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L2 ICT – UNIT 1 : The Online World

Revision sheet

Subject Notes Revision

Online Services: Lesson 1 Examples / Notes: Done
Communication websites Communication - communication is used to talk to or send
information that is used or logged an example of this is a
BLOG you log the information about what you did that day
another example would be emails, emails are used to talk to
each other, you can send and receive messages.

Real time information Real time information - real time information is use to provide
accurate times/information to the people who need it an
example of this would be train times if the train is late then.

E-Commerce E commerce - e-commerce is used by major companies and

some companies used it to start up some examples of e-
commerce are internet banking such as yorkshire bank and
santander, another example is retail sales morrisons and asda
are good examples of this as when you order online you will
be asked for a planned day and time for when your order will
be delivered.

Government websites “eligibility, appeals, tax credits and Universal Credit Births,
deaths, marriages and care - Parenting, civil partnerships,
divorce and Lasting Power of Attorney Tools and guidance for
businesses Includes giving birth, fostering, adopting, benefits
for children, childcare and schools Voting, community
participation, life in the UK, international projects Legal
processes, courts and the police Includes carers, your rights,
benefits and the Equality Act Includes vehicle tax, MOT and
driving licences Education and learn Includes student loans,
admissions and apprenticeships Employing people Includes
pay, contracts and hiring
Environment and countryside Includes flooding, recycling and
Housing and local services Owning or renting and council
Money and tax Includes debt and Self Assessment Passports,
travel and living abroad Includes renewing passports and
travel advice by country
Visas and immigration Visas, asylum and sponsorship
Working, jobs and pensions Includes holidays and finding a

Education Education websites used for educational needs such as bbc

bitesize contains information that is needed for most
lessons/courses other educational websites allow you to do a
course online or to gain a university degree online.

Entertainment Entertainment multi-user games are used to play with or

against other people it is usually streamed from a server as to
make it fair for most people also phones that contain radio
players are used as entertainment.
Download services Download services spotify can be used as an example of
music download services because you can stream the music
and also download it an example of movie downloading
services is netflix as it allows you to stream most movies that
you want to watch updates are another download service an
example o f this is an iphone update it is generally done every

Online Documents: Lesson 2 Examples / Notes:

Compressions (.zip) An example of a compression would be a document that
needs transferring over to a company, to transfer the file all
the unnecessary information like the font changes will be
removed it will keep a record of what the actual font of the text
is but not of what it was.

Online software for creation An example of online software is google docs as it can be
used to make and manage documents.

Version control version control is a massive thing for big companies as they
could have a file that would be used in a production line or
something like that and one thing be wrong so they amend it
and do not mark it as the updated version it could cause a
problem in the production however if the file is named
correctly for example (3D stand V2) then the production line
will work fine.

Levels of access Giving access to someone so they can either only read or
read and edit on the document if you don't give access at all
then you will be the only person that can see it
share it with other people who can either just read it or they
can read and write on the same document as you this can be
done at the same time as you are editing it.

Online Comms: Lesson 3 Examples / Notes:

Netiquette Netiquette is how you act online there is no real rule about it
as it is mainly common sense as how to act online an
example of not having netiquette is sexist and/or racist
comments or any other form of information

Online communities A place where you you can talk to multiple people and you
can ask questions and participate in general chat with people
across the world

Virtual world One thing that the virtual world can be used for is as a virtual
learning environments these are used by educational
establishments they can be used for handing in work and
talking about work and also be used for assignments
Chats & chat rooms Chat rooms allow real time messaging online to groups of
people that are either on a website that allows you to chat for
example reddit and also for people that are in rooms or
groups e.g discord

Social networking Social networking is where a person can either talk to

someone they know online or they can find people with similar
interests to them for example facebook and discord can both
be used to talk to people they know or talk to new people

Instant messaging Instant messaging is when you send a message and the
person you are talking to receives your message straight
away you are allowed to share photos and links it will log you
into an IM server it then asks for authentication to verify if you
are who you say you are and asks the person who is
receiving the information if they are who they say they are the
same way you verified yourself once both of you have been
authenticated it will link both devices allowing fast transfer of

VOIP – video conferencing VOIP is used for video conferencing and making phone calls
over the internet it allows you to talk to people over the
internet to other people with less delay than over the normal
way of phone connections the only thing you need is a
internet connection that can handle VOIP connections

