!" is a bioau geneialization, anu no one can
20:( anyone feel anything. By expiessing the way you feel in iegaius to a specific action ("I
feel angiy when you ."), you aie empoweiing youiself by taking owneiship of youi
feelings. An obseivation that is fiee of juugment is also less likely to iesult in uefensiveness
in the listenei.
The Council foim of compassionate communication is baseu on the commonalities of
uialogic piactices acioss cultuies. 0ne of the essences of the piactice of Council is biiuging
people anu communities thiough goou communication piactices: listening anu speaking
fiom the heait, which is the way of Council. Accoiuing to the 0jai Founuation (2u1u),

Council is the piactice of speaking anu listening fiom the heait. Thiough
compassionate, heaitfelt expiession anu empathic, non-juugmental listening,
Council inspiies a non-hieiaichical foim of ueep communication that ieveals a
gioup's vision anu puipose.

The Council is uesciibeu by the Centei foi Council Tiaining in Isiael (2u1u):

The basic piactice of council is simple. A gioup of people sits in a ciicle. The ciicle foimat engenueis a
sense of equality anu since the facilitatoi is also a paiticipant iathei than a lectuie oi a teachei,
eveiyone has the feeling of "being in the same boat". A talking piece is passeu fiom peison to peison
in the ciicle anu one at a time people speak, each one has a voice, speaking fiom the heait, anu all the
otheis listen.
In Southein Califoinia, the 0jai Founuation iuns a Council In Schools piogiam, which
biings the Council technique to schools thioughout the Los Angeles 0nifieu School Bistiict.
Thiough this piogiam, teacheis aie given an oiientation to the Council followeu by a moie
in-uepth tiaining. They aie then paiieu with expeiienceu mentois who help them apply the
way of Council in theii classiooms. Council is moie than just a communication technique. It
is a holistic piactice anu way of being that fosteis a paiauigm shift towaius compassionate,
equitable ielationships, anu that encouiages compassionate communication as a tool foi
biinging out the highest potential in the gioup.
In Isiael, a non-piofit calleu Amutat Na'agal Bakshavah ("Listening Ciicles") has been
biinging the Council piogiam to schools anu teacheis, anu has focuseu specifically on
biinging Aiab anu Iewish chiluien togethei in uialogue.!Theie aie many cities of mixeu
Aiab - Iewish population in Isiael: Ieiusalem, Acco, Baifa, Ramla, Iaffa, Naalot-Taishiha,
anu moie. These populations iaiely mix, anu often aie at ouus with each othei. So, how uo
you biiuge this uiviue between chiluien, bieak uown the baiiieis of piejuuice, mistiust,
anu language that aie instilleu fiom a veiy young age. Bow uo you begin to cieate a shaieu
society wheie sepaiation is the noim.

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The aim of this piogiam is to teach the way of Council as a basis foi cieating a common
language of listening anu speaking fiom the heait, in oiuei to biiuge cultuies, cieate
connections, woiking ielationships, anu fiienuships wheie none weie possible befoie.

This successful pilot piogiam was caiiieu out between 2uu8-2u1u with two schools in
Acco: two classes of 4
giaue stuuents leaineu anu piacticeu the basis of Council, anu aftei
twelve sepaiate meetings, the chiluien met in mixeu ciicles of Council foi two meetings the
fiist yeai, anu then met a numbei of times ovei the seconu yeai. The piogiam ian uuiing a
yeai of extieme tension in the city, with city-wiue iiots between Aiabs anu Iews anu uuiing
the uaza Wai. This was the only piogiam that succeeueu uuiing this peiiou. The chiluien
met, uiscoveieu each othei, playeu togethei uuiing iecesses, spoke honestly with each
othei, anu listeneu ueeply to each otheis' stoiies.

Staff tiainings aie impoitant to the piogiam: if the teacheis can speak authentically, the
chiluien will, too. If the teacheis uistiust the appioach, the chiluien will feel it. So, the
teacheis fiom two schools togethei ieceive a shoit intiouuctoiy tiaining, expeiience
Council, anu aie taught the iuuiments of facilitation. They aie paiieu with piofessional
facilitatois foi the fiist yeai.

The chiluien aie then given a seiies of ten Councils in theii classes, expeiience leaining the
"language of council", its intentions, stoiy, ceiemony, anu games. When they become
familiaiizeu with this, it is time to biing them togethei with the othei gioup of chiluien. If
theie is a language baiiiei, tianslation is useu anu moie games aie incluueu. The chiluien
uiscovei that they know how to communicate with one anothei fiom the stait, thiough
stoiy, authentic speaking, anu ueep listening skills they have acquiieu. They see anu
uiscovei each othei as they tiuly aie anu not as the steieotypes uevelopeu by society. They
uevelop fiienuship anu camaiaueiie.

This case stuuy uemonstiates the significant iole that communication plays in fosteiing
peace. In oiuei to piomote peace in the woilu, it is impoitant that we uevelop peaceful
communication piactices, anu encouiage uialogue among uiffeient gioups.

Teacheis who aie inteiesteu in implementing Council in theii classiooms, shoulu
paiticipate in Council tiaining. Bowevei, if you live in an aiea wheie this is not possible,
you can stait by ieauing :*($;0<$&=$9*($>&,-634 anu by piacticing with youi fiienus anu
family. Foi moie infoimation on Council, see the Auuitional Resouices section below.
It is essential to piactice effective communication in youi eveiyuay life. It is even moie
essential foi teacheis who aie teaching effective communication.

These activities aie intenueu to help paiticipants piactice communication skills, anu to
uemonstiate communication skills. If you aie stuuying in a gioup, tiy these activities as a
gioup. If you aie stuuying alone, you can tiy these activities with a fiienu oi with youi

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stuuents. As uiscusseu above, it is veiy impoitant that peace euucatois uevelop effective,
peaceful communication skills, so the moie you piactice, the bettei!
This game is best playeu with a gioup of people. In this game, one peison thinks of a phiase
oi stoiy, anu whispeis it to the fiist peison in the line. That peison listens, then iepeats to
the next peison in line, anu so on until eveiyone has heaiu the stoiy. Finally the peison at
the enu of the line iepeats the stoiy to the gioup. 0sually, the stoiy has changeu
uiamatically by the time it ieaches the othei enu. This activity can also be uone as a iace in
teams, if you have a laige numbei of paiticipants. This game often uemonstiates how we
communicate - both listen anu speak - ineffectively.
Paii off the paiticipants so that they aie with people they uo not know.
Call them A anu B. uive the As five minutes to tell a stoiy (peihaps about theii chiluhoou oi
something that has happeneu in theii life) anu then give anothei five minutes to the Bs to
tell a stoiy. They must not take notes, but they can ask questions. Ask some of the 'As' to tell
the stoiies tolu by theii paitneis back to the laige gioup. Ask the paitneis if the stoiies aie
accuiate. Bo the same thing with the 'Bs' anu ask if the stoiies aie accuiate.
1. Ask foi foui volunteeis.
2. Senu two out of the ioom anu show the pictuie of geometiic shapes (foi example, a
iectangle with a ciicle insiue) to the othei two. Reminu them not to show theii
pictuie to anybouy. Ask foi one of them to wait foi the seconu pait of the exeicise.
Invite one of the othei volunteeis back insiue.
S. Explain that they aie going to uiaw what the othei peison tells them. They cannot
ask any questions (this is 'one-way communication'). The 'instiuctoi' (the
paiticipant with the uiawing) stanus behinu the flipchait (oi with his¡hei back to
the boaiu). The 'instiuctoi' uesciibes the pictuie to the paiticipant at the flip chait
(the 'aitist'). The 'aitist' uiaws the pictuie baseu on the instiuctions given. If you aie
using a flip chait, tuin to a new page. If you aie using a boaiu, ensuie that you can
iepiouuce the uiawing anu then clean the boaiu.
4. Ask the seconu 'instiuctoi' to come foiwaiu anu biing in the seconu volunteei fiom
outsiue. This time the instiuctoi can watch what the aitist is uoing anu make
comments on it, anu the aitist shoulu ask questions (two way communication).
S. When the uiawing is completeu, compaie the two uiawings (ieuiaw the fist
uiawing if necessaiy). Ask the volunteeis how they felt when they weie eithei
instiucting oi uiawing. Show the paiticipants the oiiginal uiawing. Ask the gioup
which uiawing is the most accuiate. Biscuss why this is so. Then uiscuss the
following questions:

• What aie the auvantages of one-way communication.
• What aie the uisauvantages.

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• What aie the auvantages of two-way communication.
• What aie the uisauvantages.
• What iesponsibilities uo we have if we aie going to use one-way
• Why uo we use one-way communication when two-way communication is
pioven to be moie effective.

Leaining Bow to Listen (Reaiuon & Cabezuuo,

Listening skills aie impoitant in all human
ielationships anu absolutely essential to
pieventing anu solving conflict. The uevelopment
of goou listening skills shoulu be a piioiity goal of
all euucation, especially civics euucation anu
euucation foi peace. The guiuelines on the
following page, by Ron Kiaybill of Eastein
Nennonite 0niveisity (0SA) pioviue the basis foi
ueveloping such skills.

This mateiial was auapteu fiom a hanuout fiom
the Annual Neeting of the Peace Stuuies
Association in the 0niteu States.

Seconuaiy giaues, 1u-12: Any subject wheie
uiscussion anu veibal exchange is useu in class.

Biief uesciiptions of conflicts, oi situations that
may piouuce conflicts, involving two opposing
paities oi peisons

Constiuctive communication: iespect foi opposing
peispectives anu opinions

Stuuents will:
• Leain to cieate a suppoitive enviionment that
helps people ielax anu focus on issues
• Bevelop iappoit anu tiust with both paities in
a uisagieement oi conflict
• Piactice conveying empathy anu iespect foi
each peison, iegaiuless of theii beliefs, woius
oi conuuct
• Bemonstiate an ability to state cleaily the
basic pioblems that neeu to be iesolveu in
teims of pioblems anu issues, not

Step 1: Bistiibute the guiuelines (hanuout) to the
Step 2: Aftei these have been ieau caiefully, ask if
stuuents neeu any claiifications
Step S: 0nce assuieu that the class unueistanus
the guiuelines, foim gioups of S stuuents pei
gioup to piactice listening skills.
Step 4: uive each gioup a biief conflict
uesciiption. Ask two stuuents to select positions,
the peispectives fiom which they will speak, anu
uesignate one stuuent as a meuiatoi. (Piepaie the
conflicts so that they can iecount one issue oi
pioblems with two opposing positions on the
conflict. These can be ieal oi hypothetical).
Step S: Biiect those who aie taking a position to
piesent theii cases to the meuiatoi anu the
meuiatoi to listen to each speakei, following the
Step 6: Announce 12 minutes foi the fiist iounu,
allowing 4 minutes foi each to piesent a position,
anu 4 minutes foi the meuiatoi to question,
summaiize, anu have the conflicting paities agiee
on the summaiy.
Step 7: Biiect the gioups to explain conflict
situations with othei gioups.l
Step 8: Then iepeat the piocess.
Step 9: Bo one moie exchange of conflicts anu
iepeat the piocess so that all S stuuents in eveiy
gioup have peifoimeu the meuiatoi iole.
Step 1u: Bebiief, iaising questions about what the
stuuents leaineu in the piocess anu what they
neeu to tiy to uevelop fuithei to be goou listeneis
anu potentially goou meuiatois.
Step 11: Stiess that, to pievent the escalation of
conflicts in all spheies of life, active, attentive
listening must be piacticeu.

uuiuelines foi Effective Listening

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Foui Ways to Listen Effectively
1. 0se youi bouy to say "I'm listening":
• fiequent eye contact
• nouuing the heau
• bouy oiienteu towaiu the speakei (heau,
aims, legs)
• say "yeah," "uh-huh," "I see," etc.
2. 0se "echo iesponses," iepeating a woiu oi
phiase spoken by the speakei. This
unobtiusively focuses attention of the speakei
on things that may be uncleai to you. Echo
iesponses allow you to uiiect the flow of
conveisation without majoi inteiiuptions.
S. "Paiaphiase" oi iestate what the speakei has
saiu in youi own woius. This is a ciucial skill
that iequiies piactice.
a. Focus on the speakei. "You."
b. Incluue both facts anu feelings. Bouy
language anu tone of voice will clue you to
c. A paiaphiase contains no hint of
juugment oi evaluation, but uesciibes
• "So you believe veiy stiongly that."
• "The way you see it then."
• "You weie veiy unhappy when he."
• "You felt quite angiy with youi
neighboi in that situation."
• "If I'm unueistanuing you coiiectly,
4. Summaiize the basic viewpoints of the
speakei as you've heaiu them. A summaiy is
an extenueu iestatement of the key points of
infoimation offeieu by the speakei. 0se the
summaiy to focus each paity's statement in
teims of issues anu solvable pioblems,
insteau of peisonalities. In the final summaiy,
obtain the agieement of the speakei that you
have summaiizeu both accuiately anu
1. What skills aie neeueu foi effective communication.
2. What aie the steps of the nonviolent communication piocess.
S. Can you think of othei elements that might be neeueu foi peaceful communication.
4. Bow can you incoipoiate what you leaineu heie into youi classioom piactice. Be
specific. What woulu be the benefit to youi stuuents.
Centei foi Council Tiaining Isiael (2u1u). Amutat Naagal Bakshava.

Bammei, A. (2u1u). Peisonal Communication.

0jai Founuation. (2u1u). :*09$3'$;&,-634< Retiieveu fiom

veiuiani, A. (Eu.). (2uuS). =-9(">?.(-6@$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."022(A$BC344'$D&"$;&-'9",693E($F3E3-.#$Intei-
Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies (INEE). Paiis: 0NESC0.

Reaiuon, B. A. & Cabezuuo, A. (2uu2).$Book 2: Sample Leaining 0nits#$F(0"-3-.$9&$?G&43'*$:0"A$H(06*3-.$
H&/0"8$0$;,49,"($&D$5(06(. New Yoik: Bague Appeal foi Peace.$

Rosenbeig, N. (2uuS). I&-E3&4(-9$;&22,-36093&-A$?$F0-.,0.($&D$F3D(. Encinitas, CA: Puuuleuancei.

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The Centei foi Nonviolent Communication: http:¡¡www.cnvc.oig¡)
It is beyonu the scope of this piogiam to pioviue in-uepth NvC tiaining. We highly iecommenu that you visit
the Centei foi NvC web site, wheie you will finu extensive iesouices. In auuition, we iecommenu ieauing
Naishall Rosenbeig's book on NvC (citeu above).

The Way of Council by Iack Zimmeiman anu viiginia Coyle.
This is quintessential ieauing foi anyone who wants to piactice the Council way.

The 0jai Founuation

Amutat Na'agal Bakshavah (Council Isiael)
oi wiite: Auia Bammei auiahammei@gmail.com

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the impoitance of asking skillful questions in peace euucation
• 0nueistanu uiffeient ways to think about asking questions
• What aie the chaiacteiistics of a "goou question." Think of the last time someone
askeu you a goou question. What was it.

0uestioning skills aie vital to effective teaching, anu aie paiticulaily impoitant to solving
the societal challenges that peace euucation seeks to auuiess. As a teachei, you shoulu be
able to leau the stuuents to leain what you want them to leain by asking the iight
questions. Fuitheimoie, teaching youi stuuents how to ask effective questions is a coie
pait of ciitical peuagogy.

Accoiuing to vogt, Biown anu Isaacs (2uuS),

0uestions open the uooi to uialogue anu uiscoveiy. They aie an invitation to
cieativity anu bieakthiough thinking. 0uestions can leau to movement anu action
on key issues: by geneiating cieative insights, they can ignite change (p. 4).
Not all questions aie cieateu equal, howevei. Some questions will leau to a ueau enu
(which, in itself, can be a leaining piocess), wheieas othei questions can leau to life-
changing iealizations. Accoiuing to vogt et al (2uuS), poweiful question:

Note: Paits of this section weie auapteu fiom the INEE Peace Euucation Piogiamme (veiuiani, 2uuS)

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• ueneiates cuiiosity in the listenei
• Stimulates ieflective conveisation
• Is thought-piovoking
• Suifaces unueilying assumptions
• Invites cieativity anu new possibilities
• ueneiates eneigy anu foiwaiu movement
• Channels attention anu focuses inquiiy
• Stays with paiticipants
• Touches a ueep meaning
• Evokes moie questions (p. 7).

Thiee key components to cieating poweiful questions aie constiuction, scope, anu
assumptions (vogt et al, 2uuS).
!"#$%&'(%)"# iefeis to the actual linguistic woiuing of the questions, which can impact its
effectiveness. When askeu, people iank the following question woius fiom most poweiful
to least poweiful as follows:


Think of the veiy simple uiffeience in asking a question such as "Bo you like youi job."
(which will elicit a yes¡no iesponse), compaieu to "Why uo you like youi job." which gives
the iesponuent moie oppoitunity foi ieflection anu possibility foi ueepei thinking in theii
iesponse. This uoes not mean that yes¡no questions aie not impoitant. In this example, it
might be appiopiiate to ask someone 3: they like theii job befoie asking /*;. While all
questions can be valuable, it is impoitant foi peace euucatois to be thoughtful anu aitful in
asking questions.

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The !"#$% of a question can be naiiow oi bioau, uepenuing on how it is askeu. A naiiowei
scope is often easiei in teims of uevising an action plan. Foi example, the question, "Bow
can we cieate a peaceful woilu." is a iathei uaunting question foi anyone, anu can iesult in
gieat hopelessness anu apathy as leaineis iealize all that neeus to be uone. Bowevei, a
moie specific question, such as "What aie some actions we can take to cieate a moie
peaceful classioom." becomes much moie tangible, as leaineis can immeuiately think of
simple actions that can be taken.
The thiiu element in cieating a poweiful question is biinging awaieness to the
&!!'($)*#+! that aie implicit in the question. Foi example, the question, "Bow can we
cieate a moie peaceful classioom." assumes that cieating a peaceful classioom is a
uesiiable goal foi the people who aie answeiing the question. vogel et al (2uuS) pioviue
the example:

So, contiast the question, 'What uiu we uo wiong anu who is iesponsible.' with
'What can we leain fiom what's happeneu anu what possibilities uo we now see.'
The fiist question assumes eiioi anu blame: it is a safe bet that whoevei is
iesponuing will feel uefensive. The seconu question encouiages ieflection anu is
much moie likely than the fiist queiy to stimulate leaining (p. S).

Fuitheimoie, examining hiuuen assumptions anu beliefs is a key pait of ciitical euucation
anu peace euucation. We shoulu examine implicit assumptions as much as possible, in
ouiselves ("Why uo I believe what I believe."), about what we ieau anu leain ("What aie
the assumptions in this news heauline¡textbook."), anu in iegaius to oui cultuie, which is
an impoitant way to uncovei oui own ethnocentiicities.
(This section has been auapteu fiom the INEE Peace Euucation Piogiamme, veiuiani,

Anothei way to think about questions is whethei they aie closeu oi open. ,-#!%./
0'%!)*#+! aie those wheie theie is a uefinite coiiect answei. If you aie ieviewing content,
you can ask closeu questions. They iequest one answei which is eithei iight oi wiong. (e.g.
S + 2 = .).
Closeu questions:

• Bave a single coiiect answei
• Rely on knowleuge anu compiehension

Bowevei, if the question is "What numbei combinations equal S.", then what is the
answei.$The answeis then may go to infinity uepenuing on how well the chilu unueistanus
the concept of numbeis. Nany teacheis assume that the answei they have in minu is the

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only coiiect answei, anu often this is not so. Theie may be many coiiect answeis. This
question is an !"#$%&'#()*!$ because theie aie many answeis, each one of which may be

In an examination, we tenu to ask mostly closeu questions to see if the chilu has the
iequiieu knowleuge, but often these aie the only questions that we ask. 0pen questions uo
not have a single coiiect answei. They ask the stuuent to think, to unueistanu, to analyze,
to synthesize anu to evaluate. These aie highei-level cognitive skills anu veiy impoitant in
peace euucation. Sometimes teacheis ask what sounus like an open question but they tieat
it as a closeu question (i.e. they want the answei that they have in minu). This is calleu
"uuess what the teachei wants to heai", anu it is a veiy unfaii game to play. If you uo play
this game (whethei you know it oi not), then soonei oi latei the leaineis will not iesponu
to questions at all as they cannot be suie of guessing coiiectly.

Foi example, a question such as "What uo you think woulu happen if .." is only tiuly open
if the stuuent is encouiageu to say what they think will happen. If the teachei is suie that
only one thing that happens is acceptable anu accepts an answei that agiees with his¡hei
own answei, then the question is actually closeu.

0pen questions aie those that have a vaiiety of answeis (not a list of answeis). 0pen
questions aie those wheie we tiy to finu out if the chilu unueistanus, if the chilu can put
togethei two pieces of infoimation to come up with an answei, if the chilu can uiscovei an
answei that is not expiessly wiitten in the book. 0pen questions involve highei levels of
cognition such as analysis, synthesis anu evaluation.

In peace euucation, wheie we aie tiying to uevelop attituues anu values, it is not enough to
know that the stuuent can iepiouuce what has been taught. If the chiluien cannot
unueistanu, how will they uiscovei that a statement may have bias. If they cannot
unueistanu anu put togethei pieces of infoimation, how will they solve pioblems, taking
into account all the factois. If they cannot evaluate, how will they be able to juuge faiily.
A piocess that may be useful in youi classioom anu youi piofessional uevelopment as a
peace euucatoi is calleu Appieciative Inquiiy. It was uevelopeu by Baviu Coopeiiiuei anu
his colleagues at Case Westein 0niveisity.

Accoiuing to Coopeiiiuei anu Whitney (2uu1), appieciative inquiiy

is about the coevolutionaiy seaich foi the best in people, theii oiganizations, anu
the ielevant woilu aiounu them. In its bioauest focus, it involves systematic
uiscoveiy of what gives "life" to a living system when it is most alive, most effective,
anu most constiuctively capable in economic, ecological, anu human teims (p. S).

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With most pioblem solving effoits, the focus is on what isn't woiking anu how to fix it. With
Appieciative Inquiiy, the focus is on what is woiking anu how to leveiage it (vogel, et. al,
2uuS). Coopeiiiuei's ieseaich has shown that human systems tenu to giow towaius what
they peisistently ask questions about. Thus, by asking questions about positive
possibilities, the system shoulu tenu to giow in the uiiection of possibility, iathei than

The Appieciative Inquiiy Piocess follows the basic assumption that "an oiganization is a
mysteiy to be embiaceu," anu follows the 4-B cycle, as shown in Figuie 9:

Beie aie some questions you might ask youiself as you begin to exploie the ait anu
aichitectuie of poweiful questions. They aie baseu on pioneeiing woik with questions
being uone by the Public Conveisations Pioject, a gioup that helps cieate constiuctive
uialogue on uivisive public issues.

• Is this question ielevant to the ieal life anu ieal woik of the people who will be
exploiing it.
• Is this a genuine question÷a question to which I¡we ieally uon't know the answei.

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• What "woik" uo I want this question to uo. That is, what kinu of conveisation,
meanings, anu feelings uo I imagine this question will evoke in those who will be
exploiing it.
• Is this question likely to invite fiesh thinking¡feeling. Is it familiai enough to be
iecognizable anu ielevant÷anu uiffeient enough to call foiwaiu a new iesponse.
• What assumptions oi beliefs aie embeuueu in the way this question is constiucteu.
• Is this question likely to geneiate hope, imagination, engagement, cieative action,
anu new possibilities oi is it likely to inciease a focus on past pioblems anu
• Boes this question leave ioom foi new anu uiffeient questions to be iaiseu as the
initial question is exploieu.

(Auapteu fiom Sally Ann Roth, Public Conveisations Pioject c. 1998, as citeu in vogt, et. al,
1. What aie the key components to consiuei when ueveloping a question.
2. Wiite youi own question foi compiehension anu ieflection foi this section, using
the techniques uiscusseu above. Then, answei it.
S. What plays a moie uominant iole in youi classioom: questions oi answeis. Why.
Aie you happy with this assessment. Why. Why not.
4. uive examples of Poweiful 0uestions that you ask stuuents in the couise of youi
teaching. Aie stuuents given oppoitunities to ask such questions in youi classioom.
S. Bevelop a shoit lesson plan that focuses on engaging stuuents in auuiessing anu
ueveloping open questions.
Coopeiiiuei, B. & Whitney, A. (2uu1). :$5&'393;($<(;&4,93&-$3-$=*0-.(>$:))"(63093;($?-@,3"A. Retiieveu fiom

veiuiani, A. (Eu.). (2uuS). ?-9("B:.(-6A$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."022(>$CD344'$E&"$=&-'9",693;($F3;3-.#$Intei-
Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies (INEE). Paiis: 0NESC0.

vogt, E., Biown, I., & Isaacs, B. (2uuS). G*($:"9$&E$5&/("E,4$H,('93&-'>$=0904AI3-.$?-'3.*9J$?--&;093&-$0-8$:693&-#
Nill valley, CA: Whole Systems Associates. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.thewoilucafe.com¡aiticles¡aopq.puf
Foi moie on Appieciative Inquiiy, incluuing multilingual iesouices, visit: http:¡¡appieciativeinquiiy.case.euu

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At the enu of this section, the paiticipants will:

• 0nueistanu the key concepts of expeiiential euucation, holistic euucation,
paiticipatoiy euucation, coopeiative leaining, seivice leaining, anu how they apply
to peace euucation
• 0nueistanu piactical ways to apply these appioaches into theii classioom
Befoie you ieau this section, consiuei the following questions:

• What aie some teaching appioaches that you alieauy use that coulu be useful in
peace euucation.
• Think of a time you engageu in community seivice oi volunteei woik. What uiu you
leain. What uiu you gain fiom the expeiience. Bow uiu it contiibute to youi
• Bave you evei been involveu in a collaboiative pioject oi involveu youi stuuents in
an activity that was baseu on collaboiative woik.

!"#$%&$'(&)*+$,-.)(&/' is a bioau teim that encompasses the leaining appioaches that
will be auuiesseu in this section as well as many otheis such as constiuctivism anu outuooi
euucation. The pioveib above is key to expeiiential euucation since it piomotes
active involvement in leaining, in contiast to othei less paiticipatoiy methous. Expeiiential
euucation is baseu on intentionally engaging leaineis in uiiect expeiience, which is
followeu by ieflection. The goal of expeiiential euucation is to gain knowleuge anu skills as
well as to give stuuents the foium to claiify theii peisonal values. Expeiiential euucation
uoes not neeu to take place within the classioom oi even within a tiauitional school
stiuctuie. Coaches, camp counselois, theiapists anu coipoiate team builueis can all be
expeiiential euucatois. Expeiiential euucation is stiongly baseu on the philosophies of
Iohn Bewey, Naiia Nontessoii anu Paulo Fieiie. It can take on uiffeient foims such as
holistic, paiticipatoiy, coopeiative, anu seivice leaining, which will be exploieu in gieatei
uetail below.

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1. Expeiiences shoulu be caiefully chosen as they neeu to suppoit ieflection, ciitical
analysis anu synthesis.
2. The expeiience must iequiie leainei initiative anu accountability. Theiefoie, the
leainei is active in posing questions, investigating, expeiimenting anu in geneial in
shaping the leaining expeiience.
S. Leaineis must be engageu not simply intellectually but also socially, emotionally,
spiiitually anu¡oi physically.
4. Relationships aie key to expeiiential euucation (the ielationship to one's self, to
otheis anu to the woilu).
S. Leaining is a peisonal piocess anu pioviues the basis foi futuie expeiiences.
6. The outcomes of the euucational expeiience can nevei be completely pieuicteu anu
theiefoie leaineis can leain just as much fiom mistakes as they can fiom success.
7. Spontaneous oppoitunities foi leaining aie just as impoitant as pie-planneu
8. The euucatoi must woik to set up appiopiiate expeiiences anu pioblems, cieate
bounuaiies anu ensuie safety. The euucatoi must also be waiy of his¡hei peisonal
biases that impact the leainei.
We will now look at foui types of expeiiential euucation: Bolistic Euucation, Paiticipatoiy
Euucation, Coopeiative Leaining, anu Seivice Leaining.
Bolistic woilu views in geneial aie chaiacteiizeu by compiehension of the paits of
something (inuiviuuals, inuiviuual leaining expeiiences) as intimately inteiconnecteu anu
explicable only by iefeience to the whole (the gieatei woilu). Bolistic euucation is baseu
on ielationships anu connections. Bolistic euucatois believe that both inteipeisonal anu
intiapeisonal aspects of euucation aie incieuibly impoitant.

Bolistic euucation is key to peace euucation since it looks at the ielationships between all
aspects of life. Peace uoes not anu cannot exist in a vacuum anu, theiefoie, inuiviuual
aspects of peace cannot be isolateu. Bolistic appioaches to euucation iecognize this anu
woik to incoipoiate all aspects of peace. Foi holistic euucatois the teim "ielationships"
iefeis to one's ielationship with one's self, othei human beings, animals, natuie anu iueas.

Since ielationships aie key, stuuents neeu to foim a ielationship with theii cuiiiculum anu
what they leain in school. To achieve this ielationship holistic euucatois believe in
piomoting connections between the cuiiiculum anu the lives of stuuents. Bue to the
centiality of these two iueas, ielationships anu connections, holistic euucatois believe that
eveiything is inteiconnecteu. Theiefoie, stuuents must leain how to see connections
between eveiything they leain in school anu out of school.

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Bolistic euucatois anu philosopheis aie laigely ciitical of the contempoiaiy euucation
system thioughout the woilu. 0ne of theii biggest ciitiques is that the cuiient system uoes
not incoipoiate the entiie stuuent. Bolistic euucatois believe that euucation touay only
focuses on the minu, while a tiue euucation must focus on the minu, bouy anu spiiit since
all of these aspects aie connecteu anu influence each othei.

0ne mouel of holistic euucation in piactice is seen in the Waluoif Euucational System.
Waluoif euucation was uevelopeu by Ruuolph Steinei in 1919 anu has the goal of engaging
the heau, the hanus anu the heait of chiluien in a uevelopmentally appiopiiate mannei.
Waluoif schools believe that the physical enviionment is impoitant foi leaining anu
theiefoie uecoiate theii schools in a coloiful anu pleasing mannei. Teacheis also evaluate
stuuents using haikus that expiess each stuuent's stiengths anu weaknesses, which may oi
may not have anything to uo with tiauitional acauemic aieas. Bolistic euucatois use
expeiiential euucation thiough the cieation of enviionments foi expeiimentation (see
section on Naiia Nontessoii) as well as thiough lots of time spent inteiacting with natuie.
Paiticipatoiy Euucation is an euucational mouel in which stuuents aie given an equal voice
with theii instiuctois oi leaueis in ueteimining cuiiiculum anu activities. All paiticipants
aie active in uefining theii own neeus as well as theii own uesiies. Beyonu simply uefining
these goals, all paiticipants woik to implement them anu then to evaluate the piocess that
they useu to achieve saiu goals. The oveiall puipose of paiticipatoiy euucation is uefineu
as impioving one's own life as well as the lives of otheis in the woilu by piomoting justice
anu equality. As such, paiticipatoiy euucation is a methouology that fits the methous of
peace euucation.
In classioom settings, the most common way in which paiticipatoiy euucation is enacteu is
thiough iole playing anu simulation. Role plays anu simulations woik to pique stuuents'
cuiiosity. When stuuents aie in iole they leain how to ask impoitant anu thoughtful
questions anu to use this to ciitically analyze situations. Simulations aie paiticulaily useful
when they aie uesigneu anu selecteu by stuuents, anu piesent a holistic pictuie of the
situation that is being uepicteu. Simulations anu iole play can sometimes be uaunting foi
teacheis. Theiefoie, below we compileu some suggestions on how to make this task
somewhat easiei.
Reseaich conuucteu iegaiuing simulations has iuentifieu seveial elements as key to
success. Foi teacheis who uesign theii own simulations, five elements have been
ueteimineu as key foi planning: taiget auuience, instiuctoi contiol, uuiation of the
simulation, the goals of the simulation anu how stuuents will uebiief the
activity. Auuitionally, the objectives shoulu be cleai, both in what the teachei wants the
stuuents to leain anu what the stuuents aie supposeu to achieve uuiing the simulation.
Fuitheimoie, all stuuents shoulu be actively engageu. It has been founu that simulations

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aie effective when they teach stuuents skills foi futuie piofessions, empathy, oi how to
navigate inteicultuial inteiactions anu piomote inteicultuial unueistanuing.
Paul Bosh, a piofessoi of Political Science anu Latin Ameiican Stuuies at Nacalestei College
(NN, 0niteu States), uses simulations successfully in all of his couises. Be pioviues his
stuuents with the following guiuelines when they aie piepaiing foi a simulation. These
guiuelines ensuie that stuuents aie as piepaieu as possible foi theii iole. Piepaiation is
key foi simulations, since stuuents neeu to unueistanu the mateiial befoie they can
paiticipate in a simulation. Auuitionally, stuuents cannot simply piepaie by knowing the
infoimation: they also must unueistanu how the simulation will opeiate anu how theii
chaiactei woulu iesponu to specific situations. By putting themselves in chaiactei anu
thinking about specific situations that might aiise, stuuents aie also woiking on leaining
the specifics of the situation that is being simulateu. The following aie his guiuelines (Bosh,
• Review youi notes on ieauings anu uiscussions ielevant to the simulation.
• Finu out specifics about youi chaiactei if possible anu unueistanu the specifics of the
• Put togethei a biief intiouuctoiy statement foi the beginning of the simulation.
Bepenuing on youi iole, this may be biief oi lengthy, passionate oi not,
autobiogiaphical oi not, goal-oiienteu oi not, etc. (This is specific to the stiuctuie of a
simulation which pioviues biief intiouuctoiy statements. Bowevei, even in simulations
that uon't have this component it can be helpful foi stuuents to think about how theii
chaiactei woulu intiouuce themselves to the situation).
• Nake lists of things youi chaiactei likes anu uislikes (be suie to incluue the names of
othei chaiacteis in iole-play). Nake the lists big so you have an opinion on as many
things as possible. When you make choices, seek to 3-6"(0'( conflict anu make the stoiy
moie inteiesting. This goes against oui noimal sensibilities, but in this setting, conflict
is uesiiable.
• List 1u positive aujectives about youi chaiactei. This is especially impoitant if you aie
playing a chaiactei with whom you uo not agiee iueologically.
• Refiain fiom moial juugment about youi chaiactei.
• What is youi status anu powei ielative to eveiyone else in the game. The point of the
exeicise is not foi you to "win," but foi you to uo a goou job playing youi chaiactei.
Who aie you afiaiu of. Who uo you have powei ovei. In oui game, youi chaiactei may
enu up "losing," but if you acteu youi chaiactei to the fullest than this is not a bau thing.
• What uo you want. What aie the consequences if you uon't get it. Bow fai will you
• Avoiu auveitising youi "tiue colois," especially in youi intiouuctoiy iemaiks. Think
about what youi chaiactei woulu actually say in public."

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Nany teacheis shy away fiom simulations since piepaiing one can appeai uaunting both
uue to its complicateu inteiactions anu because of the time commitment neeueu to make a
successful simulation. Bowevei, the stuuies stiess that goou simulations uo not neeu to be
time intensive anu in fact many goou simulations alieauy exist anu can simply be mouifieu
foi the neeus of the teachei. Auuitionally, a simple simulation can be just as effective as a
complicateu one.
Chiis Smith is a high school social stuuies teachei in veimont in the 0niteu States. Be also
uses simulations in his couises. Be believes that the haiuest aspect of planning a
simulation is finuing some way to keep all stuuents occupieu anu actively engageu in the
simulation. With uiffeient ioles in the simulation, it is almost inevitable that you will cieate
a situation in which a few stuuents have significantly moie to uo anu moie powei than the
iest of the stuuents. This is not necessaiily bau, since simulations aie uesigneu to
iepiesent ieal woilu situations, in which powei uynamics aie not even. Bowevei, to
auuiess this the teachei neeus to uesign the simulation in a way that gives eveiyone a
specific task anu iole.

An example that Smith gives fiom his 0S Bistoiy couise involves laboi ielations in the 0.S.
in the eaily 2uth Centuiy. This time peiiou was uefineu by fights foi laboi iights, using
stiikes anu unionizing, thioughout inuustiial cities of the 0niteu States. In this simulation
the majoiity of stuuents aie geneial laboieis. They aie given an in-uepth stoiy of theii
peisonal histoiy to help them ieact to specific situations. Bowevei, a few stuuents have
ioles that aie moie poweiful, such as the heau of the factoiy oi the spokespeison foi the
union. Theiefoie, Smith has to woik to ensuie that the stuuents who have poweiful ioles
uo not uominate in theii paiticipation in the simulation, since this will leau to boieuom anu
lack of involvement fiom the iest of the stuuents.
Thinking about assessment is also a key aspect of conuucting a simulation. Some
suggestions foi how to assess stuuents in a simulation aie:

1. !"#$%&'#%$#()*+,!-.-#/01 Self-ieflection gives stuuents the oppoitunity to explain theii
unueistanuing of key concepts fiom the simulation as well as to uiscuss how the
infoimation fiom the simulation applies to othei aieas of theii stuuy anu¡oi life. Stuuents,
especially those at highei levels, can also uiscuss if the constiuction of the simulation itself
was valiu.

2. 2##/!34.$5.)*+, is a useful tool when the simulation consists mostly of gioup woik,
since it gives a fullei peispective of the stuuents' woik.

S. 2+/)%+$*+0!aie incieuibly populai as a tool of authentic assessment, oi assessment that
emulates ieal-life conuitions. Theiefoie, they fit peifectly with simulations, which ievolves
aiounu cieating ieal-life situations within the classioom. Poitfolios woik best when the

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simulation is one that occuis ovei a long peiiou of time, as they allow stuuent giowth anu
change to be seen.

4. !"#$%$&#$#'()*'+,(*-)+'.(,$-/-.($-") iepiesent moie tiauitional methous of stuuent
assessment. Stuuents can be assesseu baseu on theii paiticipation in the simulation itself
as well as theii piepaiation foi the simulation. With iegaius to post-tests, stuuents shoulu
be testeu on aieas of compiehension that the teachei hopeu to teach via the simulation.
The post-test can be foi a giaue but it can often moie effectively be a mechanism by which
the teachei iuentifies his¡hei success in impaiting the concepts that he¡she wisheu to
shaie with the stuuents.
Cuiiently, theie is a uebate about whethei oi not simulations teach the acauemic aieas that
they aie intenueu foi. Theie seems to be no eviuence that stuuents leain acauemic
concepts bettei thiough simulations. Bowevei, theie is stiong eviuence that stuuents leain
empathy anu uecision-making skills thiough simulations.

Fiom the peispective of peace euucation, simulations teach anu piomote skills that aie
essential to peace euucation. Simulations have been shown to stiongly inciease stuuent
enjoyment anu engagement with the mateiial, which is moie impoitant in peace euucation
than test scoies.

Paiticipatoiy euucation is veiy much connecteu to the philosophies anu piactices that have
been put foith thioughout this peace euucation cuiiiculum since it woiks to connect the
ieal life of the stuuent to the euucational expeiience to make the euucation ielevant in the
stuuents' lives.
Coopeiative leaining can be a gieat way to teach all stuuents, as well as to engage in some
of the key aspects of Peace Euucation. Coopeiative leaining has been useu as a successful
tool in teaching conflict iesolution as well as uealing with iacial anu¡oi ethnic tensions
within a school.

Coopeiative leaining is leaining in a gioup in an enviionment that emphasizes woiking
togethei iathei than competition oi inuiviuualism. Bowevei, simply placing stuuents in
gioups oi conuucting gioup piojects uoes not ensuie coopeiative leaining. Tiue
coopeiative leaining has five tenets that guaiantee that stuuents aie actually woiking in a
mannei that piomotes coopeiation, iathei than simply localizing the competition to a
gioup level (Woolfolk, 2uu7). These tenets aie:

1. Peisonal inteiuepenuence,
2. Inuiviuual accountability,
S. uioup piocessing,
4. Social skills anu
S. Face-to-face inteiactions.

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Peisonal inteiuepenuence means that each membei of the gioup is uepenuent on the othei
membeis of the gioup to get the knowleuge that he oi she wants. This is because the
situation is stiuctuieu so that each membei of the gioup has something unique to shaie
that contiibutes to the knowleuge of the iest of the gioup. Bowevei, if membeis aie not
helu accountable inuiviuually (the seconu tenet), then some membeis will choose not to uo
theii woik, making the system unfaii foi those who uo woik. Theiefoie, teacheis have to
stiike a balance between these two foices to cieate an enviionment wheie eveiyone is
inteiuepenuent but juugeu on his oi hei own contiibutions anu meiit.

The next thiee tenets ensuie that all membeis of the gioup actually woik togethei.
Theiefoie, the gioup must piocess the iesults togethei (tenet S) to ensuie that they aie
logical anu that they achieve the aim of the gioup¡pioject. Auuitionally, in gioup
piocessing, the gioup membeis must woik togethei to evaluate theii piocesses anu
membei contiibutions. uioup membeis shoulu woik to ueteimine what they appieciate
fiom othei membeis anu what has not been so effective foi the oveiall gioup piocess (this
shoulu not be phiaseu in a way that is peisonally attacking, since that woulu uefeat the
puipose of coopeiative leaining). The activity must also woik to builu social skills (tenet
4), not simply acauemic ones. Some of these skills aie pioblem solving, tiust builuing, anu
leaueiship. Finally, the majoiity of the woik neeus to happen in a face-to-face
enviionment (tenet S), which allows stuuents to ask questions anu make connections as a
Coopeiative leaining is impoitant in peace euucation uue to the values that it piomotes.
Some of these values incluue:

• !"#$%%&'%()'"'$"'*("#$%%$)"+$$,: This value aiises since inuiviuuals woik to
contiibute to the benefit of all collaboiatois. To be successful one also neeus to
woik towaius the success of fellow classmates. Theiefoie, stuuents leain to caie
about the leaining of theii classmates, not just theii own. This also contiibutes to
values of teamwoik anu civic iesponsibility in which one neeus to believe that the
common goou is moie impoitant than the inuiviuual goou in achieving success.
• -$.'*/"Coopeiative leaining teaches that the woith of otheis anu self-woith aie
both unconuitional. The woith of otheis comes fiom the fact that in coopeiative
leaining, leaineis see that each peison has something unique to contiibute anu that
this is key to the success of the entiie gioup. Auuitionally, self-woith comes fiom
the fact that one's contiibutions aie consiueieu valuable to the gioup. Thiough
coopeiative leaining uiffeience is valueu anu cheiisheu iathei than shunneu oi
• 0$'&12'&$): Coopeiative leaining places impoitance on intiinsic motivation. Since
no one wins oi loses, the goal of stuuents is focuseu on leaining iathei than
The Jigsaw Method!DE',2(,2A!FGGFH!


