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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.


Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

B.E. / B. Tech. Degree Examinations


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIT TEST -1

Subject : Process Planning and cost estimation Duration : 9.10 am – 10.50 am


Subject code : ME8351 Date : 02.08.2018
Max. Marks: 50
Branch/Sem/Year : MECH / VII / IV
Answer key
PART-A
Answer all the Questions (5 x 2 = 10)

1. Define Process Planning. (R) (CO1)


A process is something in which the form of material undergoes some changes by doing some
manual or mechanical work. Lots of steps are involved under a process. Process planning can be
defined as a planning of facts of a process before starting that process.
2. What are all the factors affecting process planning? (R) (CO1)

3. List out the information ‘s available in the route sheet?( R ) (CO1)

4. Write the benefits of CAPP? (C) (CO1)


.

5. What are the activities associated with process planning? (R) (CO1)
PART-B (2 x 13 = 26)

1. (a) Describe the preparation of sand moulding process.(U) (CO1) (6)

There are six steps in this process:

1. Place a pattern in sand to create a mold.


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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

2. Incorporate the pattern and sand in a gating system.


3. Remove the pattern.
4. Fill the mold cavity with molten metal.
5. Allow the metal to cool.
6. Break away the sand mold and remove the casting.

2. (b) Explain
squeeze Jolting
machine with a
neat sketch. (A)
(CO1) (7)
These machines may be hand operated or power operated. The pattern is
placed over themachine table, followed by the molding box. In hand-operated
machines, the platen is lifted by hand operated mechanism. In power machines, it is
lifted by the air pressure on a piston in the cylinder in the same way as in jolt machine.
The table is raised gradually. The sand in the molding box is squeezed between plate
and the upward rising table thus enabling a uniform pressing of sand in the molding
box.
BOTTOM SQUEEZER MACHINE
In this method, the moulding board is placed on the table. The pattern is placed on the
board. The moulding box is placed on a frame and filled with sand. The table is lifted up
by using a lift mechanism. The moulding sand in the box is squeezed between the
squeezer head and table. The table returns to the bottom position after squeezing is
over

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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

3. Describe the operation of Cupola furnace with its merits, demerits & applications. (U)
(CO1)
Diagram – 6 marks
Operation – 5 marks
Merits and demerits applications– 2marks
Applications of Cupola
Cupola is most widely used for melting practices for production of grey cast iron,
nodular cast iron, malleable cast iron and alloy cast iron. It can be used for
melting some copper- base alloys, and in duplexing and triplexing operations for
making of steel, malleable cast iron and ductile cast iron.

4. Describe with a neat sketches of cold chamber and hot chamber die casting process. (U)
(CO1)

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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

Pressure die casting:


The molten metal is forced into the die assembly under pressure. The metal occupies nook and
corner of the die cavity The die is water cooled and the metal become solidifies immediately.
Now the die is opened. The casting is removed by ejector pins.
This process is suitable for casting lead, magnesium, tin, brass
TYPES:
Hot Chamber Die Casting:------- (6.5 marks with diagram)
The heating chamber is provided for melting the metal. This chamber is heated
by a burner. A gooseneck vessel is submerged in the molten metal. A plunger is
provided at the top of gooseneck vessel.
When the plunger move upward the molten metal flows into the vessel through
the port.
When the plunger moves downwards the molten metal forced into die

under pressure 25 N/mm2

As the die is water cooled, the molten metal will solidify immediately, then
movable die is moved and castings are ejected.
Cold chamber die casting: (6.5 marks with diagram)
It is done in cold chamber machine. It is similar to hot chamber process but
there is no melting unit in the machine and the molten metal is poured though a
ladle.

5. Explain investment casting process with its merits, demerits and applications. (E) (CO1)

INVESTMENT CASTIN- (6 marks with merits demerits and applns)


(i) Die making : A die for casting the wax pattern is made. The die can
be made by using metallic master pattern.
(ii) Wax pattern and gating system: Wax pattern and gating system are

(iii) produced from the metal dies by injection. The wax is heated at a

temperature around 800C with a pressure of 8 to 150 Kg/cm2.