Cloud computing Cloud computing is where you do the basic processes of a

computer via the cloud like storing your documents or writing
a program

Ubiquitous computing Ubiquitous computing is where companies use a sub

computer system to: track your location, track stock and
location of the stock, monitor supplies in a fridges, set off
alarms with rfids unless they have been deactivated,
Ubiquitous computing is also use in farming to water plants or
feed animals a specific amount of food

The Internet: Lesson 4 Examples / Notes:

Cloud computing Cloud computing is a computing model that allows access to
a server that provides software and in some cases hardware
An example of this is facebook the only thing you need to use
there services is to download there app that provides their
servers with a address that tells their servers where to send
the valid data
POP (Point of presence) Point of presence is where a isp provides services to
individual home networks or a lan of users with internet
access and services

NAP (Network Access Point) A network access point is used by the client to send and
receive data from a isp

Client Server Architecture Client server setups are mainly used in companies with
departments for things like finanses they have a central place
where they

Routers Routers are used to connect a device to the modem a modem

is used to provide a connection to the internet most routers
are fitted with a wireless transmitter for wireless devices and
are fitted with a modem is used to provide a connection to the

Network backbone Backbones are used for isps to connect to each other a
motorway for the internet is used as an example to say how
fast and how big the backbone is

Internet connection types

Worldwide Web: Lesson 5 Examples / Notes:

Web servers

Website structure

Components of the URL



Search engines

Email: Lesson 6 Examples / Notes:

Sending an email – how it

Advantages of email

Disadvantages of email

Email protocols

Differences between POP &


Data Exchange: Lesson 7 Examples / Notes:

Network structure

Transmission modes Fibre Optic - glass- instead of sending electric signal it sends
light - in binary- at speed of light in pulses- at the other end is
a receiver. The fibre optic is as thin as a hair. The cables
under the floor need to be careful as they are not coated in
metal, break easily.

Wireless - no wires.
Infra red - energy in the region of the electromagnetic
radiation spectrum. Can be seen, Out of the visible spectrum.
Is shorter than those of radio waves.
Infrared frequencies higher than those of microwaves.
Eg: car locking remotes, TV remote handset

Can be adversely affected by walls or obstructions.

Real time communication

Meshing of 2 words - coder and decoder - encoded and
compressed for storage streams of data.
For videos you
Compress- send- decompress at other end.
See diagram on google slides
Changes it from one format into another format so that it
can be used!

Methods of transmission
/cabling/wireless etc SEE ABOVE NOTES

Packet switching
Is a method of breaking data files in small packets or chunks
in order to send them across a network.
Works by broken up into small files and given an IP address
as to where to go, and to know who has sent it. They also
know how many packets have been sent. Puts back together
and ends the file.

Data transfer rates

Speed at which data is transmitted from one device to
another is the data rates

A microwave link - in a communication system uses a beam
of radio waves in the microwave frequency in two fixed
Advantage : no cables required (between 2 buildings)
Multiple channels
Wide bandwidth

Disadvantages: Line-of sight such as obstacle, new building

Weather - atmosphere - lightning
Has to be on a tower - high up

Eg: Repeater - see Slide diagram

Multiple receivers eg:
Multipole channels on one satellite

Atmosphere can affect it

Serial - only one chunk of information at once

and Parallel Transmission - lots of links that run alongside
each other ( fibre optic cables- so 50 pulses at same time)
bursts at the same time at speed of light.

Client vs Server Working on word doc, saves on pc drive.

On an app, you are working on server.

Databases: Lesson 8 Examples / Notes:

Data storage methods Volatile: volatile memory is when memory that is stored with
Non-volatile: non-volatile is when memory is stored

Databases Where data is stored

Database structure – files,

fields, records

Online databases



Threats to data: Lesson 9 Examples / Notes:

Cyber crimes Cyber crimes are crimes that are committed without the
user's knowledge

Malicious damage to data

Preventative technologies

Firewalls Prevents malicious data from entering

Access control methods

Disaster recovery

Business continuity

Benefits and dangers of social


Managing your E-Reputation

Online monitoring of
movements & communication

Current legislation : DPA

(1998), CMA (1990)