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Joel Marion and Tim Skwiat, Pn2

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11 Foods to
NEVER Eat at ANY
Restaurant
According to the United States Department of Agriculture, in 1970, 25.9% of all food
spending (in America) was on food away from home (i.e., dining out). By 2012, that
number rose to its highest level: 43.1%. Restaurants served over 70 billion meals in
the United States in 2005. Of all the money spent on food in the United States, 47% is
spent in restaurants. Four in 10 Americans eat in restaurants on any given day, and 1 in
6 eats more than 5 meals per week in restaurants.1

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Between 1977-78 and 2005-08, the average American’s consumption of food prepared
away from home increased from 18% to 32% of total calories. Along those lines, meals
and snacks prepared out-of-home contained more calories per feeding opportunity than
those made at home. Even more, away-from-home food was also higher in nutrients
that Americans overconsume (e.g., fat, saturated fat) and lower in nutrients that
Americans underconsume (e.g., calcium, fiber, iron). In other words, eating out typically
means eating more calories and fewer nutrients.2 Not good.

The #1 Worst Carb Ever (don’t eat this)


At the link below, we’re going to let the cat out of the bag on what is undoubtedly
the #1 WORST carb EVER, and how the money-hungry food industry is conspiring
to sneak this nightmare carb into just about everything.

In the end, this extremely common carb wreaks havoc on your fat-storing
hormones in a MAJOR way, and has even been shown to hamper memory, slow
brain activity, and increase your risk of Alzheimer’s.

==> The #1 Worst Carb EVER (don’t eat this)

Not surprisingly, dining out on a regular basis is associated with weight gain. In a
comprehensive review published in the journal Nutrition Reviews, researchers from
Brazil analyzed 28 cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies, and they found
that the overwhelming majority of studies found a positive association with eating out
and body weight.3 In other words, eating out more frequently is associated with weight
gain. Again, that’s nothing surprising considering that food choices when dining out are
typically high in calories, and most people tend to eat more when eating out-of-home.

Along those lines, there are some fairly obvious menu items to avoid when dining out
if you value your health and want to protect your waistline. In other words, you already
have a pretty good idea of what’s “healthy” and what’s not. For instance, you know that
a double cheeseburger, large order of French fries, and milkshake is probably not your
ally in the battle of the bulge. Likewise, a massive creamy pasta dish washed down with

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a bottle of wine is a far cry from the Mediterranean Diet.

While some of the probable suspects will be discussed, the goal of this report is not
to regurgitate things you already know. Rather, we encourage you to exercise some
mindfulness—both when making your food choices and when you’re eating—and
sensibility. As far as this report goes, we want to cover some of the less suspecting
foods that are more commonly consumed when dining out.

Eat this TWICE daily for accelerated fat loss


At the link below, we’re going to show you the #1 fat-burning meal of ALL-TIME,
and how by eating this simple meal twice daily, you can shed fat faster AND easier
than ever before.

Even better, you can prepare this simple fat-melting meal in less than 60 seconds.

No, it’s not too good to be true.

==> The #1 Fat-Burning Meal (Eat this 2xs a day)

One aspect of eating out that we’ll cover that is often overlooked is foodborne illness,
which causes about 76 million illnesses and about 5,000 deaths in the United States each
year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 52% of all cases of
foodborne illnesses reported between 1998 – 2004 were associated with restaurants.

Sources of foodborne
disease outbreaks reported
to the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
during the period 1998–
2004. “Restaurants”
includes delicatessens,
cafeterias, and hotels.1

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With those things in mind, let’s review some foods—some common, some less
suspecting—to avoid when dining out.

ENTRÉE SALADS
When you think about salads, what ingredients
come to mind? For us, it’s a litany of delicious,
wholesome, fresh vegetables:

• Leafy greens including spinach, bibb,


romaine, kale, cabbage, green leaf,
red leaf, mache, treviso, endive, frisee,
arugula, dandelion greens, radicchio,
chard, and more.
• Cruciferous veggies including cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, rutabaga,
bok choy, turnips, radishes, watercress, and more.
• Sweet peppers
• Tomatoes
• Cucumbers
• Carrots
• Onions
• Scallions
• Mushrooms
• Sprouts
• Beets
• Fresh herbs (e.g., basil, parsley, cilantro)

Beyond that, there are some additional salad toppings that not only provide delicious
flavor but also heart- and brain-healthy fats, appetite-satisfying and gut-friendly fiber,
metabolism-boosting and fat-burning protein, and health-boosting phytochemicals:

• Avocados
• Eggs
• Grilled, roasted, braised, seared, etc., proteins (e.g., chicken, pork, tuna)
• Legumes (e.g., lentils, garbanzo, black)

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• Fresh fruit (e.g., berries, apples, pears)
• Nuts and seeds (preferably raw)
• Vinaigrettes made with healthy oils (e.g., cold-pressed extra-virgin olive,
avocado, sesame, and nut oils) and vinegar
While that’s a good general template for building a super salad, the unfortunate reality
is that the majority of store- and restaurant-bought salads have some serious waist-
expanding problems with them:

• They’re doused with salad dressings made with cheap, highly refined vegetable
and seed oils (e.g., soybean, safflower, sunflower), which are loaded with pro-
inflammatory fats.
• They’re topped with fried meats and other calorie-dense, nutrient-sparse
accoutrements.
• They’re served in massive portion sizes.

30 second daily “trick” FLATTENS your belly


How would you like to flatten your belly in just 30 seconds a day?

Well, you CAN.

In fact, it’s almost ironic... this 30 sec trick is by far one of the most effective fat
loss strategies our clients have EVER tried, and it’s also the easiest to implement.

Literally, just 30 seconds a day:

==> 30 second daily trick FLATTENS your belly

Believe it or not, many of restaurant entrée salads pack between 1200 and 1500
calories—sometimes more. To put that into perspective, that’s equivalent to a 1/2-pound
double cheeseburger, order of French fries, and a soda. Yikes!

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ICEBERG LETTUCE
As mentioned above, there’s no question that salads and
veggies are healthy, and even though iceberg lettuce
provides relatively less nutritional value than the leafy
greens mentioned above, it’s still very much a healthful
option. The reason iceberg lettuce makes our list is
because it’s a massive rip-off.

To put it into perspective, the average retail price of iceberg lettuce is around $0.95
per pound (often even less), or about $0.15 per cup or about $0.28 for a quarter of a
head of lettuce. Compare that to a wedge salad, which may cost $10 or more. Sure, a
wedge salad has some other ingredients (e.g., bleu cheese, bacon, onions, tomatoes,
and salad dressing), but even at half that price, it’s still marked up around 20 times its
original cost.

If you’re going to spend some money on a salad, a better bet is to look for one that’s
packed with nutrient-dense veggies.

BEST SELLERS & SPECIALS


As strange as it sounds, to keep up with demand, the
reason these make the list is because many restaurants
make their top sellers before the lunch rush hour or busy
dinner times. That means that the food is sitting around
collecting bacteria and harboring potential food-borne
illnesses.

A better option would be to choose a different item than the “special of the day” or “best
seller,” as it is more likely to be made fresh and prepared to order. According to Howard
Cannon, author of The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Starting a Restaurant, “Anything sitting
in holding, covered with mayonnaise, is probably not that great.”

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WATER
Cannon, who’s also the CEO of Restaurant Expert Witness, says,
“One of the most dangerous items in a restaurant is water.” Typically,
water sits at the perfect temperature (between 40 and 140 degrees
Fahrenheit) to harbor bacteria.

Do you POOP enough?


Please excuse the somewhat personal nature of this excerpt, but the information
we are about to share below is extremely important for both you and your digestive
health.

You may not think that you’re constipated, but in reality, it is VERY likely that you
ARE.

You see, constipation is not simply “not being able to go”, or only eliminating once
a week...that’s severe constipation. The truth is, a healthy digestive system should
be eliminating after every meal.

Are you moving your bowels several times a day, once for every meal you eat? If
not, you are suffering from constipation, which will cause a buildup of toxins and
undigested, rotten, putrid food in your digestive system.

This can make it much harder for you to lose fat while also wreaking havoc on your
digestive system and overall health...really bad stuff. Just imagine all that rotted,
disgusting food sitting there in your digestive system...yuck!

Fortunately, this can be corrected rather quickly, with a few simple steps:

==> 4 tips for healthy digestion and regular bowel movements

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If you find that there’s already water on your table—either in a glass or a carafe—or if
you’re served a glass of water any warmer than ice-cold, it’s a good idea to ask for a
new glass. You might also consider asking for bottled water, but you might need help
drinking it considering that you’ll probably be charged an arm (and a leg) for it.

BAR SNACKS
If you’re a fan of eating bar snacks (e.g., pretzels, nuts),
here’s a little trick for you to try next time you’re eating
out. Ask a random person who’s just walking out of the
restroom to grab a handful of bar snacks. Then, proceed
to eat them out of his/her hand.

