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Index

age hardening see precipitation hardening filler metals


alloy elements 35–36 effect on hot cracking 29–31
alloying interstitial and substitutional 14 selection 46–50
alloy metallurgy 40–46 fillet weld definitions 74, 75
heat treatable 43–46 friction welding
non-heat treatable 40–43 friction stir welding 161–165
aluminium capabilities 163, 164, 165
applications 7 mechanical properties 165
characteristics 4, Appendix B process principles 160–161
history 1 rotary motion 161
backing bars and strips 78–80 gamma radiography 213
butt welds definitions 75–78 GMAW see MIG
grain size 12–13
cold work (strain hardening) 15–16
effect on hot cracking 30
defects 199–205 GTAW see TIG
hot cracking 24–31
oxide filming 22–24 handling of parent metals 51
porosity 18–22
laser cutting 58–63
‘suck-back’ in TIG welding 111
health and safety 60–63
degreasing 66–68
parameters 61
mechanical cleaning 66
principles 58–60
chemical cleaning (pickling) 67
laser welding
design
arc augmented 154–155
backing bars and strips 78–80
CO2 laser welding 152–153
edge preparations (joint design) 72–78
defects 154
edge preparations (joint design) for MIG
Nd-YAG (solid state) welding 153–154
136–139
process principles 150–152
edge preparations (joint design) for TIG
liquation cracking see hot cracking
98–99
effect of position 72
mechanical cutting 64–66
for access 70–71
MIG welding
designations 36–40
arc starting 135
alloy composition identification 36–38
contact tip 129–130
temper designations 38–40
electro-gas welding 143–144
distortion 84–89
filler wire 133–134
electron beam welding fine wire 124
capabilities 157, 160 mechanised and robotic welding 141–143
process principles 155–157 parameters (argon shielding) 136–137
parameters (helium shielding) 138
fatigue 89–96 power sources 119–121
joint classification 92–94 process principles 116–118

235
236 Index

pulsed MIG 121–124 solidification cracking see hot cracking


shielding gases 130–133 solid solution strengthening see alloying
spot welding 144–146 storage of parent metals 52
terminating the weld 140–141 strengthening mechanisms 10–18
torches 125–126 strength loss 31–34
torch positioning 138–140 in HAZ 32–34
twin wire 124–125 in weld metal 31–32
wire feeders 127–128
TIG welding
non-destructive testing 205–215 effects of HF 100
eddy current 207–208 mechanised/ automated welding 114–
penetrant 205–207 115
radiography 211–215 parameters (argon shielding) 104
ultrasonic 208–211 parameters (helium shielding) 113
process principles 97–101
penetrant examination 205–207 shielding gas 102–106
plasma arc cutting 52–58 spot and plug welding 115
health and safety 56–58 torches and cables 106–107
parameters 55 torch manipulation 110–112
principles 52–54 tungsten electrodes 108–109
plasma arc welding
parameters 149
ultrasonic examination 208–211
plasma MIG 150
process principles 147–149
variable polarity 149 water jet cutting 63–64
porosity 18–22 weldability 18–31
in autogenous welds 18 hot cracking 24–31
in parent metal 22 oxide film 22–24
effect of cleanliness 21 porosity 18–22
composition 20 welder approval
hose type 20 ASME IX 193, 196, 197
process 20 BS EN 287 Pt 2 191–193
gas dew point 20 BS EN 1418 197–198
ISO classification 200 welding procedure 181–182, 183
precipitation (age) hardening 16–17 welding procedure approval
ASME IX 188–190
resistance welding BS EN 288 Pt 4 182–188
flash butt welding 176–180 alloy grouping 184
power sources 167–169 range of approval 187–188
seam welding 175–176 test regime 185–187
spot welding 171–175
surface condition 169–171 x-radiography 213