Circle the Sage

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leaineu fiom theii sages anu woik togethei to auuiess uisciepancies anu to foim a
common answei.

Three-Step Interview
In this technique stuuents aie also placeu in teams. In the fiist step stuuents choose a
paitnei anu inteiview him oi hei using claiifying questions about the lesson. Next, the
paitneis ieveise the ioles. Finally, the iesponses aie shaieu with the full team.

Round Robin Brainstorming
To achieve this, the class is bioken into gioups that aie iueally 4 to 6 stuuents anu one
peison is uesignateu as the iecoiuei. The instiuctoi poses a question that uoes not simply
have one answei anu stuuents aie given "think time" to think about how they will answei.
Next, stuuents shaie theii iesponses, within theii gioup, in a iounu iobin style (taking
tuins, until each membei has hau a tuin). The iecoiuei wiites uown all of the answeis.

Three-Minute Review
In this activity, the instiuctoi, at any point uuiing classioom activities, stops anu gives
teams thiee minutes to both ieview what has happeneu up to that point in the class anu to
ask anu answei each othei's claiifying questions.

Numbered Heads Together
Each membei of a team is given a numbei. The instiuctoi poses vaiious questions anu the
gioups woik togethei to answei them. Then the instiuctoi ianuomly chooses a numbei to
call. Each peison with that numbei, fiom each gioup, then answeis the question.

Teach Pair Solo
This is the opposite of the Think-Paii-Shaie. Fiist, stuuents woik on pioblems as a team.
They then keep woiking on similai pioblems, but with just one paitnei, anu finally on theii
own. The goal of this activity is that the gioup pioviues scaffoluing foi stuuents to woik
togethei to solve pioblems beyonu theii ability. Then, with piactice, they will be able to
woik on the pioblem on theii own.
The key philosopheis whose woik pioviues the founuation foi this piogiam on peace
euucation have all suppoiteu the incoipoiating ieal-life into classioom expeiiences. 0ne
way in which this can be achieveu is thiough seivice leaining. Leain anu Seive Ameiica
uefines seivice leaining as an euucational stiategy that integiates community seivice with
instiuction anu ieflection. It is integial to the success of this stiategy that the community
seivice is meaningful anu is tiuly integiateu with the instiuction anu ieflection. If
community seivice is seen as something that is uone only on ceitain community seivice
uays, it will not be as poweiful as seivice that is pait of an ongoing effoit to connect the

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classioom anu the community. The seivice anu the euucation neeu to be given equal
impoitance anu cannot be sepaiateu. Accoiuing to Leain anu Seive Ameiica,

If school stuuents collect tiash out of an uiban stieambeu, they aie pioviuing a
seivice to the community as volunteeis: a seivice that is highly valueu anu
impoitant. 0n the othei hanu, when school stuuents collect tiash fiom an uiban
stieambeu, then analyze what they founu anu possible souices so they can shaie the
iesults with iesiuents of the neighboihoou along with suggestions foi ieuucing
pollution, they aie engaging in seivice-leaining.

Seivice leaining thus takes the community seivice ethos a step fuithei anu engages
stuuents in applying ciitical thinking skills, ieflection, anu analysis to take action to
impiove theii communities.
Seivice leaining piojects aie easy to integiate into the cuiiiculum foi stuuents fiom
pieschool thiough univeisity level anu beyonu, anu they aie wonueiful oppoitunities foi
stuuents to expanu theii hoiizons while also helping theii community. In the 0niteu States,
seivice leaining has been shown to impiove acauemic peifoimance, school attenuance, anu
the concept of iesponsibility. Effective seivice leaining is also coopeiative anu piomotes
teamwoik, auuiesses complex pioblems in theii context, piomotes leaining wheie theie
aie no iight answeis, anu challenges stuuents emotionally anu acauemically to think about
theii values anu assumptions (What Is Seivice Leaining, n.u.). Nost impoitantly, seivice
leaining allows stuuents of all ages to iealize the impoitance of helping otheis, anu it
pioviues an oppoitunity foi stuuents to expanu theii woilu view anu actively woik to builu
a cultuie of peace in theii communities.
Accoiuing to Robeit Sigmon (1979), theie aie thiee piinciples that guiue seivice leaining.
The fiist piinciple is that those seiveu shoulu contiol what seivices aie pioviueu. This
piinciple woiks to ensuie that seivices being ienueieu aie actually neeueu anu wanteu by
the community. The seconu piinciple is that those being seiveu become bettei able to
seive anu be seiveu by theii own actions. The final piinciple is that those who seive aie
also leaineis anu have significant contiol ovei what is expecteu to be leaineu.

In 1989, the Piinciples of uoou Piactice in Seivice-Leaining (Bonnet & Poulsen,
1989) weie uevelopeu in consultation with 7u oiganizations inteiesteu in seivice anu
leaining. These piinciples, which seive as excellent guiuelines, state that the essential
components of goou piactice in seivice leaining aie when the pioject:

1. Engages people in iesponsible anu challenging actions foi the common goou.
2. Pioviues stiuctuieu oppoitunities foi stuuents to ieflect ciitically on theii seivice
S. Aiticulates cleai seivice anu leaining goals foi eveiyone involveu.
4. Allows foi those with neeus to uefine those neeus.

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S. Claiifies the iesponsibilities of each peison anu oiganization involveu.
6. Natches seivice pioviueis anu seivice neeus thiough a piocess that iecognizes
changing ciicumstances.
7. Neeus genuine, active, anu sustaineu oiganizational commitment.
8. Incluues tiaining, supeivision, monitoiing, suppoit, iecognition, anu evaluation to meet
seivice anu leaining goals.
9. Insuies that the time commitment foi seivice anu leaining is flexible, appiopiiate, anu
in the best inteiests of all involveu.
1u. Is committeu to piogiam paiticipation by anu with uiveise populations.

Seivice leaining can be an incieuibly poweiful tool, but its powei significantly weakens
when it is not useu coiiectly. Theiefoie, teacheis neeu to take into account all of these
consiueiations, which will maximize the possibility of a positive expeiience foi all

Nany schools alieauy have community seivice iequiiements in place foi theii stuuents.
These iequiiements often take the foim of school-wiue community seivice uays oi a
iequisite numbei of seivice houis to be completeu inuiviuually each semestei. As
mentioneu above, these foims of community seivice uo not embouy seivice leaining
because they encouiage stuuents to view community seivice eithei as an isolateu,
infiequent event, oi as an unsavoiy obligation to be fulfilleu in a houge-pouge mannei.
Seivice leaining is most effective when it takes the foim of a moie long-teim oi involveu
pioject that also involves elements of complementaiy euucation anu ieflection. Piojects
that aie uesigneu anu caiiieu out as a class, with the teachei's guiuance anu peisonal
ieflection, aie often moie meaningful. A system that iequiies inuiviuual seivice houis
coulu also be effective, but it woulu neeu to stipulate that all houis be completeu with one
pioject oi oiganization, anu that the stuuent tuin in a ieflection papei¡pioject at the enu of
theii volunteei woik in oiuei to fulfill the iequiiement.
0ne excellent piogiam that suppoits seivice leaining in the 0niteu States is Peace Fiist.
The piogiam was staiteu in the 199us as a iesponse to the high homiciue iates in uiban
aieas in the 0niteu States. The iuea behinu the piogiam is that youth shoulu be pioblem-
solveis iathei than victims. The cuiiiculum iequiies that the stuuents meet once a week
foi an entiie school yeai. Stuuents spenu the fiist semestei leaining uevelopmentally
appiopiiate skills that ielate to peace builuing. They then spenu the seconu semestei
woiking on a seivice pioject. This is a pioject that is uesigneu by the gioup of stuuents to
auuiess what they consiuei to be an issue in the community.

0ne example of a community seivice pioject caiiieu out by Peace Fiist seconu giaueis in
Boston was to cieate a joke book foi sick chiluien in the local hospital. Anothei pioject,
caiiieu out by Peace Fiist Kinueigaitneis in New Yoik, was to builu a sculptuie out of all of
the non-ieusable lunch tiays fiom one uay at the school. They useu this uisplay to
uemonstiate to the school auministiation the impoitance of having ieusable lunch
tiays. The Peace Fiist piogiam is successful because it allows the stuuents to iuentify neeus

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in theii communities anu authentically ueteimine ways to auuiess these pioblems.
Auuitionally, the leaining that took place in the fiist semestei is uiiectly tieu to the seivice
action in which the stuuents paiticipateu in the seconu semestei.
1. 0f the methous uiscusseu above, which one sounus the most useful in youi context.
What can you imagine immeuiately applying in youi classioom. Bow woulu you
apply it.
2. Constiuct a iole-play oi simulation involving a local issue. Explain how this
appioach woulu engage the stuuents anu pioviue a moie meaningful anu effective
leaining expeiience than leaining the same concepts fiom a textbook.
S. Think of a Seivice Leaining pioject that coulu be uevelopeu in youi community.
What woulu it be. Bow woulu youi stuuents anu the community benefit. What
exactly woulu youi stuuents leain.
Laisson, E. (n.u.). 50"9363)09&":$78,6093&-;$<*09$0-8$<*:. Retiieveu fiom

Smith, Chiis. Peisonal inteiview. 24 Nay 2u1u.
Aionson, I. (Eu.). (2uu2). =2)"&>3-.$?608(236$?6*3(>(2(-9;$=2)069$&@$5':6*&4&.3604$A069&"'$&-$78,6093&-#$NY:
Acauemic Piess.

Coopeiative School. (n.u.). B*($C&&)("093>($D(0"-3-.$C(-9(". Retiieveu fiom

Iohnson, B. W., & Iohnson, R. T. (n.u.). The values Resulting fiom Coopeiation. In C&&)("093>($D(0"-3-.E$F04,('E$
0-8$C,49,"044:$54,"04$C40''"&&2'. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.coopeiation.oig¡pages¡CLanuB.html#coopval

Woolfolk, A. E. (2uu7). 78,6093&-04$5':6*&4&.:$G9(-9*$(8393&-H#$Boston, NA: Allyn anu Bacon.
Bonnet, E. P. & Poulsen, S. I. (1989). Piinciples of uoou Piactice foi Combining Seivice anu Leaining: A
Wingspieau Special Repoit. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡seiviceleaining.oig¡filemanagei¡uownloau¡Piinciples_of_uoou_Piactice_foi_Combining_Seivice_

Sigmon, R. (1979). Seivice leaining: Thiee Piinciples. I:-(".3'9, Spiing, p. 9-11.

What is Seivice Leaining. (n.u.). Leain anu Seive Ameiica website. Retiieveu fiom

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The Coopeiative Leaining Centei, 0niveisity of Ninnesota$
Simulations anu Role Play
The Ameiican Political Science Association.

7+.2#/+)3+'.&#&4) )
0niveisity of Noith Caiolina Seivice Leaining Peuagogy Resouice:

Leain anu Seive
A 0.S. goveinment oiganization site that houses many iesouices iegaiuing seivice leaining. Foi teacheis
fiom the 0niteu States, the feueial goveinment also pioviues giants foi seivice leaining piogiams. Leain anu
Seive also maintains a uatabase of seivice leaining iueas anu cuiiiculai examples at the following auuiess:

uiiaffe Club
An oiganization ueuicateu to encouiaging inuiviuuals ("giiaffes") who "stick theii necks out" to help otheis.
The giiaffe club's piogiam can be applieu to classiooms of all levels, anu has been veiy successfully useu even
with elementaiy school chiluien.

National Youth Leaueiship Council
0iganization that piomotes seivice leaining. The website contains all soits of iesouices about seivice
leaining, incluuing a libiaiy of pioject examples.

National Seivice-LeainingPaitneiship
0nline netwoik that has compileu links to a plethoia of seivice leaining pioject examples, as well as iueas anu
iesouices conceining the ieflection anu assessment aspects of seivice leaining.

Peace Fiist

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As you ieau this section, think of the following questions:

• What is the cuiient cultuie of peace at my school.
• What woulu the iueal cultuie of peace be like at my school.
• What aie some stiategies that I can use to help piomote a cultuie of peace.
• What aie the challenges to a cultuie of peace in my school oi community.
• Bow can my school be a catalyst foi builuing a cultuie of peace in the gieatei

While implementing peace euucation is an impoitant step towaius builuing a cultuie of
peace, oui effoits shoulu not simply stop insiue the classioom. The goal is not just to leain
about peace, but to builu a 6,49,"( of peace. In oiuei to tiuly piomote a cultuie of peace, we
must go beyonu the classioom walls anu extenu this effoit to oui entiie school, community,
anu the wiuei woilu. Although oui peace euucation effoits might stait in oui classioom, we
shoulu tiy to get the whole school anu community involveu.

Accoiuing to the 0niteu Nations, "The Cultuie of Peace is a set of values, attituues, moues of
behavioui anu ways of life that ieject violence anu pievent conflicts by tackling theii ioot
causes to solve pioblems thiough uialogue anu negotiation among inuiviuuals, gioups anu
nations" (0NESC0, 2u1u). Builuing a cultuie of peace in youi school means stiiving to
manifest peace euucation in action anu behavioi in uaily life. A key component of peace
euucation is moueling these values, attituues, behaviois anu ways of life, by tuining
knowleuge anu theoiy into action.

When stuuents aie exposeu to peace euucation, the way they aie engageu in leaining
shoulu ieflect the values that this euucation impaits. Foi this ieason, it is essential to not
only teach about peace within the classioom but to also cieate a cultuie of peace in the
school. This means that all of the values that have been uefineu thioughout this cuiiiculum
must be incoipoiateu into activities anu inteiactions thioughout the school. Below aie
vaiious techniques foi how to builu a cultuie of peace in youi school, anu examples of how

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acauemic staff, paients - shoulu be involveu in assessing the cuiient cultuie anu
envisioning what an iueal cultuie of peace woulu look like.

The fiist step in cultuie of peace assessment is uefining the cultuie of peace. You shoulu tiy
to answei the question: :*09$3'$39$9*09$/($0"($0323-.$;&"< The eailiei section on cultuie of
peace exploies seveial uiffeient fiamewoiks that can be useu to guiue community
membeis towaius a cultuie of peace concept foi theii setting. Auams (2uu9) auvocates foi
using the 0NESC0 mouel foi a univeisally-accepteu appioach anu applicability. Foi
example, in oiuei to auapt the 0NESC0 mouel to the school context, the aiea of
inteinational peace anu secuiity coulu be changeu to local peace anu secuiity. As this
piocess is euucative, it is impoitant foi the community to unueistanu the concepts of a
cultuie of peace, anu to uefine a cultuie of peace as ielevant to them.

0nce you have ueteimineu the fiamewoik oi uefinition foi a cultuie of peace, you can use
an assessment tool to guiue youi inquiiy to the question :*("($0"($/($-&/<$Possible tools
incluue questionnaiies, ait piojects, class uiscussions, anu focus gioups. Beie aie some
examples of questionnaiies that can be useu to assess the cultuie of peace. The questions
outlineu below can also be useu in othei types of assessment foimats.

1) Canauian Centies foi Teaching Peace have uevelopeu a cultuie of peace assessment tool
that can be useu to uevelop assessment inuicatois. This tool can be useu on its own, oi it
can be useu to uevelop inuicatois, which woulu then be useu in anothei questionnaiie oi
uata collection methou.

2) Anothei questionnaiie stiategy is to take youi school's "tempeiatuie" on peace, human
iights, multicultuialism, oi any of the othei sub-categoiies within this peace cuiiiculum.
The 0niveisity foi Ninnesota Buman Rights Centei has uevelopeu a human iights
tempeiatuie questionnaiie. Theie is a questionnaiie in which stuuents, teacheis, staff,
auministiatois anu paients¡guaiuians aie askeu to assess (on a scale of 1 to 4) if vaiious
iights fiom the 0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights (0BBR) aie pait of theii school's
cultuie. These questions can be easily auapteu to ielate to any othei aiea of peace
euucation as well as to the ieality of youi school.

S) You can also uevelop youi own suivey oi assessment methou, baseu on youi
community's uefinition of a cultuie of peace. At the enu of this section theie aie some
sample questions to assess a cultuie of peace. These questions auuiess the values,
attituues, moues of behavioi anu ways of life iefeiieu to in the 0NESC0 uefinition of a
cultuie of peace.

These questions aie auuiesseu to community membeis. Bowevei, the questionnaiie coulu
be auapteu foi uiffeient gioups of the community that woulu have commonalities in theii
expeiience, foi example, stuuents, teacheis, staff, paients, etc.

While these questions aie in the foim of a questionnaiie, this is just one way that
community membeis can be involveu in the assessment. Some people piefei to paiticipate

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in wiiting, as peihaps they communicate most effectively in wiiting. 0theis piefei
anonymity. Bowevei, auuitional methouologies shoulu be incluueu, such as inteiviews, ait
piojects, gioup uiscussions oi focus gioups. These questions coulu seive as a guiue foi
inteiviews oi uiscussion. In a cultuie of peace assessment, using uiffeient moues of
assessment allows community membeis to paiticipate in uiffeient ways, anu woulu
stiengthen the oveiall assessment piocess.

The question categoiies aie baseu on the 0NESC0 cultuie of peace fiamewoik (categoiy 8
is changeu fiom "inteinational peace anu secuiity" to "local peace anu secuiity"). The main
stiength of this fiamewoik is that it is the most univeisally iecognizeu, as it was uevelopeu
by the 0niteu Nations. Bowevei, as a community, you may wish to incluue auuitional
components useu in othei mouels. Please see the Cultuie of Peace section foi auuitional

It shoulu be noteu that a cultuie of peace is a constant piocess, anu thus iequiies
continuous (peihaps annual) assessment in oiuei to piogiess. If such an assessment is
caiiieu out annually, you can monitoi youi piogiess towaius a cultuie of peace, anu auopt
policies anu piogiams that stiengthen the aieas that aie alieauy stiong, anu suppoit the
aieas wheie the cultuie of peace may be weakei.
Aftei completing the fiist step of cultuie of peace assessment, the community shoulu
envision what an iueal cultuie of peace woulu look like. Techniques useu in Futuies
Euucation coulu be useu to guiue the community towaius a collective vision of a cultuie of
peace. Foi example, you coulu holu a one-uay woikshop thiough which community
membeis woulu envision an iueal cultuie of peace. 0uestions about each aiea of a cultuie
of peace coulu guiue the woikshop:

• What woulu euucation look like unuei a cultuie of peace.
• What woulu oui school look like if sustainable uevelopment piinciples (such as
those in the Eaith Chaitei) weie integiateu.
• What woulu oui school look like if human iights weie iespecteu anu piomoteu
acioss the community.
• What woulu oui school look like with peifect genuei equality.
• What woulu oui school look like with paiticipatoiy communication anu a fiee flow
of infoimation. What woulu community-wiue communication look like in a cultuie
of peace. What woulu inteipeisonal communication look like in a cultuie of peace.
• What woulu oui school look like if unueistanuing, toleiance, anu soliuaiity weie
• What woulu oui school look like with incieaseu uemociatic paiticipation.
• What woulu oui school look like with incieaseu local peace, secuiity, anu safety.

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These questions can also be expanueu to encouiage stuuents to envision what a cultuie of
peace in theii community beyonu school walls woulu look like (i.e. family, town, city,

The aits coulu be useu as a cieative technique to envision the cultuie of peace. Foi
example, you coulu ask stuuents to uiaw a pictuie of what the cultuie of peace woulu look
like, anu then ask stuuents to shaie theii uiawings anu talk about them.

0nce you have establisheu wheie you aie on the cultuie of peace spectium anu wheie you
want to go, you neeu to uevelop stiategies foi how to piogiess towaius a cultuie of peace.
Beie aie some suggestions foi how to piomote a cultuie of peace in youi school. A cultuie
of peace can be piomoteu in many ways, anu you shoulu be as cieative as possible.

0ne iuea foi the oveiall piomotion of a cultuie of peace woulu be to highlight one cultuie of
peace aiea pei month, anu to focus activities on that aiea foi the month (foi example, you
coulu use Naich as uenuei Equality month, in conjunction with Inteinational Women's

1. Euucation

• Integiate peace euucation peuagogies in all subject aieas.
• Allow lots of space foi stuuent-leu activities, uialogue.
• Ensuie that the mateiials leaineu aie applieu to stuuents' lives.
• Incoipoiate seivice leaining, expeiiential leaining.
• Cieate a balanceu, equal ielationship between all community membeis, anu all
community membeis value the knowleuge of otheis.
• Bevelop a school chaitei¡classioom chaitei with the stuuents that auheies to the
cultuie of peace piinciples, anu that eveiyone can agiee to.

2. Sustainable Economic anu Social Bevelopment

• Bevelop a school-wiue sustainable uevelopment policy, incluuing, but not limiteu to,
• Celebiate Eaith Bay (Apiil 22) anu Woilu Enviionment Bay (Iune S).
• Stait an Enviionment Club.
• Integiate the Eaith Chaitei into the cuiiiculum

S. Buman Rights

• Celebiate Inteinational Buman Rights Bay (Becembei 1u).
• Ensuie that youi school is accessible to people of uiffeient abilities.

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• Piomote fiee speech in conjunction with paiticipatoiy infoimation anu the fiee flow
of infoimation.
• Bolu woikshops¡events on uiveisity, equality, uisciimination, anu othei human
iights-ielateu themes.
• Incoipoiate the Convention on the Rights of the Chilu (CRC) into the cuiiiculum (see

4. Equality between men anu women

• Celebiate Inteinational Women's Bay (Naich 8).
• Nainstieam genuei equality in the cuiiiculum.
• Ensuie that giils aie ieceiving equal access to euucation anu iesouices (foi example,
if you live in an aiea wheie giils' eniollment is low, woik towaius incieasing giils'
• Piomote genuei equality in staff (such as genuei paiity, equal pay).

S. Bemociatic paiticipation

• Encouiage uemociatic uecision-making at all levels of the school (i.e, stuuent bouy,
have stuuent iepiesentatives on committees).
• Piomote the uemociatic paiticipation of stuuents in theii leaining piocess.
• Take a fielu tiip to local goveinment offices foi stuuents to leain about the
uemociatic piocess in action in theii community.

6. Paiticipatoiy communication anu the fiee flow of infoimation

• Bevelop vaiieu methous of communication within youi school (web site, newslettei,
announcements, iauio bioaucasts, etc, uepenuing on the meuia available in youi
• Piomote stuuent involvement in communications, such as thiough a stuuent web
site, newslettei, newspapei, iauio show, etc.
• Integiate nonviolent communication tiaining anu skill-builuing foi all community

7. 0nueistanuing, toleiance anu soliuaiity

• Integiate multicultuial unueistanuing piogiams as pait of the cuiiiculum oi
extiacuiiiculai activities.
• Piomote soliuaiity by finuing a "sistei school" in anothei pait of the woilu (can be
uone thiough a pen pal exchange between stuuents, oi if computeis aie accessible,
• Integiate anti-iacism euucation into the cuiiiculum.

8. Local peace anu secuiity
• Celebiate Inteinational Bay of Peace (Septembei 21).

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o visit http:¡¡peaceoneuay.oig¡en¡euucation foi lesson plans fiom Peace 0ne
• Integiate nonviolent conflict iesolution tiaining foi all community membeis.
• Bevelop a school-wiue peei meuiation piogiam.
Repoits fiom the 0niteu Nations that focus on cieating a cultuie of peace emphasize the
impoitance of placing stuuents togethei who aie typically sepaiateu by society. This can
be thiough giving giils anu boys equal oppoitunities oi by placing stuuents fiom gioups
that aie in conflict (example: Isiaelis anu Palestinians) in the same location. The iuea is
that when stuuents woik togethei within a school setting they will cieate a peace that will
emanate into the laigei society. The 0niteu Nations iecommenus that any piojects in
which stuuents must woik togethei (see the Coopeiative Leaining section foi moie on how
to woik togethei) can piomote a cultuie of peace. These activities can iange fiom planting
tiees togethei oi to planning tiips, especially to aieas that expeiience conflict (whethei
that conflict is completely uiffeient oi incieuibly similai to what the stuuents expeiience in
theii home community). 0ne example can be seen in a gioup of youth fiom Noithein
Iielanu (both Piotestant anu Catholic youth) who tiaveleu to the Niuule East to meet with
Aiab anu Isiaeli youth anu shaie expeiiences anu solutions to the violence that they see in
theii lives (ulobal Youth Soliuaiity Funu anu Piogiamme, 2uu6).
0xfam Inteinational has funueu a successful piogiam foi teaching peace euucation to
elementaiy school stuuents in Senegal (Bufstauei, 2uu7). In this piogiam, cieating a
cultuie of peace within the school happens when the stuuents aie actively integiateu into
the stiuctuie of the school. A stuuent goveinment bouy, which incluues a ministei of
human iights, helps oiganize activities that piomote peace within the school cultuie.
School auministiatois anu instiuctois, as well as peei meuiatois, also inteivene when
uisagieements tuin violent (in language oi in actions) anu woik with all paities to uevelop
a solution.
Thioughout Latin Ameiica, with the help of 0NESC0, schools have taken on piogiams to
piomote a cultuie of peace to auuiess the juvenile violence that exists thioughout the
iegion. In Nexico, a piimaiy school auopteu a piogiam which incoipoiateu cieating a
cultuie of peace among its stuuent bouy anu also ensuiing that the paients unueistoou anu
woikeu with the cultuie of peace (0NESC0 Santiago, 2uu1). The stuuents anu theii paients
woikeu with vaiious peace concepts foi a peiiou of time via ieflections, uiawings, games,
lectuies anu analysis. The school hau gieat success in incoipoiating the values of peace
into both the euucational anu the bioauei community. A school in Aguascalientes, Nexico
implementeu school-wiue woikshops to uiscuss the human iight of euucation foi all,
especially ensuiing that maiginalizeu communities hau access. Thiough these woikshops

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stuuents also cieateu an enviionment in which theii opinions weie listeneu to anu valueu
anu in which stuuents giew to value civic paiticipation as an integial aspect of both theii
euucation anu theii futuie.
In Noiway some schools have useu music to cieate cioss-cultuial peace (Skyllstau, 2uuu).
Noiway has a laige immigiant population (mostly iefugees anu asylum seekeis), anu
expeiiences tensions ielateu to the heteiogeneous population. Theiefoie, some schools
ueciueu to auopt intei-ethnic musical piogiams to piomote a cultuie of peace within theii
schools. Nusic is an example of an activity that woiks well because it iequiies stuuents
fiom vaiious backgiounus to woik togethei. When stuuents woik togethei to cieate music
they cieate something that is gieatei than what they coulu have uone alone. They also
bonu anu impiove social skills. Reseaich of intei-ethnic music piogiams in Noiway shows
that they weie incieuibly successful in piomoting a cultuie of peace within the schools
wheie they weie implementeu.
In the afteimath of the genociue in Rwanua, many Nu0s have taken up the cause of
piomoting a cultuie of peace, both within the schools anu outsiue the foimal euucation
system (Institut fui Fiieuenspauagogkik, 2u1u). These piogiams focus on cieating
stiuctuies that piomote justice anu national ieconstiuction. The piogiams aie also
cuiiently moving towaius incoipoiating moie aspects of communication anu conflict
iesolution skills. These euucation piogiams have been impoitant in iebuiluing Rwanua as a
society baseu in peace, iathei than conflict.
0ne pioblem that peace euucatois encountei is that tiauitional textbooks oi othei
mateiials ignoie the contiibutions of peace makeis anu the iueas of peace. Nost histoiy
books focus on battles anu conflict, not peace. Auuitionally, school cuiiicula may iequiie
teacheis to focus on violent paits of human histoiy. This entiie cuiiiculum is uesigneu to
pioviue teacheis with the iesouices neeueu to help auuiess the lack of books anu
infoimation. With iegaius to cuiiiculum, teacheis must woik to be cieative in ueteimining
how to connect peace to what the stuuents aie leaining. The Auvocates foi Buman Rights
have shown gieat success in connecting theii human iights cuiiicula to vaiious State
Stanuaius. To see how they have achieveu this, visit theii website at
0ne of the biggest impeuiments to all euucation is when stuuents' basic neeus - such as
access to auequate, nutiitious foou, clean watei anu basic safety - aie not met. This can be
especially tiue foi peace euucation since violence is a common iesult of poveity, anu

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poveity is often the iesult of stiuctuial violence (see Negative anu Positive Peace). When
stuuents encountei baiiieis to fulfilling theii basic neeus, teacheis must woik to empowei

Within peace euucation, teacheis can woik with stuuents to cieate change iegaiuing the
situations that they face. The Living values Euucation Piogiam (LvEP) was staiteu to teach
peace to chiluien in iefugee camps (Tillman, 2uu1). Tillman (2uu1) uesciibes this piogiam
as it was implementeu in a Kaien iefugee camp. Theie weie conceins expiesseu that
teaching peace to the iefugees woulu encouiage them to choose nonviolence, which coulu
enuangei theii lives. Theiefoie, peace euucation in the context of violence was fiameu with
iegaius to iebuiluing the countiy when the conflict was ovei. The LvEP piogiam tiaineu
teacheis to go anu teach a cultuie of peace to the membeis of theii camps. The teacheis
weie tiaineu to leau chiluien in ieflection activities in a safe enviionment anu to
expeiience peace, love anu iespect within the classioom. The stuuents also uiscusseu
conflict anu how it comes about, both fiom theii peisonal peispectives anu inteinational
As mentioneu above, peace is often neglecteu in euucation. Bowevei, inteinal oi spiiitual
peace is ignoieu to a gieatei extent, even sometimes within the fielu of peace euucation.
Theiefoie, teacheis must ensuie that they aie appioaching theii stuuents with a holistic
peispective so that stuuents leain the impoitance of inteinal peace as well as exteinal
peace. Both the Flowei mouel anu the Integial mouel (see Cultuie of Peace section) incluue
peisonal oi innei peace as components to a cultuie of peace. Some techniques foi the
piomotion of inteinal peace incluue: jouinaling: time foi ieflection (inuiviuually, in paiis oi
as a gioup): silent peiiou¡meuitation: bieathing exeicises: ait: yoga. The techniques useu
shoulu be cultuially appiopiiate foi the setting in which you aie teaching. Bowevei, as
uiffeient techniques iesonate with uiffeient people, you shoulu expose stuuents to as many
uiffeient techniques as possible, anu then peihaps set asiue "peisonal peace" time, uuiing
which stuuents coulu elect to engage in theii piefeiieu methou of piacticing peisonal
peace. Fuitheimoie, stuuents shoulu be encouiageu to piactice peisonal peace thioughout
theii uays anu theii lives, not just uuiing the uesignateu piactice time. Incoipoiating these
piactices will cieate a moie peaceful classioom enviionment.
While builuing a cultuie of peace in youi school is the fiist step, it is impoitant that this
pioject uoes not just stop at the school walls, but iathei extenu to the gieatei community.
Nany of the piojects listeu above incluueu the paiticipation of membeis of the wiuei
community. 0nce you have staiteu to builu a compiehensive cultuie of peace piogiam at
youi school, you can begin to extenu this piogiam to the outsiue community. Bowevei, this
uoes not have to be a lineai piocess, anu the soonei you can incluue the wiuei community,
the bettei.

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0ne way to stait is to cieate a Peace Zone aiounu the school, peihaps using a one-block oi
two-block (1uu-2uu metei) iauius. A peace zone woulu be moie than a weapons-fiee zone,
but iathei a zone wheie nonviolence, justice, equality, anu enviionmental sustainability aie

The school can also use seivice leaining oppoitunities to intiouuce cultuie of peace
piinciples to the community. Foi example, the school coulu host a community event foi
piomoting human iights oi enviionmental sustainability, oi stuuents coulu piomote
inteinational unueistanuing anu soliuaiity by holuing a funuiaisei foi a maiginalizeu oi at-
iisk community. Theie aie many ways that the school can be a catalyst anu mouel foi a
community cultuie of peace - the only limit is youi cieativity!
Peace euucation is not just foi the foimal euucation sectoi. Although this piogiam has
focuseu on peace euucation foi piimaiy anu seconuaiy foimal school settings, peace
euucation can also happen in the nonfoimal anu infoimal settings, anu this is impoitant foi
builuing a community cultuie of peace, anu biinging peace euucation to all community

!"#$"%&'()*+,-'./"# iefeis to euucation that explicitly occuis outsiue the foimal school
system. Foi example, this coulu incluue computing classes at a local libiaiy, language
classes at a language centei, oi music classes at a cultuial centei. In nonfoimal euucation,
the euucating itself is still explicit, but it takes place outsiue the iealm of state-suppoiteu
schooling. An example of nonfoimal peace euucation in youi community might be offeiing
a woikshop foi auults on peace euucation (see suggestions below).
0#$"%&'()*+,-'./"# iefeis to euucation that takes place outsiue of the foimal anu
nonfoimal sectois, anu is euucation that is neithei intentional noi planneu. Peihaps the
thiee most common iealms of infoimal euucation aie the family, peeis, anu the meuia. It is
impoitant not to unueiestimate the powei of the infoimal sectoi in euucation. Euucatois
shoulu always be thinking of ways to engage the infoimal sectoi. Foi example, you coulu
issue a piess ielease to attiact the local meuia to youi peace euucation effoits, anu this
exposuie woulu in tuin euucate the local community about peace euucation. You coulu also
tiy to paitnei with a local iauio station to inteiview you anu youi stuuents about peace
As peace euucation is intenueu to be a path foi life-long leaining, it is impoitant to consiuei
the iole of auult euucation in builuing a community cultuie of peace. While foimal
euucation plays an impoitant iole in values foimation anu skillbuiluing foi peace, chiluien
may ietuin to theii homes wheie they witness physical oi veibal violence. Whenevei
possible, the paients of the chiluien shoulu be consulteu anu incluueu in the cuiiiculum.
Theie aie a few ways this can be uone. 0ne way woulu be to holu woikshops, eithei in the

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evenings oi on the weekenus, foi paients to uevelop similai skills to those that theii
chiluien aie being taught. Anothei way woulu be to cieate a peace euucation newslettei,
which woulu seive as a means to infoim the paients, anu coulu also be a foim of
empoweiment foi the stuuents by putting the newslettei uesign in theii hanus. You coulu
also stait a paients peace euucation stuuy gioup that woulu be paient-iun. Theie aie many
ways that the paients can be incluueu anu, ultimately, you shoulu think about uiffeient
ways that you can engage paients in suppoiting theii chiluien's peace euucation.

What about the othei auults in the community who uo not have school-ageu chiluien.
Eventually, it woulu be iueal to incluue piogiams that aie available to all community
membeis. The Intei-Agency Netwoik foi Euucation in Emeigencies has uevelopeu a peace
euucation community manual which is available foi fiee online
mmunity_Woikshops.puf). While it might be beyonu the scope of youi woik to take on
community initiatives, you coulu speak with othei membeis of the community who might
be able to suppoit such a piogiam.
In oiuei foi peace euucation to tiuly take holu in the minus anu heaits of stuuents, it neeus
to be a community effoit. 0ne appioach woulu be applying the piinciples of Euucating
Cities to youi city, town oi village. The goal of Euucating Cities movement is to tuin the city
into a total intentional, positive leaining enviionment, with the aim of piomoting the
uevelopment of all its inhabitants. This is baseu on the iuea that all cities have the capacity
to be euucating, but often they euucate in negative ways. The piinciples of Euucating Cities

• Investing in euucation so as to allow each inuiviuual to uevelop to theii fullest
potential as a human being:
• Piomoting the conuitions foi full equality so that eveiyone can feel iespecteu, anu
eveiyone can entei into uialogue with otheis:
• 0nifying these factois so that city by city we can cieate a tiue knowleuge society
that can allow eveiyone to achieve theii potential (Inteinational Association of
Euucating Cities, 199u).

In applying peace euucation piinciples to this concept, the city woulu make an intentional
effoit to piomote peace euucation at all levels of society, anu to make euucation the lens
thiough which the city views itself.
0ltimately, the goal of peace euucation shoulu be the tiansfoimation of society to a cultuie
of peace, which will iequiie the euucation anu paiticipation of all membeis of society. By
expanuing the cultuie of peace beyonu youi school walls, you can builu a movement within
youi community anu beyonu to the wiuei woilu.

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Auams, B. (2uu9).$:&"48$5(06($;*"&,.*$9*($;&/-$+044#$Self-publisheu Available at:

ulobal Youth Soliuaiity Funu anu Piogiamme. (2uu6). <&,9*$=&&)("093&-$>&"$=,49,"($$&>$5(06($0-8$!304&.,(
|Pamphlet]. Retiieveu fiom: http:¡¡www.uecaue-cultuie-of-peace.oig¡iepoit¡YouthRepoit.puf

Bufstauei, C. (2uu7). ?,3483-.$0$6,49,"($&>$)(06($3-$@(-(.04$. Retiieveu fiom 0xfam Ameiica website:

Institut fui Fiieuenspauagokik. (2u1u). ;"03-3-.$3-$;(06*3-.$1(9*&8'$3-$&"8("$9&$A(3->&"6($0$$ =,49,"($&>$5(06($
3-$@6*&&4'$B$A/0-80# Retiieveu fiom:
ng_in_teaching_methous_in_oiuei_to_ieinfoice_the_cultuie _of_peace_in_schools_iwanua

Inteinational Association of Euucating Cities. (199u). Chaitei of Euucating Cities. 1
Inteinational Congiess
of Euucating Cities, Baicelona. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.bcn.es¡eucities¡aice¡aujunts¡Chaitei%2uof%2uEuucating%2uCities% 2u2uu4.puf

Skyllstau, K. (2uuu). Cieating a Cultuie of Peace The Peifoiming Aits in Inteiethnic Negotiations. In
C-9("6,49,"04$=&22,-36093&-'D$Novembei, issue 4. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.immi.se¡inteicultuial¡ni4¡skyllstau.htm

Tillman, B. u. (2uu1). Euucating foi a Cultuie of Peace In Refugee Camps. In Chiluhoou Euucation:
Inteinational Focus Issue. Retiieveu fiom: http:¡¡www.livingvalues.net¡iefeience¡uocs-puf¡lviefugee.puf

0NESC0. (2u1u). =,49,"($&>$5(06(E$:*09$3'$C9F Retiieveu fio

0NESC0 Santiago. (2uu1). =,49,"0$8($50G$(-$40$7'6,(40E$1(H&"('$5"I69360'$(-$40$5"(J(-63K-$L$;"09023(-9&$8($40$
M3&4(-630$7'6&40 |The cultuie of peace in schools. Best piactices in the pievention anu tieatment of school
violence]. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡poital.unesco.oig¡geogiaphy¡en¡ev.php-

0niveisity of Ninnesota Buman RIghts Resouice Centei. (2u1u). ;0N3-.$<&,"$+,20-$A3.*9'$;(2)("09,"(.
Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.hiusa.oig¡thisismyhome¡pioject¡temp.shtml

Wells, L. C. (2uuS). A Cultuie of Teaching Peace. Piesenteu to the 0NESC0 Confeience on Inteicultuial
Euucation in Finlanu on Iune 16, 2uuS. Retiieveu fiom: http:¡¡www.commonuieams.oig¡viewsuS¡u616-


1. Euucation
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about peace.
- Bo community membeis value peace.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills foi peace in the classioom (i.e., nonviolent communication,
conflict iesolution, etc.).
- Bo community membeis behave peacefully in the classioom. In common aieas.
- Bow aie peace euucation piinciples integiateu acioss the cuiiiculum.
- Aie peace euucation peuagogies useu.
- What is the stuuent-teachei ielationship like.

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2. Sustainable Economic anu Social Bevelopment
- Bo community membeis leain about sustainable uevelopment.
- Bo community membeis value sustainable uevelopment.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills foi living sustainable uevelopment.
- Bo community membeis behave in ways that piomote sustainable uevelopment.

S. Buman Rights
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about human iights.
- Bo community membeis value human iights.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills to piomote human iights.
- Bo community membeis behave in ways that piomote theii own human iights. the iights of otheis.

4. Equality between men anu women
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about genuei equality.
- Bo community membeis value genuei equality.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills to piomote genuei equality.
- Bo community membeis behave in ways that piomote genuei equality.

S. Bemociatic paiticipation
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis value genuei uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills to piomote uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis have the oppoitunity to paiticipate uemociatically in uecisions that affect

6. Paiticipatoiy communication anu the fiee flow of infoimation
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis value genuei uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills to piomote uemociatic paiticipation.
- Bo community membeis have the oppoitunity to paiticipate uemociatically in uecisions that affect

7. 0nueistanuing, toleiance* anu soliuaiity
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge about unueistanuing. toleiance. soliuaiity.
- Bo community membeis value unueistanuing. toleiance. soliuaiity.
- Bo community membeis uevelop skills to piomote unueistanuing. toleiance. soliuaiity.
- Bo community membeis behave in ways that piomote unueistanuing. toleiance. soliuaiity.

8. Local peace anu secuiity
- Bo community membeis uevelop knowleuge to piomote local peace anu secuiity (i.e., conflict
iesolution, knowleuge about safety).
- Bo community membeis value local peace, secuiity, anu safety.
- Bo membeis uevelop skills to piomote local peace, secuiity, anu safety (i.e, conflict iesolution skills,
safetly skills).
- Bo membeis behave in ways that piomote local peace, secuiity anu safety.

*You may wish to change the teim "toleiance" to "iespect" oi "acceptance". Sometimes "toleiance" may have a
negative connotation (i.e., to put up with something). In any case, all of the teims useu in these questions
shoulu be cleaily uefineu anu¡oi changeu as ielevant to the community.

Teacheis Without Boiueis | !"#$%&'()*$+,-./0$1(2&"304$5(06($78,6093&-$5"&."02 | 0nit S

- Su -
Congiatulations! You have completeu 0nit S anu aie veiy close to finishing this
piofessional uevelopment piogiam on peace euucation. The final step involves
uemonstiating youi masteiy of this fielu by ueveloping a piactical iesouice that can be
useu to biing peace euucation to youi classioom, school, oi community.

