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What is Research?

-Research refers to the process of conducting study again. It is studying certain body of knowledge in
depth and in detailed. Research does not only explain existing knowledge but also produces new body of
knowledge that is significant and systematic.

-In the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, D. Slesinger and M. Stephension (1930) defined research as "the
manipulation of things, concept or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify
knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in practice of an art".

-According to Redman and Mory (1923), defined research is a "systematized effort to gain new
knowledge". It is an academic activity and therefore the term should be used in a technical sense.
According to Clifford Woody (Kothari 1988) research comprises "defining and redefining problems,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making
deductions and reaching conclusions; and finally, carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis".

Thus, research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to its further
advancement. It is an attempt to pursue truth through the methods of study, observation, comparison
and experiment. In sum, research is the search for knowledge, using objective and systematic methods
to find solution to a problem.

What are the characteristics of research?

1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.

2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a
4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether
historical, descriptive, experimental and case study.
5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic
method and procedures.
7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the
researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.

What are the different types of research?

Quantitative research describes, infers, and resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed
on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences
from the data.

Qualitative research is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non-numerical and
unquantifiable elements. It has been noted that “information is considered qualitative in nature if
it cannot be analyzed by means of mathematical techniques. This characteristic may also mean
that an incident does not take place often enough to allow reliable data to be collected.