As disgusting as it sounds, that’s basically what you’re doing when you’re eating the
complimentary snacks that are set out at the bar. Any number of people may have
put their hands in that bowl of pretzels and peanuts, and according to researchers at
Michigan State University, upwards of 95% of people don’t wash their hands properly.4
Some research even suggests that 40% of women and over 60% of men don’t even
wash their hands at all.5 Yikes!

You can certainly ask for a fresh bowl, but there’s no guarantee that it’s truly “fresh.”
Your best bet may be to forgo the bar snacks, or if you need something to munch on,
order something fresh from the menu.

SEAFOOD
Seafood is delicious and packed with nutrients, and it’s
very likely that a restaurant’s offerings are going to be far
more expansive than the average home kitchen. There
are tons of potential healthy options, including mollusks
(e.g., oysters, scallops, clams), shellfish (e.g., shrimp,
crab, lobster), and fish (e.g., salmon, tuna).

The problem, however, is something referred to as


“seafood fraud,” which the international organization

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Oceana defines as “practice of misleading customers about their seafood in order
to increase profits.” Simply put, restaurants (knowingly or unknowingly/ignorantly)
substitute cheaper fish for more expensive fish to increase profit margins.

For example, Oceana collected 82 salmon samples from restaurants and grocery stores
and found that 43% were mislabeled. In fact, 69% of the samples marked as “wild-
caught” salmon were farmed Atlantic salmon. Because farmed salmon are typically
fed commodities like soy and corn, which have dramatically higher concentrations of
omega-6 fats compared to omega-3 fats, the fatty acid profiles of the salmon change
markedly relative to wild-caught salmon, which feed on other omega-3-rich fish (e.g.,
sardines, anchovies) lower on the food chain.

2 minute “cleanse” kills toxic parasites


LIVING in your belly
Due to exposure to an array of common foods, beverages, and over-the-counter
medicines, 9 out of 10 people’s guts have been infested with toxic, parasitic
bacteria that is DESTROYING their health and making it virtually impossible for
them to drop fat from their biggest problem areas...and that very likely means you.

Fortunately, there’s a quick 2 minute “cleanse” that you can perform today, almost
without thinking, to correct this dangerous imbalance. Just follow the simple steps
given at this link:

==> 2 minute “cleanse” kills toxic parasites LIVING in your belly

The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats (i.e., more omega-3 fats, fewer omega-6 fats) in
wild-caught salmon is upwards of 266% higher than that of farmed salmon, which is
lower in omega-3 and higher in omega-6 content.6 But that’s not all; farmed salmon also
contain high concentrations of potentially health-damaging contaminants (e.g., PCBs,
dioxins, chlorinated pesticides).

According to Oceana, here are some examples of commonly mislabeled seafood:

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Examples of Commonly Mislabeled Seafood
You Purchased You Received
Slender Pinjalo, Channel Catfish, Rockfish,
Red Snapper Tilapia, Nile Perch, Mahi Mahi, Mullet Snapper,
Malabar Blood Snapper, Atlantic Cod

Mahi Mahi Yellowtail

Channel Catfish, Hake, Tilapia, Alaska


Grouper Pollock, Nile Perch

Wild Salmon Farmed Salmon

Swordfish Mako Shark

Bluefin Tuna Bigeye Tuna, Yellowfin Tuna

White Tuna Escolar

White Snapper White Hake

Alaska Pollock, Norwegian Pollock,


Atlantic Cod Whiting, Saithe, Escolar

Chilean Sea Bass White Bass, Striped Bass

Shark Meat Nile Perch

Red Drum Black Drum

Halibut Sea Bass, Deep-water Cape Hake

Haddock Saithe

Anchovies Icefish

Orange Roughy Oreo Dory, John Dory

Red Mullet Spotted Goatfish

Monkfish Pufferfish

Jacquet and Pauly 2008, Lowenstein et al, 2009, Wong and Hanner 2008, Miller and
Mariani 2010, CBC News.

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LEMONS
Lemons are an excellent source of vitamin C, and
like other citrus fruits, lemons are also a good source
of phytonutrients, which possess a variety of health
properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory). It’s
also well-established that lemons possess powerful
antimicrobial properties, with studies showing inhibition
of bacterial growth with lemon juice, oil, and extracts.