Befoie you begin that cieative piocess, you can piepaie by ieviewing the contents of 0nit

• Take a moment to ieflect on the peuagogies anu piactices piesenteu in this unit anu
think about how you can implement them in youi classioom.
• Think of any questions you have about peace euucation anu how to put it into
piactice. Biscuss the questions with youi stuuy gioup, youi colleagues, oi the
piogiam facilitatoi.
!"#$"%&"''()'%*+(,%-+(.)/%01"%2(+3/ is a compilation of lesson plans publisheu by
the Bague Appeal foi Peace foi the ulobal Campaign foi Peace Euucation. As the title
suggests, these lessons come fiom peace euucatois acioss the globe anu pioviue
excellent examples of peace euucation lesson plans foi all ages, giaue levels,
settings, anu cultuies. We have extensively ieseaicheu the available iesouices in
peace euucation, anu feel that this selection of lessons pioviues the holistic,
tiansfoimative appioach that is cential to peace euucation. These lessons can seive
as a piactical guiue foi implementing peace euucation in youi classioom iight now.
By tiying these lessons out with youi stuuents, you can see what woiks in youi
context, anu begin to builu youi own peace euucation lesson plans.

We woulu like to extenu oui ueepest giatituue to the Bague Appeal foi Peace foi
making this iesouice available to teacheis aiounu the woilu, anu we hope that oui
uistiibution of the iesouice will biing peace euucation into moie teacheis' hanus.

4 Credits and Acknowledgements
5 Conceptual Introduction to the Lessons Betty A. Reardon
7 Preface Kader Asmal
9 Editors' Notes on Methodology Andrea S. Libresco and Jeannette Balantic
12 irss6× · Elements of a Peaceful Society
17 irss6× z Structural Violence: Barrier to Peace?
20 irss6× ¡ The Seville Statement and the Science of Hope
26 irss6× z Television Violence
31 irss6× · International Law and Prevention of War
40 irss6× z Evaluating Women's Rights
48 irss6× ¡ Is There a Human Right to Sustainable Development?
55 irss6× z Children's Mock Parliament
66 irss6× · The Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century
71 irss6× z Perspective -Taking and Common Ground
78 irss6× ¡ Nonviolent Resistance Movements
86 irss6× z Traditional Ways: Lessons for Building Peace Today -
A South African Case Study
453"/%*7 %*4"3.".&/5"/%)6."/4&$63*5:
95 irss6× · Town meeting: A Forum for Redefining Security
101 irss6× z How Our Government Spends Our Money: Human Security versus
National Security
106 irss6× ¡ Banning Landmines
116 irss6× z Taking Action for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World
127 Afterword Cora Weiss
130 Tirana Call for Peace Education
132 Contributors
138 Resources A Ten-Question Guide to Constructing Your Own Peace Lesson,
as suggested by Betty A. Reardon
139 References for Peace Educators
eace education seeks to enable learners to envision a range of possibilities that could lead
from a culture of war and violence to a culture of peace. One widely used method to
encourage such envisioning is posing an inquiry into the characteristics of peace. ɨis
lesson from a society, deeply aĊected by a violent cultural practice in which direct retri-
bution was more common than justice through law, poses such an inquiry to inspire students to
imagine a culture of peace.
key Question What is necessary for a peaceful society?
In Albania, violence is evidenced through blood feuds, or acts of revenge. If a person kills another
person, the family of the victim is obliged to kill a male member (females were spared) of the
murderer's family. During the dictatorship that ruled Albania from 1945-1990, the state executed
all those engaged in blood feuding.
Although blood feuding was oċcially outlawed in 1990, its roots are deep and widespread
throughout Albania. Blood feuding re-emerged in 1997 after economic and political crises. Blood
feuding causes fear: many children and women remain in their homes immobilized and, as a re-
sult, children did not attend school for years.
EĊorts are being made to educate students about nonviolence and human rights via peace edu-
cation programs. ɨis lesson lays a foundation for students to explore the elements necessary to
create a peaceful society.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Blackboard, Handouts
Duration 45 minutes
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Describe elements of a peaceful society
- Analyze and interpret quotes about the nature of peace
- Design a proposal that outlines the criteria nations should adopt to achieve a peaceful society

t Describe elements of a peaceful society
t Share descriptions with a partner, and develop a new joint description
t Share descriptions as a class; create a class description on chart paper
We have just generated a description of a peaceful society. In this lesson, we will examine a variety
of conceptions of peace from activists who have been working for peace much of their lives. By
the end of the lesson, you should be able to assess the conceptions of peace presented and develop
a new conception of peace that you will re-examine throughout the course of the year.
Distribute handout.
Students will work in groups to analyze and interpret quotes about peace in order to generate a
list of elements necessary for a peaceful society.
Class discussion should be guided by the following questions:
t To what extent is peace the absence of war?
t To what extent does injustice aąect peace?
t To what extent does the distribution of resources aąect peace?
t To what extent does inequality aąect peace?
t To what extent does distribution of power aąect peace?
t What is necessary for a peaceful society?
In pairs, write a proposal for the United Nations that outlines the criteria that nations should
adopt to achieve a peaceful society. Share proposals with class.
t Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace, United Nations Resolution
A/53/243: http://decade-cu|ture-of-peace.org/reso|utions/resA-53-243B.htm|
t Culture of Peace Decade: http://decade-cu|ture-of-peace.org/
4PVSDF Inspired by Gvetjan Veshaj (Robert Gjedia), Researcher and In-Service Teacher Trainer,
Albanian Institute for Pedagogical Studies
HANDOU1 I ¡ ~¡
Directions Read each quote and list elements necessary for a peaceful society.
¡ v6u ct××6) siuui)t×r6usiv vvrvr×) t×o vvrvtvr r6v wtv.
z wtv ct××6) nr iuut×izro. i) ct× 6×iv nr tn6iisiro.
-Albert Einstein (1879-1955) physicist, anti-war activist, awarded the
Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922
¡ tii iuut×i)v is 6×r u×oiviorot×oi×oivisinir rtuiiv, t×ortci
6×r 6r us is vrsv6×sinir r6v )ir uisorros 6r tii 6)irvs.
a )irvr is ×6 wtv )6 vrtcr. vrtcr is )ir wtv.
-Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) Indian leader of satyagraha, theory
and practice of nonviolent resistance. He led the peaceful Indian re-
sistance to British rule.
¶ ir v6u tvr ×ru)vti i× si)ut)i6×s 6r i×ìus)icr, v6u itvr ci6-
sr× )ir sior 6r )ir 6vvvrss6v.
6 ir )ir w6vio c6uio r×o tvtv)irio )ir w6vio ct× r×o wtv.
-Archbishop (Ret.) Desmond Tutu (1931- ) Johannesburg, South
Africa, founder of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, award-
ed the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984.
¡ )ir c66o wr srcuvr r6v 6uvsrivrs is vvrctvi6us t×o u×crv-
)ti× u×)ii i) is srcuvro r6v tii 6r us t×o i×c6vv6vt)ro i×)6
6uv c6uu6× iirr.
-Jane Addams (1860-1935) founder of the social settlement Hull
House in Chicago in 1919. ɨe nrst president of the Women's
International League for Peace and Freedom, she was awarded the No-
bel Peace Prize in 1931
8 1irvr is ×6 )vus) u6vr stcvro )it× )ir 6×r )ir w6vio
i6ios wi)i ciiiovr×. 1irvr is ×6 ou)v u6vr iuv6v)t×)
)it× r×suvi×c )it) )iriv vici)s tvr vrsvrc)ro, )it) )iriv
wrirtvr is vv6)rc)ro, )it) )iriv iivrs tvr rvrr rv6u rrtv
t×o wt×) t×o )it) )irv cv6w uv i× vrtcr.
Kofi A. Annan, (1938- ) Secretary-General of the United Nations.
ç vrtcr nrci×s wir× )ir iu×cvv tvr rro.
¡o i× srvtvt)r×rss iirs )ir w6vio's cvrt) uisrvv: i× c6uvts-
si6× iirs )ir w6vio's )vur s)vr×c)i.
-The Buddha. Founder of the Buddhist philosophy, born around 565
B.C. in Nepal. Buddha means ¨enlightened one".
E|ements necessary
for a peacefu| society

¡¡ wtvs utxr v66v )66is r6v ctvvi×c 6u) vrtcrrui
-Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) U.S. Christian Minister and
leader of the U.S. civil rights movement, awarded the Nobel Peace
Prize in 1964.
¡z i) is ×6) v6wrv )it) c6vvuv)s, nu) rrtv. rrtv 6r i6si×c v6w-
rv c6vvuv)s )i6sr wi6 wirio i) t×o rrtv 6r )ir sc6uvcr 6r
v6wrv c6vvuv)s )i6sr wi6 tvr sunìrc) )6 i).
-Aung San Suu Kyi (1945- ) Leader of the democracy movement in
Burma, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. She was the dem-
ocratically elected President, and in a coup d`etat was arrested and
remains under house arrest.
¡¡ i) is×') r×6uci )6 )tix tn6u) vrtcr. 6×r uus) nriirvr i× i).
t×o i) is×') r×6uci )6 nriirvr i× i). 6×r uus) w6vx t) i).
-Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), American human rights activist,
stateswoman, journalist, educator, author, diplomat; First Lady of the
United States (1933-1945). She chaired the committee that drafted
and approved the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
¡a )ir vtcirs)'s )tsx )6otv is )6 r×o t ur)i6o 6r irivi×c
t×o irtii×cwiicivv6viors t vrv6iu)i6×tvv c6×s)vuc)ivr
suns)i)u)r r6v wtv.
-Vera Brittain, (1893-1970) Pacinst, best known for her book Testa-
ment of Youth, in which she tells the story of her harrowing experi-
ences in the First World War.
¡¶ vrtcr is ×6) )ir vv6ouc) 6r t vic)6vv 6v t c6uut×o. i) its
×6 r×isii×c ii×r, ×6 r×ti ortoii×r, ×6 rxro orr×i)i6×
6r tciirvrur×). vrtcr is t ×rvrv-r×oi×c vv6crss, )ir w6vx
6r ut×v orcisi6×s.
-Oscar Arias (1941- )Born in the United States. President of Costa
Rica from 1986-1990, mediated a peace agreement in Nicaragua
and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987. Re-elected President in
January 2006.
¡6 r6v )ir c6×crv) 6r t wtv-rvrr w6vio )6nrc6ur u×ivrvstiiv
tccrv)ro t×o c6×sci6usiv to6v)ro nv utxi×c wtv iiircti, t
vv6crss 6r rouct)i6× wiii nr vr6uivro t) tii irvris: rouct-
)i6×r6v vrtcr, rouct)i6×r6v w6vio ci)izr×siiv. wtv is ×6)
t× i×irvr×) rirur×) i× iuut× s6cir)v.
-Sir Józef Rotblat (1908-2005), Polish-born British physicist, Nobel
Peace Prize 1995 for his eĊorts towards nuclear disarmament. One
of the most prominent critics of the nuclear arms race, he signed the
Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955 and was knighted in 1998.
E|ements necessary
for a peacefu| society

HANDOU1 I ¡ ~z
Directions In your role as peace activist, write a proposal to the United Nations outlining the
criteria nations should pledge to adopt to achieve a peaceful society.
1o Secretary-General Kon Annan
United Nations, NY 10017, USA
From ____________________________
Sub[ect Criteria for a Peaceful Society

he root causes of war are deep, varied and systematically interrelated. Peace education
focuses on the interrelationships among the various causes, identifying them as forms
of violence (i.e. avoidable harm.) ɨis lesson introduces the concept of ¨structural vio-
lence", a term used by peace researchers and peace educators to characterize the avoid-
able harm of deprivation and economic oppression suĊered by many throughout the world.
key Question Can there be genuine peace in a world without an equitable distribution
of wealth??
Robert Gilman (founder of the Context Institute, one of the nrst NGOs to focus directly on sus-
tainability) poses the question above because he recognizes that the human tendency toward and
preparations for open warfare are certainly the most spectacular obstacles to peace, but are not
the only challenges we face. For much of the world's population, hunger, not war, is the pressing
issue, and it is hard to imagine a genuine peace that did not overcome our current global pattern
of extensive poverty in the midst of plenty.
Hunger and poverty are two prime examples of what is described as ¨structural violence", that is,
in-built violence that exists in the inequalities of societal structures; where gross power imbalances
inevitably lead to substantial diĊerences in people's chances of life. Uneven resource distribution,
access to medical supplies, hygiene, education, income and of course political power are a result
of structural violence (Gilman, 1997).
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts, web and data resources
Duration 3 days
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Identify countries currently experiencing direct violence
- Analyze data regarding distribution of wealth in those countries
- Explain the causal relationship between structural violence and direct violence
- Evaluate the extent to which there can be genuine peace with inequitable distribution
of wealth

Ask students to name nations or regions experiencing violent connicts. Brainstorm root causes of these
connicts. (Students may say some of the following: ethnic/religious diĊerences, border disputes, com-
petition for resources -possibly ignoring the structural violence examined in this lesson.)
You have just identined some of the more obvious causes of violent connict. Today we will explore
some of the structural causes of violent connict. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to
discuss the relationship between structural violence and direct violence.
Write ¨structural violence" on the board and ask students what they think it means.
After they list possible aspects and examples of structural violence, supply them with Gilman's
dennition: In-built violence that exists in the inequalities of societal structures.uneven resource dis-
tribution, access to medical supplies, hygiene, education, income.
Discussion should be guided by the following questions:
t How can these inequities be considered ¨violence"?
t Do any of these structural forms of violence play a role in the examples of direct violence s you gave
at the beginning of the lesson?
Using the handout, students will investigate a case study of a country (Afghanistan) experiencing
violence today and in the recent past.
Working in groups, students will either select or be assigned a nation that recently experienced
violent connict (e.g., Rwanda, Sudan, Iraq, Haiti, Kosovo, East Timor). Each group will research
quality-of-life data for its country, and prepare a presentation for the class.
t How signifcant is structural violence?
t How does one measure the impact of injustice?
t To what extent does structural violence contribute to direct violence?
t Can there be genuine peace in a world with inequitable distribution of wealth?
Use the data from class presentations on countries experiencing violence to write an essay answering
the question, ¨Can there be genuine peace in a world with inequitable distribution of wealth"?
t Gilman, R. (1997). ¨Structural Violence", Context 4: Foundations of Peace, Context Institute,
p. 8. www.context.org/ICLIB/IC04/Gi|man1.htm.
t United Nations CyberSchoolBus www.cyberschoo|bus.un.org/infonation3/menu/advanced.asp.
4PVSDF Inspired by Gvetjan Veshaj (Robert Gjedia), Researcher and In-Service Teacher Trainer,
Albanian Institute for Pedagogical Studies

Afghanistan was selected as an example of a country that has undergone and continues to un-
dergo violent connict. Norway was selected simply as a point of comparison.
- Which statistics give you the greatest insight into the quality of people's lives? Why?
- What other statistics would help you understand the quality of people's lives?
- To what extent can any of these statistics be considered indices of structural violence in
- Add statistics from your own country to the chart in the space provided.
- Assess the quality of life in your own country.
- To what extent does structural violence exist in your own country?
GDP per capita (in US $)
Telephone Lines per 100 people
Water Availability -
cubic meters per capita
Education Expenditure as
percentage of GNPs
Infant Mortality Rate
per 1000 births
Fertility Rate (avg. number of
children born per woman)
Your Nation

n denning violence as avoidable harm, peace education challenges the assumption of the in-
evitability of violence and its utility as a means to achieve human purposes, such as protect-
ing nations and resolving connict. If learners are to study alternatives to violence eĊectively
and responsibly, they will need to explore and assess those assumptions. ɨis lesson oĊers
such an exploration
key Question To what extent is the abolition of war possible?
To enable us to transcend the culture of war and violence we need, among other things, to ex-
amine assumptions that promote this culture. One such assumption is that violence and war
are inherent in human nature and, therefore, they are inevitable. ɨis notion must be examined
because it is used to justify violence and war as natural methods of connict-resolution.
Public opinion polls have found that 60 percent of the US population (Marullo and Hlava-
cek, 1994), and 55 percent of students in Finland believe that war is inherent in human nature
(Ridicki, 1999). Similarly, in the Philippines, over 60 percent of student-respondents doubted
that wars could be avoided (Castro, 1990).
¨ɨe Seville Statement on Violence" (UNESCO, Spain, 1986), which was endorsed by UNES-
CO, repudiates this notion about the biological and genetic basis of war and violence. ɨe Seville
Statement asserts that rather than being a natural or biological state of aĊairs, war is a social event
that can be explained by social factors. Supporters of this statement believe that wars can be pre-
vented by creating social conditions that make wars less likely to happen.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts
Duration 45 minutes
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- List arguments in the nature-nurture debate regarding causes of violence
- Read the Seville Statement and identify arguments opposing the notion that violence is inher-
ent in human nature

Write the statement below on the board. Ask students to explain in writing why they agree or
disagree with the statement:
¨Violence is inherent in our human nature".
Poll the students, and discuss their reactions, recording their arguments on the board.
Share with students that the scientinc community has, for the most part, rejected biological de-
terminism and emphasized nurture in the nature-nurture debate.
We have just discussed the roots of violent behavior. Today, we will discuss the feasibility of pre-
venting war based on the scientinc consensus regarding human nature. By the end of the lesson,
you should be able to apply these arguments to another situation involving violence.
Have the class read the Seville Statement on Violence, answering the corresponding questions. Lead
a class discussion based on the students' responses.
Select one of the violent issues in society that you identined in our discussion (bullying, gangs,
domestic violence, child abuse). Use the reasoning of the Seville Statement as a model to create
your own statement on the issue of violence you have selected.
t Barash, David (1991). Introduction to Peace Studies. Belmont: Wadsworth Inc., pp. 137-145.
t Castro, Loreta (1990). ¨Students' Concepts of Peace and Attitudes toward Peace Issues: Impli-
cations for Peace Education in the Social Studies Curriculum," a doctoral dissertation.
t Marullo, S. and Hlavacek, I. (1994). ¨War as a Social Problem". R. Elias and J. Turpin., Re-
thinking Peace. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publication, pp. 62-68.
t UNESCO Education Portal: http://porta|.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_
t UNESCO Seville Statement: http://porta|.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_
t Zinn, Howard (January 2006). ¨After the War". Dze Progressive.
4PVSDF Adapted from a unit by Loreta Castro, Director, Center for Peace Education, Miriam
College, Philippines

Directions Read the Seville statement below and answer the questions.
Believing that it is our responsibility to address from our particular disciplines the most danger-
ous and destructive activities of our species, violence and war.we, the undersigned scholars from
around the world and from relevant sciences, have met and arrived at the following Statement on
Violence. In it, we challenge a number of alleged biological nndings that have been used, even by
some in our disciplines, to justify violence and war. Because the alleged nndings have contributed
to an atmosphere of pessimism in our time, we submit that the open, considered rejection of these
misstatements can contribute signincantly to the International Year of Peace.
Misuse of scientinc theories and data to justify violence and war is not new and has been made
since the advent of modern science. For example, the theory of evolution has been used to justify
not only war, but also genocide, colonialism, and suppression of the weak..
We state our position in the form of nve propositions..
It is scientihcally incorrect to say that we have inherited a tendency to make war from our ani-
mal ancestors. Although nghting occurs widely throughout animal species, only a few cases of
destructive intraspecies nghting between organised groups have ever been reported among natu-
rally living species, and none of these involve the use of tools designed to be weapons. Normal
predatory feeding upon other species cannot be equated with intraspecies violence. Warfare is a
peculiarly human phenomenon and does not occur in other animals.
ɨe fact that warfare has changed so radically over time indicates that it is a product of culture.
Its biological connection is primarily through language which makes possible the co-ordination
of groups, the transmission of technology, and the use of tools. War is biologically possible, but
it is not inevitable, as evidenced by its variation in occurrence and nature over time and space.
ɨere are cultures which have not engaged in war for centuries, and there are cultures which have
engaged in war frequently at some times and not at others.
It is scientihcally incorrect to say that war or any other violent behaviour is genetically pro-
grammed into our human nature. While genes are involved at all levels of nervous system func-
tion, they provide a developmental potential that can be actualised only in conjunction with the
ecological and social environment. While individuals vary in their predispositions to be aĊected
by their experience, it is the interaction between their genetic endowment and conditions of nur-
turance that determines their personalities. Except for rare pathologies, the genes do not produce
individuals necessarily predisposed to violence. Neither do they determine the opposite. While
genes are co-involved in establishing our behavioural capacities, they do not by themselves specify
the outcome.

It is scientihcally incorrect to say that in the course of human evolution there has been a selec-
tion for aggressive behaviour more than for other kinds of behaviour. In all well-studied species,
status within the group is achieved by the ability to co-operate and to fulnll social functions
relevant to the structure of that group. 'Dominance' involves social bondings and aċliations; it
is not simply a matter of the possession and use of superior physical power, although it does in-
volve aggressive behaviours. Where genetic selection for aggressive behaviour has been artincially
instituted in animals, it has rapidly succeeded in producing hyper-aggressive individuals; this
indicates that aggression was not maximally selected under natural conditions.
When such experimentally created hyper-aggressive animals are present in a social group, they
either disrupt its social structure or are driven out. Violence is neither in our evolutionary legacy
nor in our genes.
It is scientihcally incorrect to say that humans have a 'violent brain'. While we do have the neu-
ral apparatus to act violently, it is not automatically activated by internal or external stimuli. Like
higher primates and unlike other animals, our higher neural processes nlter such stimuli before
they can be acted upon. How we act is shaped by how we have been conditioned and socialised.
ɨere is nothing in our neurophysiology that compels us to react violently.
It is scientihcally incorrect to say that war is caused by 'instinct' or any single motivation. ɨe
emergence of modern warfare has been a journey from the primacy of emotional and motivation-
al factors, sometimes called 'instincts', to the primacy of cognitive factors. Modern war involves
institutional use of personal characteristics such as obedience, suggestibility, and idealism; social
skills such as language, and rational considerations such as cost-calculation, planning, and infor-
mation processing. ɨe technology of modern war has exaggerated traits associated with violence
both in the training of actual combatants and in the preparation of support for war in the general
population. As a result of this exaggeration, such traits are often mistaken as the causes rather than
the consequences of the process.
We conclude that biology does not condemn humanity to war, and that humanity can be freed
from the bondage of biological pessimism and empowered with conndence to undertake the
transformative tasks needed in this International Year of Peace and in the years to come. Although
these tasks are mainly institutional and collective, they also rest upon the consciousness of indi-
vidual participants for whom pessimism and optimism are crucial factors. Just as 'wars begin in
the minds of men,' peace also begins in our minds. ɨe same species who invented war is capable
of inventing peace. ɨe responsibility lies with each of us.
What is the principal argument for each of the nve propositions and what is the strongest sup-
porting information for each argument?
- What is meant by the nnal phrase in the document, ¨Just as 'wars begin in the minds of men,'
peace also begins in our minds. ɨe same species who invented war is capable of inventing
peace. ɨe responsibility lies with each of us"?
- Do you agree with the conclusion? If so, what can you do, as an individual to prevent war?
- List examples of violence in your school, community, country where the principles of this state-
ment are applicable.

Directions Select an example of violence from your school, community, or country that
needs to be addressed (bullying, gangs, domestic violence, child abuse). Use the reasoning
of the Seville Statement as a model to create your own statement on the violent issue you
have selected.
Statement on the Prevention of vio|ence in _______________________________________________
Introduction (Explain the nature of the problem.)
Propositions (In at least two propositions, explain the extent to which your problem is caused by
human actions as opposed to genetics.)
Conc|usion (Discuss the extent to which your community has cause for hope in solving this type
of violence.)

opular culture is characterized by many indicators of the pervasiveness of the culture
of war and violence. Violence in entertainment media and the claim that it
desensitizes societies, especially children and youth to the actual use of violent force,
has long been a concern of peace education. Lamentably, this characteristic of popular
culture is found in most world regions. So, it is an important area of inquiry and renection
for peace education globally. ɨe following lesson is based on an inquiry into the problem as
conducted in Cambodia.
key Question Does television violence undermine peace?
Cambodians survived nearly three decades of armed connict under the Khmer Rouge. As many
became destitute in the wake of the connict, some sought ways to appear well-oĊ. Owning a tele-
vision set or two became a symbol of economic status to many Cambodians. Some believed that
watching TV meant they would learn something good and more ¨advanced", since TV programs
were from developed countries such as the USA, Australia and New Zealand.
Television violence is rampant in Cambodia. Television can be a powerful innuence in developing
value systems and shaping behavior. ɨis lesson attempts to increase awareness of TV violence in
order to encourage active analysis of what young people are watching.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts
Duration several days
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Discuss the impact of watching violence on television and how it can innuence thought
and behavior
- Collect and analyze data on violence from popular television programs geared for young
- Design a plan of action to reduce the prevalence of violence in television programs geared for
young people

Ask students questions regarding incidences of violence on some of their favorite programs.
t On average, how many hours of television do you watch per week?
t Do you think there is too much violence on children`s television shows?
t How do you defne ¨violence"?
t What kinds of violence do you see on television? (e.g., swearing, hitting, use of guns, yelling,
threats, etc.)
t Are you ever bothered by the amount and types of violence you see on television?
You have just begun to think about the prevalence of violence on television. Over the next few
days, you will research some children's shows to compile and analyze data about actual violence
on television. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to make recommendations regarding
television programming.
Students will select and watch three episodes of a television show popular with young people.
ɨey will use the research guide handout to record incidences of violence. ɨey will discuss their
results with the class and explore the following question:
How might young people be aąected by viewing these programs on a regular basis?
Distribute reading handout: Violence on Television-What do Children Learn? Discuss questions as
a class. Invite students to conduct further research on the topic.
Have students develop a plan of action for reducing violence on television. (ɨis plan might
include a letter-writing campaign, contacting advertisers, contacting networks, making informa-
tional posters and handouts.)
ɨe plan of action must include:
t ɨe raw data the students collected
t Data from the reading and other research
t ɨeir recommendations for legislation, programming and viewing habits
t Vicaria de la Solidaridad has documentations and video on the theme of violence on television
(Spanish): www.vicariade|aso|idaridad.c|/
t Media Awareness Network, For Teachers (English):
t United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research on Television Violence (26 articles/
papers in various languages):
4PVSDF Inspired by ɨavory Huot, Former Coordinator of Peace and Disarmament Education
Project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Directions Select a television program popular with young people. Watch three episodes of the
show and record data in the chart below.

1ype of vio|ence
Using Weapons
Physical Assault
1a||y of Occurrences Comments
- How would you characterize your results? Did they surprise you?
- How might young people be aĊected by viewing these programs on a regular basis?

ɨat's the word from a 1982 report by the National Institute of
Mental Health, a report that connrmed and extended an earlier
study done by the Surgeon General. As a result of these and
other research nndings, the American Psychological Association
passed a resolution in February 1985 informing broadcasters
and the public of the potential dangers that viewing violence on
television can have for children.
what Does the Research Show?
Psychological research has shown three major eĊects of seeing
violence on television:
- Children may become less sensitive to the pain & suĊering of others
- Children may be more fearful of the world around them
- Children may be more likely to behave in aggressive or harm-
ful ways toward others
Children who watch a lot of TV are less aroused by violent
scenes than are those who only watch a little; in other words,
they're less bothered by violence in general, and less likely to see
anything wrong with it. One example: in several studies, those
who watched a violent -rather than a nonviolent -program were
slower to intervene or call for help when, a little later, they saw
younger children nghting or playing destructively.
Studies by George Gerbner, Ph.D., at the University of Penn-
sylvania, have shown that children's TV shows contain about
twenty violent acts each hour, and also that children who watch
a lot of television are more likely to think that the world is a
mean and dangerous place.
Children often behave diĊerently after they've been watching
violent programs on TV. In one study done at Pennsylvania State
University, about one hundred preschool children were observed
both before and after watching television; some watched car-
toons containing a lot of aggressive and violent acts, and others
watched shows with violence. ɨe researchers noticed real diĊer-
ences between the kids who watched the violent shows and those
who watched nonviolent ones.

'Children who watch the violent shows, even 'just funny' car-
toons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue,
disobey class rules, leave tasks unnnished, and were less will-
ing to wait for things than those who watched the nonviolent
programs', says Aletha Huston, Ph.D., now at the University of
Rea|-Life Studies
Findings from the laboratory are further supported by neld stud-
ies which have shown the long-range eĊects of televised violence.
Leonard Eron, Ph.D., and his associates at the University of Il-
linois, found that children who watched many hours of TV vio-
lence when they were in elementary school tended to also show a
higher level of aggressive behavior when they became teenagers.
By observing these youngsters until they were 30 years old, Dr.
Eron found that the ones who'd watched a lot of TV when they
were eight years old were more likely to be arrested and pros-
ecuted for criminal acts as adults.
A Continuing Debate
In spite of this accumulated evidence, broadcasters and scien-
tists continue to debate the link between viewing TV violence
and children's aggressive behavior. Some broadcasters believe
that there is not enough evidence to prove that TV violence is
harmful. But scientists who have studied this issue say that there
is a link between TV violence and aggression, and in 1992, the
American Psychological Association's Task Force on Television
and Society published a report that connrms this view. ɨe re-
port, entitled ¨Big World, Small Screen: ɨe Role of Television
in American Society", shows that the harmful eĊects of TV vio-
lence do exist.
- What do psychologists see as the major eĊects of young people
viewing violence on television?
- Does the research persuade you?
- If television violence can make young people more aggressive,
what are the implications for society?
- Can television violence undermine peace?

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or centuries humans have pursued the idea that law might keep peace and maintain jus-
tice among nations -as it does within nations -and become the means to limit, avoid and
eliminate armed connict. ɨe concept of abolishing war calls for substituting the force
of law for the law of force. Peace through law is the ideal that inspires many practical
proposals for institutional change to assure human rights and peace.
As a major requirement for the abolition of war the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st
Century places much emphasis on strengthening international law and institutions, such as those
intended to protect and fulnll human rights like the International Criminal Court, which tries
those who have committed war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide, and the Interna-
tional Court of Justice that resolves disputes between nations. Peace Education has emphasized
knowledge of human rights standards and principles, and institutions of international law, as
fundamental to preparation for global citizenship. ɨe following lesson provides an introduc-
tion to the basic forms and functions of international law with which all global citizens should
be familiar.
,FZ 2VFTUJPO To what extent can international law eĊectively prevent war and promote
International law used to be known as ¨the law of nations". As early as the Fourteenth century
B.C., Pharaoh Rameses II of Egypt concluded a Treaty of Peace, Alliance and Extradition with the
King of Cheta, a neighboring kingdom. For many centuries thereafter, the law of nations dealt
mainly with such things as non-aggression pacts (peace), promises of two or more nations to band
together against other nations (alliances) and promises of one state to surrender to another state
persons wanted for crimes by that other state (extradition). ɨe law of nations also regulated com-
mercial transactions between states as well as the protection aĊorded to ambassadors and other
diplomats; in other words anything that one state was ready to concede to another on a reciprocal
basis (¨I'll scratch your back if you'll scratch mine".)
It was not until the end of the eighteenth century that the law of nations came to be called
international law and not until the twentieth century that it began to be regarded as a kind of
super-law regulating not only relations between states but also the rights and duties of individual
citizens in relation to governments, their own as well as those of other countries. But because

international law is more diċcult to enforce than domestic law, some people believe that it is
not real law, but only a set of moral principles which states are free to observe or disregard as
they please. ɨat this is not true is shown by the controversy raging over the Iraq war, both as to
whether the war itself is legal and as to whether the treatment of prisoners taken by the United
States in Afghanistan and Iraq violates international law.
In fact, the law of war is one of the most important components of international law. It has two
parts. Because the Romans were among the greatest lawgivers in history, both parts are known by
their Latin names. ɨe nrst, the law about going to war, is called ius ad bellum. ɨe second, the
law about what is permitted and what is forbidden when you are in a war, is called ius in bello.
In 1928, a few years after the end of World War I, the leading countries of the world got together
and signed a treaty in which they promised to give up war as an instrument of national policy.
Known as the Kellogg-Briand Pact, after the American and French foreign ministers, it is still in
force. In 1945, at the end of the Second World War, nfty-one countries signed the Charter of the
United Nations, which-again-was to end all wars, but -again-did not achieve that objective.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts
%VSBUJPO 2 days
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Discuss whether or not war can be prevented
t Discuss the role of international law in the prevention of war
t Examine and assess past international eĊorts to prevent war
t Apply existing international charters to the prevention of current / potential wars
Put the following discussion question on the board:
Is it possible to prevent war?
Have students read the Kellogg-Briand Pact handout and answer the questions.
We have just discussed whether it is realistic to think war can be prevented. In this lesson, we will
examine diĊerent international eĊorts to do just that. By the end of the lesson, you should be able
to apply one of these international instruments to a current/potential connict.
Students will analyze the United Nations charter regarding the prevention of war. Students will
compare this to the Kellogg-Briand Pact they read in the introduction.

Students will select current areas in connict or threatened by connict to research (Iraq, North
Korea, Darfur, Iran, etc.). Students will prepare a brief presentation to be made to a model UN.
ɨey must identify the nature of the connict, and assume the role of United Nations delegates
who, using the charter, will make recommendations regarding what should be done in response
to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression in each of the areas.
t International Law and Peace, a paper by Judge Christopher Gregory Weeramantry, former Vice
President of the International Court of Justice and John Burroughs, Executive Director of the
Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy. (see www. haguepeace. org)
t United Nations, Millennium Summit Multilateral Treaty Framework, July 2000, www.un.org/
mi||ennium/|aw/treaties.htm, Summaries and Status of the Core Group of 25 Multilateral
Treaties. See also the International Law website of the United Nations, www.un.org/|aw, with
links to the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court and the Interna-
tional Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia.
t Parry and Grant, Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (Most law libraries will
have this).
t ɨe American Society of International Law is the leading international law institution in the
world. Its website, www.asi|.org, has more information than any student or teacher could pos-
sibly use. See, e.g., Asil's Electronic Information System for International Law, www.eisi|.org.
t ɨe International Law Association, www.i|a-hq.org/htm|/|ayout_about.htm, has 50 national
and regional branches throughout the world. Some of these may be helpful to teachers in pro-
viding materials or speakers in various countries.
t Full text Kellogg-Briand Pact: www.ya|e.edu/|awweb/ava|on/kbpact/kbpact.htm
t For an ample biography on women in international law, see
t ɨe North Atlantic Charter, signed in 1949: www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/treaty.htm
t Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949):
t Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights:
4PVSDF Adapted from Peter Weiss, international lawyer, President of the Lawyers Committee on
Nuclear Policy and Vice President of the Center for Constitutional Rights.

HANDOU1 I I ¡ ~¡
8IFSFBT a Treaty between the President of the United States Of America, the President of the
German Reich, His Majesty the King of the Belgians [and many other nations].providing for
the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy, was concluded and signed by their
respective Plenipotentiaries at Paris on the twenty-seventh day of August, one thousand nine
hundred and twenty-eight.
Artic|e ¡
ɨe High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they
condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an
instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.
Artic|e z
ɨe High Contracting Parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or connicts of
whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be
sought except by pacinc means.
Artic|e ¡
ɨe present Treaty shall be ratined by the High Contracting Parties named in the Preamble in ac-
cordance with their respective constitutional requirements, and shall take eĊect as between them
as soon as all their several instruments of ratincation shall have been deposited at Washington.
¡ Some modern heads of state have proclaimed that ¨national security" trumps everything,
including domestic and international law. What is ¨national security"?
z What is the goal of the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
¡ Why would this treaty be agreed upon in 1928?
a To what extent does this treaty have ¨teeth"? Are there any penalties for transgressors? Any
means to raise an army to respond to aggressors?
¶ ɨe preamble states that any country that violates it shall be denied its benents. What are those
6 Based on your knowledge of world history, was this treaty eĊective?
¡ Can you think of a more eĊective way to enforce the provisions of the treaty? What would you
add if you had the power to do so?
8 Is it possible to outlaw war?

HANDOU1 I I ¡ ~z
Directions As you read excerpts from the United Nations Charter below, underline the goals of
the UN and sanctions that it will take with respect to threats to peace, breaches of peace, and acts
of aggression. Answer the questions at the end of the reading.
we the Peop|es of the United Nations Determined
- to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought
untold sorrow to mankind, and
- to reaċrm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person,
in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
- to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties
and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
- to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
And for these Ends
- to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and
- to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
- to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall
not be used, save in the common interest, and
- to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement
of all peoples,
Artic|e ¡
ɨe Purposes of the United Nations are:
¡ To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take eĊective collective mea-
sures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts
of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in
conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of
international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
z To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights
and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen uni-
versal peace;
¡ To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cul-
tural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and
for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
a To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
² Excerpted from www.unhchr.ch/htm|/menu3/b/ch-cont.htm
Artic|e z
ɨe Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in
accordance with the following Principles.
¡ ɨe Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.
z All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benents resulting from member-
ship, shall fulnll in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present
¡ All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that
international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
a All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against
the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsis-
tent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
¶ All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance
with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the
United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
6 ɨe Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act
in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of interna-
tional peace and security.
¡ Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in
matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the
Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle
shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII. Charter of the
United Nations.
Artic|e ¡ç
ɨe Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace,
or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in
accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.
Artic|e ao
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the
recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the par-
ties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such
provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties
concerned. ɨe Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provi-
sional measures.
Artic|e a¡
ɨe Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be
employed to give eĊect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations
to apply such measures. ɨese may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations
and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the sever-
ance of diplomatic relations.
Artic|e az
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inad-
equate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may
be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include
demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the
United Nations.
Artic|e a¡
¡ All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international
peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accor-
dance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including
rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
z Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces, their de-
gree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to
be provided.
¡ ɨe agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the initiative
of the Security Council. ɨey shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members
or between the Security Council and groups of Members, and shall be subject to ratincation by
the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
Artic|e aa
When the Security Council has decided to
use force it shall, before calling upon a Mem-
ber not represented on it to provide armed
forces in fulnllment of the obligations assumed
under Article 43, invite that Member, if the
Member so desires, to participate in the deci-
sions of the Security Council concerning the
employment of contingents of that Member's
armed forces.
Artic|e a¶
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures Members shall hold im-
mediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action.
ɨe strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action
shall be determined, within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred
to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military StaĊ Committee.
Artic|e a6
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance
of the Military StaĊ Committee.
Artic|e a¡
¡ ɨere shall be established a Military StaĊ Committee to advise and assist the Security Council
on all questions relating to the Security Council's military requirements for the maintenance of
international peace and security, the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal,
the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.
z ɨe Military StaĊ Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of StaĊ of the permanent members of
the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not perma-
nently represented on the Committee shall be invited by the Committee to be associated with
it when the eċcient discharge of the Committee's responsibilities requires the participation of
that Member in its work.
¡ ɨe Military StaĊ Committee shall be responsible under the Security Council for the strategic
direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security Council. Questions relating
to the command of such forces shall be worked out subsequently.
a ɨe Military StaĊ Committee, with the authorization of the Security Council and after consul-
tation with appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional subcommittees.
Artic|e a8
¡ ɨe action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of
international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the United Nations or by
some of them, as the Security Council may determine.
z Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly and through
their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are members.
Artic|e aç
ɨe Members of the United Nations shall join in aĊording mutual assistance in carrying out the
measures decided upon by the Security Council.
Artic|e ¶o
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any
other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which nnds itself confronted with
special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to
consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems.
Artic|e ¶¡
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-
defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security
Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures
taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the
Security Council and shall not in any way aĊect the authority and responsibility of the Security
Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order
to maintain or restore international peace and security.
¡ ɨe preamble of the Charter of the United Nations says ¨We the Peoples of the United Nations
Determined to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising
from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained.". Who are ¨We the
Peoples"? Does this sentence mean that international law does not have to be obeyed until the
right ¨conditions" have been established?
z Article 2(4) of the UN Charter obliges all members to refrain from ¨the threat or use of force
against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state". Give some examples of
the threat or use of force against the political independence of a state.
¡ Article 42 of the UN Charter gives the Security Council the right to use military force ¨nec-
essary to maintain or restore international peace and security". How have the ¨blue berets",
as the UN peacekeepers are called, succeeded in
implementing this article?
a Article 51 states that nothing in the Charter shall
¨impair the inherent right of individual or collec-
tive self-defense if an armed attack occurs against
a Member of the United Nations". Can this be
reconciled with the theory of preemptive war, i.e.
one fought before an armed attack actually oc-
curs, which has been used to justify the Iraq war?
Again, if you could put more teeth into the Char-
ter's attempt to bring about a world without war,
what would they be?
n advocating the abolition of war, the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st
Century established essential links between human rights and peace. It points to inequality
as antithetical to peace, and calls for gender justice to overcome the serious obstacle to peace
inherent in the inequality between women and men. ɨe Fourth World Conference on
Women called special attention to this relationship in its conclusions and recommendations, ɨe
Beijing Platform for Action (1995). ɨe Vienna World Conference on Human Rights produced
a Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence against Women (1993). ɨe Mid-In-
ternational Decade on Women in Copenhagen resulted in the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979). ɨese and other international landmarks in
the movement toward gender equality, including Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women,
Peace and Security (2000) referred to here, have innuenced national laws and policies, but as this
lesson from India indicates, the combined struggles for gender equality and peace are yet to have
achieved their common goals of a just and peaceful world order. ɨe holistic perspective of peace
education calls for examination of the relationship between gender equality and peace.
key Question To what extent have the promises of oċcial documents of countries and world
organizations been translated into reality with respect to women's rights?
In 1947, India won independence from British occupation, bringing promise to Indian women
of a society where women and men would have an equal voice and equal opportunities. Women
celebrated great achievements as well as suĊered great oppression. ɨese contrasting realities re-
nect the complex disparities in education, wealth and social customs that existed before indepen-
dence and continue to exist today.
Many Indian women struggle with limited education, restricted freedom of expression and strict
prohibitions against inter-marrying because of caste and religion in accordance with Hindu caste
structures, Muslim and Christian doctrine, and tribal customary laws. Nearly 23% more men en-
roll in school (62:48 men: women) and men earn 62% more income than women (US$3,820 for
men: US$ 1,442 for women).¹ Reducing the educational and economic diĊerential between men
and women creates the potential for personal and professional growth for all members of society.

