You are on page 1of 6

TITLE

Preparation and Standardisation of Base and Acid Solution

INTRODUCTION

Standardization is the process of determining the exact concentration (molarity) of a


solution. Titration is one type of analytical procedure often used in standardization. In a
titration, an exact volume of one substance is reacted with a known amount of another
substance.

The point at which the reaction is complete in a titration is referred to as the endpoint. A
chemical substance known as an indicator is used to indicate (signal) the endpoint. The
indicator used in this experiment is phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein, an organic compound,
is colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic solution.

This experiment involves two separate acid-base standardization procedures. In the first
standardization the molarity of a sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) will be determined by
titrating a sample of potassium acid phthalate (KHP; HKC8H4O4) with the NaOH. In the
second procedure the standardized NaOH will be used to determine the molarity of a
hydrochloric solution (HCl).

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the exact concentration of unknown HCl solution through titration.


2. To learn the skills required for preparation of a standard solution, and then use it to
standardize a different solution.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The first method is the preparation of 1 M NaOH stock solution where 20 g of NaOH
pellet was dissolve in 250 ml beaker with 100 ml distilled water. The solution was transfer
into 500 ml volumetric flask and diluted with distilled water until it reach the calibration mark.
The volumetric flask was shaken for it to be completely homogeneous.

Second method involve in preparing 1 M HCl stock solution where 9 g of HCl was
transfer using pipette into a 250 ml volumetric flask containing 150 ml of distilled water. It
was further diluted until it reach the calibration mark. 25 ml of each NaOH and HCl from the
stock solution was used to prepared 250 ml of 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl by using the the
same dilution process.

Third method is the standardization of 0.1 M NaOH solution with 0.1 M potassium
hydrogen phthalat (KHP). Firstly, 20 ml of KHP solution was transfer into 250 ml conical
flask. 3 drops of phenolphthalein as an indicator. KHP solution was titrate with 0.1 M NaOH
until it turned into light and faint pink colour that persists for 15 seconds after swirling. The
titration was repeated until 2 close results were obtained. The volume of each titration was
recorded.

Next method is the standardization of 0.1 M HCl solution. The HCl solution was
titrated with 0.1 M NaOH using a few drops of phenolphtalein as the indicator for the end
point. The titration was repeated until two close results were obtained. The volume of each
titration was recorded.

Lastly, 20 ml of the unknown HCl solution was pipetted into 250 ml conical flask. It
was titrated with 0.1 M NaOH by using few drops of phenolphtalein as the indicator for the
end point. The titration was repeated until two close result were obtained.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Table 1: Titration of known molarity of 0.1 M NaOH

Trial 1 Trial 2
Initial burette reading KHP (ml) 20 0
Final burette reading KHP (ml) 40.8 20.5

Volume of KHP used (ml)


20.8 20.5
(final-initial)

Molarity 0.096 0.098

Table 2: Titration of known molarity of 0.1 M HCl

Trial 1 Trial 2
Initial burette reading NaOH (ml) 0 0
Final burette reading NaOH (ml) 17.9 18.0
Volume of NaOH used (ml)
17.9 18.0
(final-initial)
Molarity 0.090 0.090

Table 3: Titration of unknown molarity of HCl

Trial 1 Trial 2
Initial burette reading NaOH (ml) 0 0
Final burette reading NaOH (ml) 27.8 27.8
Volume of NaOH used (ml)
27.8 27.8
(final-initial)
Molarity 0.14 0.14

Solid sodium hydroxide, NaOH is highly hygroscopic which means it absorbs water
from the air and thus it cannot be accurately weighed. This means that a NaOH solution of
known molarity cannot be directly prepared without resorting to an air-and-water-free
environment. In cases like this we need to use an acid as the primary standard to determine
the exact concentration of the NaOH solution. The primary standard we will use in this
experiment is potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP. Based on the titration of known molarity
of NaOH againts KHP, the average molarity or concentration of NaOH is 0.097 M (as stated
in Table 1). However, the actual molarity of NaOH in this experiment is 0.1 M this is due to
the hygroscopic characteristic of secondary standard, NaOH readily absorb and reacts with
the carbon dioxide in the air.

The second titration is between NaOH and hydrochloric acid, HCl. The average
concentration of NaOH is 0.09 M (based on Table 2). The third titration was carried out to
identify the concentration of unknown HCl. The average concentration obtain was 0.14 M.
There is a slightly difference with the actual concentration which is 0.15 M. Again this is due
to NaOH used.

Precaution steps towards the end of the titration process is carefully titrate the titrant
in order to avoid over shoot and also misjudging the color of the end point should be avoid
which affect the volume of NaOH used thus affect the actual result. When phenolphthalein is
used as an indicator, NaOH is taken in a burette because then the colour change is from
colourless to pink and it will be easier to observe. On the other hand, if HCl is taken in a
burette, colour change will be from pink to colourless which can't be observed in a single
drop.

CONCLUSION

As conclusion, the concentration of NaOH is 0.096 M, the known hydrochloric acid is


0.09 M and the unknown concentration of hydrochloric acid is 0.14 M.
CALCULATION

Formulation for calculation of exact molarity of NaOH and HCl solution as determined by
each titration

(𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐾𝐻𝑃)(𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝐾𝐻𝑃)


Molarity of NaOH =
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻

Table 1

(20)(0.1)
Molarity of NaOH = = 0.096
20.8

(𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻)(𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻)


Molarity of HCl =
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝐶𝑙

Table 2 and 3

(0.1)(17.9)
Molarity of HCl = = 0.09
20

Average concentration

0.096 + 0.098
Average concentration of NaOH = = 0.097
2

Ppm

Molarity x molar mass = grams per liter (g/l)

Molar mass of HCl = 36.51

0.09 mol/L x 36.51 g/mol = 3.2859 g/L

3.2859 g/L x 1000 = 3285.9 mg/L @ 3285.9 ppm

Mg/ml
𝑔 1𝑚𝑔
3.2859 𝐿 × 1×10−3 = 3.2859 × 103 mg/L

mg 1L 3.2859×10−6 mg
3.2859 × 10−3 × 1000mL =
L ml

µg/ml
mg 1x10−3 g 1µg
3.2859 × 10−6 mL × × 1mg = 3.2859x10−9
1mg
REFERENCES

1. http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Lab_Techniques/Titration
2. http://www.titrations.info/titration-errors
3. https://www.dartmouth.edu/~chemlab/techniques/titration.html