Unfortunately, according to a study published in the Journal of Environmental Health,


70% of lemon slices out of 76 total samples tested were contaminated with bacteria.7
The authors stated that certain species of pathogenic bacteria found “could have come
from the fingertips of a restaurant employee via human fecal or raw-meat or poultry
contamination.” Even more, the microbes found on the lemon samples “all have the
potential to cause infectious diseases at various body sites.”

With that in mind, it’s probably a good idea to pass on the lemon as garnish or flavor
enhancer. In the case that a lemon is added to your drink without your request, you
might consider asking for a new drink sans lemon.

FRIED FOODS
Two words: Trans fats. If you’re not completely familiar
with trans fatty acids, a good starting point is the recent
determination by the United States Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) that partially hydrogenated oils
are not safe for human consumption.8 While this is
definitely a step in the right direction, it’s important to note that the FDA has given food
manufacturers and establishments until June 2018 to remove partially hydrogenated oils
from their products.

Nutritionally speaking, trans fatty acids serve no purpose, and as Erin Russell, Assistant
Editor of the Canadian Medical Association Journal, puts it, “Partially hydrogenated oils

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are entirely artificial and would not be in our food supply if they weren’t economically
attractive to the food industry.”9 Why are partially hydrogenated oils so attractive to the
food industry?

Do THIS twice daily to burn BELLY FLAB


Exciting news to share with you today... There’s a new way to burn belly fat that
has been shown in more than a DOZEN research studies to help you burn fat and
slim your waist at an accelerated rate.

In fact, one breakthrough study showed that those who performed this belly-
burning trick just twice daily burned 400% more fat than those who didn’t.
Another study published in the Journal of International Medical Research showed
that those using this powerful flab-burning trick lost 20% of their body fat in just 12
weeks. And get this... the trick takes less than a minute to perform!

Would you like to burn 400% more fat by using this quick, belly-busting trick just
twice daily? We show you exactly how to do it here:

==> Do THIS twice daily to burn BELLY FLAB (takes less than 1 min)

Production of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils was developed because of low cost,
long shelf-life, and suitability for commercial frying and transport.10 Many restaurants
use partially hydrogenated oils when they fry foods because these types of oils, which
are the major dietary source of industrial-produced trans fats, can be used many times
in commercial fryers.

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends that consumption of trans fats is as low as
possible.11 In essence, industrial-produced trans fats are like tobacco in the sense that
they’re not beneficial at any dose. For instance, the IOM cites evidence that any intake
of industrial-produced trans fats (above zero) will increase one’s risk for cardiovascular
disease.
But the problems don’t start and stop with an increased risk of heart disease. In

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fact, there’s evidence that suggests that a number of negative health outcomes are
correlated with trans fat intake, including weight gain and obesity.12,13 Trans fats have
also been associated with an unhealthy inflammatory response, endothelial dysfunction,
and decreased insulin sensitivity.14

Along the lines of weight gain, trans fat intake has been associated with abdominal
obesity.13 Even in the absence of excessive caloric intake, controlled animal studies
have shown that trans fats are an independent factor for weight gain, including
enhanced storage of abdominal fat.15 In one study published in the journal Obesity
Surgery, Brazilian researchers discovered that there was a higher content of trans fatty
acids in the visceral fat of obese folks, suggesting that trans fats may be preferentially
stored as deep abdominal fat.16

This is particularly worrisome because visceral fat (i.e., abdominal obesity) is associated
with a laundry list of negative health outcomes and a “constellation of metabolic
abnormalities,” including:17,18

• High triglycerides
• Low levels of “good” cholesterol (i.e., HDL)
• High levels of apolipoprotein B (which is considered a better predictor of
cardiovascular risk than the more commonly used LDL19)
• Small, dense LDL and HDL particles (small, dense particles are considered more
detrimental than large, fluffy particles20)
• Unhealthy levels of inflammation
• Insulin resistance
• Poor carbohydrate tolerance and metabolism
• Leptin resistance

Unfortunately, the news gets worse. If it wasn’t bad enough that the partially
hydrogenated oils found in processed foods and used in restaurants contain trans fats,
the base oils are industrial vegetable and seed oils (e.g., corn, soybean), which are rife
with omega-6 fatty acids. These fats contribute to an unhealthy inflammatory response,
particularly when consumed out of balance with omega-3 fats.