¹ ɨe Gender-Related Development Index Human Development Report 2004

Provisions exist in the Indian Constitution and under UN Security Council Resolution 1325
that support gender equality. Resolution 1325, in particular, advocates for a gender perspective in
connict prevention, the protection of women's human rights, and women's full and equal partici-
pation in all peace processes. Women's equal participation across all spheres of society can greatly
contribute to improved social conditions by increasing creativity and productivity of all family
and community members.
¨Evaluating Women's Rights" is an example of how League in Friendship Endeavour (LIFE) intro-
duces peace education to build a culture of peace. By having students analyze oċcial documents,
this lesson emphasizes the gap between laws and resolutions and the reality of women's lives.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts, a copy of your country's Constitution
%VSBUJPO 2-3 days
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Read and analyze Sarojini Naidu's quote to identify her concerns about addressing rights for
t Compare and contrast the rights of women delineated in the Indian Constitution with the
reality of lives of women in India
t Evaluate the extent to which the promise of oċcial documents has been translated into reality
with respect to women's rights in your country
t Evaluate the extent to which the promise of United Nations Resolution 1325, which urges its
member states to ensure the full inclusion of women in all aspects of international peace and
security processes, has been realized
Ask students to read Sarojini Naidu's quote on handout. Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949) is con-
sidered a pioneer of the women's movement in pre-independent India. She was president of the
Indian National Congress and later became the nrst woman governor in free India.
You have just identined Naidu's concern about the gap between the promise of oċcial documents
and reality. Today we will investigate the extent to which her concerns were recognized in India
with respect to women's rights. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to assess the validity
of this concern with respect to women's rights in your own country.
Have students examine selected articles from the Indian Constitution to identify basic rights in
India. ɨen compare these written protections with the data in handout II 2-3 to see the extent
to which women's rights are actually being protected.
Analyze your own country's Constitution and other legal documents to see how women's rights
are protected. Compare these protections with data describing the actual status of women in your
- Does your country have a Constitution or Bill of Rights and, if so, is there protection for
women in these instruments or in other state legislation?
- Are there connicting laws i.e., state or religious laws governing the rights of women?
- Are there any suggestions you would make to your government to ensure the rights of women
in your country?
Write a newspaper article that highlights the correlation between the promise of equality and the
reality of women's lives.
Note to teacher Below is information regarding an international resolution on women, peace
and security. You may wish to explore the issues raised in this lesson on a more macro level. Share
the information below with your students. Discuss the extent to which women have been inte-
grated into the international peace and security processes.
In October 2000, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution
1325 on Women, Peace and Security, urging its member states to ensure the full inclu-
sion of women in all aspects of international peace and security processes. Resolution
1325 is the most comprehensive UN resolution to date on the role of women in peace-
building activities.
ɨe resolution calls for action in four areas related to women and peacekeeping:
- Participation of women in connict-prevention and -resolution
- Integration of gender perspectives in peacekeeping missions
- Protection of women and girls in connict zones
- Mainstreaming of gender sensitization in UN reporting and implementation systems
Resolution 1325 recognizes that those most negatively aĊected by war and connict are civilians -
particularly women and children-and acknowledges that this is a threat to peace and security. ɨe
resolution also acknowledges the critical role women can play in preventing and resolving con-
nicts and in building peace. Consequently, the Security Council urges member states to include
more women at all levels of decision-making and neld operations related to connict-resolution.
It asks the Secretary-General and member states to include a gender perspective in peacekeeping
operations, both on and oĊ the ground, and to provide training on the protection, rights, and
needs of women in post-connict reconstruction.

ɨe resolution not only calls for action within the UN but also urges all parties involved in con-
nict-resolution to adopt a gender-conscious approach during disarmament, demobilization, and
reintegration. ɨe policy statement stresses the responsibility of all actors to protect women from
gender-based violence, especially rape, and to prosecute those guilty of perpetrating such crimes.
It also calls for the support of women-led peace initiatives and indigenous approaches to connict-
ɨe Secretary-General is responsible for the implementation of Resolution 1325 with the man-
date to investigate and communicate to all members the impact of armed connict on women
and girls, the overall gender implications of connict-resolution, and the pivotal role that women
undertake in international peace-building eĊorts.
t UN Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000): www.un.org/events/res_1325e.
pdf / and www.peacewomen.org/un/sc/1325.htm|
t Beijing Platform for Action (1995): www.aworc.org/bpfa/res/bpfa-too|.htm
t Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979):
t National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001 - India (specincally the 73rd-74th
Amendment): www.|ogos-net.net/i|o/150_base/en/init/ind_2.htm
t National Resource Center for Women: http://nrcw.nic.in
t Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, proclaimed by General Assembly
resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993: /www.ohchr.org/eng|ish/|aw/e|iminationvaw.htm
t Amnesty International's Campaign: Stop Violence Against Women: www.amnesty.org.uk/svaw/
t International Day to End Violence Against Women, November 25, established by the United
Nations: www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/news/vawd.htm|
4PVSDF Inspired by the League in Friendship
Endeavour (LIFE), Pirbo-lipik, Bank Tinali,
Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Directions Select a television program popular with young people. Watch three episodes of the
show and record data in the chart below.
Read the quote below and answer the questions that follow.
Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949) is considered a pioneer of the women's movement in pre-indepen-
dent India. She was president of the Indian National Congress and later became the nrst woman
governor in free India.
rv6u t ir))rv wvi))r× )6 c6vti xvisi×t c6xitir, i×oit× ×t)i6×tiis), 6×
orcrunrv zz, ·j·z.
¨Oh we want a new breed of men before India can be cleansed of her disease. We want deeper
sincerity of motive, a greater courage in speech and earnestness in action. We want men who love
this country and are full of yearning to serve and succor their brothers and not to further aid
in their degradation by insincerity and self-seeking.how tired I am of death, of the reiterated
resolutions that have become almost meaningless by lip repetition: uncorroborated by the heart's
conviction and unsustained by practical action.."
¡ Who was Sarojini Naidu?
z What did she mean when she wrote, ¨we want a new breed of men before India can be cleansed of her disease"?
¡ What does she mean when she says, ¨how tired I am of death, of the reiterated resolutions that have become
almost meaningless by lip repetition"?
a Do you think her concerns about the eĊectiveness of resolutions could be applicable to other nations?
¶ Based on her letter, what do you think she feared regarding the conditions of women in India?

Artic|es for the Protection of women
Artic|e ¡a. Equa|ity before |aw
ɨe State shall not deny to any person equality before the
law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory
of India.
Artic|e ¡¶. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of re|igion,
race, caste, sex, or p|ace of birth
¡ ɨe State shall not discriminate against any citizen on
grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth...
z No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste,
sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any
disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to
(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of
public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing
ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly
or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the
general public.
¡ Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making
any special provision for women and children.
a Nothing in this article.shall prevent the State from
making any special provision for the advancement of any
socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or
for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
Artic|e ¡6. Equa|ity of opportunity in matters of pub|ic
Steps have to be taken by the government to improve the
lot of the weaker sections of society and to prevent the
exploitation of women and nowing from this basic right
against exploitation and to be empowered are laws like the
Dowry Prohibition Act, Maternity Benents Act, laws for
sexual harassment, special exceptions in the law for rape and
sexual assault, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act for
abortion, cruelty or domestic violence under criminal law.
In Your Own words

Artic|es for the Protection of women
Artic|e z¡. Protection of |ife and persona| |iberty
No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty
except according to procedure established by law.
Artic|e z¡. Prohibition of trafhc in human beings and forced |abour
¡ Traċcking of human beings and beggars and other similar
forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention
of this provision shall be an oĊence punishable in accordance
with law.
z Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing
compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing
such service the State shall not make any discrimination on
grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.
Protective bodies against exploitation include: Constitution
of National Human Rights Commission, Minority
Commission, National Commission for Women.
In Your Own words

- Total population: 1.03 billion (2001)
- Population of women: 496 million
- Population of men: 534 million
- Percentage of women in the population: 47.8%
- Percentage of men in the population: 52.2%
- Women generally make up 51% of a nation's population
Hea|th: (¡çç8-ççj
- Infant Mortality for all of India: 540 deaths per 1,00,000 live births
- Infant Mortality in Rural areas: 619 deaths per 1,00,000 live births
- Infant Mortality in Urban areas: 267 deaths per 1,00,000 live births
- Percentage of births with a skilled attendant present: 43% (1995-2001)
- Maternal Mortality Rates in India are 100 times those of developed countries and signincantly
higher than developing countries like Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Cuba
Education and Emp|oyment
- For every 100 literate men, there are 61 literate women
- For every 100 boys enrolled in primary school, there are 83 girls enrolled (1995-1999)
- For every 100 boys enrolled in secondary school, there are 66 girls enrolled (1995-1999)
- ɨe percentage of women working has risen from 13% in 1987 to 25% in 2001
- ɨe percentage of women in senior management in India is 3%
- 90% of working women feel that they would continue working if their employers provided
onsite child care
Covernment [ women ho|d
- Less than 8% of Parliamentary seats
- less than 6% of Cabinet positions
- less than 4% of seats in High Courts and the Supreme Court
- In India every 26 minutes, a woman is molested
- In India every 34 minutes, a woman is raped
- In India every 42 minutes, an incident of sexual harassment takes place
- In India every 43 minutes, a woman is kidnapped
- In India every 93 minutes, a woman is killed
¡ Draw conclusions about the position of women in India based on the statistics.
z Write 3 questions that this data raises in your mind about the position of women in India.
¡ Based on this data and your previous analysis of the Indian Constitution, discuss the extent to
which the promise of the Constitution has been realized.


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he Global Campaign for Peace Education advocates a holistic view of peace, compre-
hending the multiple forms of violence that cause human deprivation and suĊering,
often leading to armed violence. Some peace educators argue that destruction of the
environment and over-use of scarce resources is one such form of violence, and that there
is a signincant relationship between sustaining the environment and striving for peace. War does
incalculable damage to the environment. Destruction of the environment has resulted in climate
problems, damaged human health and eroded the economies of communities that depend on
good soil and healthy forests. International law has been applied to these problems in such agree-
ments as the Kyoto Protocols. However, most of the eĊorts to preserve the environment have
been undertaken by citizens at the community and national levels. Peace derives from human
conditions of well-being that depend on meeting needs through development while sustaining an
environment conducive to human health. ɨese relationships were recognized in the awarding of
the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize to Wangari Maathai. Her work is the basis of this lesson.
,FZ 2VFTUJPO How could we use resources to preserve the environment and fulnll economic
and social rights?
Wangari Maathai is a pioneering Kenyan woman who drew upon practical, indigenous customs
to sustain the environment, empower women, and improve communities in Kenya, across Africa
and the world. Wangari Maathai is the nrst African woman to be recognized as a Nobel laureate,
and the nrst environmentalist to be the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
She helped found the Green Belt Movement , a grassroots, non-governmental organization (NGO)
based in Kenya that focuses on environmental conservation, community development, and capaci-
ty-building. GBM involves women's groups in planting trees to conserve the environment, and em-
power themselves by improving their quality of life. ɨrough GBM, Wangari Maathai has helped
women plant more than 30 million trees on their farms and in school and church compounds
across Kenya. Maathai has pioneered a unique holistic community-based approach to develop-
ment, combining environmental education and empowerment of civil society, especially women.


"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts, UN Declaration of Human Rights
%VSBUJPO 3 days
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Denne ¨sustainable development"
t Read and analyze Wangari Maathai's Nobel Prize speech
t Discuss the links between human rights and sustainable development
t Research a problem that hinders sustainable development
t Write a speech recommending solutions to achieve sustainable development
Write the quote below on the board. Ask students about its meaning and application for our
world today.
¨The Earth provides enough to satisfy everyone`s needs, but not for everyone`s greed".
- Mahatma Gandhi
We just discussed the role of needs and wants in the availability of resources. Today, we will exam-
ine how people work to protect resources for the future. By the end of the lesson, you will propose
your own plan to ensure resources will be available to meet the needs of people in the future.
Put the term, ¨sustainable development", on the board. Ask students what they think it means;
then provide them with the following dennition.
Distribute handout Wangari Maathai's Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech, 2004. Discuss
questions as a class. (Refer to UN Declaration of Human Rights in Appendix.)
Students will read the UN Report on Sustainable Development.
In pairs, they will select a problem and write a speech, using Maathai's speech as their guide.
Speeches should address:
t ɨe nature and scope of the problem (worldwide or nation-specinc)
t ɨe link between the problem and sustainable development
t ɨe link between the problem and human rights
t Your recommended solutions to achieve sustainable development based on the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Earth Charter
Students will deliver their speeches to the class.

t United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): www.unep.org/Documents.Mu|ti|ingua|/
t UNEP Youth: www.unep.org/tunza/youth/
t UNEP Children: www.unep.org/Tunza/chi|dren/
t UN Resolution 57/254, Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014): http://
t UNESCO Education for Sustainable Development: http://porta|.unesco.org/education/en/
t ɨe Earth Charter Initiative: www.earthcharter.org/
t Universal Declaration of Human Rights, signed in 1948, www.unhchr.ch/udhr/index.htm
t International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted in 1966,
4PVSDF Adapted from the speeches of Wangari Maathai, Founder of ɨe Green Belt Movement,
Kenya, Nobel Peace Laureate, 2004
As I was growing up [in rural Kenya], I witnessed forests being cleared and replaced by
commercial plantations, which destroyed local biodiversity and the capacity of the forests to
conserve water.
In 1977, when we started the Green Belt Movement, I was partly responding to needs identined by
rural women, namely lack of nrewood, clean drinking water, balanced diets, shelter and income.
ɨroughout Africa, women are the primary caretakers, holding signincant responsibility for
tilling the land and feeding their families. As a result, they are often the nrst to become aware of
environmental damage as resources become scarce and incapable of sustaining their families.
ɨe women we worked with recounted that unlike in the past, they were unable to meet their basic
needs. ɨis was due to the degradation of their immediate environment as well as the introduction
of commercial farming, which replaced the growing of household food crops. But international
trade controlled the price of the exports from these small-scale farmers and a reasonable and just
income could not be guaranteed. I came to understand that when the environment is destroyed,
plundered or mismanaged, we undermine our quality of life and that of future generations.
Tree planting became a natural choice to address some of the initial basic needs identined by
women. Also, tree planting is simple, attainable, and guarantees quick, successful results within a
reasonable amount of time. ɨis sustains interest and commitment.
So, together, we have planted over thirty million trees that provide fuel, food, shelter, and income
to support their children's education and household needs. ɨe activity also creates employment
and improves soils and watersheds. ɨrough their involvement, women gain some degree of
power over their lives, especially their social and economic position and relevance in the family.
ɨis work continues.
Initially, the work was diċcult because historically our people have been persuaded to believe
that because they are poor, they lack not only capital, but also knowledge and skills to address
their challenges. Instead they are conditioned to believe that solutions to their problems must
come from 'outside'. Further, women did not realize that meeting their needs depended on
their environment being healthy and well managed. ɨey were also unaware that a degraded
environment leads to a scramble for scarce resources and may culminate in poverty and even
connict. ɨey were also unaware of the injustices of international economic arrangements.
.the tree became a symbol for the democratic struggle in Kenya. Citizens were mobilized
to challenge widespread abuses of power, corruption and environmental mismanagement. In
Nairobi's Uhuru Park, at Freedom Corner, and in many parts of the country, trees of peace were
planted to demand the release of prisoners of conscience and a peaceful transition to democracy.

vr6vir tvr rci)i×c 6vrv wt)rv, 6vrv r66o t×o 6vrv 6)irv ×t)uvti vrs6uvcrs.
wir× 6uv vrs6uvcrs nrc6ur sctvcr, wr rci) 6vrv )iru. i× ut×tci×c 6uv vr-
s6uvcrs t×o i× sus)ti×tnir orvri6vur×), wr vit×) )ir srros 6r vrtcr.
8BOHBSJ.BBUIBJ, 6c)6nrv j, zooz. i×)rv×t)i6×ti irvtio )vinu×r
ɨrough the Green Belt Movement, thousands of ordinary citizens were mobilized and empowered
to take action and eĊect change. ɨey learned to overcome fear and a sense of helplessness and
moved to defend democratic rights.
In time, the tree also became a symbol for peace and connict-resolution, especially during ethnic
connicts in Kenya when the Green Belt Movement used peace trees to reconcile disputing
communities. During the ongoing re-writing of the Kenyan constitution, similar trees of peace
were planted in many parts of the country to promote a culture of peace. Using trees as a symbol
of peace is in keeping with a widespread African tradition. For example, the elders of the Kikuyu
carried a staĊ from the thigi tree that, when placed between two disputing sides, caused them to
stop nghting and seek reconciliation. Many communities in Africa have these traditions.
Such practices are part of an extensive cultural heritage, which contributes both to the conservation
of habitats and to cultures of peace. ɨe Green Belt Movement explores the concept of cultural
biodiversity, especially with respect to indigenous seeds and medicinal plants.
As we progressively understood the causes of environmental degradation, we saw the need for good
governance. Indeed, the state of any country's environment is a renection of the kind of governance
in place, and without good governance there can be no peace. Many countries, which have poor
governance systems, are also likely to have connicts and poor laws protecting the environment.
Today we are faced with a challenge that calls for a shift in our thinking, so that humanity stops
threatening its life-support system. We are called to assist the Earth to heal her wounds and in
the process heal our own - indeed, to embrace the whole creation in all its diversity, beauty and
wonder. ɨis will happen if we see the need to revive our sense of belonging to a larger family of
life, with which we have shared our evolutionary process.
As I conclude I renect on my childhood experience when I would visit a stream next to our home
to fetch water for my mother. I would drink water straight from the stream. Today, over nfty years
later, the stream has dried up, women walk long distances for water, which is not always clean,
and children will never know what they have lost. ɨe challenge is to restore the home of the
tadpoles and give back to our children a world of beauty and wonder.
¡ How does Wangari Maathai's tree-planting initiative renect values of sustainable
z According to Maathai, why can't Kenyans meet their basic needs as they did in the past?
¡ How does sustainable development relate to human rights, particularly women's rights? Why
is this relationship important?

² SIDS: Small Island Developing States
2004 / 05
2006 / 07
2008 / 09
1hematic c|uster
Human Settlements
Energy for Sustainable
Industrial Development
Air Pollution / Atmosphere
Climate Change
Rural Development
Cross- cutting issues
Poverty eradication. Changing unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production.
Protecting and managing the natural resource
base of economic and social development.
Sustainable development in a globalizing
world. Health and sustainable development.
Sustainable development of SIDS². Sustainable
development for Africa. Other regional
initiatives, Means of implementation.
Institutional framework for sustainable
development. Gender equality. Education
Poverty eradication. Changing unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production.
Protecting and managing the natural resource
base of economic and social development.
Sustainable development in a globalizing
world. Health and sustainable development,
Sustainable development of SIDS. Sustainable
development for Africa. Other regional
initiatives. Means of implementation.
Institutional framework for sustainable
development. Gender equality. Education
Poverty eradication. Changing unsustainable
patterns of consumption and production.
Protecting and managing the natural resource
base of economic and social development.
Sustainable development in a globalizing
world. Health and sustainable development,
Sustainable development of SIDS. Sustainable
development for Africa. Other regional
initiatives. Means of implementation.
Institutional framework for sustainable
development. Gender equality. Education

Pick one of the themes mentioned in the UN's report. Discuss the theme to determine a problem
that hinders sustainable development. Research that problem. ɨen, using Maathai's speech on
planting trees as a guide, develop a speech on the problem you have selected. Be sure to address
the following points:
t ɨe nature and scope of the problem (either worldwide or nation-specinc)
t ɨe link between the problem and sustainable development
t ɨe link between the problem and human rights
t Your recommended solutions for achieving sustainable development.
Finally, in addition to providing important information in your speech, be sure, as Mathaai does,
to use passion and persuasion in your speech.

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eace education focuses on international law and human rights as preparation for respon-
sible citizenship and active participation in global civil society. A fundamental principle
of human rights is that people should participate in making the laws that govern their
lives. In representative governments this is realized through legislatures (congresses and
parliaments) elected by the citizens. ɨe following lesson from Nepal is designed to provide stu-
dents with experiential learning to understand the representative legislative process and the issues
of the human rights of children.
,FZ2VFTUJPO To what extent can children be guardians of their own rights?
On February 1, 2005, the king of Nepal ordered a coup d`etat that dismissed the democratic gov-
ernment. Arrests have been ongoing and no information has been provided on the whereabouts of
the arrestees -increasing the likelihood, based on past abuse, that individuals are being tortured.
ɨe international community-including the United Nations, human rights groups and several
countries -has condemned the actions of the king and called for reinstallation of democracy, and
an end both to media censorship and impunity for the human rights violations committed.
Today, children are the most vulnerable group in Nepal and the hardest-hit victims of all kinds
of human rights violations, abuse and cruelty. Children, the largest non-voting majority, are
constantly deprived of access to basic services, resources and fundamental human rights. Child
labour, street children, child abuse and neglect, traċcking in all its forms, child bondage, and
child soldiering all provide common examples of the violation of children's rights in Nepal: child
labour exists on a very large scale, as an integral part of the socio-economic reality; the problems
of street children and unsafe migration are increasing as a result of rampant urbanization; traf-
ncking and the sale of young Nepalese girls into the brothels of India is another growing tragedy.
According to anecdotal record, the number of young girls sold in the red light areas of India alone
approaches 200,000. ɨey had been either kidnapped or lured by individuals or organized gangs.
Young girls are also traċcked in cities within the country.

¹ In this context, ¨mock" means ¨model" or ¨pretend".

ɨe last 9 years of ongoing, internal armed connict in Nepal further aggravates the plight of chil-
dren. Many schools have been shut down, and militarization, including indoctrination and draft-
ing of child soldiers, has expanded. Unprecedented forced displacement has led to unsafe migra-
tion coupled with family vulnerabilities. Family units are under constant threat of fragmentation,
and with the absence of male family members, torture of women and children increases. Such
insecurity has forced civil society organizations to reduce their visibility and intervention, causing
thousands of children to cross international borders to survive. ɨousands more are left destitute
and insecure within the state border. In the absence of parliament and popular government, there
is no proper venue where the abuse experienced by children can be heard and redressed.
Increased community education and awareness has heightened recognition of these problems
and led to the exploration of new means to collectively combat the exploitation of children in its
various forms. In May 2004 in Hetauda, Makwanpur, the Children's Mock Parliament brought
approximately sixty children together to speak about their rights and about the violation of those
rights, as well as to empower and mobilize them to make their voices heard by authorities at the
national and international level. Priority was to invite children of marginalized areas of society
i.e., districts of Bara/ Rautahat and Makwanpur who represented youth clubs and schools. ɨe
Children's Mock Parliament supported the campaign on ¨Children as a Zone of Peace" which
states that under no circumstances should children be used or abused in connict, and that their
basic right to life, liberty and livelihood must not be infringed or compromised. It provided in-
tensive preparatory training in the parliamentary process to children. Training covered education
about the constitution, parliamentary procedures and legislation and engaged children in leader-
ship, diplomacy and assertion exercises.
ɨe Children's Mock Parliament seeks to educate young students about representative govern-
mental structure and its processes. It develops a model political forum for and by youth to build
their understanding of the roles and responsibilities of political leaders, and as contributing mem-
bers of society to encourage their full and equal participation in decision-making.
/PUF UP 5FBDIFS Engage the students in considering diversity of class, religion, culture, lan-
guage, geography, age, gender, and ethnicity to participate in the model parliament. Welcome
observers such as representatives from local government, law enforcement oċcials, media, non-
governmental organizations, parents, Parliament, and representatives from youth organizations
and academic institutions.
"HF3BOHF Secondary students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts
%VSBUJPO Approximately 1 week: 2 days for training, 4 days for mock parliament.
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Identify areas of concern to young people in their country
t Participate in parliamentary proceedings to discuss and debate issues related to children's rights
- Develop resolutions on the rights of children
- Deliver resolutions to appropriate elected oċcials for future action
Introductory Activity
Have students brainstorm about issues that concern young people in their country today. (In
Nepal, children developed an agenda based on the issues of child traċcking, connict and forced
migration, commercial sexual exploitation of children, child labour, the rights of children, educa-
tion, and health).
Have students prioritize the issues.
Focus Statement to Students
You just generated a list of issues of concern to young people in our country today. In this lesson,
we will discuss and debate these issues in a model parliament setting. By the end of the lesson,
you will develop resolutions to share with legislators.
Arrange a visit to the parliament house or show a video of a televised parliamentary session. Stu-
dents should record and explain parliamentary terms and procedures (lobbying, bills, special ordi-
nance, and motion, etc.), roles and responsibilities (Speaker of the House, Prime Minister, Members
of Parliament, Chief Whip, and Home Minister, etc.).
Preparation for par|iamentary session:
- List the parliamentary roles on the board. Assign students to these roles
- Arrange the space used for the Children's Mock Parliament to resemble a real parliament house
including assigned seating, a recording section, a separate place for the parliament secretariat, a
diplomatic mission, and a separate space for both special guests and the media
- Divide the entire group of student participants into political parties such as the Ruling Party,
the Opposition Party and any other political parties. ɨe teacher may decide on diĊerent num-
bers of participants in each group.
~Ruling Party that advocates a strong executive and children are not full citizens
~ Opposition Party that seeks greater power for the legislature and may be willing to consider some
rights for children
~ Children`s Rights Party that advocates ratifcation and enforcement of the Convention on the Rights
of the Child as the law of the land
- Brainstorm with student participants about the type of commencement procession they would
like to have. (In Nepal, children carried the Child Royal Mace, a staĊ carried as a symbol of
authority of a legislative body, through the entrance way to the main platform of the Model
Parliament at the beginning of every session).
Par|iamentary process:
- ɨis should be adapted to the custom of your country
- Begin the Children's Mock Parliament by calling the house to order
- ɨe Prime Minister announces the issues to be covered in the agenda
- Once the issues are presented, the Honorable Speaker of the House announces the commence-
ment of ¨zero hour" during which all questions and comments are brought forth
- ɨen, each student participant (Minister) takes turns to raise issues and cases (see the Example
in Handout II 4-2)
- Ministers continue in turn raising issues and cases
- ɨe Home Minister provides answers and a noor discussion is held where each Minister re-
sponds to these answers
Return to the original list of concerns. Students will work in groups of 4 to draft resolutions us-
ing the handout provided. ɨe mock parliament will vote on and send approved resolutions to
appropriate government oċcials, thus empowering students to take action to address problems
they face in their everyday lives.
Students can compare their resolutions to the rights listed in the Convention on the Rights of the
Child. ɨey may choose to create additional resolutions that address rights they had not considered.
In addition, the children's mock parliament can be expanded regionally. For example there is an
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), or also the Organization of American States
(OAS), the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU) and so on
- Children's Mock Parliament, Parliamentary Proceedings Report 2004, HimRights: www.in-
- UN Convention on the Rights of Child: www.unhchr.ch/htm|/menu3/b/k2crc.htm
- UN Cyberschoolbus Summary of the main provisions of the Convention: www.un.org/Pubs/
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child
prostitution and child pornography: www.unhchr.ch/htm|/menu2/6/crc/treaties/opsc.htm
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of chil-
dren in armed connict: www.unhchr.ch/htm|/menu2/6/protoco|chi|d.htm
- UN Security Council Resolution 1261 on Children and Armed Connicts (adopted 1999): http://
- UN Security Council Resolution 1379 on Children and Armed Connicts (adopted 2001): http://
- UN Children's Fund (UNICEF): www.unicef.org/
- UNICEF Voices of Youth: www.unicef.org/voy/voy.htm|
Source Inspired by Himalayan Human Rights Monitors (HimRights), Kathmandu, Nepal

Directions Select one of the concerns you listed earlier in the lesson and discussed in the
model parliament. Draft a resolution that your mock parliament can approve and send to
appropriate government officials. Follow the model below.
whereas many children have been severely aĊected by the eight-year ongoing violent connict in
Nepal (relevant country)
whereas poverty, illiteracy and structural violence have resulted in sexual exploitation of
8e it Reso|ved the government will enforce international treaties that ban child traċcking and
sexual exploitation of children.
CHILDREN'S MOCk PARLIAMEN1 RESOLU1ION ON ___________________________________

4()3 )3 !. %8!-0,% /& (/7 $)3#533)/. -)'(4 4!+% 0,!#% !-/.' 0/,)4)#!,
0!24)%3 ). ! 0!2,)!-%.4
Hon'ble Prime Minister, Dinesh Shah, presents the Plans and Policies of the Child Government.
P|ans and Po|icies of the Chi|d Covernment
- Rehabilitate the 8000 children who have been displaced by the ongoing connict and provide
them with a monthly allowance of Rs. 200 for educational purposes.
- Encourage the government to keep the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Mind while
- Present the Child Traċcking (Control) Bill 2061 to the government during the parliamentary
ɨe Hon'ble Speaker of the House informs the members that the zero hour has started and any
questions and comments can now be brought forward.
ɨe Hon'ble Bhuwan Kathayat, a Member of the Ruling Party, describes many cases in his village
when children were deprived of their rights. Specincally, children were deprived of education, due to
nnancial factors, and children were forced to migrate to other cities in order to earn money. Further-
more, he states that children have not received any form of health assistance and have not been able to
take part in sports. He asked the government about the Plans and Policies they had for such children.
ɨe Hon'ble Pralad Pakhrin, Home Minister, answered the queries and comments with the fol-
lowing par|iamentary goa|s:
- To provide Rs¹. 200 for the education of each child in order to get children in connict-aĊected
areas to attend school
- To establish secondary schools in each District
- To initiate awareness raising programs that use street theater or drama
- To rehabilitate the street children not only of Rautahat, but the entire country, and send them
to school
- To investigate child abuse in factories and workplaces and those found guilty of such oĊenses
ɨe Hon'ble Saroj Prasad Yadav, the Chief Whip of the Ruling Party, thanked the Hon'ble Mem-
bers for their active participation during the session.
¹ Rs or Rupee(s) is the common name for the currencies used in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Mauritius
and the Seychelles. It is also known as ¨rupiah" in Indonesia, and ¨runyah" in the Maldives.

ɨe Hon'ble Parvez Alam Ansari, the Chief Whip of the Opposition Party, stated that his party
will not hesitate to vote against the ruling party if said party fails to prepare fair and proper Plans
and Policies.
ɨe Hon'ble Juna Timalsina, the Leader of the Opposition party, presented the opinion of her
party regarding the Plans and Policies of the child government, asked the child government to
present the revised Plans and Policies during the session itself, asked the government to make
rehabilitation arrangements for children displaced due to connict, and requested that the govern-
ment nrmly punish those involved in child abuse
F|oor discussion on the answers given by the Hon'b|e Home Minister
ɨe Hon'ble Jaya Prakash Pandit, a Member of the Ruling Party, asked the government how child
abuse could be eradicated at its roots and how those children who were victims of abuse could be
ɨe Hon'ble Ruku Khadka, a Member of the OppositionParty, thought that the monthly edu-
cation allowance of Rs.200, as the Hon'ble Home Minister had promised, was impractical. She
asked the government about its funding sources.
ɨe Hon'ble Dinesh Shah, the Prime Minister, promised to keep the mistakes and recommenda-
tions of the Members of Parliament in mind in the future and presented his justincation of the
Plans and Policies presented by the government.
- He stated that the education allowance was just an incentive for children to attend school
- He stated that the opening of rehabilitation centers is planned, but a specinc date has not
been nxed
- He asked the members for forgiveness with respect to some of their short-comings, as it was the
nrst year of child government
ɨe house was boycotted by the Opposition Party because said party felt that the Ruling Party
had failed to take their recommendations and comments seriously.
ɨe Hon'ble Speaker Binu Pandey informed everyone that the session was adjourned until the
next day.

#/.6%.4)/. /. 4(% 2)'(43 /& 4(% #(),$
Adopted 20 Nov. 1989, entered into force 2 Sept. 1990, G.A. Res. 44/25.
ɨe summary below was prepared by UNICEF.
ɨe preamble sets the tone in which the 54 articles of the Convention will be interpreted. ɨe
major United Nations texts which precede it and which have a direct bearing on children are
mentioned, as is the importance of the family for the harmonious development of the child, the
importance of special safeguards and care including appropriate legal protection, before as well as
after birth, and the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the child's
Artic|e ¡ Definition of chi|d
Every human being below 18 years unless majority is attained earlier according to the law ap-
plicable to the child.
Artic|e z Non-discrimination
All rights must be granted to each child without exception. ɨe State must protect the child
against all forms of discrimination.
Artic|e ¡ 8est interests of the chi|d
In all actions concerning children, the best interests of the child shall be a major consideration.
Artic|e a Imp|ementation of rights
ɨe obligation of the State to ensure that the rights in the Convention are implemented.
Artic|e ¶ Parents, fami|y, community, rights and responsibi|ities
States are to respect the parents and family in their childrearing function.
Artic|e 6 Life, surviva|, and deve|opment
ɨe right of the child to life and the State's obligation to ensure the child's survival and
Artic|e ¡ Name and nationa|ity
ɨe right from birth to a name, to acquire a nationality and to know and be cared for by his or
her parents.
Artic|e 8 Preservation of identity
ɨe obligation of the State to assist the child in reestablishing identity if this has been illegally

Artic|e ç Non-separation from parents
ɨe right of the child to retain contact with his parents in cases of separation. If separation is the
result of detention, imprisonment, or death, the State shall provide information to the child or
parents about the whereabouts of the missing family member.
Artic|e ¡o Fami|y reunification
Requests to leave or enter a country for family reunincation shall be dealt with in a humane
manner. A child has the right to maintain regular contact with both parents when these live in
diĊerent States.
Artic|e ¡¡ I||icit transfer and non-return of chi|dren
ɨe State shall combat child kidnapping by a parent or by a third party.
Artic|e ¡z Expression of opinion
ɨe right of the child to express his or her opinion and to have this taken into consideration.
Artic|e ¡¡ Freedom of expression and information
ɨe right to seek, receive and impart information in various forms, including art, print, and
Artic|e ¡a Freedom of thought, conscience and re|igion
States are to respect the rights and duties of parents to provide direction to the child in the exer-
cise of this right in accordance with the child's evolving capacities.
Artic|e ¡¶ Freedom of association
ɨe child's right to freedom of association and peaceful assembly.
Artic|e ¡6 Privacy, honor, reputation
No child shall be subjected to interference with privacy, family, home or correspondence. .
Artic|e ¡¡ Access to information and media
ɨe child shall have access to information from a diversity of sources; due attention shall be paid
to minorities, and guidelines to protect children from harmful material shall be encouraged.
Artic|e ¡8 Parenta| responsibi|ity
Both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of the child, and assistance shall
be given to them in the performance of the parental responsibilities.
Artic|e ¡ç Abuse and neg|ect (whi|e in fami|y |or other| carej
States have the obligation to protect children from all forms of abuse. Social programmes and
support services shall be made available.
Artic|e zo A|ternative care for chi|dren in the absence of parents
ɨe entitlement of the child to alternative care in accordance with national laws, and the obliga-
tion on the State to pay due regard to continuity in the child's religious, cultural, linguistic, or
ethnic background in the provision of alternative care.
Artic|e z¡ Adoption.
States are to ensure that only authorized bodies carry out adoption. Inter-country adoption may
be considered only if national solutions have been exhausted.
Artic|e zz Refugee chi|dren
Special protection is to be given to refugee children. States shall cooperate with international
agencies to this end and also to reunite children separated from their families.
Artic|e z¡ Disab|ed chi|dren
ɨe right to benent from special care and education for a fuller life in society.
Artic|e za Hea|th care
Access to preventive and curative health care services as well as the gradual abolishment of tradi-
tional practices harmful to the child.
Artic|e z¶ Periodic review
ɨe child who is placed for care, protection or treatment has the right to have the placement
reviewed on a regular basis.
Artic|e z6 Socia| security
ɨe child's right to social security.
Artic|e z¡ Standard of |iving
Parental responsibility to provide adequate living conditions for the child's development even
when one of the parents is living in a country other than the child's place of residence.
Artic|e z8 Education
ɨe right to free primary education, the availability of vocational education, and the need for
measures to reduce the dropout rates.
Artic|e zç Aims of education
Education should foster the development of the child's personality and talents, preparation for a
responsible adult life, and respect for human rights as well as the cultural and national values of
the child's country and that of others.
Artic|e ¡o Chi|dren of minorities and indigenous chi|dren
ɨe right of the child belonging to a minority or indigenous group to enjoy his or her culture, to
practice his or her religion and to use his or her own language.
Artic|e ¡¡ P|ay and recreation
ɨe right of the child to play, to recreational activities, and to participate in cultural and
artistic life.
Artic|e ¡z Economic exp|oitation.
ɨe right of the child to protection against harmful forms of work and against exploitation.

Artic|e ¡¡ Narcotic and psychotropic substances
Protection of the child from their illicit use and the utilization of the child in their production
and distribution.
Artic|e ¡a Sexua| exp|oitation
Protection of the child from sexual exploitation including prostitution and the use of children in
pornographic materials.
Artic|e ¡¶ Abduction, sa|e and traffic
State obligation to prevent the abduction, sale of or traċc in children.
Artic|e ¡6 Other forms of exp|oitation
Artic|e ¡¡ 1orture, capita| punishment, deprivation of |iberty
Obligations of the State vis-à-vis children in detention.
Artic|e ¡8 Armed conf|icts
Children under 15 years are not to take a direct part in hostilities. No recruitment of children
under 15.
Artic|e ¡ç Recovery and reintegration
State obligations for the reeducation and social reintegration of child victims of exploitation,
torture, or armed connicts.
Artic|e ao juveni|e [ustice
Treatment of child accused of infringing the penal law shall promote the child's sense of dignity.
Artic|e a¡ Rights of the chi|d in other instruments.
Artic|e az Dissemination of the Convention
ɨe State's duty to make the Convention known to adults and children.
Artic|e a¡-¶a Imp|ementation
ɨese paragraphs provide for a Committee on the Rights of the Child to oversee implementation
of the Convention.
eace education encourages learners to renect critically on the various proposals set
forth to reduce or eliminate armed violence and war. Alternatives to the present modes
of conducting connicts are essential to this goal. One of the four organizing strands
of the Hague Agenda focuses on this requirement for peace. Nothing will be more in-
dicative of movement toward a culture of peace than the adoption of nonviolent modes of con-
nict-resolution. However, the Agenda recognizes that such a shift will require other complemen-
tary changes in the present world order. ɨis nrst lesson in the section on the connict strand
introduces students to a cooperative learning process that will enable them to renect critically
on the potential of the Agenda and have a greater understanding of the complexity of the goals
it addresses.
key Question How can the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century be realized?
According to the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century, after the bloodiest, most
war-ridden century in history, the goal of the Hague Appeal for Peace is to realize the United Na-
tions' primary aim to ¨save succeeding generations from the scourge of war". Although skeptics
say that abolishing war cannot be done, the Hague Appeal challenges this assumption. ɨis lesson
asks students to analyze and promote the Hague Agenda.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts, copies of the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century
Duration 3 days
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Identify and discuss past attempts to outlaw war and give reasons for their lack of success
- Research and design a presentation on one of the strands of the Hague Agenda, that renects a
prioritized list of the initiatives, actions, and principles outlined in the Agenda
- Develop a campaign to promote an aspect of the Hague Agenda

Have students write a response to the statement below:
¨It is possible to outlaw war".
Discuss student responses. Ask students to recall any historical ngures, actions, or organizations
that were designed to end all war (e.g., Woodrow Wilson, Kellogg-Briand Pact, League of Na-
tions, United Nations). Explore why these eĊorts did not/have not achieved their goals.
You have just discussed past attempts to end all war. In this lesson, we will explore a current tem-
plate for abolishing war, the Hague Appeal for Peace. By the end of the lesson, you should be able
to develop a campaign to promote an aspect of the Hague Agenda.
ɨe titles of the four strands of the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century will
be written on chart paper and hung around the room. ɨe class will be divided into four groups.
Each group will identify actions that could be undertaken in each strand to advance the cause of
abolishing war as an institution.
Once students nnish this activity, discuss responses as a class. Assign each of the four groups one
of the strands to research. Students in each group will read their strand from the Hague Appeal
for Peace, and complete the handout in preparation for a presentation to the class.
Students give presentations; the class uses the note-taking guide to record information. Discuss
the priorities highlighted by each group.
t Do you agree with each group's prioritization of initiatives/actions/principles?
t To what extent are the goals of each strand feasible?
t How do the four strands depend upon and complement each other to achieve the abolition
of war?
t What other institutions in history have been abolished? E.g. Slavery, others?
Students will select a medium for promoting one proposal of the Hague Agenda. ɨey may choose
to create an informational poster, write a letter to the editor, write to their governmental repre-
sentative, plan a lesson for a lower grade, or apply the principles in the Hague Agenda to local-
ized problems in their schools and communities; e.g., combating gang violence, racial violence,
domestic violence, bullying, etc.
Student projects must renect the principles of the Hague Agenda and highlight statistics, data, and
relevant information to make their case.

t Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century (available in various languages):
t Time to Abolish War, a Youth Agenda for Peace and Justice, compiled by Jo Tyler and Adam Berry
(English): www.haguepeace.org/resources/youthAgenda.pdf
t Learning To Abolish War, Book 2, Sample Learning Units, developed by B.A. Reardon and A. Cab-
ezudo (also available in various languages): www.haguepeace.org/index.php?action=resources
4PVSDF Jeannette Balantic, Social Studies Teacher and StaĊ Developer, Great Neck North High
School, New York and, Andrea S. Libresco, Special Assistant Professor, Department of Curricu-
lum and Teaching, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York

HANDOU1 I I I ¡ ~¡
Directions Read your assigned strand from the )BHVF "HFOEB. Prioritize the initiatives,
actions and principles. List and describe the top three in your own words.
1op three initiatives In your own words...

HANDOU1 I I I ¡ ~z
Directions Record information from presentations in the chart below. You will ultimately
use this information for a project to promote an aspect of the"HFOEB.
Strands from )BHVF"HFOEB
Notes from c|ass presentations
erspective-Taking and Common Ground was one of thirty sessions carried out in forty
middle schools and after-school programs in Barcelona (Catalonia) and Donostia/ San
Sebastián (Basque Country) as part of the program entitled How Do We Interact in the
City?: Proposals for Peaceful Coexistence. Sessions brought an average of thirty participants
together and took place once a week over a six-month period.
Each year, the cities of Barcelona and Donostia/ San Sebastián organize a program where youth
select a specinc subject related to their city and propose new ideas for its development. For 2003-
2004, the chosen subject was how to build peaceful co-existence in the city. ɨe Peace Education
Group (PEG) of the Autonomous University of Barcelona was asked to get involved with the
project by both conceptualizing and writing a book of activities in collaboration with one of the
school groups and also by facilitating meetings between schools.
ɨe book of activities created by PEG was divided into three primary subjects: ¡ education for peace
and the resolution of connict, z the school and the city we want, and ¡ a city for all: co-existence,
diversity and civic participation. Activities were based on experiential learning starting with a partici-
patory activity, evaluation of what happened in the activity and the possibility of relating the activity
to everyday life. Activities emphasized connict as an inevitable part of life and practiced eĊective
communication skills and relationship-building. ɨrough active listening, empathy and cooperation,
students gained knowledge, developed trust and made decisions to positively transform connict.¹
ɨe book's objectives included: making decisions in a democratic way by cooperating with oth-
ers; identifying elements that lead to violence as well as peaceful co-existence at school, in the
neighborhood, and in the town/city; evaluating the consequences of violence; gaining a healthy
attitude toward connict; and developing concrete proposals about how to build peaceful co-exis-
tence at school, in the neighborhood, and in the town/ city. ɨe nnal chapter on co-existence and
diversity was unique to accommodate the two distinct environments and cultures of Barcelona
and San Sebastián. For example, Barcelona focused on interracial multiculturalism, while San
Sebastián focused on the violent connict between Spanish and Basque nationalists.

