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Deflection angles

Lokeswari K1, Shanmuga Priya M2, Shobiya Rani T3, S.Manikandan4

1,2,3U.G Scholar, Department ofAeronautical Engineering, Jeppiaar Engineering college, Chennai, India.

4Assistant professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Jeppiaar Engineering College, Chennai, India.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract- Understanding the flow physics behind this jet One of the more recent investigations in an experiment study

control is always tedious as the expansion process through the of flow in rectangular over expanded supersonic nozzle

divergent portion cannot be predicted accurately. This paper exploring the complexity nature of such flows. Prediction of

focuses on numerical investigation on the flow physics at the such flow also presence a great challenge to any CFD code.

divergent section with various design modifications in order

Thrust vectoring also thrust vector control or TVC, is

to arrive the methodology for better thrust vector control. A

the ability of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle to manipulate

baseline CD rectangular nozzle model is considered and the the direction of the thrust from its engines or motors in order

modifications are done at the divergent portions by forming to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle.

expansion regions at various points along with directional

control. For the present investigation, four models have been ANSYS-FLUENT can be used with Density Based Navier

chosen for simulation. The computational analysis is carried Stokes(DBNS) equation and the fixed NPR can be used with

out with commercial CFD tool - Ansys Fluent which solves different configurations and the determine the mach variations

Density Based Navier Stokes (DBNS) equations. The solver along the exit of the nozzle for various deflection angle at the

uses implicit formulation and solves flow and turbulence divergent portion of the nozzle.

equations by considering the fluid as ideal gas. A hypothetical

domain outside the nozzle exit is considered to predict the 2. CFD NUMERICAL STUDY

nozzle jet plume. A different Nozzle Pressure is set up for all

four configurations and the analysis is carried out for better For the present comparison of all four nozzle configurations

convergence. CFD is able to predict the exit shock formations Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used. The numerical

methodology followed during this analysis is explained below.

and Mach variations along the jet length effectively and the jet

orientations are significantly affected by the design 2.1 Physical Model

modifications done at the divergent portion.

Four different configurations of CD Nozzle profiles have been

Key words: CFD, Thrust vector control, Deflection angle, CD considered for present numerical investigation. The first

Nozzle, NPR, etc. configuration is a baseline model with straight convergent and

divergent passage. The second configuration is chosen in such a

1. INTRODUCTION way that the flow is diverted from bottom side of the nozzle

and the expansion is carried out in upward direction. The

A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle) is a tube

throat diameter is maintained as 22.9 mm and the consecutive

that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced,

flow diverting angles are 29.64º and 2.80º. The third

asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a hot,

configuration is chosen in such a way that the flow is diverted

pressurized gas passing through it to a higher supersonic speed

from both the top and bottom side of the nozzle divergent

in the axial(thrust) direction, by converting the heat energy of

section and the flow diverting angles are 15o at top side and 8o

the flow into kinetic energy. Because of this, the nozzle is

at bottom side. In fourth configuration, the flow is diverted

widely used in some types of steam turbines and rocket engine

from both the top and bottom side of the nozzle and the

nozzles. It also sees use in supersonic jet engines. consecutive flow diverting angles are 29.64o and 2.80o at both

top and bottom side of the nozzle. Figure 1 shows the physical

In supersonic nozzle, designed a conventional two

model of the first configuration used for the computational

dimensional nozzle is usually considered to consist of several

analysis. The outlet diameters of the nozzle for all four

regions they are the contraction in which the flow is entirely

configurations vary with respect to the angle of flow diversions.

subsonic, the throat region in which the flow accelerates from

high subsonic to a low supersonic speed, an initial expansion

region where the slope of the contour increases up to its

maximum value, the test section where the flow is uniform and

parallel to the axis.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4934

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 ww.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Figure 1: Nozzle Model for First Configuration Figure 5: Flow Domain for Present Numerical Simulation

Figure 2 shows the physical model for second configuration The nozzle wall is given with a boundary layer mesh growth to

used for the computational analysis. capture the wall shear effects. The first node height from the

nozzle wall is kept at 0.001 mm and the boundary layer mesh is

generated by biasing the maximum number of nodes towards

the wall sides. The boundary elements growth rate is around

1.2. Figure 6 shows the flow grid used for the present analysis.

for computational analysis.

Figure 3: Nozzle Model for Third Configuration Figure 6: Mesh Refinements Near the nozzle wall regions

Figure 4 shows that the physical model for the fourth Figure 7 shows the Boundary mesh which is used to capture the

configuration for computational analysis wall shear and expansion near the throat section of the Nozzle

2.2 Computational Model The discritized fluid domain is given with appropriate

boundary conditions and solver settings to predict the nozzle

The nozzle configurations are discritized with quad jet plume and the simulation is carried out until the required

elements using a standard meshing tool (Hyper mesh). The flow patterns are arrived. For the present computational

computational domain is extended outside the nozzle in order investigation a Density Based Navier Stokes (DBNS) solver

to capture the jet core and plume. The domain size is chosen in (ANSYS – Fluent) is used and the flow is treated completely

such a way that the overall length of the flow domain is 12 compressible. The fluid used for the analysis is Air- with ideal

times of the nozzle length. gas properties. The solver uses SIMPLE algorithm and finite

volume method to solve the discritized equations. The flow

equations (Continuity, Momentum & Energy) are solved along

with Turbulence. For this simulation standard k-epsilon

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4935

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

outside the nozzle.

conditions where the total pressure is mentioned as 5bar, 7bar.