Researchers attribute this imbalanced intake of omega fatty acids to an increase in

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virtually all inflammation-related conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
obesity, metabolic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease,
rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, mood disorders, mental illness, autoimmune disease, and
more.21 What’s more, excess omega-6 intake has also been shown to be associated
with shorter telomere lengths and accelerated aging.22,23

CHIPS, SALSA & BREAD BASKETS


At most restaurants, chips and salsa or bread baskets
are complimentary and refills are “free.” The fact of
the matter is that the overwhelming majority of people
eat the food that’s in front of them.

This is what Cornell researcher Dr. Brian Wansink,


a leading expert in behavior change, refers to as “mindless eating.” Dr. Wansink has
countless solutions to eliminate mindless eating, and on this topic, he says that you
should ask the waiter to remove the chip bowl or bread basket either early in the meal
or altogether.24

While we’ve all seen how this can work against you, this is actually a strategy that you
can use to improve your nutrition. Dr. Wansink says that the real secret to healthier
eating isn’t about willpower; instead, it involves what he calls the “CAN” approach.
Specifically, Dr. Wansink says that healthy foods should be Convenient (visible and
readily available), Attractive (enticingly displayed), and Normal (the obvious choice).25

In one study, Dr. Wansink found that folks who have a fruit bowl in the house weigh, on
average, 8 pounds less than their next-door neighbor who doesn’t. To be most effective,
add at least two different types of fruit to the bowl and keep it in a high-traffic area.
Other than your fruit bowl filled with colorful options, it’s a good idea to remove other
less healthy foods from your kitchen counter.

In a separate study, Dr. Wansink found that people who had chips or cookies on
their countertops (i.e., visible) weighed about 10 pounds more than people with bare
counters. Even more surprising, folks who kept boxes of breakfast cereal on the counter
weighed about 21 pounds more, and those people who had soft drinks readily available

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weighed 25 pounds more!

You may have heard this before, but eating off smaller plates can make a tremendous
difference. Dr. Wansink recommends using 9- to 10-inch plates, and his research
suggests that downsizing from 12-inch to 10-inch plates reduces portion sizes by 22%.26

BUFFETS & SALAD BARS


Given everything discussed thus far, you might already
have an idea as to what some problems may be
with buffets and salad bars. For starters, buffets are
typically “all-you-can-eat” style, and not surprisingly,
most people make a decision (either conscious or
unconscious) to get their money’s worth.

Interestingly, in a recent study published in the journal


BMC Nutrition, researchers found that diners who paid less for an all-you-can-eat buffet
gave higher ratings for overeating, feelings of guilt, and physical discomfort that diners
who paid twice as much—even if they ate the same amount.27

Research shows that, with buffet foods, the first ones offered/seen are the ones most
selected.28 This doesn’t typically bode well for your waistline considering that most
restaurants place cheaper, less healthy, and more calorie-dense foods at the beginning
of the buffet line.

Another interesting point to note is that overeating may be contagious. That’s right, in
another one of Dr. Wansink’s studies, he found that women, in particular, may be led to
eat more when those around them are overeating at a buffet-style meal.29

In addition to encouraging overeating, buffets are also a hot bed for bacterial
contamination. Most people recognize that shaking hands is one of the most common
ways that disease is spread. Well, that’s basically what you’re doing when you visit
the buffet. Essentially, you’re “shaking hands” with (and collecting the bacteria from)
everyone else who’s touched the serving utensils prior to you.

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EGGS
Perhaps a better sub-heading for the section
would have been “egg substitutes.” Make no
mistake about it, real eggs are quite nutritious
and can indeed be included as part of an overall
healthy diet. Real eggs—including the yolks,
and in particular the yolks—are an excellent source of protein, healthy fats, vitamins,
minerals, and antioxidants. On the other hand, mechanically-separated, low-fat,
chemically-altered “eggs” are the result of food manufacturers preying on consumer
fears, which are based on outdated, inaccurate health information (e.g., cholesterol).

Egg substitutes are not a superior replacement for real eggs. Unfortunately, a number
of restaurants, particularly chain restaurants, don’t use real fresh eggs. Rather, the
restaurants nuke their previously frozen egg patties in the microwave. In other cases,
kitchens use dehydrated eggs combined with liquid. Even more, some chains use
additives (e.g., pancake batter) to bulk up their eggs and increase profit margins.