¹ Ideas were garnered from ¨Education in and for Connict," a booklet written by Paco Cascón Soriano. Cascón
asserts that connict is inevitable and that we must value multiculturalism in our societies and embrace op-
portunities to actively participate in dialogue with one another. ¨Education in and for Connict" is available
in Spanish (www.esco|apau.org/caste||ano/docencia/recur08.htm) and in English (www.unesco.org/youth/

,FZ2VFTUJPO How can we understand and appreciate the perspectives of others in order to live
together with our diĊerences?
ɨe Basque connict renects the tension between Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), a Basque separatist
group who wish to be independent from the rest of Spain, and the Spanish government which rejects
their desire for independence. Currently, speaking about the connict in the Basque country is almost ta-
boo, yet it is a connict that aĊects them and their communities. ɨrough the How Do We Interact in the
City?: Proposals for Peaceful Coexistence program, youth were given a chance to explore connicts, increase
their knowledge about them, and learn how to reach common ground despite diĊerences of opinion.
ɨe sample activity, Perspective-Taking and Common Ground, demonstrates one of the ways in
which our program broaches connict with students to help them listen to the perspectives of
others with whom they disagree, and to identify and empathize with other's needs by seeking
common ground as an initial step in building understanding.
ɨe aim of Perspective-Taking and Common Ground is not to judge the diĊerent perspectives, but to
provide time to listen to them. It is important not to discredit any idea. We do not intend that students
become political analysts (although students have often surprised us with the depth of their renections).
Rather, students should increase their ability to nnd the common needs of all involved in a connict.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Photocopies of the charts / handouts for each student
%VSBUJPO 120 minutes
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Analyze some of the perspectives specinc to the Basque connict
t Listen to and empathize with the perspectives of others
t Seek (consensus on) common ground.
Participatory Learning, Dialogue, Renection
4UFQ0OF Students sit in a circle to participate in a written activity about a proposed case (See
handouts: Sample Cases #1 and #2). Ask students the following questions:
t Have you ever been in a conflict in which you tried to place yourself in the position of the other
person involved?
t What was it like -easy, difficult, helpful?
Provide each student with one Sample Case, ensuring that every other student receives the other
case. Students should be ready with pens and pencils. Explain that the purpose of the exercise is
to place ourselves in the shoes of another in the case of a connict. Two cases are provided: one

that highlights a teacher's perspective and one that highlights a student's perspective. Students are
challenged to react (in a natural way) to each case by writing down a response in the dialogue be-
tween a teacher and student. Each student has the opportunity to represent the role of the teacher
marked ¨T" as well as the role of the student marked ¨S" under each Sample Case.
Each student has about 3 minutes to read and then write a response to the Sample Case. After
students respond (2-3 sentences), she/he passes the paper to her/his right. Continue the exercise
for 4 rounds giving each student the opportunity to respond 4 times.
We just tried putting ourselves in another's shoes in certain connict situations. In this lesson, we
will explore the perspectives of diĊerent sides in a connict. By the end of the lesson, you should
be able to interact with other students who have diĊerent views and work to lessen stereotypes
and negative attitudes.
4UFQ5XP Ask students to share some of the reactions created for the Sample Cases.
After each case is read, ask the class the following questions:
t Was this case primarily negative or positive in its use of language?
t What do you think are the intentions of the teacher and of the students involved?
t What are the possible negative and positive outcomes of this case?
4UFQ5ISFF After 3-4 case reactions have been read, ask the class:
t How did you feel during this exercise?
t Was it easy or difficult to see the perspective of another? Why or why not?
t Do you think placing yourself in a different position changed your perception of the conflict?
t The dialogue was created in writing; how realistic is it if it were to happen spontaneously?
Would you modify anything?
t How often do you try to understand the perspectives of others as if you were in their position?
What makes this possible? What makes it difficult?
4UFQ'PVS In groups of 4, ask students the following questions:
t What causes the different actors to respond the way they do?
t Identify the needs of the teacher and the student in the different conflicts. What do they have
in common?
t How does this help to understand people`s common needs?
Groups should list the common needs they discover and display them in a visible place in the
Teachers can adapt this lesson to make it age-appropriate and/or introduce other cases through
use of newspaper headlines, articles and news reports showing diĊerent perspectives on an issue.
If media is used as a primary source, teachers are encouraged to explore the types of messages,
particularly bias towards specinc groups, that the mass media transmits.

Halfway through the How Do We Interact in the City?: Proposals for Peaceful Coexistence program,
youth from Donostia/ Barcelona conducted a video conference to exchange ideas and ask ques-
tions of each other related to issues addressed in their book of activities. Later, 1-2 students, cho-
sen from each participating school in Donostia and in Barcelona, visited with students of a school
outside their region. ɨese students met three times over the course of the year to collaborate on
their ideas for a joint proposal. By the end of the year, a nnal proposal was developed and read by
the youth before the mayor and other city council ngures.
Proposals made by the youth included:
t Change street names that refer to wars or other violent episodes into names of peaceful ngures
and/ or values
t Where statues and monuments commemorate wars and strife, include plaques that recall the
victims and the struggle involved in these episodes
t Guarantee more opportunities for youth participation in political decisions, especially those not
yet able to vote, through greater communication between the people and the administration
t Regulate the use of public space to ensure that it accommodates the needs of all diĊerent groups
of people
t Guarantee that people who are not legal citizens of the country receive the same respect as citi-
zens, and that their rights are upheld
t With regard to the situation in the Basque Country, improve communication between opposing par-
ties through respect and dialogue (this proposal was written in the form of a petition to politicians).
After studying the youth proposals, city oċcials recognized that they could be rigid at times in the
approach to issues, and committed to greater nexibility in their negotiations with other parties.
Students can adapt a similar program within their school and for joint school exchange across
cities, city/ urban, regional areas, etc.
One of the most important aspects of this program was bringing together students who had a
history of connict from diĊerent regions. ɨey said getting to know one another and working
together helped reduce stereotypes and negative attitudes.
t School of Culture of Peace: XXXFTDPMBQBVPSH
t Edualter (resources on education for peace, development and multiculturalism): XXXFEVBMUFSPSH
t Galician Seminar of Peace Education: XXXTQFQPSH
t Association for Peace, Dialogue, and Agreement: XXXFMLBSSJPSH
t Gernika Gogoratuz - Peace Research: XXXHFSOJLBHPHPSBUV[PSH
Adapted from Peace Education Group of the Autonomous University of Barcelona in collabora-
tion with Kathleen Freis.

During history class, a girl comments on the right of all people to self-determination and how
there is a lack of recognition for this right in the Basque context. The history teacher reminds
her that one of the rules of the school is not to speak about politics related to Basque country,
and that for this reason she will have to apologize in front of the rest of the students.
Student Reaction (S)
1eacher Reaction (1)

A teacher did not get a good night's rest. En route to school, his car broke down on the
highway, and because he had to walk the rest of the way to school he arrived 20 minutes
late. As soon as the principal saw him, she berated him for being late, and before the teacher
could respond the bell rang for his class to start. The teacher usually greeted his students
before getting into serious study. However, this time, the teacher was so upset, he slammed
his books on the desk and yelled for the students to ¨sit down and be quiet".
1eacher Reaction (1)
Student Reaction (S)

453"/%*** $0/'-*$5
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ne aspect of the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century that makes it
useful material for teaching critical thinking is its challenge to the conventional wis-
dom that helps to maintain the culture of war and violence. In its call to ¨Proclaim
Active Nonviolence", it asserts:
Peace education emphasizes developing critical capacities essential to the responsibilities of demo-
cratic citizenship. It also seeks to provide the knowledge and skills to facilitate social change
through democratic policies and strategies consistent with the values of peace and justice. Conse-
quently the study of nonviolence, its origins, philosophy and strategies is a fundamental compo-
nent of the comprehensive peace education advocated by the Hague Appeal's Global Campaign
for Peace Education.
,FZ2VFTUJPO To what extent can nonviolent resistance eĊect political change?
Nonviolent resistance comprises the practice of applying pressure to achieve socio-political goals
through symbolic protests, economic or political non-cooperation, civil disobedience and other
methods, without the use of physical violence. Its guiding principle is nonviolence. ɨis philoso-
phy is most often associated with both Mohandas Gandhi in the struggle for Indian indepen-
dence and Martin Luther King, Jr. in the American Civil Rights Movement.
ɨis lesson asks students to ascertain whether these principles of nonviolent resistance are
possible in today's world. ɨus, students explore examples of individuals, groups and peoples
who resisted and continue to employ nonviolent resistance in the late twentieth and early twenty-
nrst centuries.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts
%VSBUJPO 2 days

0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Analyze quotes renecting nonviolent resistance
t Prepare a presentation on recent nonviolent movements
t Evaluate the success of nonviolent resistance movements
t Design a nonviolent resistance plan to address a current connict
Put the following quotes on the board. Ask students if they can identify who said each quote. (ɨe
nrst two are from Martin Luther King, Jr.; the third is from Gandhi).
ºi sunui) )it) t× i×oiviouti wi6 nvrtxs t itw )it) c6×scir×cr )riis iiu is u×-
ìus), t×o wi6 wiiii×civ tccrv)s )ir vr×ti)v 6r iuvvis6×ur×) i× 6vorv )6 tv6usr
)ir c6×scir×cr 6r )ir c6uuu×i)v 6vrv i)s i×ìus)icr, is i× vrtii)v rxvvrssi×c )ir
iicirs) vrsvrc) r6v )ir itwº.
º×6×vi6ir×cr is )ir t×swrv )6 )ir cvuciti v6ii)icti t×o u6vti 6urs)i6×s 6r
6uv )iur: )ir ×rro r6v ut×xi×o )6 6vrvc6ur 6vvvrssi6× t×o vi6ir×cr wi)i6u)
vrs6v)i×c )6 6vvvrssi6× t×o vi6ir×cr. ut×xi×o uus) rv6ivr r6v tii iuut× c6×-
ric) t ur)i6o wiici vrìrc)s vrvr×cr, tccvrssi6×, t×o vr)tiit)i6×. )ir r6u×ot-
)i6× 6r suci t ur)i6o is i6vrº.
ºt× rvr r6v t× rvr utxrs )ir wi6ir w6vio nii×oº.
Ask students the following questions:
t What does each quote mean?
t What ideals are renected in each quote?
t How did these ideals translate into action?
t Would the actions embraced by King and Gandhi be viable today?
You have just analyzed quotes renecting nonviolent resistance from past leaders. In this lesson, we
will explore recent nonviolent movements for change around the world. By the end of the lesson,
you will apply these principles to current connicts.
ɨe titles of the four strands of the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century will
be written on chart.
Divide students into three groups; distribute one of the three handouts to each group.

Students should read their assigned handouts and make brief presentations to the class that ad-
dress the following points:
t Who, what, when, where, why, how of the movement assigned to you
t ɨe philosophy expressed in the quotes
t ɨe quote that most moves you
t Evaluate the success of the movement assigned to you
Select a nation/region/group that is experiencing connict or oppression today (Kashmir, Sudan,
Iraq, etc.). Imagine you are going to head up a nonviolent resistance movement. Use the informa-
tion presented in class to write a mission statement for your movement, plan a course of action to
stop the connict or oppression, raise awareness of your situation and eĊect change.
t Non Violent Activist. Magazine of the War Resisters League. available online
t Nonviolence Forum. Collection of articles, analyses and reports on nonviolence,
4PVSDF Jeannette Balantic, Social Studies Teacher and StaĊ Developer, Great Neck North High
School, New York and Andrea S. Libresco, Special Assistant Professor, Department of Curricu-
lum and Teaching, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York

HANDOU1 I I I ¡~¡ a
(a b|ood|ess revo|ution in czechos|ovakia that overthrew the communist governmentj
8ackground to the Revo|ution²
Czechoslovakia was ruled by the Communist Party from February 25, 1948. ɨere was no op-
position. Dissidents published home-made periodicals, but they faced persecution from the secret
police, and the general public was afraid to support them. A person could be dismissed from
her/his job or school, or have his/her books or movies banned for having a negative attitude to
the socialist regime. ɨese rules were easy to enforce as all schools, media and businesses belonged
to the state and were under direct supervision.
ɨe Czechoslovak Communist leadership verbally supported Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika,
but did little to institute real changes. 1989 saw the nrst anti-government demonstrations, which
were repressed by the police. ɨe actual impetus for the revolution came from developments in
neighboring countries -especially the fall of the Berlin Wall.
1he Revo|ution
On November 17, 1989, a peaceful student demonstration in Prague was severely beaten back
by riot police. ɨat event sparked a set of popular demonstrations from November 19 to late
December. By November 20 the number of peaceful protestors assembled in Prague had swelled
¹ Quotes excerpted from: www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/v/vac|av_have|.htm|
² Information about the Revolution excerpted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ve|vet_Revo|ution

from 200,000 the day before to an estimated half-million. A general two-hour strike, involving
all citizens of Czechoslovakia, was held on November 27.
With other communist regimes falling all around, and with growing street protests, the Com-
munist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on November 28 they would give up their monopoly
on political power. Barbed wire was removed from the border with West Germany and Austria in
early December. On December 10, the Communist President Gustáv Husák appointed the nrst
largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned. Alexander Dub-
cek was elected speaker of the federal parliament on December 28 and Václav Havel the President
of Czechoslovakia on December 29 1989.
As one of the results of the Velvet Revolution, the nrst democratic elections since 1946 were held
in June, 1990, and brought the nrst completely non-communist government to Czechoslovakia
in over forty years.

HANDOU1 I I I ¡~¡ b
(an internationa| peace networkj
ºwtv rxtcrvnt)rs )ir vt×oruic 6r vi6ir×cr rxvrvir×cro nv w6ur× t×o civis rvrvvwirvrº.
ºwr uvcr tii urunrvs 6r )ir u×i)ro ×t)i6×s )6 tssuvr )it) w6ur× tvr i×v6ivro
i× tii vrtcr oriinrvt)i6×sº.
º×6 wtv wi)i6u) r×oº.
º6uv cvirr is ×6) t cvv r6v wtvº.
ºwr tvr ×6) i×)rvrs)ro i× v6wrv: wr tvr vrvv i×)rvrs)ro i× s6citi cit×cr.i)'s t
urt×s 6r u6niiizi×cº.
|s)t×oi×c i× siir×crl is rrrrc)ivr, nu) si6w t×o s)rtov, ×6) nic t×o svitsivº.
Women in Black is an international peace network and a means of mobilization and action.
Women in Black vigils were started in Israel in 1988 by women protesting against Israel's Occupa-
tion of the West Bank and Gaza. Women in Black has developed in the United States, England,
Italy, Spain, South Africa, Azerbaijan and in former Yugoslavia, where women in Belgrade have
stood in weekly vigils since 1991 to protest war and the Serbian aggression.
Women In Black stand in silent vigil to protest war, rape as a tool of war, ethnic cleansing and
human rights abuses all over the world. We are silent because mere words cannot express the
tragedy that wars and hatred bring. We refuse to add to the cacophony of empty statements that
are spoken with the best intentions yet may be erased or go unheard under the sound of a passing
ambulance or a bomb exploding nearby.
Our silence is visible. We invite women to stand with us, renect about themselves and women
who have been raped, tortured or killed in concentration camps, women who have disappeared,
whose loved ones have disappeared or have been killed, whose homes have been demolished. We
wear black as a symbol of sorrow for all victims of war, for the destruction of people, nature and
the fabric of life.

HANDOU1 I I I ¡~¡ c
(Nonvio|ent Pro-democracy Activist in 8urma[Myanmarj
º)ir oru6cvtcv vv6crss vv6viors r6v v6ii)icti t×o s6citi cit×cr wi)i6u) vi6ir×crº.
º)ir s)vuccir r6v oru6cvtcv t×o iuut× vici)s i× nuvut is t s)vuccir r6v iirr t×o oic-
×i)v. i) is t s)vuccir )it) r×c6uvtssrs 6uv v6ii)icti, s6citi t×o rc6×6uic tsvivt)i6×sº.
ºvirtsr usr v6uv iinrv)v )6 vv6u6)r 6uvsº.
ºs6ur)iurs, zz i6uvs ct× nvi×c t )6)ti vrv6iu)i6×tvv cit×crº.
ºwr wiii vvrvtii nrctusr 6uv ctusr is vici), nrctusr 6uv ctusr is ìus). ...iis)6vv is 6× 6uv
sior. )iur is 6× 6uv siorº.
ºi )ii×x nv ×6w i itvr utor i) rtiviv cirtv )it) i tu ×6) vrvv itvvv wi)i )ir w6vo ºi6vrº.
i o6×') nriirvr i× vr6vir ìus) i6vi×c. wr w6vx r6v wit) wr wt×). i tiwtvs stv )it) 6×r its
×6 vici) )6 i6vr wi)i6u) r×ortv6v, s6 wr w6vx )6 )vv t×o nvi×c tn6u) )ir si)ut)i6×
)it) is ×rcrsstvv r6v )ir c6u×)vv, t×o wr tvr c6×ror×) )it) wr wiii cr) )6 )ir ×rc6)it-
)i6× )tnir t) 6×r )iur 6v t×6)irv. )iis is )ir wtv tii suci si)ut)i6×s vt× 6u)-- rvr× wi)i
)ir u6s) )vucuir×) oic)t)6vº.
Aung San Suu Kyi's father, General Aung San (who negotiated Burma's independence from the
United Kingdom in 1947), was assassinated by rivals in the same year.
After studying and starting a family abroad, Aung San Suu Kyi returned to Myanmar in 1988. In
that year, the long-time leader of the ruling party stepped down, leading to mass demonstrations
for democratization, which were violently suppressed. Aung San Suu Kyi was soon propelled into
leading the revolt against the dictator.
¹ Quotes from www.uscampaignforburma.org/assk/ASSKquotes.htm| and
² From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aung_San_Suu_Kyi

ºw6vio vrtcr )iv6uci ×6×vi6ir×) urt×s is ×ri)irv tnsuvo ×6v u×t))ti×tnir.
tii 6)irv ur)i6os itvr rtiiro. )ius wr uus) nrci× t×rw. ×6×vi6ir×cr is t c66o
s)tv)i×c v6i×). )i6sr 6r us wi6 nriirvr i× )iis ur)i6o ct× nr v6icrs 6r vrts6×,
st×i)v, t×o u×orvs)t×oi×c tuio )ir v6icrs 6r vi6ir×cr, it)vro, t×o ru6)i6×. wr
ct× vrvv wrii sr) t u66o 6r vrtcr 6u) 6r wiici t svs)ru 6r vrtcr ct× nr nuii).º
- Mart|n |utber k|ng. jr. orcrunrv, ·j6z
Inspired by the nonviolent campaigns of US civil rights leader Martin Luther
King and India's Mahatma Gandhi, she organized rallies and traveled around
the country, calling for peaceful democratic reform and free elections.
But the demonstrations were brutally suppressed by the army, who seized
power in a coup. ɨe military government called for national elections in May
1990. Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy party convinc-
ingly won the polls, despite the fact that she herself was under house arrest
and disqualined from standing. But the junta refused to hand over control, and has remained in
power ever since.
In 1991 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her eąorts to bring democracy to Burma. At the
presentation, the Chairman of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee called her ¨an outstanding example of
the power of the powerless". Aung San Suu Kyi remains under house arrest.

453"/%*** $0/'-*$5
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eace education often applies a processual approach to analyzing and resolving problems.
In the section on this strand in an earlier Global Campaign resource, Learning to Abolish
War, (available at XXXIBHVFQFBDFPSH) the evolution of connict through various stages
was presented (Book 1, pp. 36- 40.) ɨe nnal stages of that process, reconciliation and
the construction of positive relationships, have been practiced for generations among the peoples
of Africa and village people in other areas of the world. ɨese practices are derived from a strong
sense of community and the values placed on human dignity-elements to be nurtured for a
culture of peace.
,FZ2VFTUJPO To what extent can traditional practices inform modern peace-building eĊorts?
Traditional African practices of peace-building and peacemaking oĊer valuable knowledge, edu-
cation and philosophy on the resolution of connict.
In many traditional African societies, peace-building as an approach to post-connict situations
emphasizes the need for reconciliation, development of a capacity for connict-resolution and for
working towards sustainable peace. Peace-building strategies look beyond the present to future
With the end of apartheid, many people predicted a blood-bath as the black majority took re-
venge and retribution for the brutal oppression and injustice they suĊered under white rule.
However, this didn't happen. Instead, South Africa went a diĊerent way and used the strategy of
a Truth and Reconciliation Commission that is now becoming a model for the world.
ɨe African majority that came to power in South Africa following the end of apartheid drew
on African traditional jurisprudence-Ubuntu-rather than the English Common law or the Ro-
man Dutch law that previously ruled the country. Many African societies emphasize restorative
justice, focusing on healing and reconciliation, rather than retributive justice which seeks solely
to punish an oĊender. In restorative justice, the central concern is not retribution or punishment,
but the healing of breaches, and the restoration of broken relationships. As Archbishop Desmond
Tutu points out, this kind of justice seeks to heal both the victim and the perpetrator, who can
be given the opportunity to reintegrate into the community he/she has just injured. ɨis lesson

provides examples of cultural practices from South Africa that promote the nonviolent resolution
of connict to secure and sustain the common good.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts
%VSBUJPO 3 class periods
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Discuss strategies for peace-building on micro and macro levels
t Explain the principles of Ubuntu
t Analyze the extent to which Ubuntu informed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of
South Africa
t Evaluate the extent to which Ubuntu and the Truth and Reconciliation model can be applied
to other countries' peace-building attempts
Ask students to complete both of the following sentences:
At the end of war, victors should..
At the end ofDJWJM war, victors should..
Do those who lose have any responsibility for peacemaking and reconciliation?
Have students share their responses. Ask students if their responses diĊer when they are thinking
about civil war.
Have students renect on the aftermath of prior connicts (such as World War I¹, World War II²,
Indian independence and partition³, Dayton Accords on Bosniaņ, Guatemalan Peace AccordsŇ,
Irish Good Friday Agreementň, etc.) to examine the eĊects of the peace treaties.
t How were the treaties devised?
t How would you characterize them? How were the ¨losers" treated?
t How might these past treaties inform future negotiations for peace?
t Are there other models to look to?
¹ Treaty of Versailles, June 28, 1919: http://history.acusd.edu/gen/text/versai||estreaty/vercontents.htm|
² World War II Outcome Documents: www.ya|e.edu/|awweb/ava|on/wwii/wwii.htm
³ 1947 Partition of India: www.indhistory.com/partition-independence.htm|
ņ Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia, 1995: www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/dayton/daytonaccord.htm|
Ň ɨe Guatemalan Peace Accords of 1996: www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/47/index-cbb.htm|
ň ɨe Good Friday Agreement, also known as Belfast Agreement, signed in 1998:

Have students think about peace-building after personal connicts and criminal transgressions.
t After a divorce, what are the possible options for reconstructing your family and nnding a way
to peacefully coexist?
t In dealing with criminals, what are the possible options for sentencing convicted oĊenders? Are
there alternative forms of punishment or means of providing restitution?
t Can any of the practices used on the micro level be transferred to the macro problem of rebuild-
ing after a civil war?
t Do you see any similarities in how ¨losers" are treated at the end of war and the way criminals
are typically dealt with in society? (Peace treaties and sentencing are often handed down from
on high and are blind to particular circumstances of nations or individuals. ɨey seek to pun-
ish, rather than heal or restore relationships).
We just discussed the options for solving micro and macro level connicts. In this lesson, we will
explore the peace-building strategies that South Africa used to restore and heal relationships,
rather than punish oĊenders following the end of apartheid. By the end of the lesson, you should
be able to assess the applicability of these methods to other regions experiencing connict.
Distribute student handout on 6CVOUV. (See handout for basic information on this traditional
value system.) Discuss student responses to questions.
Students will role-play dialogue that was held regarding the Truth and Reconciliation Commis-
sion in South Africa. (See student handout.)
t What is the Truth and Reconciliation Commission?
t Why was the TRC formed?
t How were both victims and perpetrators able to buy into the TRC?
t Bishop Tutu, Head of the TRC, said, ¨Forgiveness depends on repentance, which has to be
based on an acknowledgement of what was done wrong, and therefore on disclosure of the
truth. You cannot forgive what you do not know". Do you agree?
t To what extent do you see the principles of 6CVOUV informing the TRC's mission?
t What are the responsibilities of victims in a reconciliation process?
Assign to groups of students current and recent areas of connict (e.g., Sudan, Rwanda, Bosnia,
Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, and have them apply the principles of 6CVOUV/ TRC to the peace process
in these areas. Students should:
t Identify the groups that need to be brought together
t Identify the perpetrators and the victims
t Identify the crimes that could be forgiven
t Discuss the applicability of 6CVOUV TRC to the areas researched
t Present nndings to the class

As a follow-up, you may ask the students to renect on the values in the diĊerences between
¨mercy" and ¨justice".
t Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of South Africa Report, 2003 (English):
t Moroccan Truth Commission, oċcial website is available in Arabic, French and Spanish
t International Center for Transnational Justice (ICTJ), report on Moroccan Truth Commission
(English): www.ictj.org/down|oads/ICTJ.Morocco.pdf
t Paavani Reddy. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Instruments for Ending Impunity and Build-
ing Lasting Peace. UN Chronicle: www.un.org/Pubs/chronic|e/2004/issue4/0404p19.htm|
t Rosalind Shaw. Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions, Lessons from Sierra Leone.
United States Institute of Peace: www.usip.org/pubs/specia|reports/sr130.htm|
4PVSDF Adapted from Dr. Catherine A. Odora-Hoppers, Institute of International Education,
Stockholm University

Directions Read the excerpts about Ubuntu below and answer the questions that follow.
Ubuntu is found in diverse forms in many societies throughout Africa. More specifically
among the Bantu languages of East, Central and Southern Africa the concept of Ubuntu is
a cultural world-view that tries to capture the essence of what it means to be human.
'Ubuntu' is very diċcult to render into a Western language. It speaks to the very essence of being
human. [If you say people] have Ubuntu.this means that they are generous, hospitable, friendly,
caring and compassionate. ɨey share what they have. It also means that my humanity is caught
up, is inextricably bound up, in theirs. We belong in a bundle of life. We say, ¨a person is a per-
son through other people". I am human because I belong, I participate, I share. A person with
Ubuntu is open and available to others, aċrming of others, does not feel threatened that others
are able and good; for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes with knowing that he or
she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when
others are tortured or oppressed, or treated as if they were less than who they are.'
Ubuntu societies developed mechanisms for resolving disputes and promoting reconcili-
ation with a view to healing past wrongs and maintaining social cohesion and harmony.
Depending on the nature of the disagreement or dispute, the conflict-resolution process
could take place at the level of the family, at the village level, between members of an ethnic
group, or even between different ethnic nations situated in the same region.
In the context of the Ubuntu societies found in southern Africa, disputes were to be re-
solved through an institution known as the inkundla/ lekgotla which served as a reconcili-
ation forum. This forum was communal in character in the sense that the entire society
was involved at various levels in trying to find a solution to a problem which was viewed
as threatening the social cohesion of the community. In principle the proceedings would
be led by a Council of Elders and the Chief. The process of ascertaining wrong-doing
and finding a resolution included family members related to the victims and perpetrators,
including women and the young. The mechanism therefore allowed members of the pub-
lic to share their views and generally make their opinions known. The larger community
could thus be involved in the process of conflict-resolution. In particular, members of the
society had the right to put questions to the victims, perpetrators and witnesses as well as
to put suggestions to the Council of Elders on possible ways forward. By listening to the
views of the members of the society, the Council of Elders could advise on solutions which

¹ Murithi, Timothy. Practical Peacemaking Wisdom from Africa: Refections on Ubuntu
² Murithi. Op cit p.
would promote reconciliation between the aggrieved parties and thus maintain the overall
objective of sustaining the unity and cohesion of the community.¹
This notion of Ubuntu.provides a value system for giving and receiving forgiveness. It
provides a rationale for sacrificing or letting go of the desire to take revenge for past wrongs.
It provides an inspiration and suggests guidelines for societies and their governments, on
how to legislate and establish laws which will promote reconciliation.²
t What are the basic beliefs of Ubuntu?
t What values are reflected?
t Are the values and beliefs of Ubuntu similar to any belief systems with which you are
familiar? Explain.
t How does the notion of forgiveness in this system compare to more modern justice
t Can Ubuntu exist only in a traditional context or can it be applied to societies today?

ɨe process of resolving disputes in traditional South African societies involved nve stages:
After a fact-nnding process during which the views of victims, perpetrators and witnesses were
heard, the perpetrators -if considered to have done wrong-would be encouraged, both by the
Council and other community members to BDLOPXMFEHFSFTQPOTJCJMJUZPSHVJMU.
- Perpetrators would be encouraged to EFNPOTUSBUFHFOVJOFSFNPSTFPSUPSFQFOU
- Perpetrators would be encouraged to BTLGPSGPSHJWFOFTT, and victims in their turn would be
encouraged to TIPXNFSDZ
- Where possible and at the suggestion of the Council of Elders, perpetrators would be required
to QBZBOBQQSPQSJBUFDPNQFOTBUJPOPSSFQBSBUJPO for the wrong done. (ɨis was often more
symbolic than a repayment-in-kind, with the primary function of reinforcing the remorse of
the perpetrators.) Amnesty could thus be granted, but not with impunity.
- ɨe Council of Elders would seek to consolidate the whole process by encouraging the par-
ties to commit themselves to reconciliation. ɨis process of reconciliation tended to include
the victim and his or her family members and friends as well as the perpetrator and his or her
family members and friends. Both groups would be encouraged to embrace co-existence and
to work toward healing the rifts between them, and thus contribute toward restoring harmony
within the community, which was vital in ensuring the integrity and viability of the society.
ɨe act of reconciliation was vital in that it symbolized the willingness of the parties to move
beyond the psychological bitterness that had prevailed in the minds of the parties during the
connict situation.
Can this traditional model for resolving
disputes be applied to modern connicts?
Why/why not?

AN IN1ERvIEw wI1H PUMLA CO8ODO-MADIkIZELA¹ by Nthabiseng Mabuza² Fa|| zooo
In 1993, leaders in South Africa from various political groups came together and successfully
completed a long series of negotiations that would put an end to apartheid. South Africa had
suĊered greatly under apartheid, and the new leaders felt the country had a need to take the path
towards understanding and reparation, instead of retaliation and vengeance.
ɨe Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established to grant amnesty to those
who came forward to confess their crimes. But in order for applicants to qualify for amnesty, the
Commission, which was chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, required that they provide ¨full
disclosure of all knowledge pertaining to gross human rights violations", or risk facing prosecu-
tion for their crimes.
ɨe TRC empowered victims by designing a ¨victim friendly" environment. It also provided a
platform for victims to share their stories publicly, facing their perpetrators for the nrst time, in
hopes that the process would help them nnd some closure, and enable them to move on with
their lives.
What follows is an interview with Ms. Gobodo-Madikizela, conducted by Nthabiseng Mabuza.
NM what is the 1RC and why was it estab|ished?
PC-M ɨe Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established as part of a negotiated settle-
ment in a society seeking social cohesion rather than vengeance. ɨe intent was to try to break the
cycles of politically inspired violence that so often repeat themselves historically.
NM what are some of the factors that contributed to the |aunching of the 1RC?
PC-M When apartheid collapsed, the leaders of this brutally oppressive system in South Africa
demanded blanket amnesty for its police and foot soldiers. Also, some survivors and families of
victims wanted to know what happened to their loved ones, and who the perpetrators were. ɨey
wanted to know those responsible for giving orders to their perpetrators whose actions left them
and their loved ones to suĊer to the extent they did. Other victims wanted prosecutions. As a
¹ Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela served on the Human Rights Violations Committee of South Africa's great national
experiment in healing, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. She is a psychologist and author of A Human
Being Died Dzat Night: A South African Woman Confronts the Legacy of Apartheid-that is a renection of her
interviews with Eugene de Kock, the commanding oċcer of state-sanctioned death squads under apartheid.
² Nthabiseng Mabuza is a writer and occasional volunteer at South Africa Partners from whose nles this inter-
view was excerpted. www.sapartners.org/sa/pum|agobodo.php3
compromise, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established and given a mandate to
grant amnesty to perpetrators from both sides of the political connict on a case-by-case basis, in
exchange for full disclosure of the atrocities they committed.
NM Most peop|e find it difficu|t to understand how peop|e can forgive in the face of
tragedy. How do you understand the process of forgiveness?
PC-M ɨe ability to forgive the perpetrator sets the victim above the perpetrator. ɨe grant-
ing of forgiveness can also relieve victims of the burden of anger associated with the trauma they
suĊered at the hands of the perpetrator. It is this sense of relief that victims are in search of when
they say they forgive perpetrators. ɨere is often the mistake of equating forgiving with forget-
ting. ɨis is not the case. Nothing can make victims forget their trauma. It is something they live
with daily. But when victims know that their victimizer at least recognizes the pain and suĊering
he caused, it is a way of giving back victims the dignity and respect that was taken away at the
time of the abuse.

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he concept of human security has emerged as the human and economic costs of war and
preparation for war rose to new heights during the last century. It presents a challenge
to thinking of security primarily in military terms. More important in terms of peace
education based on the proposals of the )BHVF"HFOEB, it provides a means to illustrate
the relationship of demilitarization and disarmament to other aspects of a culture of peace. It is,
in particular, a framework for thinking about the multiple human benents that could result from
the abolition of war. ɨis lesson from Cambodia introduces students to alternative concepts of
security through learning exercises that demonstrate how authentic human security derives from
democratic policy-making.
,FZ 2VFTUJPO How might redenning security reshape public priorities towards reduction
of violence?
Following the U.S. bombing of Cambodia in the Vietnam war, Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot
ruled Cambodia from 1975 until the beginning of 1979, and, during that short but incredibly
disastrous period, somewhere between one quarter and one third of the Cambodian people lost
their lives. An estimated 1.7 million people died of starvation, forced labor, torture, disease, or
execution. Among those exterminated was an entire generation of political, civic and religious
leaders -the educated who threatened the rule of the Khmer Rouge. Survivors were deeply trau-
matized. Cambodia's tragedy is now universally recognized as one of the twentieth century's worst
crimes against humanity-genocide.
Today, Cambodia remains crippled by this legacy of violence. ɨe country is awash in weapons,
and they are still remarkably easy to obtain. Weapons remain in the hands of militias, members
of nshing communities, demobilized soldiers, civil servants, villagers, local authorities, and busi-
nessmen. A glance at local newspapers on any given day shows that large numbers of gun-related
incidents continue to occur in both cities and rural areas. Research by Cambodian NGOs has
found that one in three families owns a gun, and up to 400,000 of these weapons are unrestricted
by law.
As nations associate weaponry and military with security, so do people associate gun owner-
ship with security. Civil society organizations in Cambodia have risen to challenge this narrow

notion of security. With the cooperation of the European Union, the Royal Government of Cam-
bodia and others, more than 154,000 weapons have been collected and destroyed in recent years.
ɨis achievement has contributed signincantly to building peace, safety and stability. ɨe aim is
to transform Cambodia according to the slogan, ¨peace brings development". But there is much
more work to be done to realize this vision; peace education is necessary in order to demonstrate
positive alternatives to ensure security.
From 2002-2005, Hague Appeal for Peace in cooperation with the United Nations Department
for Disarmament AĊairs (UNDDA) conducted a project in Kampong Chhnang, Cambodia, to
sustain the destruction of small arms.
ɨe peace lesson, Town meeting: A Forum for Redefning Security, promotes the use of town meet-
ings to explore the various meanings of security and insecurity in order to reduce the misconcep-
tion that security relies on militarism and armaments. Working Group for Weapons Reduction
(WGWR) helps Cambodians recognize alternatives and empowers local communities to promote
security without violence.
"HF3BOHF Secondary school students
.BUFSJBMT Handouts, Newspapers
%VSBUJPO 2 days
0CKFDUJWFT Students will be able to:
t Write their own dennition of security
t Examine diĊerent dennitions and conceptions of security
t Read newspapers to compile evidence with regard to the extent to which each type of security
exists in their community, nation and world
t Plan and implement a town meeting to raise public awareness regarding the nature of security
Ask students the following questions
t What does security mean to you?
t What do you need to feel secure?
t Do you feel secure? Why/why not?
t Do you think your defnition of the term depends on who you are, where you are and when you live?
Why/ why not?

Present students with the following quotes¹. Ask students how each person would denne security.
We have just explored your conception of security. In this lesson, we will examine diĊerent no-
tions and examples of security. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to raise public aware-
ness regarding the nature of security via a town meeting presentation.
Distribute the handout, ¨Security Denned". As students read each dennition, they should il-
lustrate or design a symbol that renects each aspect of security. ɨey should then consider which
aspects are most important to them, their community, their nation, and the world.
Divide students into eight groups, one for each dennition of security. Students will read newspa-
pers to compile evidence on attached handout regarding the extent to which each type of security
exists in their community, nation and world.
t What are the diĊerences in purpose and policy between national and human security?
t How might redenning security reshape public priorities?
Using the evidence gathered, students will design a presentation to be made at a town meeting
to raise public awareness about the nature of security and reduce the misconception that security
depends on militarism and armaments.