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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

(iv) Assembling the wax pattern: The wax patterns are attached to the
wax gates and spure already with the help of heated tool called as hot wire
welder.
(v) Pre casting: The wax pattern is dipped into slurry of a refractory
coating material. The slurry consists of 325 mesh silica flour suspended in
ethyl silica solution of suitable viscosity to produce uniform coating.
(vi) Investing: The coated wax assembly is then invested in the mould.
This is done by inverting the wax on a table ,surrounding it with a paper
lined steel flask and pouring the investment moulding mixture around
the pattern. The whole system is then vibrated and then material is set by
gravity.

Diagram – 7 marks

PART-C (1 x 14 = 14)

10. Explain any five casting defects with their remedies. (R) (CO1)
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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

Casting defects can be categorized into 5 types

1. Gas Porosity: Blowholes, open holes, pinholes


2. Shrinkage defects: shrinkage cavity
3. Mold material defects: Cut and washes, swell, drops, metal penetration, rat tail
4. Pouring metal defects: Cold shut, misrun, slag inclusion
5. Metallurgical defects: Hot tears, hot spot

1.SHIFT /MISMATCH

The defect caused due to misalignment of upper and lower part of the casting and misplacement of the core at parting line.

Cause:
(i) Improper alignment of upper and lower part during mold preparation.
(ii) Misalignment of flask (a flask is type of tool which is used to contain a mold in metal casting. it may be
square, round, rectangular or of any convenient shape.)

Remedies
(i) Proper alignment of the pattern or die part, molding boxes.
(ii) Correct mountings of pattern

2. SWELL
It is the enlargement of the mold cavity because of the molten metal pressure, which results in localised or overall enlargement of
the casting.

Causes
(i) Defective or improper ramming of the mold.

Remedies

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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

(i) The sand should be rammed properly and evenly.

3. BLOW HOLES
When gases entrapped on the surface of the casting due to solidifying metal, a rounded or oval cavity is formed called as
blowholes. These defects are always present in the cope part of the mold.

Causes
(i) Excessive moisture in the sand.
(ii) Low Permeability of the sand.
(iii) Sand grains are too fine.
(iv) Too hard rammed sand.
(v) Insufficient venting is provided.

Remedies
(i) The moisture content in the sand must be controlled and kept at desired level.
(ii) High permeability sand should be used.
(iii) Sand of appropriate grain size should be used.
(iv) Sufficient ramming should be done.
(v) Adequate venting facility should be provided.

4. DROP
Drop defect occurs when there is cracking on the upper surface of the sand and sand pieces fall
into the molten metal.

Causes
(i) Soft ramming and low strength of sand.
(ii) Insufficient fluxing of molten metal. Fluxing means addition of a substance in molten metal to remove

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SRI SAI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai.
Sai Leo Nagar, West Tambaram, Chennai – 44. Tel: 044 – 22512333 / 22512111.
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution) www.sairamit.edu.in

impurities. After fluxing the impurities from the molten metal can be easily removed.
(iii) Insufficient reinforcement of sand projections in the cope.

Remedies
(i) Sand of high strength should be used with proper ramming (neither too hard nor soft).
(ii) There should be proper fluxing of molten metal, so the impurities present in molten metal is removed
easily before pouring it into the mold.
(iii) Sufficient reinforcement of the sand projections in the cope.

5. METAL PENETRATION

These casting defects appear as an uneven and rough surface of the casting. When the size of sand grains is
larges, the molten fuses into the sand and solidifies giving us metal penetration defect.

Causes
(i) It is caused due to low strength, large grain size, high permeability and soft ramming of sand. Because of
this the molten metal penetrates in the molding sand and we get rough or uneven casting surface.

Remedies
(ii) This defect can be eliminated by using high strength, small grain size, low permeability and soft
ramming of sand.

LIST OUT DEFECTS -2 MARKS


DIAGRAM – 7 MARKS
CAUSES AND REMEDIES – 5 MARKS

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