Eggs provide one of the highest quality proteins of any whole food available; in fact,
researchers frequently use the eggs as the standard in measuring the quality of protein
from other foods. In addition to being a low-calorie source of high-quality protein,
eggs also contain a variety of vitamins (e.g., A, B, D, and E), minerals, nutrients (e.g.,
choline), and monounsaturated fatty acids that can reduce the risk of CHD.30

As previously mentioned, it’s important not to dismiss the yolks, as that is where all
of the (healthy) fats are stored, and along with them, all of the important fat-soluble
vitamins (e.g., vitamins A, D, and E) and nutrients (e.g., choline). What’s more, while
the whites of eggs contain a higher percentage of protein, the yolks have higher levels
of the essential amino acid leucine, which, as previously discussed, plays a key role in
muscle growth and recovery.

That being said, not all eggs are created equally. Specifically, research from Mother
Earth News suggests that eggs from pasture-raised hens provide a superior nutrition
profile compared to standard store-bought eggs.31 For example, compared to typical

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supermarket eggs, the eggs from pasture-raised hens may contain:

• 1/3 less cholesterol


• 1/4 less saturated fat
• 2/3 more vitamin A
• 2 times more omega-3 fatty acids
• 3 times more vitamin E
• 6 times more vitamin D
• 7 times more beta-carotene

As far as ordering eggs from a restaurant, it won’t hurt to ask the server to confirm
that the kitchen uses real eggs and to ask if eggs from local, pasture-raised hens are
an option. Also, it may be a good idea to order eggs hard-boiled, sunny side up, over
easy, etc., to make sure that you’re getting real eggs—and only eggs. It’s a bit easier to
disguise egg substitutes in the form of scrambled eggs and omelets.

BON APPÉTIT!
Obviously, eating out is a bit more “dangerous” than eating at home. It’s easier to
overeat, and the food choices are typically less nutritious. Having said that, you don’t
have to be a hermit and never eat out-of-home again. However, if you value your
health, then take some time to exercise some mindfulness—both when making your
food choices and when you’re eating—and sensibility. Make the best choices, and most
importantly, enjoy your food, your company, and your experience!

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Do THIS before eating carbs (every time)
At the link below, we’re going to show you our #1 carb-fighting trick that you
can use each and every time you eat carbs. This simple carb-fighting “ritual” is
clinically proven to:

*Lower your blood sugar


*Increase insulin sensitivity
*Decrease fat storage
*Increase fat burning

Even better, you can perform it in just a few seconds...and it WORKS like
gangbusters.

==> Do THIS before eating carbs (every time)

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References:
1. Angulo FJ, Jones TF, Angulo FJ. Eating in Restaurants: A Risk Factor for
Foodborne Disease? Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(10):1324-1328. doi:10.1086/508540.
2. USDA ERS - Food-Away-from-Home. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-
choices-health/food-consumption-demand/food-away-from-home.aspx. Accessed
December 15, 2016.
3. Bezerra IN, Curioni C, Sichieri R. Association between eating out of home and
body weight. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(2):65-79. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00459.x.
4. Borchgrevink CP, Cha J, Kim S. Hand washing practices in a college town
environment. J Environ Health. 2013;75(8):18-24.
5. The female of the species is cleaner than the male. http://www.initial.co.uk/
washroom-news/2015/initial-hygiene-connect.html. Accessed December 14, 2016.
6. Hamilton MC, Hites RA, Schwager SJ, Foran JA, Knuth BA, Carpenter DO. Lipid
composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon. Environ Sci Technol.
2005;39(22):8622-8629.
7. Loving AL, Perz J. Microbial flora on restaurant beverage lemon slices. J Environ
Health. 2007;70(5):18-22.
8. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Cuts Trans Fat in Processed Foods. June
2015. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm372915.htm.
9. Russell E. Artificial trans fatty acids do not belong in our food. Can Med Assoc J.
2014;186(8):563-563. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140393.
10. Ascherio A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr.
1997;66(4 Suppl):1006S-1010S.
11. Institute of Medicine (U.S.), Institute of Medicine (U.S.), eds. Dietary Reference
Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and
Amino Acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005.
12. Misra A, Singhal N, Khurana L. Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2
Diabetes in Developing Countries: Role of Dietary Fats and Oils. J Am Coll Nutr.
2010;29(sup3):289S-301S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2010.10719844.
13. Koh-Banerjee P, Chu N-F, Spiegelman D, et al. Prospective study of the
association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption,

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and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men. Am J
Clin Nutr. 2003;78(4):719-727.
14. Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental
and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63 Suppl 2:S5-21. doi:10.1038/
sj.ejcn.1602973.
15. Kavanagh K, Jones KL, Sawyer J, et al. Trans fat diet induces abdominal
obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Obes Silver Spring Md.
2007;15(7):1675-1684. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.200.
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