Students may wish to open the meeting with a quote that invites the audience to re-conceptualize
security. One such quote¹ may be:
Questions to be raised at the town meeting may include:
t What conditions in our community threaten our security?
t What can we do to remove or reduce those security risks?
t What conditions in our community protect our security most?
t What can we do to increase our sense of security?
t What do we need to demand of our government in order to ensure true security in our com-
munity, nation and world?
t Huot ɨavory. ¨Cambodia, Changing Attitudes and Reducing Weapons". Peace and Disarma-
ment Education, Changing Mindsets to Reduce Violence and Sustain the Removal of Small Arms,
pp.36-47. www.haguepeace.org/resources/DDA-book.pdf
t Human Security Report 2005: www.humansecurityreport.info/
4PVSDF Adapted from ɨavory Huot, formerly Coordinator of Peace and Disarmament Educa-
tion Project, Working Group for Weapons Reduction (WGWR), Cambodia and Cambodian
project director for the United Nations Department for Disarmament AĊairs / Hague Appeal for
Peace partnership.
For background material we are grateful to Craig Etcheson, Visiting Scholar at the Foreign Policy
Institute of Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies. He maintains a
consulting practice on transitional justice issues, advising governmental and private sector clients
on the challenges of accountability and reconciliation in societies that have experienced extreme
socio-political ruptures. While a Research Scientist at Yale University's Center for International
and Area Studies he served as Program Manager for Yale's Cambodian Genocide Program and was
also a principal founder of the Documentation Center of Cambodia in Phnom Penh.
¹ Quotation source: www.esrnationa|.org/sp/we/uw/security.htm

HANDOU1 I v ¡ ~¡
Directions Read each definition of security¹. Create a symbol or illustration to represent
each definition. Which aspects of security are most important to you, your community, our
nation, and the world?
Definitions of Security
Physica| Security-nourishment, clothing and shelter that provide
protection from the elements; protection from disease; treatment
for illness; a certainty that an individual's basic needs will be met.
Preventive Security-orderliness, rules, and consistent protection
from physical harm, abuse, violence, and terror.
Emotiona| Security-a sense of belonging and being loved and
cared for; feelings of acceptance from others; healthy interpersonal
relationships with family, friends, adults, peers, and co-workers.
Deve|opmenta| Security-access to education; the opportunity
and freedom to learn, achieve, and contribute to society.
Cu|tura| Security-affirmation of cultural identity, values, and
traditions; respect for and legal protection of a person's ethnic,
racial, religious, and gender identity; freedom to participate as full
partners in society regardless of cultural identity.
Po|itica| Security-the degree of protection and safety that a gov-
ernment provides its citizens within a nation; protection from
threats beyond a nation's borders; the quality and degree of civil
rights and civic participation in decision-making.
Economic Security-access to training and the development of
useful skills; access to jobs and wages which provide a decent stan-
dard of living; provision of benefits for the aged, the sick, the
disabled, and children.
Environmenta| Security-protection from environmental hazards
and toxins; provisions for safe and clean air, water, and food sup-
plies; provision for a safe, clean habitat
Nationa| Security-development and maintenance of weaponry;
military preparedness, recruiting and training of military personnel,
military budget.
I||ustration[ Symbo|

HANDOU1 I v ¡ ~z
Directions Read each definition of security¹. Create a symbol or illustration to represent
each definition. Which aspects of security are most important to you, your community, our
nation, and the world?
Brainstorm ideas as to how you can convey this information at the Town Meeting.
Human Security versus Nationa| Security
ne of the goals of peace education is to cultivate an awareness of the values that guide
public policy. ɨe most revealing indicator of a nation's values is how it allocates
its public funding. Within the present system of militarized security, most nations
spend excessively on weapons and the military, limiting the funds that can be spent
on providing human security. ɨe following lesson calls for critical renection on public spending
and national security.
key Question To what extent does your government's spending priorities renect the nation's
security needs?
ɨe concept of security is often denned narrowly as protection of national interests. ɨis lesson
challenges students to consider an alternative to present concepts of militarized national secu-
rity-human security, which emphasizes the protection of people from the multiple threats to
human survival and well-being, of hunger, disease and repression.
An important part of responsible citizenship involves understanding political decisions and how
they aĊect people. ɨe following lesson analyzes the extent to which governments fund hu-
man security versus national security priorities. ɨrough an analysis of governmental spending,
students have the opportunity to think critically and make educated decisions about the use of
power and money. Students will be challenged to prioritize budgetary spending for their nations,
weighing human versus military needs.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handout, Websites, paper, markers, scissors and supplies to be used represent mea-
surement such as long and wide strips (about 3 inches, just wide enough to be seen from across a
room) of diĊerent colored ribbon or paper, one color per country
Duration 2 days

Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Brainstorm how tax dollars are spent in their country
- Research the current state of aĊairs in their own country with respect to education, health
and the military
- Analyze the relationship between the current state of aĊairs and budgetary spending on military
versus human needs
- Evaluate their government's spending priorities and make recommendations for future govern-
ment spending, bearing in mind their new understanding of the concept of national security
Introductory Activity
- Ask students to hypothesize about how much of every tax dollar in their country is spent on
the military and defense, health care, and education. Provide students with actual data from your
nation¹. When researching statistical information, be sure to use the percentage of Gross Domes-
tic Product statistic, rather than a dollar amount. DiĊerent countries have very diĊerent GDPs;
simply comparing dollar amounts will yield misleading comparisons.
For example²:
- How did the actual numbers compare to your predictions?
- Do you agree with how the money is currently allocated?
- To help students gain an understanding of how their country's spending priorities compare to
other countries' spending priorities, divide the class into eight groups, assigning a diĊerent coun-
try to each group. (You may wish to ensure that a country from each continent is represented).
Provide students with data about how much of every tax dollar (or local currency) in the country
they have been assigned is spent on the military and defense, health care, and education. (For
reasons indicated above, be sure to use the percentage of Gross Domestic Product statistic, rather
than a dollar or currency amount).
¹ For statistics resources, see references next page.
² Source: National Priorities Project, www.nationa|priorities.org.
Have each group represent their assigned country by a specinc color ribbon; e.g., the Mexican
budgets for education, health and the military could be a blue ribbon, the Russian budgets could
be green, and the United States could be red. Have students work in groups to collaborate on
creating a living graph showing the relationship of each of the expenditures. Always include the
military budget for every country represented. Each percentage point can be equal to half a meter
of ribbon. (ɨus, the statistics for the United States listed above would translate into 2.5 meters
of ribbon for education spending, 10.5 meters of ribbon for health spending and 24.5 meters of
ribbon for military spending.)
Once the ribbons are cut to represent the budgets, ask for volunteers to hold them, one to two
people may be needed for each ribbon depending on its length. Have students stand in such a way
that the class can see the comparison. ɨe class will see in a living graph how much more or less
each country spends on health compared to education compared to the military.
- What spending patterns emerge within each country and among the countries?
- What do these patterns indicate about spending priorities within and among the countries?
- Are there any countries' spending priorities with which you agree?
- Are there any countries' spending priorities with which you disagree?
- To what extent is it the role of citizens to know about national budgets?
- Do you have a say in your national budget? Should you have a say?
Focus Statement to Students
We just examined how our money is spent in our country. In this lesson, we will analyze how
budgetary decisions renect our nation's emphasis on military versus human needs. By the end of
the lesson, you should be able to evaluate your government's spending priorities and make your
own recommendations for future government spending.
In order to evaluate how the government spends taxpayer money, students need to have an un-
derstanding of the current state of aĊairs in their nation. To that end, divide the class into groups
of 3 or 4 students. Assign each group a topic (education, health, or military) to research in order
to understand the context of their nation's spending. If needed, two groups can research the same
topic. For example, the group assigned education might examine literacy rate, dropout rate, teen-
age pregnancy, etc. to determine if the percentage of GDP spent on education is appropriate.
Similarly, the group assigned health may examine mortality rate, disease, access to clean water,
etc. to see if the percentage of GDP spent on health is appropriate ɨe group assigned military
will have to investigate the current state of aĊairs in the nation and in the global context (civil
war, territorial disputes, terrorism, nuclear competition) to determine if the percentage of GDP
spent on military is appropriate.
Each group will present its nndings to the class in order to generate a thorough understanding of
the current state of aĊairs in their nation. ɨe teacher should provide students with the spending
information for each area, which they should record on their handouts.
Discussion questions regarding research and spending:
- Is there a correlation between the state of aĊairs in each area and budgetary spending?
- Do you agree with the way the budget is allocated? Explain why or why not.
- Does your government's spending renect your values, beliefs, or principles?
Discussion questions regarding dennitions of security:
- We frequently talk about national security. What does this term mean to you?
- Given all of the information you have just gathered, should we re-think how national security
has traditionally been denned? (Introduce the concept of human security here - see background
information for a dennition).
- In order to assure national security, should military budgets exceed budgets for health and
education combined?
- What relationship do you think military budgets should have to health and education budgets
to assure security?
Submit a policy recommendation either to maintain or change the current spending in the coun-
try to renect your values and principles and your new understanding of national security. Pro-
posals must be substantiated by the research on education, health and military data from your
country. Students will share proposals with one another, and send them to their political leaders
as involved citizens should do.
- For health, education, military and other statistics, the Human Development Report -pub-
lished every year by the United Nations -covers all human indicators for all countries:
- For health-spending data, try also the World Health Organization:
- For education-related data, see the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS):
- For military spending data (USA), Comparison of US and Foreign Military Spending Report:
Source Cora Weiss, President of Hague Appeal for Peace and International Peace Bureau

HANDOU1 I v ¡~¡
Directions Use the research guide below to compile information in the area you have been
assigned. Use any data that you feel gives insight into your area.
Spending as percentage of CDP:
Spending as percentage of CDP:
Spending as percentage of CDP:
trand 4 of the Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century advances 9 pro-
posals to achieve greater human security through disarmament. ɨe destructiveness
of modern weapons lasts for years beyond the connicts in which they are used. ɨey
do not distinguish between combatants and civilians. ɨey are in every sense lethal to
human security. Peace education not only develops awareness about these eĊects, it also guides
learners in developing capacities to act to eliminate the weapons and the reasons for their use.
All of the Agenda proposals are civil society initiatives. Several have had signincant results such
as the International Court of Justice opinion on the illegality of nuclear weapons, and the Land-
mine Ban Treaty, the subject of the following lesson.
key Question To what extent is the treaty on landmines an indicator that the global commu-
nity can cooperate to promote peace and security throughout the world?
ɨe International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) is a global coalition calling for a to-
tal ban on antipersonnel mines. Today, the ICBL has over fourteen hundred member organiza-
tions working in ninety countries to eliminate antipersonnel landmines. ɨis unique civil society
movement helped spur global action, which led to the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty that prohibits mine
use, stockpiling, production and transfer, and includes provisions for mine clearance and mine
survivor assistance. ɨe Mine Ban Treaty has become binding international law more quickly
than any other international agreement in history. To date, one hundred nfty-two countries have
signed the treaty and one hundred forty-four have ratined it.
ɨis lesson introduces students to the global landmine problem and how ordinary citizens took
actions toward ridding the world of landmines. Students will be asked to take action to help this
movement and contribute to creating a landmine-free world.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts
Duration 2 class periods

Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Brainstorm the lasting eĊects of war
- Discuss the devastating eĊects of landmines on people and communities
- Explore the communal and global impact of landmines
- Analyze what organizations have done to work for the elimination of landmines
- Present world leaders with data supporting their views with respect to the landmine treaty
Introductory Activity
Pose the following question to students:
What are the lasting eĊects of war?
Depending on what nation this lesson is taught in, students may not mention landmines. To
segue into the issue, have students read and complete the Testimonials handout.
After having read the testimonials students should brainstorm, as a class, the answers to the fol-
lowing questions.
- In what ways do landmines aąect individuals, families and communities?
- What are the social, economic and medical ramifcations of landmines left at the end of a war?
- Who should be responsible for dealing with the crisis of landmines?
Focus Statement to Students
We have just begun to discover the devastating eĊects of landmines on people and communities.
In this lesson, we will explore the communal and global impact of landmines, as well as what
organizations have done to work for their elimination. By the end of the lesson, you will be able
to present world leaders with data supporting your views with respect to the landmine treaty.
Students will work in three groups. Each group will receive a diĊerent handout from the Land-
mines Problems and Solutions series. Students should read and summarize the data and be pre-
pared to present it to the class, paying attention to particular problems and solutions connected
to landmines.
Return to the questions posed in the Introductory activity and pose new questions as well.
- In what ways do landmines aąect individuals, families and communities?
- To what extent does the presence of landmines hinder relief eąorts?
- What are the social, economic and medical ramifcations of landmines left at the end of a war?
- Who should be responsible for dealing with the crisis of landmines?
- Are you surprised by any of the nations that have yet to sign the landmine treaty?
- How should nations that have not signed and ratifed the treaty be dealt with?
- To what extent is the treaty on landmines an indicator that the global community can cooperate to
promote peace and stability throughout the world?
Using the data they have just acquired, students will write a persuasive letter encouraging the
leader of one of the nations that has not yet signed or ratined the landmine convention to do so.
- International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL): www.icb|.org/
- ICBL Youth Action Forum: www.icb|.org/youth/
- Peace Jam Lesson on Landmines by the Nobel Peace Laureate, Jody Williams:
Source Adapted from Jackie Hansen, Project Oċcer, International Campaign to Ban Land-
mines, Youth Action Forum

HANDOU1 I v z~¡
Directions Read each of the testimonials below and answer the questions that follow.
joansinho, age ç, Maputo, Mozambique
Joasinho lives in Maputo City with his mother. As his parents are divorced, he went to Timanguene
to visit his father and brothers for Christmas holidays.
ɨe day of the accident, Joansinho was asked by his father to look for his brothers at the market
and call them for lunch. Unfortunately, he arrived there just before the accident. While he was
looking for his brothers the mine exploded and his two brothers were immediately killed. Joan-
sinho was seriously wounded and transferred to Maputo Hospital. When he woke up again he
realized that he was handicapped.his right leg was gone.
Nooruddin, Afghanistan
Nooruddin, a resident of Kabul City, is a mine-victim. He is unable to play with his friends in the
streets. He can no longer work to support his parents, as he was doing before the mine accident.
Nooruddin, who had a pushcart and was selling vegetables in the streets of Kabul, is no longer
able to push his cart because of his disability. ¨We were very poor and I had to work to support
my family, but now I cannot push my cart," he said, while resting his right hand on his right knee,
below which his leg was amputated by a landmine blast.
¨I was near my grandfather's house. I pushed my cart. A dreadful bang of explosion knocked me
down. I was caught by surprise as to what had happened. When I tried to get up, I could not. I
felt pain in my legs, as I looked at my legs," Nooruddin narrated in a sad voice as he paused for a
while. ¨My right leg was blown oĊ. I saw a grim wound. Blood was oozing out from the wound.
I was hit by a landmine and hurt badly. ɨe pedestrians rushed to the scene. My grandfather also
arrived. ɨey took me to the International Red Cross hospital in the southern part of Kabul city
where I remained hospitalized for treatment.
¨I cannot push my cart anymore," regrets Nooruddin. ¨I was a student at class two in my school.
I wanted to study medicine when I would be a grown up. But, now, I can't see a chance or ability
to continue my school. I am poor and disabled, too. ɨe school is also far away and I can't walk
that far".
¹ Source: these stories were excerpted from: XXXJDCMPSHZPVUIIFBS
Rabha Hassa Assad Suyadan, age z¡, Lebanon
Rabha Hassa Assad Suyadan was 21 when she stepped on a mine that had been placed in the stor-
age room of her house. ¨I thought I had suĊered an electric shock when I walked into the storage
room to get some food for our goats. ɨe explosion ripped me oĊ my feet and threw me into the
yard. Looking down at my legs, I realized that my left foot was missing. At the beginning it did
not hurt, but after half an hour I was in terrible pain and fainted".
It took four hours to evacuate her to the nearest hospital: two cars broke down because of the bad
roads and the snow. Rabha now lives with her mother. ¨Sometimes I feel I have lost everything in
my life, that nothing is left, and I start crying. My life has changed. I can no longer work and I
have a young son; my husband lives far away in Beirut. My family and neighbors have been very
helpful... Now I will try to get a prosthesis. I say to other survivors of mine injuries like myself:
we have to keep our hope".
- What was your initial reaction to reading these accounts?
- What questions do these testimonials raise for consideration?
C| oba| St ockpi | es of Ant i personne| Mi nes

)"/%065 * 7 o
A mineneld is an area suspected of containing mines-an area that is rendered uninhabitable
or that cannot be cultivated or put to productive use because local populations fear entering
into it.
Tragically, fundamental human instincts and the need for food all too often compel adults and
children alike to enter mined areas.
t Every month more than two thousand people are killed or maimed by landmine explosions.
Most of the people who die are not soldiers but civilians (everyday citizens)
t Landmines can remain active for more than nfty years. ɨe threat they pose remains long after
the war is over
t Number of estimated landmines worldwide: forty-nve to seventy million
t Number of countries aĊected by landmines: about ninety
t Cost of producing a landmine: as little as $3
t Cost of removing a landmine: up to $1,000
t Each year, there are between 15,000 and 20,000 reported landmine accidents
t More than 70% of accidents involve civilians; many are children

)"/%065 * 7 o
ɨe following Articles are excerpted from the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling,
Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Dzeir Destruction¹
%FUFSNJOFE to put an end to the suĊering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, that
kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians and es-
pecially children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation
of refugees and internally displaced persons, and have other severe consequences for years after
#FMJFWJOH it necessary to do their utmost to contribute in an eċcient and coordinated manner to
face the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world, and to assure
their destruction,
8JTIJOH to do their utmost in providing assistance for the care and rehabilitation, including the
social and economic reintegration of mine victims,
3FDPHOJ[JOH that a total ban of anti-personnel mines would also be an important conndence-
building measure,
Have agreed as follows:
Each State Party undertakes never under any circumstances:
t To use anti-personnel mines
t To develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer to anyone, directly or in-
directly, anti-personnel mines
t To assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a
State Party under this Convention
Each State Party undertakes to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines in
accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
¹ Source: ɨe full text of this convention is available in various languages (English, Spanish, French, Russian,
Chinese, Arabic, Albanian, Romanian, Italian, Portuguese, etc.): XXXJDCMPSHUSFBUZUFYU
Artic|e z
Anti-personne| mine means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or
contact of a person, and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons. Mines designed
to be detonated by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person, that
are equipped with anti-handling devices, are not considered anti-personnel mines as a result of
being so equipped.
Mine means a munition designed to be placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area
and to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or a vehicle.
Anti-hand|ing device means a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked
to, attached to or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper
with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine.
1ransfer involves, in addition to the physical movement of anti-personnel mines into or from
national territory, the transfer of title to and control over the mines, but does not involve the
transfer of territory containing emplaced anti-personnel mines.
Mined area means an area which is dangerous due to the presence of mines.

HANDOU1 I v z~z
HANDOU1 8 Landmine Organization wins the Nobe| Peace Prize
Excerpts from jody wi||iams' Nobe| Lecture, ¡çç¡
Internationa| Campaign to 8an Landmines¹
.People often ask why the focus on this one weapon. How is the landmine diĊerent from any
other conventional weapon?
Landmines distinguish themselves because once they have been sown, once the soldier walks
away from the weapon, the landmine cannot tell the diĊerence between a soldier or a civilian-a
woman, a child, a grandmother going out to collect nrewood to make the family meal. ɨe crux
of the problem is that while the use of the weapon might be militarily justinable during the day of
the battle, or even the two weeks of the battle, or maybe even the two months of the battle, once
peace is declared the landmine does not recognize that peace. ɨe landmine is eternally prepared
to take victims. In common parlance, it is the perfect soldier, the ¨eternal sentry". ɨe war ends,
the landmine goes on killing.
ɰ ɰ ɰ
Since World War II most of the connicts in the world have been internal connicts. ɨe weapon
of choice in those wars has all too often been landmines -to such a degree that what we nnd to-
day are tens of millions of landmines contaminating approximately ninety countries around the
world. ɨe overwhelming majority of those countries are found in the developing world, primar-
ily in those countries that do not have the resources to clean up the mess, to care for the tens of
thousands of landmine victims. ɨe end result is an international community now faced with a
global humanitarian crisis.
Let me take a moment to give a few examples of the degree of the epidemic. Today Cambodia
has somewhere between four and six million landmines, which can be found in over 50 % of its
national territory. Afghanistan is littered with perhaps nine million landmines. ɨe U.S. military
has said that during the height of the Russian invasion and ensuing war in that country, up to
thirty million mines were scattered throughout Afghanistan. In the few years of the nghting in
the former Yugoslavia, some six million landmines were sown throughout various sections of the
country-Angola, nine million, Mozambique, a million, Somalia, a million-I could go on, but
it gets tedious. Not only do we have to worry about the mines already in the ground, we must be
concerned about those that are stockpiled and ready for use. Estimates range between one and
two hundred million mines in stockpiles around the world.

It was the NGOs, the non-governmental organizations [Handicap International, Human Rights
Watch, medico international, Mines Advisory Group, Physicians for Human Rights and Vietnam
Veterans of America Foundation], who began seriously to think about trying to deal with the root
of the problem-to eliminate the problem, it would be necessary to eliminate the weapon..It
was also in this period that the nrst NGO humanitarian de-mining organizations were born-to
try to return contaminated land to rural communities.
ɰ ɰ ɰ
ɨe Oslo negotiations gave the world a treaty banning antipersonnel landmines which is remark-
ably free of loopholes and exceptions. It is a treaty which bans the use, production, trade and
stockpiling of antipersonnel landmines. It is a treaty which requires states to destroy their stock-
piles within four years of its entering into force. It is a treaty which requires mine clearance within
ten years. It calls upon states to increase assistance for mine clearance and for victim assistance.
It is not a perfect treaty-the Campaign has concerns about the provision allowing for antihan-
dling devices on antivehicle mines; we are concerned about mines kept for training purposes; we
would like to see the treaty directly apply to nonstate actors, and we would like stronger language
regarding victim assistance. But, given the close cooperation with governments which resulted in
the treaty itself, we are certain that these issues can be addressed through the annual meetings and
review conferences provided for in the treaty.
It is fair to say that the International Campaign to Ban Landmines made a diĊerence....Together,
we have changed history. ɨe closing remarks of the French ambassador in Oslo to me were the
best. She said, ¨ɨis is historic not just because of the treaty. ɨis is historic because, for the nrst
time, the leaders of states have come together to answer the will of civil society".
For that, the International Campaign thanks them-for together we have given the world the pos-
sibility of one day living on a truly mine-free planet.
Thank you.
he splitting of the atom has changed everything except our way of thinking." said
Albert Einstein in reference to the uniquely powerful and destructive invention of nu-
clear weapons. Dze Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century (www.hague-
peace.org/index.php?action=resources) that calls for the abolition of nuclear weapons is
an example of the new thinking that can lead us to alternatives to war and violence. Other lessons
in this resource book introduce learners to new ways of thinking to change concepts of security
and move toward human well-being; to resolve international connict nonviolently and make war
obsolete; to protect the environment and preserve the planet. No development is more essential
than removing the threat that nuclear weapons pose to human and planetary survival and these
goals are consistent with a culture of peace. Peace and disarmament education helps students to
understand the multiple dangers inherent in nuclear weapons and encourages critical thinking
and action for the abolition of nuclear weapons. .
key Question Is the abolition of nuclear weapons essential for the future of our planet?
Nuclear weapons remain a threat to all life on earth. ɨey are unique, and are not at all like con-
ventional bombs. ɨese weapons cause destruction through the splitting of the atom, which cre-
ates tremendous power, called nuclear nssion. ɨe primary eĊects of a nuclear explosion include
blast, heat and nre, producing destruction on an unimaginable scale. Immense light and thermal
heat (comparable to the interior of the sun) initiate a phenomenon called a nrestorm. Firestorms
deplete oxygen from the environment and create hurricane-like winds, which attract debris and
feed the storm itself, causing super-infernos. No living being can survive a nrestorm.
Another and much-disregarded eĊect of nuclear weaponry is the long-lived radiation, which re-
sults from a nuclear explosion. Once released, radioactive elements can hang around for millennia
upon millennia, putting future generations at risk of developing cancer and genetic mutations.
For these reasons, and others, the destructive powers of nuclear weapons, and their threat of use,
have been described as ¨unthinkable".
ɨe bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II represents the only war-time
uses of nuclear weapons. However, nuclear weapons have been tested on land, in water, in the


air and underground. To date over two thousand nuclear weapons have been used (as tests) and
the radioactive fallout has contaminated many communities across the globe. People living 'down-
wind' of nuclear test sites have been the most severely aĊected, and among those populations the
radioactive fallout continues to contaminate many indigenous people and the waters that supply
the nsh they eat.
What is known as the ¨nuclear arms race" was a competition for supremacy in nuclear weapons
between the United States and Soviet Union during the Cold War (post-WWII period, until the
collapse of Soviet Union in 1991). An additional nuclear arms race developed between India
and Pakistan at the end of the 1990s. In the 1950s, the former Soviet Union and United States
started their race to develop more and more powerful nuclear weapons, including Interconti-
nental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Interestingly, although the progenitor of the ICBM was the
German, former prisoner of war, Wernher von Braun, Germany never developed any. ICBMs
are very-long-range (greater than 5,500 km or 3,500 miles) ballistic missiles designed for nuclear
weapons delivery.¹More recently, the United States has spent a lot of money in its National Mis-
sile Defense (NMD) system. According to its supporters, such a system would provide a sort of
protective shield against a limited missile attack. In 1999, the U.S. Congress passed a bill calling
for the implementation of the NMD system to defend the United States from a growing number
of countries developing long-range missile technologies.
In 1968, the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was adopted ¨to prevent the spread of
nuclear weapons and weapons technology.and to further the goal of achieving nuclear dis-
armament and general and complete disarmament".² ɨe NPT came into force in 1970 with
forty-three original parties and stands at nearly one hundred ninety today. Israel, India and Paki-
stan remain outside the treaty and North Korea joined the NPT in 1985, but in January 2003
announced its withdrawal. Today, only seven countries are known as nuclear powers but various
other countries which may hold nuclear weapons have never publicly admitted possession³. ɨe
NPT is reviewed every nve years. At the 1995 Review Conference, the parties agreed to extend
the treaty indennitely and link the extension to a set of Principles and Objectives for Nuclear
Disarmament. In 2000, nations of the world declared an ¨unequivocal undertaking" to eliminate
nuclear weapons. ɨe latest review (2005) was disappointing as it closed without any substantive
agreement on the tough challenges facing the treaty. Many nations simply wanted to make sure
that nothing was adopted in 2005 that would supersede or roll back the agreements and commit-
ments made in 1995 and 2000.
¹ ɨe nations currently known to possess operational ICBM systems are Russia, United States, France, United
Kingdom, and China. Others, such as Pakistan and India, are developing ICBMs. Only in 2002 did the
United States and Russia agree in a Strategic OĊensive Reduction Treaty (SORT, also known as the Moscow
Treaty) to reduce their deployed stockpiles to not more than 2,200 warheads each.
² Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), UN&Disarmament. Retrieved February 25,
³ For example, Israel appears to have an extensive nuclear program, North Korea has recently stated its nuclear
capacities, and Iran is accused by a number of governments of attempting to develop nuclear capabilities.
In order to confront the nuclear threat in a world where proliferation is on the rise, we need to
be able to conceive of the destruction made possible by the world's nuclear arsenal. ɨe nrepower
demonstration is a teaching tool used widely in the 1980s as a response to the nuclear arms race.
Fear of the unthinkable led millions of people, all over the world, to protest nuclear proliferation
during the Cold War. ɨe nrepower demonstration uses sound and the imagination to demon-
strate the destructive force of the world's nuclear arsenal. It was originally developed by the Nobel
Peace Prize recipient, Physicians for Social Responsibility.¹
On June 7, 1996, the International Court of Justice declared that the threat and use of nuclear
weapons is generally illegal under international law and there is a general obligation to conduct
and bring to conclusion negotiations leading to complete nuclear disarmament. ɨis lesson asks
students to examine the data and arguments regarding nuclear weapons so that they can decide
upon an appropriate plan of action toward their elimination.
Age Range Secondary school students
Materia|s Handouts, Dried beans or corn kernels and a metal container
Duration 2 class periods
Ob[ectives Students will be able to:
- Express feelings and opinions about the existence of nuclear weapons
- Investigate the current status of nuclear weapons
- Read and analyze policy positions regarding nuclear weapons
- Participate in a roundtable discussion on nuclear policy
- Evaluate policy positions and write a position paper renecting their views
Introductory Activity
Ask students the following questions orally ( 1rue[ Fa|se). ɨen discuss their answers, the think-
ing behind them, and provide the correct answers².
a 1he on|y difference between nuc|ear bombs and other bombs is that nuc|ear bombs
are more powerfu|. ( F)
A nuclear bomb not only has vastly more explosive power but also releases radioactivity that
can produce fatal radiation illnesses among blast survivors. ɨis radiation remains for thou-
sands of years. A nuclear bomb also creates a thermal pulse, a wave of blinding light and
intense heat that causes nrestorms and superinfernos. An electromagnetic pulse knocks out
electrical equipment over a wide area. A nuclear bomb creates strange meteorological condi-
tions, such as the black, radioactive rain and violent winds at Hiroshima that hurled debris at
600 miles per hour.
¹ Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR), Nobel Peace Laureate 1985: XXXQTSPSH
b Nuc|ear weapons are now part of the arsena|s of most nations. ( F)
Nuclear weapon nations are the US, Russia, Britain, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and
probably North Korea.
c Even though they have friend|y re|ations, the US and Russia have thousands of
nuc|ear-tipped missi|es aimed at each other and on a|ert for immediate firing. ( 1)
d 1he US is the on|y nation ever to have used nuc|ear weapons against another
nation, in wartime. ( 1)
Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945, and Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945.
e 1he nuc|ear weapon nations have never agreed to e|iminate their nuc|ear
arsena|s. ( F)
In 1970 the Nonproliferation Treaty came into eĊect. In it, non-nuclear nations agreed not to
receive or manufacture nuclear weapons. In exchange, the nve nuclear weapon nations at the
time (the US, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China) agreed to make serious eĊorts at
nuclear disarmament. Israel, India, and Pakistan have never agreed to the NPT; North Korea
withdrew from it recently.
f 1here are about ¡z,ooo nuc|ear weapons wor|dwide, most of them in the posses-
sion of the US and Russia. ( 1)
Firepower Demonstration¹
Albert Einstein, the preeminent physicist of the twentieth Century, Nobel laureate and anti-war
activist, said ¨Imagination is more important than knowledge". Because it is diċcult to compre-
hend the destructive force of nuclear weapons, this demonstration helps us imagine the power of
the nuclear threat through sound. ɨe nrepower demonstration will have a dramatic impact on
your students' perceptions of the dangers of nuclear weapons.
Explain to the students that they will hear 2 sounds: the nrst sound represents the total nre power
contained in all the weapons used in WWII-including the nuclear bombs dropped on Japan;
that is, 3 megatons of TNT represented by the sound of a single dried bean or corn kernel drop-
ping into the metal tin. Hold up the dried bean or corn kernel, then drop it into the empty tin to
create the nrst sound. Ask students to think about and name the nrepower used in WWII-all the
bullets, bombs, grenades, etc. Once again, drop 1 dried bean or corn kernel in the tin, restating
that all the munitions they just identined are represented by the sound of 1 dried bean or corn
kernel dropping in the tin.
Explain that since WWII, countries with nuclear weapons have multiplied. Among the 8 or 9
nations (United States, Russia, China, United Kingdom, France, Israel, India and Pakistan-and
¹ ɨe Firepower Demonstration, also known as ¨Bee Bee Demonstration", is available (video) at:
XXXUSVFNBKPSJUZPSHCFOTCCT. Soon, it will also be available on the CyberSchoolBus website.
possibly North Korea) that have nuclear weapons, there are approximately 32,000 nuclear weap-
ons on the earth, mostly owned by the United States and Russia.
Here, introduce the second sound. Tell students that the total nrepower of the world's current
nuclear arsenal is represented by the sound they are about to hear. Ask them to close their eyes,
and to remember that the sound of each dried bean or corn kernel represents the total nrepower
of WWII. Gradually, pour the entire contents of the box of 2,667 dried beans or corn kernels
into the tin.
After the last dried bean or corn kernel drops, take a moment of silence. ɨen, ask students how
they felt when they heard the sound of nuclear nrepower: How did this demonstration make you
feel? What do you want to say about it? Use an object such as a ball that students can pass to one
another when they have something to say. ɨe student or teacher holding the ball is recognized
as the speaker. Students can choose not to say anything and pass the ball on. ɨis method as-
sures that all students will be given the opportunity to speak if they feel moved to do so. Validate
students' feelings by renecting back to them what they have said, and allow enough time for all
students to speak.
Focus Statement to Students
We have just begun to get a sense of the extent of nuclear weapons on earth. In this lesson, we will
explore diĊerent policy positions regarding nuclear weapons. By the end of the lesson, you should
be able to recommend a policy option to your legislators.
Set up an ¨opinion continuum" to give students an active way to consider and express their opin-
ions, listen to others' opinions, and begin discussing the nuclear issue. Later students will each
be assigned a policy position to read and summarize. ɨe class will have a roundtable discussion
regarding nuclear weapons policies.
Some statements to engage the discussion may include:
- Nations must develop new nuclear bombs to remain safe
- Nations with nuclear weapons should cut their nuclear stockpiles to a minimum
- Nations must test nuclear bombs
- Nations should build missile defense systems like the United States
- Some nations have used nuclear bombs
- Nuclear powers should fulnll their 2000 pledge of ¨an unequivocal undertaking" to accomplish
the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals
Students should write an essay that argues the following aċrmation:
The abolition of nuclear weapons is essential for the future of the planet
Fo||ow-up activities
ɨe last step is the development of action plans for a
nuclear-free world. You may start by sharing with them
how young people have played a role in making our
world a better place. You may use stories such as the Co-
lombian Children's Movement, Ibrahim Alex Bangura
from Sierra Leone, Anne Frank, etc¹. ɨen, students
might take action initiatives to raise awareness and ad-
vocate for change, such as:
- Writing letters to elected oċcials
- Organizing a program for a club, a school assembly or
the community
- Designing a hall or library display
- Writing a special issue or section of the school newspaper
- Teaching and Lesson Plans: Educators for Social Responsibility, Metro:
- Education Kit and Activism for Nuclear Disarmament: Reaching Critical Will:
- Youth Taking Action: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War:
- More In-Depth Information: ɨe Bulletin of Atomic Scientists:
- International Law and Nuclear Weapons: Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy:
- For Statistics on Nuclear Weapons: National Resource and Defense Council:
- Nuclear Weapons, Health and Environmental Issues: Physicians for Social Responsibility:
Source Adapted from Kathleen Sullivan, Coordinator, Nuclear Weapons Education and Action
Project, Educators for Social Responsibility, Metro Area, New York, US.
¹ Various websites oĊer such stories. ɨe MyHero Directory has a list of over 40 children who have been con-
sidered as heroes: http://myhero.com/myhero/go/directory/directory.asp?dir=chi|d. For the three examples
mentioned you may check: http://myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=co|ombiaChi|dren; http://myhero.
com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=Ibrahim; www.annefrank.org/content.asp?pid=1&|id=2 (available in various

HANDOU1 I v a~¡
Summary of judge C.C. weeramantry's Dissent
In the critical last two formal conclusions of its July 8, 1996 nuclear weapons advisory opinion,
the International Court of Justice held as follows:
[Para. 105(2)]E. By seven votes to seven, by the President's casting vote,
It follows from the above-mentioned requirements that the threat or use of nuclear weapons
would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed connict, and in
particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law;
However, in view of the current state of international law, and of the elements of fact at its dis-
posal, the Court cannot conclude dennitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would
be lawful or unlawful in an extreme circumstance of self-defence, in which the very survival of a
State would be at stake;
In Favour: President Bedjaoui; Judges Ranjeva, Herczegh, Shi, Fleischhauer, Vereshchetin, Ferrari
Bravo; Against: Vice-President Schwebel; Judges Oda, Guillaume, Shahabuddeen, Weeramantry,
Koroma, Higgins.
F. Unanimously,
ɨere exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading
to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and eĊective international control.
In his seminal magisterial dissenting opinion of nearly one hundred pages, Judge Weeramantry
praised the many positive contributions of the Court's opinion, including its holding that threat
or use of nuclear weapons is subject to the requirements of humanitarian and environment law,
and its statement of the nuclear disarmament obligation in paragraph 2(F). But he nrmly rejected
the Court's equivocation regarding an extreme circumstance of self-defence involving the very
survival of a state in paragraph 2(E). He stated at the outset of his dissent:
My considered opinion is that the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is illegal in any circum-
stances whatsoever. It violates the fundamental principles of international law, and represents the
very negation of the humanitarian concerns which underlie the structure of humanitarian law. It
oĊends conventional law and, in particular, the Geneva Gas Protocol of 1925 [prohibiting the use
of poisonous gases and analogous materials], and Article 23(a) of the Hague Regulations of 1907
[prohibiting the inniction of unnecessary suĊering]. It contradicts the fundamental principle of
¹ Excerpts from: www.|cnp.org/wcourt/weeramantry's%20dissent.htm

the dignity and worth of the human person on which all law depends. It endangers the human
environment in a manner which threatens the entirety of life on the planet.
With regard to self-defence, Judge Weeramantry explained that the ¨undoubted right of the state
that is attacked to use all the weaponry available to it for the purpose of repulsing the aggressor
. holds only so long as such weapons do not violate the fundamental rules of warfare..Once
the domain of force is entered . the humanitarian laws of war take over and govern all who
participate, assailant and victim alike."
ɨe supremacy of humanitarian law applies as well, Judge Weeramantry emphasized, to the threat
inherent in deterrence justined as a system of international security:
ɨe threat of use of a weapon which contravenes the humanitarian laws of war does not cease to
contravene those laws of war merely because the overwhelming terror it inspires has the psychologi-
cal eĊect of deterring opponents. ɨis Court cannot endorse a pattern of security that rests upon
terror. In the dramatic language of Winston Churchill, speaking to the House of Commons in 1955,
we would then have a situation where ¨Safety will be the sturdy child of terror and survival the twin
brother of annihilation". A global regime which makes safety the result of terror and can speak of
survival and annihilation as twin alternatives makes peace and the human future dependent upon
terror. ɨis is not a basis for world order which this Court can endorse. ɨis Court is committed to
uphold the rule of law, not the rule of force or terror, and the humanitarian principles of the laws of
war are a vital part of the international rule of law which this Court is charged to administer.
Judge Weeramantry's dissent deserves to be widely circulated as a primer on the illegality of nu-
clear weapons. Replete with citations from the literature and jurisprudence of many cultures, he
comprehensively discussed the facts and the law rendering nuclear weapons illegal in all aspects,
patiently and convincingly rebutting every argument advanced by the nuclear weapon states.
Addressing the argument that ¨collateral damage" caused by nuclear weapons targeted against
military objectives is not prohibited, Judge Weeramantry stated that those who use nuclear weap-
ons ¨cannot in any coherent legal system avoid legal responsibility" for the consequences, ¨any
less than a man careering in a motor vehicle at a hundred and nfty kilometres per hour through
a crowded market can avoid responsibility for the resulting deaths on the ground that he did not
intend to kill the particular persons who died". While regretting that the Court's opinion did not
go the last mile, Judge Weeramantry began by stating that it ¨contains positive pronouncements
of signincant value" which ¨take the law far on the road towards total prohibition". If the history
of law is the history of the progression from dissent to norm, Judge Weeramantry's opinion could
be a harbinger of things to come.
t What could be ¨extreme circumstances of self-defence"? What is Judge Weeramantry argument about it?
t In which ways are nuclear weapons subjected to the requirements of both humanitarian and
environmental law?
t How does the use of nuclear weapons undermine the fundamental principle of human dignity
on which all law depends?
t What is ¨deterrence"? Could deterrence be justined as a reliable system of international security?

HANDOU1 I v a~z
)*#",64)" 1ES1IMONIES
)JCBLVTIB is the word used in Japan to describe a survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima
or Nagasaki in 1945. It more generally dennes a victim of nuclear radiation (including tests).
Hundreds of testimonies are available (online and in publications), some translated into many
languages. ɨese provide valuable material for teaching about nuclear weapons. In 1986, the
Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation initiated a project to record )JCBLVTIB giving testimonies
on video. ɨe testimonies of nfty people have been recorded and edited into twenty-minute
segments each. ɨrough these videos, )JCBLVTIB testimonies, coupled with photographs, mem-
oirs and paintings, give a human face to the tragedy of the A-bombing.
Below is an example of testimony, let students read it and then, discuss their feelings.
1estimony of Yoshitaka kawamoto
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x6nt-ci6, o.8 xii6ur)rvs twtv rv6u )ir ivv6cr×)rv. ir is ×6w w6vxi×c ts )ir
oivrc)6v 6r )ir iiv6siiut vrtcr uru6viti uusruu, )riii×c visi)6vs rv6u tii
6vrv )ir w6vio wit) )ir t)6uic n6un oio )6 )ir vr6vir 6r iiv6siiut.
¨One of my classmates, I think his name is Fujimoto, he muttered something and pointed out-
side the window, saying, ¨A B-29 is coming". He pointed outside with his nnger. So I began to
get up from my chair and asked him, ¨Where is it"? Looking in the direction that he was pointing
towards, I got up on my feet, but I was not yet in an upright position when it happened. All I can
remember was a pale lightening nash for two or three seconds. ɨen, I collapsed. I don't know
how much time passed before I came to. It was awful, awful. ɨe smoke was coming in from
somewhere above the debris. Sandy dust was nying around. I was trapped under the debris and I
was in terrible pain and that's probably why I came to. I couldn't move, not even an inch. ɨen, I
heard about ten of my surviving classmates singing our school song. I remember that. I could hear
sobs. Someone was calling his mother. But those who were still alive were singing the school song
for as long as they could. I think I joined the chorus. We thought that someone would come and
help us out. ɨat's why we were singing a school song so loud. But nobody came to help, and we
stopped singing one by one. In the end, I was singing alone. ɨen I started to feel fear creeping in.
I started to feel my way out, pushing the debris away little by little, using all my strength. Finally
I cleared the things around my head. And with my head sticking our of the debris, I realized the
scale of the damage. ɨe sky over Hiroshima was dark. Something like a tornado or a big nre ball
was storming throughout the city. I was only injured around my mouth and around my arms. But
I lost a good deal of blood from my mouth, otherwise I was OK.

I thought I could make my way out. But I was afraid at the thought of escaping alone. We had
been going through military drills everyday, and they had told us that running away by oneself is
an act of cowardice, so I thought I must take somebody along with me. I crawled over the debris,
trying to nnd someone who was still alive. ɨen, I found one of my classmates lying alive. I held
him up in my arms. It is hard to tell, his skull was cracked open, his nesh was dangling out from
his head. He had only one eye left, and it was looking right at me. First, he was mumbling some-
thing but I couldn't understand him. He started to bite oĊ his nnger nail. I took his nnger out
from his mouth. And then, I held his hand, then he started to reach for his notebook in his chest
pocket, so I asked him, I said, ¨You want me to take this along to hand it over to your mother''?
He nodded. He was going to faint. But still I could hear him crying out, saying ¨Mother, Mother''
I thought I could take him along. I guess that his body below the waist was crushed. ɨe lower
part of his body was trapped, buried inside of the debris. He told me to go away. And by that
time, another wing of the school building, or what used to be the school building, had caught
on nre. I tried to get to the playground. Smoke was nlling the air, but I could see the white sandy
earth beneath. I thought this must be the playground, then I started to run in that direction. I
turned back and I saw my classmate Wada looking at me. I still remember the situation and it still
appears in my dreams. I felt sorry for him, but it was the last time I ever saw him.
I was running, hands were trying to grab my ankles, they were asking me to take them along. I
was only a child then. And I was horrined at so many hands trying to grab me. I was in pain, too.
So all I could do was to get rid of them. It is terrible to say, but I kicked their hands away. I still
feel bad about that. I went to Miyuki Bridge to get some water. At the river bank, I saw so many
people collapsed there. And the small steps to the river were jammed, nlled with people pushing
their way to the water. I was small, so I pushed on to the river along the small steps. ɨe water was
full of dead people. I had to push the bodies aside to drink the muddy water. We didn't know any-
thing about radioactivity that time. I stood up in the water and so many bodies were noating away
along the stream. I can't nnd the words to describe it. It was horrible. I felt fear. Instead of going
into the water, I climbed up the river bank. I couldn't move. I couldn't nnd my shadow. I looked
up. I saw the cloud, the mushroom cloud growing in the sky. It was very bright. It had so much
heat inside. It caught the light and it showed every color of the rainbow. Renecting on the past,
it is strange, but I could say that it was beautiful. Looking at the cloud, I thought I would never
be able to see my mother again, I wouldn't be able to see my younger brother again. And then, I
lost consciousness. When I came to, it was about seven in the evening. I was at the transportation
bureau at Ujina. I found myself lying on the noor of the warehouse. An old soldier was looking
in my face. He gave me a light slap on the cheek and he said, ¨You are a lucky boy". He told me
that he had gone with one of the few trucks left to collect the dead bodies at Miyuki Bridge. ɨey
were loading bodies, treating them like sacks. ɨey picked me up from the river bank and then,
threw me on top of the pile. My body slid oĊ and when they grabbed my by the arm to put me
back onto the truck they felt that my pulse was still beating, so they reloaded me onto the truck,
carrying the survivors.