The nozzle inlet pressure can be varied from 3bar to 5bar for

the both two configurations. The outlet condition is given with

‘Pressure Outlet’ boundary conditions where the guage

pressure is given as 0 Pa. The reference conditions are taken Figure 10: Mach Variations along the Plume –configurations2

with standard atmospheric conditions. The CFL number for the

analysis is adjusted to match with the grid and the value Figure 11 shows the variation of density along the jet core. It

assigned is 0.5. can be observed from the contour that there is an intermittent

pattern of density rise along the plume which directly indicates

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS the shock train outside the nozzle.

effect of nozzle parameters in the divergent portion. Various

flow parameters like Mach number, Pressure and density are

compared for all four configurations.

Figure 8 shows the mach disc formation and jet plume decay for

the baseline configuration. It can be noticed that the numerical

simulation is able to predict the jet core correctly and the mach

reductions are captured accordingly. Figure 11: Intermittent density variations due to Shock Train

formed inside the Jet Core

configuration 3. It can be observed from the figure that the

mach discs formed are diverted upwards and produce

significantly higher Mach number while comparing with the

baseline configuration. In the baseline the maximum Mach

number obtained is 1.70 where as in the nozzle configuration 3,

it is predicted as 2.05.

Figure 8: Jet Prediction of Baseline Configuration – Mach

Contour

Figure 9 depicts the mach disc at the exit of the nozzle where

the oblique shocks at the edge of the nozzle exit increases the

Mach number and the shock pattern obtained are significantly

matches with the actual plume pattern.

configuration 3. It can be observed from the figure that the

mach discs formed are diverted upwards and produce

significantly higher Mach number while comparing with the

Figure 9: Mach Disc at the Exit of the Nozzle (Baseline) baseline configuration. In the baseline the maximum Mach

number obtained is 1.70 where as in the nozzle configuration 4,

Figure 10 shows the mach variations along the plume of nozzle it is predicted as 2.31.

configuration 2. It can be observed from the figure that the

mach discs formed are diverted little upwards. In the baseline

the maximum Mach number obtained is 1.70 where as in the

nozzle configuration 2, it is predicted as 1.83.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4936

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

4 .CONCLUSION

The numerical fluid dynamics can be effectively used for the jet

core prediction of a CD nozzle. The present investigations show

that the plume diameter is higher in the second nozzle

configuration. Also it can be observed from the results that the

Mach number at the exit of the nozzle is lower in baseline

configuration. Also it can be concluded that the configuration 4

predicts a higher Mach number when compared with other

Figure 13: Mach Variations along the Plume – Configuration 4 configurations.

the nozzle exit. It can be interpreted from the figure that the

flow diversions are significantly influenced by the geometric [1] Adamson T.C, Jr and Nicholls.J.A (1959) “On the Structure

modifications done in the divergent portion. Also there exists a of Jets from Highly UnderExpanded Nozzles into Still

Mach number increment as the flow diverging angles are Air,” Published in Journal of the Aerospace Sciences,

varied. This is because of the expansion fan generated at the Volume.26, Jan 1959, pp. 16-24.

diverging portion of the nozzle.

[2] Alrutz T & Knopp T (2007). “Near Wall Grid Adaptation for

Turbulent Flows” published in International Journal

Computing Science and Mathematics, Volume.1, pp:177-

192.

mohan, MD Touseef (2016). “Modeling and Simulation of

Convergent Divergent Nozzle using Computational Fluid

Dynamics”, published in International Research Journal of

Engineering and Technology volume.3, Issue:08, Aug2016.

and Convective Heat Transfer in a Conical Supersonic

Nozzle” published in Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets,

Volume.4, pp:8.

Figure 14: Comparison of Shock Pattern at the exit of Nozzle [5] Dutton J.C, “Swirling Supersonic Nozzle Flow,” published in

Journal of Propulsion and Power, volume.3, July 1987, pp.

Figure 15 shows the overall comparison of the exit Mach 342-349.

number obtained from the four nozzle configurations. It can be

[6] E.M.S.Ekanayake, J.A.Gear and Y.Ding, (2010). “Numerical

noted that the fourth configurations with both top and bottom

Simulation of a Supersonic Convergent Divergent Nozzle

side upward deflection angle produced higher Mach number

with Divergent Angle Variations for under Expanded

while comparing with all other configurations. Also the base

Condition”, proceedings of 17th Australasian Fluid

line nozzle produced lesser Mach number as the expansion fans

Conference, Auckland, Newzealand, December 2010.

are significantly influenced by flow turning angle.

[7] E .L. Morrisette and T. J. Goldberg (1978). “Turbulent Flow

Separation for OverExpanded Nozzles” published in NASA

Technical Paper:1207.

with Applications” published in Cambridge University

Press, June 2005, Doi:10.2277/0521819830, ISBN 978-

0521819831.

“Flow analysis in a convergent-divergent nozzle using

CFD”, published in International Journal of Research in

Mechanical Engineering (IASTER), vol.1, issue 2, pp 136-

144, Oct- Dec, 2013. ISSN 2345-5188.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4937

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