I was really lucky. But I couldn't stand for about a year. I was so weak. My hair came oĊ, even the
hair in my nose fell out. My hair, it started to come oĊ about two weeks later. I became completely
bald. My eyes, I lost my eye sight, probably not because of the radioactivity, but because I became
so weak. I couldn't see for about three months. But I was only thirteen, I was still young, and I
was still growing when I was hit by the A-bomb. So about one year later. I regained my health. I
recovered good health. Today I am still working as you can see. As the director of the Hiroshima
Peace Memorial Museum, today, I am handing my message over to the children who visit. I want
them to learn about Hiroshima. And when they grow up, I want them to hand down the message
to the next generation with accurate information. I'd like to see him conveying the right sense of
judgment so that we will not lead mankind to annihilation. ɨat is our responsibility."
t Why do you think it is so important to read this story?
t What is our responsibility for future generations?
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(1) Eveiyone has the iight to take pait in the
goveinment of his countiy, uiiectly oi thiough
fieely chosen iepiesentatives.
(2) Eveiyone has the iight to equal access to
public seivice in his countiy.
(S) The will of the people shall be the basis of the
authoiity of goveinment: this will shall be
expiesseu in peiiouic anu genuine elections which
shall be by univeisal anu equal suffiage anu shall
be helu by seciet vote oi by equivalent fiee voting
Eveiyone, as a membei of society, has the iight to
social secuiity anu is entitleu to iealization,
thiough national effoit anu inteinational co-
opeiation anu in accoiuance with the oiganization
anu iesouices of each State, of the economic,
social anu cultuial iights inuispensable foi his
uignity anu the fiee uevelopment of his
(1) Eveiyone has the iight to woik, to fiee choice
of employment, to just anu favouiable conuitions
of woik anu to piotection against unemployment.
(2) Eveiyone, without any uisciimination, has the
iight to equal pay foi equal woik.
(S) Eveiyone who woiks has the iight to just anu
favouiable iemuneiation ensuiing foi himself anu
his family an existence woithy of human uignity,
anu supplementeu, if necessaiy, by othei means of
social piotection.
(4) Eveiyone has the iight to foim anu to join
tiaue unions foi the piotection of his inteiests.
Eveiyone has the iight to iest anu leisuie,
incluuing ieasonable limitation of woiking houis
anu peiiouic holiuays with pay.
(1) Eveiyone has the iight to a stanuaiu of living
auequate foi the health anu well-being of himself
anu of his family, incluuing foou, clothing, housing
anu meuical caie anu necessaiy social seivices,
anu the iight to secuiity in the event of
unemployment, sickness, uisability, wiuowhoou,
olu age oi othei lack of livelihoou in
ciicumstances beyonu his contiol.
(2) Notheihoou anu chiluhoou aie entitleu to
special caie anu assistance. All chiluien, whethei
boin in oi out of weulock, shall enjoy the same
social piotection.
(1) Eveiyone has the iight to euucation. Euucation
shall be fiee, at least in the elementaiy anu
funuamental stages. Elementaiy euucation shall
be compulsoiy. Technical anu piofessional
euucation shall be maue geneially available anu
highei euucation shall be equally accessible to all
on the basis of meiit.
(2) Euucation shall be uiiecteu to the full
uevelopment of the human peisonality anu to the
stiengthening of iespect foi human iights anu
funuamental fieeuoms. It shall piomote
unueistanuing, toleiance anu fiienuship among all
nations, iacial oi ieligious gioups, anu shall
fuithei the activities of the 0niteu Nations foi the
maintenance of peace.
(S) Paients have a piioi iight to choose the kinu of
euucation that shall be given to theii chiluien.
(1) Eveiyone has the iight fieely to paiticipate in
the cultuial life of the community, to enjoy the aits
anu to shaie in scientific auvancement anu its
(2) Eveiyone has the iight to the piotection of the
moial anu mateiial inteiests iesulting fiom any
scientific, liteiaiy oi aitistic piouuction of which
he is the authoi.
Eveiyone is entitleu to a social anu inteinational
oiuei in which the iights anu fieeuoms set foith in
this Beclaiation can be fully iealizeu.
(1) Eveiyone has uuties to the community in
which alone the fiee anu full uevelopment of his
peisonality is possible.
(2) In the exeicise of his iights anu fieeuoms,
eveiyone shall be subject only to such limitations
as aie ueteimineu by law solely foi the puipose of
secuiing uue iecognition anu iespect foi the iights
anu fieeuoms of otheis anu of meeting the just
iequiiements of moiality, public oiuei anu the
geneial welfaie in a uemociatic society.
(S) These iights anu fieeuoms may in no case be
exeiciseu contiaiy to the puiposes anu piinciples
of the 0niteu Nations.
Nothing in this Beclaiation may be inteipieteu as
implying foi any State, gioup oi peison any iight
to engage in any activity oi to peifoim any act
aimeu at the uestiuction of any of the iights anu
fieeuoms set foith heiein.
u.A. ies. 217A (III), 0.N. Boc A¡81u at 71 (1948)
Auopteu on Becembei 1u, 1948!by the ueneial
Assembly of the 0niteu Nations (without uissent)!

Available at:

Convention on the Rights of the Chilu
Auopteu anu openeu foi signatuie, iatification anu accession by ueneial Assembly iesolution 44¡2S of 2u
Novembei 1989
Entiy into foice 2 Septembei 199u, in accoiuance with aiticle 49

The States Paities to the piesent Convention,
Consiueiing that, in accoiuance with the
piinciples pioclaimeu in the Chaitei of the 0niteu
Nations, iecognition of the inheient uignity anu of
the equal anu inalienable iights of all membeis of
the human family is the founuation of fieeuom,
justice anu peace in the woilu,

Beaiing in minu that the peoples of the 0niteu
Nations have, in the Chaitei, ieaffiimeu theii faith
in funuamental human iights anu in the uignity
anu woith of the human peison, anu have
ueteimineu to piomote social piogiess anu bettei
stanuaius of life in laigei fieeuom,

Recognizing that the 0niteu Nations has, in the
0niveisal Beclaiation of Buman Rights anu in the
Inteinational Covenants on Buman Rights,
pioclaimeu anu agieeu that eveiyone is entitleu to
all the iights anu fieeuoms set foith theiein,
without uistinction of any kinu, such as iace,
coloui, sex, language, ieligion, political oi othei
opinion, national oi social oiigin, piopeity, biith
oi othei status,

Recalling that, in the 0niveisal Beclaiation of
Buman Rights, the 0niteu Nations has pioclaimeu
that chiluhoou is entitleu to special caie anu

Convinceu that the family, as the funuamental
gioup of society anu the natuial enviionment foi
the giowth anu well-being of all its membeis anu
paiticulaily chiluien, shoulu be affoiueu the
necessaiy piotection anu assistance so that it can
fully assume its iesponsibilities within the

Recognizing that the chilu, foi the full anu
haimonious uevelopment of his oi hei
peisonality, shoulu giow up in a family
enviionment, in an atmospheie of happiness, love
anu unueistanuing,

Consiueiing that the chilu shoulu be fully
piepaieu to live an inuiviuual life in society, anu
biought up in the spiiit of the iueals pioclaimeu in
the Chaitei of the 0niteu Nations, anu in
paiticulai in the spiiit of peace, uignity, toleiance,
fieeuom, equality anu soliuaiity,

Beaiing in minu that the neeu to extenu paiticulai
caie to the chilu has been stateu in the ueneva
Beclaiation of the Rights of the Chilu of 1924 anu
in the Beclaiation of the Rights of the Chilu
auopteu by the ueneial Assembly on 2u
Novembei 19S9 anu iecognizeu in the 0niveisal
Beclaiation of Buman Rights, in the Inteinational
Covenant on Civil anu Political Rights (in
paiticulai in aiticles 2S anu 24), in the
Inteinational Covenant on Economic, Social anu
Cultuial Rights (in paiticulai in aiticle 1u) anu in
the statutes anu ielevant instiuments of
specializeu agencies anu inteinational
oiganizations conceineu with the welfaie of

Beaiing in minu that, as inuicateu in the
Beclaiation of the Rights of the Chilu, "the chilu,
by ieason of his physical anu mental immatuiity,
neeus special safeguaius anu caie, incluuing
appiopiiate legal piotection, befoie as well as
aftei biith",

Recalling the piovisions of the Beclaiation on
Social anu Legal Piinciples ielating to the
Piotection anu Welfaie of Chiluien, with Special
Refeience to Fostei Placement anu Auoption
Nationally anu Inteinationally: the 0niteu Nations
Stanuaiu Ninimum Rules foi the Auministiation
of Iuvenile Iustice (The Beijing Rules): anu the
Beclaiation on the Piotection of Women anu
Chiluien in Emeigency anu Aimeu Conflict,
Recognizing that, in all countiies in the woilu,
theie aie chiluien living in exceptionally uifficult
conuitions, anu that such chiluien neeu special

Taking uue account of the impoitance of the
tiauitions anu cultuial values of each people foi
the piotection anu haimonious uevelopment of
the chilu, Recognizing the impoitance of
inteinational co-opeiation foi impioving the
living conuitions of chiluien in eveiy countiy, in
paiticulai in the ueveloping countiies,
Bave agieeu as follows:
Foi the puiposes of the piesent Convention, a
chilu means eveiy human being below the age of
eighteen yeais unless unuei the law applicable to
the chilu, majoiity is attaineu eailiei.
1. States Paities shall iespect anu ensuie the
iights set foith in the piesent Convention to each
chilu within theii juiisuiction without
uisciimination of any kinu, iiiespective of the
chilu's oi his oi hei paient's oi legal guaiuian's
iace, coloui, sex, language, ieligion, political oi
othei opinion, national, ethnic oi social oiigin,
piopeity, uisability, biith oi othei status.

2. States Paities shall take all appiopiiate
measuies to ensuie that the chilu is piotecteu
against all foims of uisciimination oi punishment
on the basis of the status, activities, expiesseu
opinions, oi beliefs of the chilu's paients, legal
guaiuians, oi family membeis.
1. In all actions conceining chiluien, whethei
unueitaken by public oi piivate social welfaie
institutions, couits of law, auministiative
authoiities oi legislative bouies, the best inteiests
of the chilu shall be a piimaiy consiueiation.

2. States Paities unueitake to ensuie the chilu
such piotection anu caie as is necessaiy foi his oi
hei well-being, taking into account the iights anu
uuties of his oi hei paients, legal guaiuians, oi
othei inuiviuuals legally iesponsible foi him oi
hei, anu, to this enu, shall take all appiopiiate
legislative anu auministiative measuies.

S. States Paities shall ensuie that the institutions,
seivices anu facilities iesponsible foi the caie oi
piotection of chiluien shall confoim with the
stanuaius establisheu by competent authoiities,
paiticulaily in the aieas of safety, health, in the
numbei anu suitability of theii staff, as well as
competent supeivision.
States Paities shall unueitake all appiopiiate
legislative, auministiative, anu othei measuies foi
the implementation of the iights iecognizeu in the
piesent Convention. With iegaiu to economic,
social anu cultuial iights, States Paities shall
unueitake such measuies to the maximum extent
of theii available iesouices anu, wheie neeueu,
within the fiamewoik of inteinational co-
States Paities shall iespect the iesponsibilities,
iights anu uuties of paients oi, wheie applicable,
the membeis of the extenueu family oi
community as pioviueu foi by local custom, legal
guaiuians oi othei peisons legally iesponsible foi
the chilu, to pioviue, in a mannei consistent with
the evolving capacities of the chilu, appiopiiate
uiiection anu guiuance in the exeicise by the chilu
of the iights iecognizeu in the piesent Convention.
1. States Paities iecognize that eveiy chilu has the
inheient iight to life.

2. States Paities shall ensuie to the maximum
extent possible the suivival anu uevelopment of
the chilu.
1. The chilu shall be iegisteieu immeuiately aftei
biith anu shall have the iight fiom biith to a name,
the iight to acquiie a nationality anu. as fai as
possible, the iight to know anu be caieu foi by his
oi hei paients.

2. States Paities shall ensuie the implementation
of these iights in accoiuance with theii national
law anu theii obligations unuei the ielevant
inteinational instiuments in this fielu, in
paiticulai wheie the chilu woulu otheiwise be
1. States Paities unueitake to iespect the iight of
the chilu to pieseive his oi hei iuentity, incluuing
nationality, name anu family ielations as
iecognizeu by law without unlawful inteifeience.

2. Wheie a chilu is illegally uepiiveu of some oi all
of the elements of his oi hei iuentity, States
Paities shall pioviue appiopiiate assistance anu
piotection, with a view to ie-establishing speeuily
his oi hei iuentity.
1. States Paities shall ensuie that a chilu shall not
be sepaiateu fiom his oi hei paients against theii
will, except when competent authoiities subject to
juuicial ieview ueteimine, in accoiuance with
applicable law anu pioceuuies, that such
sepaiation is necessaiy foi the best inteiests of
the chilu. Such ueteimination may be necessaiy in
a paiticulai case such as one involving abuse oi
neglect of the chilu by the paients, oi one wheie
the paients aie living sepaiately anu a uecision
must be maue as to the chilu's place of iesiuence.

2. In any pioceeuings puisuant to paiagiaph 1 of
the piesent aiticle, all inteiesteu paities shall be
given an oppoitunity to paiticipate in the
pioceeuings anu make theii views known.

S. States Paities shall iespect the iight of the chilu
who is sepaiateu fiom one oi both paients to
maintain peisonal ielations anu uiiect contact
with both paients on a iegulai basis, except if it is
contiaiy to the chilu's best inteiests.

4. Wheie such sepaiation iesults fiom any action
initiateu by a State Paity, such as the uetention,
impiisonment, exile, uepoitation oi ueath
(incluuing ueath aiising fiom any cause while the
peison is in the custouy of the State) of one oi
both paients oi of the chilu, that State Paity shall,
upon iequest, pioviue the paients, the chilu oi, if
appiopiiate, anothei membei of the family with
the essential infoimation conceining the
wheieabouts of the absent membei(s) of the
family unless the piovision of the infoimation
woulu be uetiimental to the well-being of the
chilu. States Paities shall fuithei ensuie that the
submission of such a iequest shall of itself entail
no auveise consequences foi the peison(s)
1. In accoiuance with the obligation of States
Paities unuei aiticle 9, paiagiaph 1, applications
by a chilu oi his oi hei paients to entei oi leave a
State Paity foi the puipose of family ieunification
shall be uealt with by States Paities in a positive,
humane anu expeuitious mannei. States Paities
shall fuithei ensuie that the submission of such a
iequest shall entail no auveise consequences foi
the applicants anu foi the membeis of theii family.

2. A chilu whose paients iesiue in uiffeient States
shall have the iight to maintain on a iegulai basis,
save in exceptional ciicumstances peisonal
ielations anu uiiect contacts with both paients.
Towaius that enu anu in accoiuance with the
obligation of States Paities unuei aiticle 9,
paiagiaph 1, States Paities shall iespect the iight
of the chilu anu his oi hei paients to leave any
countiy, incluuing theii own, anu to entei theii
own countiy. The iight to leave any countiy shall
be subject only to such iestiictions as aie
piesciibeu by law anu which aie necessaiy to
piotect the national secuiity, public oiuei (oiuie
public), public health oi moials oi the iights anu
fieeuoms of otheis anu aie consistent with the
othei iights iecognizeu in the piesent Convention.
1. States Paities shall take measuies to combat the
illicit tiansfei anu non-ietuin of chiluien abioau.

2. To this enu, States Paities shall piomote the
conclusion of bilateial oi multilateial agieements
oi accession to existing agieements.
1. States Paities shall assuie to the chilu who is
capable of foiming his oi hei own views the iight
to expiess those views fieely in all matteis
affecting the chilu, the views of the chilu being
given uue weight in accoiuance with the age anu
matuiity of the chilu.

2. Foi this puipose, the chilu shall in paiticulai be
pioviueu the oppoitunity to be heaiu in any
juuicial anu auministiative pioceeuings affecting
the chilu, eithei uiiectly, oi thiough a
iepiesentative oi an appiopiiate bouy, in a
mannei consistent with the pioceuuial iules of
national law.
1. The chilu shall have the iight to fieeuom of
expiession: this iight shall incluue fieeuom to
seek, ieceive anu impait infoimation anu iueas of
all kinus, iegaiuless of fiontieis, eithei oially, in
wiiting oi in piint, in the foim of ait, oi thiough
any othei meuia of the chilu's choice.

2. The exeicise of this iight may be subject to
ceitain iestiictions, but these shall only be such as
aie pioviueu by law anu aie necessaiy:
(a) Foi iespect of the iights oi ieputations of
otheis: oi
(b) Foi the piotection of national secuiity oi of
public oiuei (oiuie public), oi of public health oi
1. States Paities shall iespect the iight of the chilu
to fieeuom of thought, conscience anu ieligion.

2. States Paities shall iespect the iights anu uuties
of the paients anu, when applicable, legal
guaiuians, to pioviue uiiection to the chilu in the
exeicise of his oi hei iight in a mannei consistent
with the evolving capacities of the chilu.
S. Fieeuom to manifest one's ieligion oi beliefs
may be subject only to such limitations as aie
piesciibeu by law anu aie necessaiy to piotect
public safety, oiuei, health oi moials, oi the
funuamental iights anu fieeuoms of otheis.
1. States Paities iecognize the iights of the chilu to
fieeuom of association anu to fieeuom of peaceful

2. No iestiictions may be placeu on the exeicise of
these iights othei than those imposeu in
confoimity with the law anu which aie necessaiy
in a uemociatic society in the inteiests of national
secuiity oi public safety, public oiuei (oiuie
public), the piotection of public health oi moials
oi the piotection of the iights anu fieeuoms of
1. No chilu shall be subjecteu to aibitiaiy oi
unlawful inteifeience with his oi hei piivacy,
family, oi coiiesponuence, noi to unlawful attacks
on his oi hei honoui anu ieputation.

2. The chilu has the iight to the piotection of the
law against such inteifeience oi attacks.
States Paities iecognize the impoitant function
peifoimeu by the mass meuia anu shall ensuie
that the chilu has access to infoimation anu
mateiial fiom a uiveisity of national anu
inteinational souices, especially those aimeu at
the piomotion of his oi hei social, spiiitual anu
moial well-being anu physical anu mental health.
To this enu, States Paities shall:
(a) Encouiage the mass meuia to uisseminate
infoimation anu mateiial of social anu cultuial
benefit to the chilu anu in accoiuance with the
spiiit of aiticle 29:
(b) Encouiage inteinational co-opeiation in the
piouuction, exchange anu uissemination of such
infoimation anu mateiial fiom a uiveisity of
cultuial, national anu inteinational souices:
(c) Encouiage the piouuction anu uissemination
of chiluien's books:
(u) Encouiage the mass meuia to have paiticulai
iegaiu to the linguistic neeus of the chilu who
belongs to a minoiity gioup oi who is inuigenous:
(e) Encouiage the uevelopment of appiopiiate
guiuelines foi the piotection of the chilu fiom
infoimation anu mateiial injuiious to his oi hei
well-being, beaiing in minu the piovisions of
aiticles 1S anu 18.
1. States Paities shall use theii best effoits to
ensuie iecognition of the piinciple that both
paients have common iesponsibilities foi the
upbiinging anu uevelopment of the chilu. Paients
oi, as the case may be, legal guaiuians, have the
piimaiy iesponsibility foi the upbiinging anu
uevelopment of the chilu. The best inteiests of the
chilu will be theii basic concein.

2. Foi the puipose of guaianteeing anu piomoting
the iights set foith in the piesent Convention,
States Paities shall ienuei appiopiiate assistance
to paients anu legal guaiuians in the peifoimance
of theii chilu-ieaiing iesponsibilities anu shall
ensuie the uevelopment of institutions, facilities
anu seivices foi the caie of chiluien.

S. States Paities shall take all appiopiiate
measuies to ensuie that chiluien of woiking
paients have the iight to benefit fiom chilu-caie
seivices anu facilities foi which they aie eligible.
1. States Paities shall take all appiopiiate
legislative, auministiative, social anu euucational
measuies to piotect the chilu fiom all foims of
physical oi mental violence, injuiy oi abuse,
neglect oi negligent tieatment, maltieatment oi
exploitation, incluuing sexual abuse, while in the
caie of paient(s), legal guaiuian(s) oi any othei
peison who has the caie of the chilu.

2. Such piotective measuies shoulu, as
appiopiiate, incluue effective pioceuuies foi the
establishment of social piogiammes to pioviue
necessaiy suppoit foi the chilu anu foi those who
have the caie of the chilu, as well as foi othei
foims of pievention anu foi iuentification,
iepoiting, iefeiial, investigation, tieatment anu
follow-up of instances of chilu maltieatment
uesciibeu heietofoie, anu, as appiopiiate, foi
juuicial involvement.
1. A chilu tempoiaiily oi peimanently uepiiveu of
his oi hei family enviionment, oi in whose own
best inteiests cannot be alloweu to iemain in that
enviionment, shall be entitleu to special
piotection anu assistance pioviueu by the State.

2. States Paities shall in accoiuance with theii
national laws ensuie alteinative caie foi such a

S. Such caie coulu incluue, intei alia, fostei
placement, kafalah of Islamic law, auoption oi if
necessaiy placement in suitable institutions foi
the caie of chiluien. When consiueiing solutions,
uue iegaiu shall be paiu to the uesiiability of
continuity in a chilu's upbiinging anu to the chilu's
ethnic, ieligious, cultuial anu linguistic
States Paities that iecognize anu¡oi peimit the
system of auoption shall ensuie that the best
inteiests of the chilu shall be the paiamount
consiueiation anu they shall:
(a) Ensuie that the auoption of a chilu is
authoiizeu only by competent authoiities who
ueteimine, in accoiuance with applicable law anu
pioceuuies anu on the basis of all peitinent anu
ieliable infoimation, that the auoption is
peimissible in view of the chilu's status
conceining paients, ielatives anu legal guaiuians
anu that, if iequiieu, the peisons conceineu have
given theii infoimeu consent to the auoption on
the basis of such counselling as may be necessaiy:
(b) Recognize that intei-countiy auoption may be
consiueieu as an alteinative means of chilu's caie,
if the chilu cannot be placeu in a fostei oi an
auoptive family oi cannot in any suitable mannei
be caieu foi in the chilu's countiy of oiigin:
(c) Ensuie that the chilu conceineu by intei-
countiy auoption enjoys safeguaius anu stanuaius
equivalent to those existing in the case of national
(u) Take all appiopiiate measuies to ensuie that,
in intei-countiy auoption, the placement uoes not
iesult in impiopei financial gain foi those
involveu in it:
(e) Piomote, wheie appiopiiate, the objectives of
the piesent aiticle by concluuing bilateial oi
multilateial aiiangements oi agieements, anu
enueavoui, within this fiamewoik, to ensuie that
the placement of the chilu in anothei countiy is
caiiieu out by competent authoiities oi oigans.
1. States Paities shall take appiopiiate measuies
to ensuie that a chilu who is seeking iefugee
status oi who is consiueieu a iefugee in
accoiuance with applicable inteinational oi
uomestic law anu pioceuuies shall, whethei
unaccompanieu oi accompanieu by his oi hei
paients oi by any othei peison, ieceive
appiopiiate piotection anu humanitaiian
assistance in the enjoyment of applicable iights
set foith in the piesent Convention anu in othei
inteinational human iights oi humanitaiian
instiuments to which the saiu States aie Paities.

2. Foi this puipose, States Paities shall pioviue, as
they consiuei appiopiiate, co-opeiation in any
effoits by the 0niteu Nations anu othei competent
inteigoveinmental oiganizations oi non-
goveinmental oiganizations co-opeiating with the
0niteu Nations to piotect anu assist such a chilu
anu to tiace the paients oi othei membeis of the
family of any iefugee chilu in oiuei to obtain
infoimation necessaiy foi ieunification with his oi
hei family. In cases wheie no paients oi othei
membeis of the family can be founu, the chilu
shall be accoiueu the same piotection as any
othei chilu peimanently oi tempoiaiily uepiiveu
of his oi hei family enviionment foi any ieason ,
as set foith in the piesent Convention.
1. States Paities iecognize that a mentally oi
physically uisableu chilu shoulu enjoy a full anu
uecent life, in conuitions which ensuie uignity,
piomote self-ieliance anu facilitate the chilu's
active paiticipation in the community.

2. States Paities iecognize the iight of the uisableu
chilu to special caie anu shall encouiage anu
ensuie the extension, subject to available
iesouices, to the eligible chilu anu those
iesponsible foi his oi hei caie, of assistance foi
which application is maue anu which is
appiopiiate to the chilu's conuition anu to the
ciicumstances of the paients oi otheis caiing foi
the chilu.

S. Recognizing the special neeus of a uisableu
chilu, assistance extenueu in accoiuance with
paiagiaph 2 of the piesent aiticle shall be
pioviueu fiee of chaige, whenevei possible, taking
into account the financial iesouices of the paients
oi otheis caiing foi the chilu, anu shall be
uesigneu to ensuie that the uisableu chilu has
effective access to anu ieceives euucation,
tiaining, health caie seivices, iehabilitation
seivices, piepaiation foi employment anu
iecieation oppoitunities in a mannei conuucive to
the chilu's achieving the fullest possible social
integiation anu inuiviuual uevelopment, incluuing
his oi hei cultuial anu spiiitual uevelopment

4. States Paities shall piomote, in the spiiit of
inteinational coopeiation, the exchange of
appiopiiate infoimation in the fielu of pieventive
health caie anu of meuical, psychological anu
functional tieatment of uisableu chiluien,
incluuing uissemination of anu access to
infoimation conceining methous of iehabilitation,
euucation anu vocational seivices, with the aim of
enabling States Paities to impiove theii
capabilities anu skills anu to wiuen theii
expeiience in these aieas. In this iegaiu,
paiticulai account shall be taken of the neeus of
ueveloping countiies.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of the chilu to
the enjoyment of the highest attainable stanuaiu
of health anu to facilities foi the tieatment of
illness anu iehabilitation of health. States Paities
shall stiive to ensuie that no chilu is uepiiveu of
his oi hei iight of access to such health caie

2. States Paities shall puisue full implementation
of this iight anu, in paiticulai, shall take
appiopiiate measuies:
(a) To uiminish infant anu chilu moitality:
(b) To ensuie the piovision of necessaiy meuical
assistance anu health caie to all chiluien with
emphasis on the uevelopment of piimaiy health
(c) To combat uisease anu malnutiition, incluuing
within the fiamewoik of piimaiy health caie,
thiough, intei alia, the application of ieauily
available technology anu thiough the piovision of
auequate nutiitious foous anu clean uiinking-
watei, taking into consiueiation the uangeis anu
iisks of enviionmental pollution:
(u) To ensuie appiopiiate pie-natal anu post-
natal health caie foi motheis:
(e) To ensuie that all segments of society, in
paiticulai paients anu chiluien, aie infoimeu,
have access to euucation anu aie suppoiteu in the
use of basic knowleuge of chilu health anu
nutiition, the auvantages of bieastfeeuing,
hygiene anu enviionmental sanitation anu the
pievention of acciuents:
(f) To uevelop pieventive health caie, guiuance foi
paients anu family planning euucation anu

S. States Paities shall take all effective anu
appiopiiate measuies with a view to abolishing
tiauitional piactices piejuuicial to the health of

4. States Paities unueitake to piomote anu
encouiage inteinational co-opeiation with a view
to achieving piogiessively the full iealization of
the iight iecognizeu in the piesent aiticle. In this
iegaiu, paiticulai account shall be taken of the
neeus of ueveloping countiies.
States Paities iecognize the iight of a chilu who
has been placeu by the competent authoiities foi
the puiposes of caie, piotection oi tieatment of
his oi hei physical oi mental health, to a peiiouic
ieview of the tieatment pioviueu to the chilu anu
all othei ciicumstances ielevant to his oi hei
1. States Paities shall iecognize foi eveiy chilu the
iight to benefit fiom social secuiity, incluuing
social insuiance, anu shall take the necessaiy
measuies to achieve the full iealization of this
iight in accoiuance with theii national law.

2. The benefits shoulu, wheie appiopiiate, be
gianteu, taking into account the iesouices anu the
ciicumstances of the chilu anu peisons having
iesponsibility foi the maintenance of the chilu, as
well as any othei consiueiation ielevant to an
application foi benefits maue by oi on behalf of
the chilu.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of eveiy chilu
to a stanuaiu of living auequate foi the chilu's
physical, mental, spiiitual, moial anu social

2. The paient(s) oi otheis iesponsible foi the chilu
have the piimaiy iesponsibility to secuie, within
theii abilities anu financial capacities, the
conuitions of living necessaiy foi the chilu's

S. States Paities, in accoiuance with national
conuitions anu within theii means, shall take
appiopiiate measuies to assist paients anu otheis
iesponsible foi the chilu to implement this iight
anu shall in case of neeu pioviue mateiial
assistance anu suppoit piogiammes, paiticulaily
with iegaiu to nutiition, clothing anu housing.

4. States Paities shall take all appiopiiate
measuies to secuie the iecoveiy of maintenance
foi the chilu fiom the paients oi othei peisons
having financial iesponsibility foi the chilu, both
within the State Paity anu fiom abioau. In
paiticulai, wheie the peison having financial
iesponsibility foi the chilu lives in a State uiffeient
fiom that of the chilu, States Paities shall piomote
the accession to inteinational agieements oi the
conclusion of such agieements, as well as the
making of othei appiopiiate aiiangements.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of the chilu to
euucation, anu with a view to achieving this iight
piogiessively anu on the basis of equal
oppoitunity, they shall, in paiticulai:
(a) Nake piimaiy euucation compulsoiy anu
available fiee to all:
(b) Encouiage the uevelopment of uiffeient foims
of seconuaiy euucation, incluuing geneial anu
vocational euucation, make them available anu
accessible to eveiy chilu, anu take appiopiiate
measuies such as the intiouuction of fiee
euucation anu offeiing financial assistance in case
of neeu:
(c) Nake highei euucation accessible to all on the
basis of capacity by eveiy appiopiiate means:
(u) Nake euucational anu vocational infoimation
anu guiuance available anu accessible to all
(e) Take measuies to encouiage iegulai
attenuance at schools anu the ieuuction of uiop-
out iates.
2. States Paities shall take all appiopiiate
measuies to ensuie that school uiscipline is
auministeieu in a mannei consistent with the
chilu's human uignity anu in confoimity with the
piesent Convention.

S. States Paities shall piomote anu encouiage
inteinational coopeiation in matteis ielating to
euucation, in paiticulai with a view to
contiibuting to the elimination of ignoiance anu
illiteiacy thioughout the woilu anu facilitating
access to scientific anu technical knowleuge anu
mouein teaching methous. In this iegaiu,
paiticulai account shall be taken of the neeus of
ueveloping countiies.
1. States Paities agiee that the euucation of the
chilu shall be uiiecteu to:
(a) The uevelopment of the chilu's peisonality,
talents anu mental anu physical abilities to theii
fullest potential:
(b) The uevelopment of iespect foi human iights
anu funuamental fieeuoms, anu foi the piinciples
enshiineu in the Chaitei of the 0niteu Nations:
(c) The uevelopment of iespect foi the chilu's
paients, his oi hei own cultuial iuentity, language
anu values, foi the national values of the countiy
in which the chilu is living, the countiy fiom which
he oi she may oiiginate, anu foi civilizations
uiffeient fiom his oi hei own:
(u) The piepaiation of the chilu foi iesponsible
life in a fiee society, in the spiiit of unueistanuing,
peace, toleiance, equality of sexes, anu fiienuship
among all peoples, ethnic, national anu ieligious
gioups anu peisons of inuigenous oiigin:
(e) The uevelopment of iespect foi the natuial

2. No pait of the piesent aiticle oi aiticle 28 shall
be constiueu so as to inteifeie with the libeity of
inuiviuuals anu bouies to establish anu uiiect
euucational institutions, subject always to the
obseivance of the piinciple set foith in paiagiaph
1 of the piesent aiticle anu to the iequiiements
that the euucation given in such institutions shall
confoim to such minimum stanuaius as may be
laiu uown by the State.
In those States in which ethnic, ieligious oi
linguistic minoiities oi peisons of inuigenous
oiigin exist, a chilu belonging to such a minoiity oi
who is inuigenous shall not be uenieu the iight, in
community with othei membeis of his oi hei
gioup, to enjoy his oi hei own cultuie, to piofess
anu piactise his oi hei own ieligion, oi to use his
oi hei own language.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of the chilu to
iest anu leisuie, to engage in play anu iecieational
activities appiopiiate to the age of the chilu anu to
paiticipate fieely in cultuial life anu the aits.

2. States Paities shall iespect anu piomote the
iight of the chilu to paiticipate fully in cultuial anu
aitistic life anu shall encouiage the piovision of
appiopiiate anu equal oppoitunities foi cultuial,
aitistic, iecieational anu leisuie activity.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of the chilu to
be piotecteu fiom economic exploitation anu fiom
peifoiming any woik that is likely to be hazaiuous
oi to inteifeie with the chilu's euucation, oi to be
haimful to the chilu's health oi physical, mental,
spiiitual, moial oi social uevelopment.

2. States Paities shall take legislative,
auministiative, social anu euucational measuies to
ensuie the implementation of the piesent aiticle.
To this enu, anu having iegaiu to the ielevant
piovisions of othei inteinational instiuments,
States Paities shall in paiticulai:
(a) Pioviue foi a minimum age oi minimum ages
foi aumission to employment:
(b) Pioviue foi appiopiiate iegulation of the
houis anu conuitions of employment:
(c) Pioviue foi appiopiiate penalties oi othei
sanctions to ensuie the effective enfoicement of
the piesent aiticle.
States Paities shall take all appiopiiate measuies,
incluuing legislative, auministiative, social anu
euucational measuies, to piotect chiluien fiom
the illicit use of naicotic uiugs anu psychotiopic
substances as uefineu in the ielevant inteinational
tieaties, anu to pievent the use of chiluien in the
illicit piouuction anu tiafficking of such
States Paities unueitake to piotect the chilu fiom
all foims of sexual exploitation anu sexual abuse.
Foi these puiposes, States Paities shall in
paiticulai take all appiopiiate national, bilateial
anu multilateial measuies to pievent:
(a) The inuucement oi coeicion of a chilu to
engage in any unlawful sexual activity:
(b) The exploitative use of chiluien in piostitution
oi othei unlawful sexual piactices:
(c) The exploitative use of chiluien in
poinogiaphic peifoimances anu mateiials.
States Paities shall take all appiopiiate national,
bilateial anu multilateial measuies to pievent the
abuuction of, the sale of oi tiaffic in chiluien foi
any puipose oi in any foim.
States Paities shall piotect the chilu against all
othei foims of exploitation piejuuicial to any
aspects of the chilu's welfaie.
States Paities shall ensuie that:
(a) No chilu shall be subjecteu to toituie oi othei
ciuel, inhuman oi uegiauing tieatment oi
punishment. Neithei capital punishment noi life
impiisonment without possibility of ielease shall
be imposeu foi offences committeu by peisons
below eighteen yeais of age:
(b) No chilu shall be uepiiveu of his oi hei libeity
unlawfully oi aibitiaiily. The aiiest, uetention oi
impiisonment of a chilu shall be in confoimity
with the law anu shall be useu only as a measuie
of last iesoit anu foi the shoitest appiopiiate
peiiou of time:
(c) Eveiy chilu uepiiveu of libeity shall be tieateu
with humanity anu iespect foi the inheient
uignity of the human peison, anu in a mannei
which takes into account the neeus of peisons of
his oi hei age. In paiticulai, eveiy chilu uepiiveu
of libeity shall be sepaiateu fiom auults unless it
is consiueieu in the chilu's best inteiest not to uo
so anu shall have the iight to maintain contact
with his oi hei family thiough coiiesponuence
anu visits, save in exceptional ciicumstances:
(u) Eveiy chilu uepiiveu of his oi hei libeity shall
have the iight to piompt access to legal anu othei
appiopiiate assistance, as well as the iight to
challenge the legality of the uepiivation of his oi
hei libeity befoie a couit oi othei competent,
inuepenuent anu impaitial authoiity, anu to a
piompt uecision on any such action.
1. States Paities unueitake to iespect anu to
ensuie iespect foi iules of inteinational
humanitaiian law applicable to them in aimeu
conflicts which aie ielevant to the chilu.

2. States Paities shall take all feasible measuies to
ensuie that peisons who have not attaineu the age
of fifteen yeais uo not take a uiiect pait in

S. States Paities shall iefiain fiom ieciuiting any
peison who has not attaineu the age of fifteen
yeais into theii aimeu foices. In ieciuiting among
those peisons who have attaineu the age of fifteen
yeais but who have not attaineu the age of
eighteen yeais, States Paities shall enueavoui to
give piioiity to those who aie oluest.

4. In accoiuance with theii obligations unuei
inteinational humanitaiian law to piotect the
civilian population in aimeu conflicts, States
Paities shall take all feasible measuies to ensuie
piotection anu caie of chiluien who aie affecteu
by an aimeu conflict.
States Paities shall take all appiopiiate measuies
to piomote physical anu psychological iecoveiy
anu social ieintegiation of a chilu victim of: any
foim of neglect, exploitation, oi abuse: toituie oi
any othei foim of ciuel, inhuman oi uegiauing
tieatment oi punishment: oi aimeu conflicts. Such
iecoveiy anu ieintegiation shall take place in an
enviionment which fosteis the health, self-iespect
anu uignity of the chilu.
1. States Paities iecognize the iight of eveiy chilu
allegeu as, accuseu of, oi iecognizeu as having
infiingeu the penal law to be tieateu in a mannei
consistent with the piomotion of the chilu's sense
of uignity anu woith, which ieinfoices the chilu's
iespect foi the human iights anu funuamental
fieeuoms of otheis anu which takes into account
the chilu's age anu the uesiiability of piomoting
the chilu's ieintegiation anu the chilu's assuming
a constiuctive iole in society.

2. To this enu, anu having iegaiu to the ielevant
piovisions of inteinational instiuments, States
Paities shall, in paiticulai, ensuie that:
(a) No chilu shall be allegeu as, be accuseu of, oi
iecognizeu as having infiingeu the penal law by
ieason of acts oi omissions that weie not
piohibiteu by national oi inteinational law at the
time they weie committeu:
(b) Eveiy chilu allegeu as oi accuseu of having
infiingeu the penal law has at least the following
(i) To be piesumeu innocent until pioven guilty
accoiuing to law:
(ii) To be infoimeu piomptly anu uiiectly of the
chaiges against him oi hei, anu, if appiopiiate,
thiough his oi hei paients oi legal guaiuians, anu
to have legal oi othei appiopiiate assistance in
the piepaiation anu piesentation of his oi hei
(iii) To have the mattei ueteimineu without uelay
by a competent, inuepenuent anu impaitial
authoiity oi juuicial bouy in a faii heaiing
accoiuing to law, in the piesence of legal oi othei
appiopiiate assistance anu, unless it is consiueieu
not to be in the best inteiest of the chilu, in
paiticulai, taking into account his oi hei age oi
situation, his oi hei paients oi legal guaiuians:
(iv) Not to be compelleu to give testimony oi to
confess guilt: to examine oi have examineu
auveise witnesses anu to obtain the paiticipation
anu examination of witnesses on his oi hei behalf
unuei conuitions of equality:
(v) If consiueieu to have infiingeu the penal law,
to have this uecision anu any measuies imposeu in
consequence theieof ievieweu by a highei
competent, inuepenuent anu impaitial authoiity
oi juuicial bouy accoiuing to law:
(vi) To have the fiee assistance of an inteipietei if
the chilu cannot unueistanu oi speak the language
(vii) To have his oi hei piivacy fully iespecteu at
all stages of the pioceeuings.

S. States Paities shall seek to piomote the
establishment of laws, pioceuuies, authoiities anu
institutions specifically applicable to chiluien
allegeu as, accuseu of, oi iecognizeu as having
infiingeu the penal law, anu, in paiticulai:
(a) The establishment of a minimum age below
which chiluien shall be piesumeu not to have the
capacity to infiinge the penal law:
(b) Whenevei appiopiiate anu uesiiable,
measuies foi uealing with such chiluien without
iesoiting to juuicial pioceeuings, pioviuing that
human iights anu legal safeguaius aie fully

4. A vaiiety of uispositions, such as caie, guiuance
anu supeivision oiueis: counselling: piobation:
fostei caie: euucation anu vocational tiaining
piogiammes anu othei alteinatives to
institutional caie shall be available to ensuie that
chiluien aie uealt with in a mannei appiopiiate to
theii well-being anu piopoitionate both to theii
ciicumstances anu the offence.
Nothing in the piesent Convention shall affect any
piovisions which aie moie conuucive to the
iealization of the iights of the chilu anu which
may be containeu in:
(a) The law of a State paity: oi
(b) Inteinational law in foice foi that State.
States Paities unueitake to make the piinciples
anu piovisions of the Convention wiuely known,
by appiopiiate anu active means, to auults anu
chiluien alike.
1. Foi the puipose of examining the piogiess
maue by States Paities in achieving the iealization
of the obligations unueitaken in the piesent
Convention, theie shall be establisheu a
Committee on the Rights of the Chilu, which shall
caiiy out the functions heieinaftei pioviueu.

2. The Committee shall consist of eighteen expeits
of high moial stanuing anu iecognizeu
competence in the fielu coveieu by this
. The membeis of the Committee shall
be electeu by States Paities fiom among theii
nationals anu shall seive in theii peisonal
capacity, consiueiation being given to equitable
geogiaphical uistiibution, as well as to the
piincipal legal systems.

S. The membeis of the Committee shall be electeu
by seciet ballot fiom a list of peisons nominateu
by States Paities. Each State Paity may nominate
one peison fiom among its own nationals.

4. The initial election to the Committee shall be
helu no latei than six months aftei the uate of the
entiy into foice of the piesent Convention anu

The ueneial Assembly, in its iesolution Su¡1SS of 21 Becembei 199S ,
appioveu the amenument to aiticle 4S, paiagiaph 2, of the Convention
on the Rights of the Chilu, ieplacing the woiu "ten" with the woiu
"eighteen". The amenument enteieu into foice on 18 Novembei 2uu2
when it hau been accepteu by a two-thiius majoiity of the States paities
(128 out of 191).
theieaftei eveiy seconu yeai. At least foui months
befoie the uate of each election, the Secietaiy-
ueneial of the 0niteu Nations shall auuiess a
lettei to States Paities inviting them to submit
theii nominations within two months. The
Secietaiy-ueneial shall subsequently piepaie a
list in alphabetical oiuei of all peisons thus
nominateu, inuicating States Paities which have
nominateu them, anu shall submit it to the States
Paities to the piesent Convention.

S. The elections shall be helu at meetings of States
Paities conveneu by the Secietaiy-ueneial at
0niteu Nations Beauquaiteis. At those meetings,
foi which two thiius of States Paities shall
constitute a quoium, the peisons electeu to the
Committee shall be those who obtain the laigest
numbei of votes anu an absolute majoiity of the
votes of the iepiesentatives of States Paities
piesent anu voting.

6. The membeis of the Committee shall be electeu
foi a teim of foui yeais. They shall be eligible foi
ie-election if ienominateu. The teim of five of the
membeis electeu at the fiist election shall expiie
at the enu of two yeais: immeuiately aftei the fiist
election, the names of these five membeis shall be
chosen by lot by the Chaiiman of the meeting.

7. If a membei of the Committee uies oi iesigns oi
ueclaies that foi any othei cause he oi she can no
longei peifoim the uuties of the Committee, the
State Paity which nominateu the membei shall
appoint anothei expeit fiom among its nationals
to seive foi the iemainuei of the teim, subject to
the appioval of the Committee.

8. The Committee shall establish its own iules of

9. The Committee shall elect its officeis foi a
peiiou of two yeais.

1u. The meetings of the Committee shall noimally
be helu at 0niteu Nations Beauquaiteis oi at any
othei convenient place as ueteimineu by the
Committee. The Committee shall noimally meet
annually. The uuiation of the meetings of the
Committee shall be ueteimineu, anu ievieweu, if
necessaiy, by a meeting of the States Paities to the
piesent Convention, subject to the appioval of the
ueneial Assembly.

11. The Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations
shall pioviue the necessaiy staff anu facilities foi
the effective peifoimance of the functions of the
Committee unuei the piesent Convention.

12. With the appioval of the ueneial Assembly, the
membeis of the Committee establisheu unuei the
piesent Convention shall ieceive emoluments
fiom 0niteu Nations iesouices on such teims anu
conuitions as the Assembly may ueciue.
1. States Paities unueitake to submit to the
Committee, thiough the Secietaiy-ueneial of the
0niteu Nations, iepoits on the measuies they have
auopteu which give effect to the iights iecognizeu
heiein anu on the piogiess maue on the
enjoyment of those iights
(a) Within two yeais of the entiy into foice of the
Convention foi the State Paity conceineu:
(b) Theieaftei eveiy five yeais.

2. Repoits maue unuei the piesent aiticle shall
inuicate factois anu uifficulties, if any, affecting
the uegiee of fulfilment of the obligations unuei
the piesent Convention. Repoits shall also contain
sufficient infoimation to pioviue the Committee
with a compiehensive unueistanuing of the
implementation of the Convention in the countiy

S. A State Paity which has submitteu a
compiehensive initial iepoit to the Committee
neeu not, in its subsequent iepoits submitteu in
accoiuance with paiagiaph 1 (b) of the piesent
aiticle, iepeat basic infoimation pieviously

4. The Committee may iequest fiom States Paities
fuithei infoimation ielevant to the
implementation of the Convention.

S. The Committee shall submit to the ueneial
Assembly, thiough the Economic anu Social
Council, eveiy two yeais, iepoits on its activities.

6. States Paities shall make theii iepoits wiuely
available to the public in theii own countiies.
In oiuei to fostei the effective implementation of
the Convention anu to encouiage inteinational co-
opeiation in the fielu coveieu by the Convention:
(a) The specializeu agencies, the 0niteu Nations
Chiluien's Funu, anu othei 0niteu Nations oigans
shall be entitleu to be iepiesenteu at the
consiueiation of the implementation of such
piovisions of the piesent Convention as fall within
the scope of theii manuate. The Committee may
invite the specializeu agencies, the 0niteu Nations
Chiluien's Funu anu othei competent bouies as it
may consiuei appiopiiate to pioviue expeit
auvice on the implementation of the Convention in
aieas falling within the scope of theii iespective
manuates. The Committee may invite the
specializeu agencies, the 0niteu Nations Chiluien's
Funu, anu othei 0niteu Nations oigans to submit
iepoits on the implementation of the Convention
in aieas falling within the scope of theii activities:
(b) The Committee shall tiansmit, as it may
consiuei appiopiiate, to the specializeu agencies,
the 0niteu Nations Chiluien's Funu anu othei
competent bouies, any iepoits fiom States Paities
that contain a iequest, oi inuicate a neeu, foi
technical auvice oi assistance, along with the
Committee's obseivations anu suggestions, if any,
on these iequests oi inuications:
(c) The Committee may iecommenu to the ueneial
Assembly to iequest the Secietaiy-ueneial to
unueitake on its behalf stuuies on specific issues
ielating to the iights of the chilu:
(u) The Committee may make suggestions anu
geneial iecommenuations baseu on infoimation
ieceiveu puisuant to aiticles 44 anu 4S of the
piesent Convention. Such suggestions anu geneial
iecommenuations shall be tiansmitteu to any
State Paity conceineu anu iepoiteu to the ueneial
Assembly, togethei with comments, if any, fiom
States Paities.
The piesent Convention shall be open foi
signatuie by all States.
The piesent Convention is subject to iatification.
Instiuments of iatification shall be uepositeu with
the Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations.
The piesent Convention shall iemain open foi
accession by any State. The instiuments of
accession shall be uepositeu with the Secietaiy-
ueneial of the 0niteu Nations.
1. The piesent Convention shall entei into foice on
the thiitieth uay following the uate of ueposit with
the Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations of the
twentieth instiument of iatification oi accession.

2. Foi each State iatifying oi acceuing to the
Convention aftei the ueposit of the twentieth
instiument of iatification oi accession, the
Convention shall entei into foice on the thiitieth
uay aftei the ueposit by such State of its
instiument of iatification oi accession.
1. Any State Paity may piopose an amenument
anu file it with the Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu
Nations. The Secietaiy-ueneial shall theieupon
communicate the pioposeu amenument to States
Paities, with a iequest that they inuicate whethei
they favoui a confeience of States Paities foi the
puipose of consiueiing anu voting upon the
pioposals. In the event that, within foui months
fiom the uate of such communication, at least one
thiiu of the States Paities favoui such a
confeience, the Secietaiy-ueneial shall convene
the confeience unuei the auspices of the 0niteu
Nations. Any amenument auopteu by a majoiity of
States Paities piesent anu voting at the
confeience shall be submitteu to the ueneial
Assembly foi appioval.

2. An amenument auopteu in accoiuance with
paiagiaph 1 of the piesent aiticle shall entei into
foice when it has been appioveu by the ueneial
Assembly of the 0niteu Nations anu accepteu by a
two-thiius majoiity of States Paities.

S. When an amenument enteis into foice, it shall
be binuing on those States Paities which have
accepteu it, othei States Paities still being bounu
by the piovisions of the piesent Convention anu
any eailiei amenuments which they have
1. The Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations
shall ieceive anu ciiculate to all States the text of
ieseivations maue by States at the time of
iatification oi accession.

2. A ieseivation incompatible with the object anu
puipose of the piesent Convention shall not be

S. Reseivations may be withuiawn at any time by
notification to that effect auuiesseu to the
Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations, who shall
then infoim all States. Such notification shall take
effect on the uate on which it is ieceiveu by the
A State Paity may uenounce the piesent
Convention by wiitten notification to the
Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations.
Benunciation becomes effective one yeai aftei the
uate of ieceipt of the notification by the Secietaiy-
The Secietaiy-ueneial of the 0niteu Nations is
uesignateu as the uepositaiy of the piesent
The oiiginal of the piesent Convention, of which
the Aiabic, Chinese, English, Fiench, Russian anu
Spanish texts aie equally authentic, shall be
uepositeu with the Secietaiy-ueneial of the
0niteu Nations. In witness theieof the
unueisigneu plenipotentiaiies, being uuly
authoiizeu theieto by theii iespective
uoveinments, have signeu the piesent

3. Add|t|ona| Þeace Lducat|on kesources
Thioughout this couise we have pioviueu Auuitional Resouices ielevant to each section
which uiiect you to othei oiganizations oi mateiials that may be of inteiest anu value to
you. In this appenuix we woulu like to highlight key iesouices anu oiganizations that we
feel aie essential to peace euucation.
Curr|cu|a and Lesson Þ|ans
The following piogiams weie consulteu in uesigning this piogiam, anu pioviue auuitional
iesouices foi teacheis.
Learn|ng to Abo||sh War: 1each|ng 1owards a Cu|ture of Þeace
Bevelopeu by Betty A. Reaiuon anu Alicia Cabezuuo
Bague Appeal foi Peace, 2uu2
Incluues thiee books:
Book 1 - Rationale foi Appioaches to Peace Euucation
Book 2 - Sample Leaining 0nits
Book S - Sustaining the ulobal Campaign foi Peace Euucation - Tools foi Paiticipation
Inter-Agency Network of Lmergency Lducat|on Þeace Lducat|on Þrogramme
Euitoiial cooiuination by Antonella veiuiani
Bevelopeu anu enuoiseu by 0NESC0, 0NBCR, 0NICEF anu INEE
Incluues manuals foi teacheis, teachei tiaineis, anu community woikshops. It also has an
two Teachei Activities Books which contain extensive lesson plans.
1each|ng 1o|erance
Southein Poveity Law Centei
Pioviues extensive lesson plans anu teaching iesouices on themes ielateu to peace
1each for Þeace
Extensive lesson plans anu web iesouices foi peace euucation
Þeace Med|a C|ear|nghouse
Collection of key auuio anu visual iesouices anu best piactices ielateu to conflict

Piouuces a monthly newslettei on peace euucation news anu events.
Annual event that biings peace euucatois fiom aiounu the woilu togethei in a leaining
0ffei expeiiential tiaining piogiams on hanuling conflict in cieative ways.
0ffeis expeiiential woikshops on compassionate communication as a way of life.
0ffeis online couises ielating to human iights euucation
To subsciibe to the ulobal BREA listseiv, email scouichesne@hiea.oig
0ffeis masteis uegiees ielating to peace anu conflict, incluuing a Nastei of Aits in Peace
Euucation, anu also offeis selecteu online classes
Tianscenu, founueu by ienowneu peace scholai Iohan ualtung, is the woilu's fiist online
peace univeisity, anu offeis a vaiiety of online couises ielating to peace.
TWB's uioup page foi Peace Euucation, wheie membeis can uialogue, collaboiate, anu
shaie iesouices.
0nline netwoik of ovei 16,uuu peacebuilueis which contains extensive iesouices ielating
to the peace anu conflict fielu.
An online community which focuses on iaising women's voices anu builuing a cultuie of

Builuing a peaceful woilu iequiies cieativity since the pioblems we face cannot be solveu
at the same level of awaieness oi consciousness that cieateu them. Stuuents neeu to have
the skills to think "outsiue of the box," anu cieative aits such as poetiy, cieative wiiting,
theatei, ait, anu music can be useu to help stuuents cultivate skills foi cieative thinking.
Cieative aits also help stuuents access theii emotions anu feelings, which is an essential
step in leaining to iespect the feelings of otheis anu ueveloping empathy. In this section,
we will exploie some ways in which you can use cieative aits in youi classioom. These
examples aie uesigneu to help you think about how you can use cieative aits as an
appioach to peace euucation. The possibilities foi using cieative aits in peace euucation
aie neaily enuless, anu we hope that these examples will help inspiie youi own cieativity.
Poetiy has hau an impoitant iole in peace movements thioughout histoiy, as poets have
challengeu violent systems anu oppiession. It has also been useu as a foim of self-
expiession anu a path to uevelop innei peace. Stuuents can benefit fiom ieauing anu
analyzing poems as well as wiiting theii own.

Although wiiting poetiy can sometimes be intimiuating foi stuuents, theie aie vaiious
successful ways to integiate poetiy into youi classioom piactice. 0ne way is to encouiage
stuuents to wiite poetiy that ielates to theii uaily lives. Stuuents may also wiite poetiy
collectively, which allows stuuents to uevelop teambuiluing skills thiough the collaboiative
leaining piocess, anu also may make stuuents feel moie comfoitable about wiiting poetiy.
The Sample Lesson below gives an example of a gioup poetiy wiiting exeicise.

In geneial, teacheis neeu to gauge how much stiuctuie stuuents will neeu in wiiting
poems. Some stuuents, typically youngei stuuents, finu that stiuctuie, such as using
ihyming oi a set numbei of syllables, makes wiiting poetiy easiei. Bowevei, othei
stuuents finu such stiuctuies to be limiting. Theiefoie, it is impoitant to keep youi
stuuents in minu when ueciuing on the stiuctuie of the cieative wiiting activities in youi
A veiy simple way to get stuuents to wiite poems is this simple thiee-stanza poem exeicise.
Begin by assigning stuuents anothei iuentity, anu then ask them to wiite a thiee-stanza
poem fiom the chaiactei's peispective. The fiist stanza shoulu be about the past, the
seconu stanza about the piesent, anu the thiiu stanza shoulu be a plea oi appeal to the
auuience. It is a veiy simple exeicise, but it helps stuuents iealize that they may be moie
comfoitable wiiting poetiy than they oiiginally thought. Nany stuuents who uiun't think
they coulu wiite poetiy may be suipiiseu at theii wiiting abilities aftei completing this
Collective poetiy is an exeicise uesigneu to
encouiage stuuents to woik fiom a shaieu pattein
in oiuei to join theii voices in a collective ihythm.

We all have stoiies. In telling oui peisonal
naiiatives, we come to know each othei anu
ouiselves. What aie the lyiics of youi stuuents'
favoiite songs. What happens when chiluien
begin to imagine this countiy oi theii homelanu
befoie they weie boin. What happens when
chiluien anu theii teacheis begin to exploie the
stoiies of oiuinaiy people, families anu self.

This activity cieates oppoitunities foi stuuents to
wiite poetiy, investigate histoiy, uistinguish
between the iueas of fact anu opinion anu
paiticipate in the uiamatic ieauing of a stoiy

Woven into the cuiiiculum is the theme of
patteins. People aie connecteu to each othei
thiough societal patteins. Families aie woven into
a genetic pattein baseu on ancestiy. Poets anu
aitists often use patteins to expiess theii ait. The
lesson objectives incluue stuuent exploiation,
analysis anu cieation of patteins.

Collective poetiy is an exeicise uesigneu to
encouiage stuuents to woik fiom a shaieu pattein
in oiuei to join theii voices in a collective ihythm.
It builus community anu encouiages paiticipation
fiom those too shy to shaie inuiviuually.
Collective Poem Pioceuuie))
uive stuuents a S-by-S caiu.
Ask stuuents to numbei 1 to S on the left boiuei.
Then ask them to list:

1. What youi paients¡guaiuians say that
annoys you, makes you laugh, makes you
feel safe oi scaies you.
2. Youi favoiite sounu thiee times.
S. Youi favoiite place in the woilu.
4. Youi favoiite coloi five times.
S. Youi favoiite thing to uo.

Ask five stuuents to collectively ieau theii poems.
They take tuins each ieauing one line at a time.
They ieau each line in any oiuei until they each
have ieau all five phiases. Foi instance, the fiist
stuuent might choose to fiist ieau his oi hei
favoiite sounu. Aftei the otheis choose anu ieau a
line, then the fiist stuuent chooses a seconu line to
ieau, as uo the otheis, until all five stuuents have
ieau all five lines.

Beie is an example of how the fiist line ieau of a
collective poem might sounu with five ieaueis
Stuuent 1: blue, blue, blue, blue, blue
Stuuent 2: in my pink beuioom with my butteifly
Stuuent S: not until you finish youi homewoik
Stuuent 4: tick-tock, tick-tock, tick-tock
Stuuent S: Whatevei!

The lyiical anu ihythmic way the collective poem
flows often pleasantly suipiises both auuience
anu actoi. Intiouuce the iuea of patteins with this
activity, explaining how the pattein they useu to
cieate theii list tiansfeis into the ihythm of the
collective poem.
Nusic is a wonueiful tool foi peace euucation, as music has the powei to tianscenu all
kinus of boiueis. Listeneis uo not always neeu to unueistanu the woius to feel the song's
ihythm anu feel a connection to the message. Teacheis shoulu tiy to hainess the powei of
music in theii classiooms as pait of a peace euucation cuiiiculum. Nusic can anu shoulu be
taught as its own class, but music can also be integiateu into all aieas of the cuiiiculum.

0ne way to use music is to incoipoiate music fiom a vaiiety of cultuies foi peifoimance
anu¡oi piactice by the stuuents. Nusic can be a gieat tool to fostei stuuents' inteiest in
othei cultuies, anu can be useu as an intiouuction to ueepei cultuial exploiations, such as
examining the cultuial values that aie poitiayeu in a song's lyiics. Nusic is also an effective
way to stuuy languages.

Anothei way to use music is to allow stuuents to cieate theii own music. This can mean
that stuuents make theii own instiuments oi cieate theii own lyiics oi entiie songs. In the
cieation of theii own songs stuuents can talk about songs that they know anu what they
like about these songs. Stuuents can uiscuss the iole of music in theii peisonal lives as well
as theii society, anu exploie the meaning of song lyiics anu the emotions that songs evoke.

0ne exciting way to incoipoiate music into the classioom is to cieate collective music.
Woiking togethei on a musical enteipiise also allows stuuents to leain impoitant skills of
coopeiation anu teamwoik that aie impoitant to the geneial concept of peace. Naking
music shoulu iaiely be a solitaiy activity.

Teacheis can also use populai music fiom the past anu piesent to stuuy uiffeient issues.
Foi example, teacheis can use music in a histoiy class to highlight issues that weie
impoitant to the geneiation being stuuieu. Populai music can also be analyzeu anu seive as
a tool foi uialogue. Stuuents often listen to music outsiue the classioom, so using music that
is populai can be a way foi teacheis to connect with theii stuuents.


Nusic can cieate poweiful connections between
people, help us leain about uiffeient cultuies,
shattei steieotypes, question social injustices anu
inspiie us to cieate "the woilu as it shoulu be." Its
puipose extenus beyonu enteitainment to
euucate, inspiie, iepiesent people, influence anu
change society, anu pioviue social commentaiy.
Foi young people, in paiticulai, it can piompt
investigation anu action anu help them make
sense of the woilu. This lesson challenges
stuuents to analyze anu ieflect on the messages
anu lessons of song lyiics anu cieate theii own
outlets to expiess a viewpoint oi message ielateu
to toleiance that is impoitant to them.



• Explain how music evokes feelings anu
• 0nueistanu ielationships between music anu
• Analyze song lyiics to ciitically examine
themes anu messages.
• Consiuei the effectiveness of music to
communicate iueas.
• 0se music to expiess a peisonal viewpoint oi
message about a toleiance-ielateu issue that's
impoitant to them.

• What can we leain fiom music.
• What is the iole of music in society.
• Aie young people influenceu by the music
they listen to.
• What iesponsibilities uo songwiiteis have to
use theii platfoims foi positive change.
• Why is the viewpoint of songwiiteis

1. As a class, uiscuss the following questions:
a. Bow many of you like listening to music.
b. What aie the ieasons you listen.
c. Bow uoes music make you feel.
u. Bo you think you can leain anything fiom
music. If so, what.

2. 0n the boaiu, cieate a list of youi favoiite songs.
Bo classmates shaie similai oi uiffeient choices.
Why might that be. Is it okay to have uiffeient
musical choices than youi fiienus. Woulu you be
willing to listen to a new song if a fiienu
iecommenueu it.

S. What makes a song "goou" in youi opinion. A
goou sounu. Inteiesting woius.

4. When you listen to a song, uo you ieally listen to
its woius oi just sing it. Sometimes the same
peison who sings a song wiites the woius (lyiics)
oi the music. 0thei times uiffeient people uevelop
the sounu, wiite the woius, anu sing it. 0ften, the
songwiitei is tiying to shaie a message oi point of
view with the auuience. Can you think of any
songs wheie the songwiitei is tiying to shaie a
paiticulai message. Refei back to the list you
cieateu at the beginning of the lesson foi possible

S. Look at the lyiics to a song that fiom youi
cultuie oi anothei cultuie. Eithei piint hanuouts
of the song's lyiics, wiite the lyiics on the boaiu,
listen togethei, oi sing the song togethei.

6. Aftei you listen to the song oi ieau the lyiics,
uiaw a pictuie oi wiite a few sentences about the
message of the song.
7. Shaie youi inteipietations with othei stuuents.
Can you iuentify any metaphois in the song. (A
metaphoi is a figuie of speech in which a woiu of
phiase that oiuinaiily iepiesents one thing is
useu to iepiesent something else.)

8. What uo you think the wiitei¡composei hopeu
woulu happen when people listeneu to the song.
Bo you think the same message woulu be
impoitant oi ielevant in touay's society (if the
song is fiom the past). Why oi why not.

9. Within youi gioup, biainstoim about othei
messages¡viewpoints that songwiiteis coulu sing
about that woulu be ielevant to toleiance in youi
school oi community. Think about toleiance of
othei gioups incluuing those with uisabilities,
those of uiffeient ieligions, ethnic backgiounus, oi
viewpoints, oi those who come fiom uiffeient

1u. Imagine you aie a cuiient singei oi songwiitei
who has been askeu to wiite a song about one of
these issues to sing at youi next conceit. Pick the
issue you woulu like to wiite a song about. Then,
wiite a paiagiaph about the song you will wiite
incluuing the issue you've chosen, why it's
impoitant to you, why you think it's ielevant in
youi school oi community, anu what message you
woulu want youi song to shaie.

12. Finally, cieate a title foi youi song anu a CB
covei that illustiates its message.

Ait is a poweiful way to engage stuuents of all ages anu uevelopmental levels, anu can be
an impoitant way foi stuuents to expiess emotions anu ielationships. It can be especially
ielevant foi stuuents who may not be as stiong in ieauing anu wiiting, as it allows them to
expiess anu make theii opinions known. Ait also has a long histoiy as a mechanism foi
social change anu theiefoie it is impoitant foi stuuents to be able to woik with this
meuium. Like music, ait can be taught as its own subject, anu can also be integiateu into all
othei subject aieas. The following aie some examples anu suggestions fiom successful uses
of ait in peace euucation.
Nany oiganizations have postei contests as a way to get stuuents exciteu about a paiticulai
issue. Stuuents can cieate posteis foi a specific uay (foi example, Inteinational Buman
Rights Bay on Becembei 1u) oi they can cieate posteis foi any numbei of school events oi
campaigns that ielate to peace. This activity can be a contest oi not, uepenuing on the
intention of the lesson.
Stuuents can leain about othei cultuies by cieating ait that iepiesents tiauitional oi
cultuial ait fiom vaiious iegions of the woilu. Woiking with aits anu ciafts fiom othei
cultuies teaches stuuents how to unueistanu anu iespect uiveisity. Fiom this exeicise
stuuents can apply what they have leaineu to cieate theii own cultuial aitwoik that
iepiesents theii contempoiaiy iealities.
In this exeicise, you will neeu papei anu an object to hang the papei on (eithei a ieal tiee,
oi anothei object to symbolize the tiee). Stuuents aie given thiee pieces of papei cut out in
the shape of leaves. 0ne leaf iepiesents the peisonal, one leaf iepiesents the local
(community, school, family) anu one leaf iepiesents the global. 0n each leaf, stuuents wiite
a message that staits with "I feel peace when." anu complete the sentence with iespect to
each level. Then, stuuents hang theii leaves on the tiee (oi post them on a wall in the
classioom). This activity can be useu to have a uialogue about innei peace anu what peace
means to the stuuents in theii own lives.
Wai Toys to Peace Ait (n.u.) is a piogiam that was staiteu in Biitish Columbia, Canaua.
Thiough this piogiam, stuuents leain about how violence is communicateu thiough the
meuia, viueo games, oi toys. Stuuents then begin collecting wai toys, such as guns anu toy
soluieis, fiom the stuuent bouy. The stuuents use these wai toys to cieate a new piece of
ait woik. Theii new ait woik iepiesents whatevei peace means to them, as inuiviuuals oi
as a gioup. !
To exploie issues of piejuuice, steieotypes anu iuentity, tiy this activity calleu "Bon't Box
Ne In." Stuuents use shoeboxes anu covei the outsiue with steieotypes that people may
falsely holu tiue about them anu then covei the insiue with woius oi images that iepiesent
who they ieally aie.
To leain about immigiation oi multicultuialism, stuuents can cieate quilts, which
iepiesent haimony because of all the uiffeient elements that woik togethei to cieate a
laigei whole.!
Any of the above piojects can be useu in Ait Exchanges wheie stuuents exchange theii
aitwoik with stuuents fiom othei paits of the globe, the countiy, oi theii community to
leain about uiffeiences anu uiscuss uiveise peispectives.
Theatie anu uiama aie impoitant tools foi peace euucation. In paiticulai, theatie can be
useu to exploie themes of social justice, equality, anu othei issues that aie ielevant to the
stuuents' lives. In this section we will exploie one foim of theatie that is baseu on the
philosophy of Paulo Fieiie, calleu Theatie of the 0ppiesseu.
As mentioneu in the eailiei section on Paulo Fieiie, Theatie of the 0ppiesseu is a way of
applying peace euucation piinciples of uialogue anu ciitical thinking to the ait of theatie.
While theatie in itself is a foim of infoimal euucation that can be useu anywheie, fiom
public paiks to ieal theatei venues, theatie is also a gieat way to engage stuuents in the
classioom. 0f paiticulai inteiest to euucatois might be the Theatie of the 0ppiesseu
woikshops, uesigneu by Augusto Boal.

Theie aie as many foims of Theatie of the 0ppiesseu as theie aie peifoimeis. Beie is a list
of some of the most common foims:

!"#$%&'()*$+,-.'#'&$./0 - when the actois stop the action anu ask the auuience foi
theii opinions about how to iesolve the situation, piomoting uialogue between the actois
anu the auuience.

1#'/),&2)'&.) - actois aie askeu to molu oi sculpt theii bouies oi the bouies of otheis to
foim an iuea, emotion, oi situation, then move into a gioup anu iefoim images to foim a
biggei pictuie oi image. This foim emphasizes using the bouy, iathei than speech, as the
meuium of expiession.

3*.$#,&2)'&.) - aftei the peifoimeis act out a situation, auuience membeis aie inviteu to
come to the stage anu take the iole of one of the peifoimeis to tiy to iesolve the situation.

4)5+6'6).,&2)'&.) - a seiies of techniques useu to get the auuience to tiansfoim news
stoiies into a theatiical scene.

1(7"+"8%),&2)'&.) - a pieviously ieheaiseu play peifoimeu in a public space wheie the
public is not infoimeu that it is a peifoimance.

The following lesson is an example of using
Theatie of the 0ppiesseu in the classioom
(Teaching Toleiance, n.u.).
Level: uiaues 6 to 8, uiaues 9 to 12
Subject: Social Stuuies

An intiouuction to the Theatie of the 0ppiesseu
*This lesson plan is to accompany the Teaching
Toleiance magazine aiticle "Flipping the Sciipt on
Bias anu Bullies"
"It isn't easy theatei," uiiectoi Ieannie LaFiance
saiu. "But it's awesome." She was talking about the
Theatie of the 0ppiesseu, a set of theatiical
techniques that challenge oui most basic
assumptions about uiama. By bluiiing the line
between actoi anu auuience, Theatie of the
0ppiesseu can shake youi stuuents out of
complacency anu make them feel empoweieu to
confiont injustice in an effective, nonviolent
mannei. These techniques can attiact stuuents
who woulun't noimally get involveu in uiama -
anu implementing them uoesn't cost a lot of

It uoes take woik. Bowevei, if you take the time to
intiouuce these techniques anu cieate a safe
enviionment foi self-expiession, you will finu that
stuuents make iapiu piogiess.
The foui-uay plan, baseu on the "ciicle sculptuie"
technique, gives you a step-by-step look at how to
intiouuce the Theatie of the 0ppiesseu in youi
Stuuents will leain the techniques of "ciicle
sculptuie" anu peifoim as "spect-actois" in a
peifoimance about a topic that is impoitant to
theii community.
Foui class sessions (one to intiouuce the piocess
anu the otheis to teach each vaiiation on the
Chalk anu chalkboaiu (oi maikei anu uiy eiase
Newspiint oi posteiboaiu anu maikeis
The fiist step this multi-uay lesson involves safety
anu tiust builuing. Take special caie while guiuing
the activities to ensuie that each stuuent feels
valueu anu heaiu, anu that all opinions, thoughts,
anu feelings aie consiueieu equal.

Remembei, once tiust has been establisheu, the
community's giowth anu leaining can be both
iapiu anu ueep. At the conclusion of these
activities, stuuents can emeige with a shaieu
expeiience that is poweiful anu tiansfoimational.
Tiust the piocess, youi stuuents anu youiself.
By ueconstiucting a quote fiom theatei
aitist¡euucatoi Nichael Rohu, anu engaging in a
waim-up activity, stuuents will begin to exploie
the techniques of the Theatie of the 0ppiesseu.
1. Wiite the following quote on the boaiu:

2. Ask thiee oi foui uiffeient stuuents to ieau the
quote alouu.

S. Ask stuuents to paii up anu shaie with theii
paitnei an example of a play, movie, television
piogiam oi othei peifoimance piece they believe
is an example of what Nichael Rohu is uesciibing.

4. Biainstoim a list of emotions associateu with
theii examples. Wiite the iesponses on the boaiu.
Explain to youi stuuents that the seiies of
activities you have planneu foi them ovei the next
few uays may biing up some emotions mentioneu
on the list. Let them know that you will uo all you
can to cieate a safe space foi leaining. Encouiage
them to take peisonal iesponsibility foi uoing
theii pait to maintain that safe space.
Waim-ups anu eneigizeis aie essential in
piepaiing stuuents foi theatei woik. They cieate a
safe space foi self-expiession anu cause shift in
the way stuuents engage with a paiticulai theme.
Waim-ups anu eneigizeis not only get the gioup
staiteu, they fostei a safe anu playful inteiaction
among the paiticipants. In auuition, the gioup gets
an oppoitunity to begin paiticipating in
stiuctuieu activities in which they will be askeu to
use theii bouies in a new way. This shifts them
fiom theii automatic iesponses anu habits, anu
sets them up to engage a topic fiom a new
Cover the Space
This movement activity will help stuuents shift
fiom the tiauitional classioom foimat. With the
exception of uiiections coming fiom you, this is a
silent exeicise.
Besignate an open space. You may maik it off with
physical bounuaiies like uesks oi chaiis, oi you
may simply uesignate the space.
Tell stuuents to stait walking aiounu the space.
Biiect them to tiy to covei eveiy inch of the
uesignateu space. They shoulu keep walking. No
talking oi physical contact aie alloweu. Aftei a few
minutes, ask stuuents to be awaie of theii bouies.
Though they can't talk, they shoulu look at one
anothei. Ask to them become awaie of the flooi,
the space unueineath theii feet. Aftei a few moie
minutes, let them know it is theii job, as a gioup,
to ensuie that the entiie space is coveieu at all
times. Tell them when you call "fieeze" they
shoulu stop. 0nce they have stoppeu, give them
feeuback on how well they aie coveiing the space,
then "unfieeze" anu iesume walking. Keep it going
until you aie satisfieu that the gioup has become
completely focuseu on the task of "coveiing the
1. Bow uo you feel about the eneigy anu focus you
biought to the exeicise.

2. What helpeu to keep you focuseu. What
happeneu when you weie not focuseu.

S. Bow uiu it feel to uo this in silence. Weie theie
times when you wanteu to speak.

4. Biu the gioup "covei the space."
Eveiyone sits in a ciicle anu biainstoims about an
issue you will be exploiing with the gioup. Foi
example, you can ask the gioup to shaie thoughts
oi conceins they have iegaiuing the inciease in
anti-black hate inciuents acioss the countiy in the
month aftei Baiack 0bama's election.
You can eithei go aiounu the ciicle oi call on
stuuents to iaise theii hanus. It's not a uialogue at
this point. People biiefly say what's on theii minu
anu otheis listen.
Aftei heaiing the thoughts anu conceins just
shaieu, you ask the gioup foi single woius that
come to minu aiounu this issue. These can be
themes oi emotions (i.e., feai, angei, guns, ciime,
jealousy, iace, haiassment).
You wiite them uown as they'ie calleu out. Aim
foi a list of Su-Su single woius. When you've
finisheu, ieau the list back to them. This list will
seive as a bluepiint foi the iest of the activity, but
it is also one that you'll likely ietuin to again anu
Stuuents shoulu ietuin to paiis to shaie feelings
iaiseu by touay's activities. Aftei each paitnei has
an oppoitunity to shaie, ask the paiis to select one
feeling woiu that captuies some of what both
paitneis shaieu. They shoulu wiite the woiu on
an inuex caiu, without signing theii names, anu
tuin it in. (You will auu the woius to the list
cieateu eailiei.)
Retuin to whole gioup anu thank eveiyone foi
theii paiticipation. Let them know when the
piocess will continue.
Stait by having eveiyone sit in a ciicle of chaiis.
Pull one chaii out of the ciicle so that one peison
uoes not have place to sit. You may want to ask
who woulu like to volunteei to pull theii chaii out.
The object of the activity is to have one peison
stanu in the centei anu shaie a statement with the
gioup - a statement that is tiue foi the stuuent.
Foi instance, if the stuuent is neivous about a test,
she oi he can shaie that. The statement uoesn't
have to be tiue foi eveiyone, just foi the stuuent
in the centei.
The statement must be shaieu in this foimat: "The
winu blows if....&'-#/0$-010#2#'03". The peison in
the centei can shaie anything they feel
comfoitable shaiing. Foi example, "The winu
blows if you aie feeling happy touay" oi "the winu
blows if you aie the eluest in youi family."
The "winu" has just blown, anu the paiticipants,
like leaves, must finu a new location if this
statement is also tiue foi them. This is the
oppoitunity foi the peison stanuing in the centei
to take an open chaii befoie anothei inuiviuual
takes it. Whoevei is left in the centei, without a
seat, is the one who will shaie next.
You can play the game foi 1u-1S minutes
uepenuing on youi gioup. As they finu a ihythm,
you may ieminu them that they can shaie about
expeiiences, likes anu uislikes, family, etc.÷
whatevei feels safe.
1. Weie you suipiiseu by the things people chose
to shaie in the gioup.

2. If you weie in the miuule, how uiu you ueciue
what to shaie.

S. Weie you honest in youi iesponses. Biu you
change seats each time the statement was tiue foi

4. Bow uo you feel about being a pait of this gioup
iight now.
Ask stuuents to iecall the community issue they
exploieu in the last class session. Reau stuuents a
iecent news iepoit about that issue (foi instance,
if youi class chose to talk about iacial backlash
inciuents following the election of Baiack 0bama,
you might select a stoiy about one of those
Ask each peison to select a single woiu fiom the
list they geneiateu uuiing the last class session - a
woiu that chaiacteiizes what was shaieu fiom the
news iepoit.
Eveiyone gets a paitnei. 0ne paitnei will stait as
the sculptoi, the othei as clay.
Bemonstiate to the gioup how to sculpt human
clay. The sculptoi can sculpt by touching the "clay"
anu moving his oi hei paitnei into place oi by
miiioiing anu showing them the position they
shoulu take. The sculptoi cannot talk. The activity
is silent.
You call out a woiu fiom the list anu the sculptoi
uses the clay to cieate an image in iesponse to the
woiu, to make a piece of ait. The goal is not to
illustiate the woiu oi to play chaiaues. It is to
shape, imagine, anu cieate. The image can be
iealistic, abstiact, conciete, oi symbolic. Theie aie
no iight oi wiong images! It uoesn't have to have a
"meaning". It can come fiom a thought oi a feeling.

Aftei the sculptois have sculpteu, they can walk
aiounu anu look at otheis' images. Theie shoulu
be a galleiy of iesponses to the woiu. When eveiy
sculptoi has ietuineu to theii image you say "clay,
ielax" anu the clay anu sculptoi tiaue places.
uo back anu foith thiough a vaiiety of woius until
you feel ieauy to move on.
1. Bow uo you feel about youi paiticipation touay.

2. Biu you piefei being the clay oi the sculptoi.

S. Weie you able to expiess what you wanteu
thiough this exeicise. Why oi why not.
Congiatulate the stuuents on theii haiu woik.
Encouiage them to talk to otheis about what they
expeiienceu touay. Reminu them when the gioup
meets again.
Eveiyone gets into gioups of foui oi five. Each
gioup will pick someone to sculpt fiist.
You call out a woiu anu they sculpt. This time they
have moie pieces of clay to woik with. Bowevei,
just because they have moie bouies, uoesn't mean
that they have to sculpt a iealistic stoiy oi scene.
They can, but they can also sculpt abstiact images.
They have to sculpt quickly anu silently.
Buiing each iounu of woius, you can ielax all the
images but one anu allow eveiyone to see each
othei's woik. You go aiounu the ioom until each
image has been featuieu anu then move to the
next woiu. You want to make suie each gioup
membei has a chance to sculpt at least once befoie
moving on.
Shape & Numbei
Eveiyone stanus in a ciicle anu thiee people get in
the miuule. You call out a woiu fiom the list anu
the thiee people cieate an image on theii own.
They aie all clay anu they simply finu a position in
ielation to each othei as you count to five. 0n
"five," you call out "fieeze" anu they holu
whatevei position they aie in.
Explain to the iest of the gioup that they aie
looking at one out of an infinite numbei of
possible images foi this woiu. They will now have
a chance to ie-sculpt that image as much as they
like. Anyone can step into the ciicle anu ie-sculpt.
0ne at a time, the gioup tiies to shaie as many
images as they can. They sculpt silently anu pause
a few seconus between images. This continues
until you stop the iounu anu go on to a new woiu.
- If you want to talk about an image, ask what
people see. Whatevei iesponses they give aie
valuable. Nake a point of not tiying to have them
answei in a ceitain context. Iust ask what they see.

- Bave people tell the stoiy they see in the image.
Push foi as many uiffeient stoiies as you can get.

- As they walk aiounu anu look at images, ieminu
them to see the images, not just glance at the
Aits foi Peace: Peace Euucation Thiough Aits, Cultuie anu Exposuie. (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom

Fountain, S. (1999). Peace Euucation in 0NICEF. Nanusciipt in piepaiation. Retiieveu fiom

0iagami Peace Tiee Pioject (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.peacetiee.info¡main.php

Piojects. (n.u.). Inteinational Ait Paitneiship Peace Tiee . Retiieveu fiom

Rauiant Peace Euucation Awaius. (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom The Rauiant Peace Founuation
Inteinational, Inc. website: http:¡¡www.iauiantpeace.oig¡tipeaix.html

Teaching Toleiance (n.u.). Ciicle Sculptuie. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.toleiance.oig¡activity¡ciicle-sculptuie

Towaius a Cultuie of Peace. (n.u.). Looking at Peace Euucation. Retiieveu fiom

Wai Toys to Peace Ait. (n.u.). Retiieveu fiom

Winfielu, N. Collective Poetiy. Teaching Toleiance. Retiieveu fiom
This pioject staiteu as a uocumentaiy film to show the univeisal language of music as it
tianscenus cultuial anu national boiueis. The filmmakeis tiaveleu the woilu getting
footage of stieet musicians in vaiious countiies peifoiming the same songs, anu layeieu
the musicians ovei one anothei, cieating a global conceit. The uocumentaiy is a gieat
iesouice foi showing the powei of music foi peace. The oiganization's non-piofit
bianch (www.playingfoichange.oig) piomotes music euucation anu has staiteu music
schools in unueiseiveu aieas aiounu the woilu.


1. The fielu of peace euucation has been influenceu by
a. the acauemic fielu of peace stuuies
b. inteinational oiganizations such as the 0N
c. social justice movements.
u. all of the above
2. With iegaius to the histoiy of peace euucation, peace euucation
a. staiteu aftei Woilu Wai II
b. is as olu as human histoiy, as humans have tiieu to finu ways to live peacefully with
one anothei anu teach the next geneiations
c. began in the eaily 19uus
u. is a new fielu that staiteu in the 199us
S. With iegaius to its uefinition, peace euucation
a. has a single uefinition that shoulu be memoiizeu
b. is haiu to uefine because of it encompasses many uiffeient subtopics, theoiies anu
c. cannot be uefineu
u. none of the above
4. Which of these thinkeis was N0T influential in the peace euucation fielu.
a. Paulo Fieiie
b. Iohan ualtung
c. Fiieuiich Nietzche
u. Naiia Nontessoii
S. Accoiuing to Iohn Bewey, the puipose of euucation is
a. to pioviue people with the skills anu knowleuge to use theii limitless potential to be
the best that they coulu be as inuiviuuals
b. to make citizens who aie moie obeuient to theii goveinments
c. to uemoialize stuuents anu piomote violence
u. none of the above
6. In Bewey's philosophy, the classioom leaining enviionment
a. is less impoitant than the content of a class
b. plays a cential iole in the euucational piocess
c. iequiies little stiuctuie oi planning
u. none of the above
7. With iegaius to citizenship, Bewey thought that
a. nationalism anu patiiotism helpeu to piomote peace
b. an iuea of global citizenship was necessaiy in oiuei to ueconstiuct the iueas that
societies aie uiffeient anu wai is inevitable
c. stuuents shoulu focus on theii own countiy iathei than an inteinational peispective
u. global citizenship is not possible
8. Naiia Nontessoii believeu that in oiuei foi chiluien to leain,
a. they shoulu be able to uo whatevei they want in the classioom
b. they neeu much uiscipline fiom the teachei
c. they iequiie a balance of fieeuom within limits
u. they neeu a stiict stiuctuie to guiue them
9. The iole of the teachei in the Nontessoii classioom is
a. to piepaie the enviionment anu facilitate the leaining of the stuuents
b. to uiscipline the stuuents
c. to sit back anu allow the chiluien to iun fiee in the classioom
u. to tell the chiluien what they shoulu know
1u. The Nontessoii methou of conflict iesolution, oi the Peace Rose,
a. encouiages stuuents to avoiu conflict
b. gives the teachei ultimate authoiity ovei conflicts in the classioom
c. allows the chiluien to solve theii own conflicts
u. none of the above
11. Accoiuing to Paulo Fieiie, the banking system of euucation
a. is a foim of oppiession that maintains the status quo
b. is the best way to euucate stuuents
c. helps to empowei oppiesseu stuuents
u. is a way to euucate stuuents about economics anu finances
12. Which of the following is not an element of pioblem-posing euucation.
a. Piomoting equal uialogue between stuuents anu teacheis
b. Beveloping ciitical consciousness
c. uiving stuuents knowleuge to iepeat anu memoiize
u. 0sing stuuents' past expeiience anu local context
1S. Accoiuing to Fieiie, the ultimate goal of euucation shoulu be
a. ueveloping acauemic theoiies
b. piomoting activism to enu oppiession
c. tiansfoiming society thiough a combination of theoiy anu piactical application
u. maintaining the status quo
14. Positive peace
a. is the absence of wai
b. is a utopian iueal
c. is the piesence of social justice, equality, anu the absence of stiuctuial violence
u. all of the above
1S. Negative peace is
a. the absence of peace
b. the absence of wai oi physical violence
c. incluues the piesence of social justice anu equality
u. the opposite of positive peace
16. Tiansfoimative leaining is impoitant to peace euucation because
a. the goal of peace euucation is to tiansfoim oui society fiom a cultuie of wai to a
cultuie of peace
b. peace euucation seeks to tiansfoim leaineis, teacheis, anu the outei woilu
c. we cannot fix the pioblems of touay with the same woiluview that cieateu them
u. all of the above
17. Which of the following is N0T pait of the tiansfoimative mouel foi peace euucation.
a. uiveisity
b. paiticipatoiy leaining
c. the banking system
u. globalizeu peispectives

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1. Bias
2. Piejuuice
S. Enthnocentiism
4. Relativism
S. Steieotype
6. Bisciimination
7. Institutional iacism
8. Peisonally meuiateu iacism
9. Inteinalizeu iacism

a. piejuuice anu uisciimination baseu
on iace
b. thinking one's own gioup's ways aie
supeiioi to otheis
c. subjective opinion oi uisposition
u. acceptance of negative messages
about one's own iace
e. a stanuaiuizeu set of iueas that
iepiesent a oveisimplifieu uepiction
of a paiticulai gioup
f. not juuging othei gioup's actions anu
juuging them as equal to one's own
g. a pieconceiveu notion oi belief maue
without ieason
h. behavioi that iesults in the unequal
tieatment of people because they aie
membeis of a paiticulai gioup
i. uiffeiential access to the goous,
seivices anu oppoitunities of society
by iace