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Asian Joumal of Animal and Veterinary Advanoes 3 (6): 390.399, 2008 ISSN 1683-9919 © 2008 Academie Jounal Ine. Prevalence and Dynamics of Some Gastrointestinal Parasites of Sheep and Goats in Tulus Area Based on Post-Mortem Exami {ALLA Almalaik, ‘A.E. Bashar and °A.D. Abakar "Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, South Darfur State, Sudan ‘Department of Parasitology and Microbiology. Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Nyala, Sudan Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Nyala, Sudan Abstract: The gastrointestinal tracts of 9 sheep and 16] goats were obtained from abattoir ‘of Tulus locality in South Dufur State in westem Sudan fom Match, 2006 to February, 2007 ancl exarinedl fb the presence of gastrointestinal parasite. Seven nematode species (09.8%) and Monieza eypansa (0.2%) in sheep beside, eight nematode species (99.9%) and Monieza expanse (0.1%) in gcats Were identified. In sheep the nematodes were, in ceder of prevalence: Haemoncfuis contortus (53.4%), Sirongslotdes papilosus (26.2%), Trichostrongylus eolubriformis (14.7%), Cooperia pectinata (3.1%), Oesophagostomun columbian (2.288), Skrjahinema ovis (0.308) and Tricurisglobulosa (0.1%) while, goats. were: Sirongyloides popillosur (29.5%), Haemonchus contortis (20%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis 24.496), Skrjabinema ovis (11.5%), Oesophagostomum calumb aman (99%), Gaigertapachysceli (1%), Trichurisglobulosa (0.6%) ane Cogperia _pectinata (0.1%). The intensity ofthe parasite infections Was light to moderate. The mean. ‘worm burden vas 407.3 and 472.4 for shcep and goals, respectively. The total wor burden, vas least curing the dry season and ineteased gradlly during the rainy season, Total worm, ‘burden was shown to have association with season and sex in goats but actin sheep while no association was observed between total worn burden and age ofthe animals in both shop and goals, The efoto elimi factors on worm burden revealed significant positive correlation with rainfall an relative humidity but not with ermperaure ey words: Epidemiology, small ruminants, postmortem. gastrointestinal parasites INTRODUCTION Gastrointestinal parasites ar a world-wide problem for sheep and goots. The eeonomic impact of these parasites on animals industry is great. The most serious evonomic consequences of _gasuointestinal parasites based on the overall mmber of worms, ramber of genera and spovis present, general levels of pathogenicity and wide spread distribution (Rickard and Zimmerman, 1992) However, most of the economic losses are die to subclinical effets and although not immediately noticed by the owner, theses can be substantial (Larsen, 2002) In recent stay, Tibbo (2006) found tt parasite infection of sheep and goats are major factors responsible for economic losses through ‘ection in productivity and inereased metal. ‘Many researchers have reported parasitic infections in sheep and goats in the Sudan (Almed and EI Malik, 1997, Omer ef al, 2003; Mohammed and Atta El Mannan, 2003; Isreal 2004) ‘where, parasite discases are inereasingly recognized as an impertant cause of reduced prosietvity ‘Correspanaing Author! AD. Atakar, Dept of inica Sues Foaaly w'vectimn Saws Gey ea, sin Taf 1251048 Fa 2TH EES Asian J. Ani. Vet. Adv., 3 (6): 390-399, 2008 Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites infesting small, ruminant in South Darfur State, This study performed to provide basic data on the presence and seasonal distribution of gstointestnal parasites in sheep and goats of South Darfur inthe study area MATERIALS AND METHODS. ‘Study Area ‘The survey was undertaken at ulus abattoir in South Darfur State in western Sudan from Mare 2006 to February 2007. The area laying in savanna zone between the Istitude 11-12° Nona and longitude 24-25° Bast Fig 1), The average armoal rainfall is $41.1 mm. Rain fom May'oe Juno to (Qetober results in seasonal swamps or small rivers, The area characterized by its solid clay and sand soil. The people inthe atea work in mixed erop-livestock form of cultivation. The area has lage livestock population which spreads in its all parts, The nomadic system is dominated in rearing ‘animals ot the area where animals are grazing and watering oe communal areas. ‘Study Animals “The abutoi investigation was caried out during the period from Merch 2006 to February 2007. ‘The common breeds were Deset sheep and goats, Fulani shcep and their crosses, The animals were 1 tod years of age From both sexes. A total of 240 gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) were collected to seazeh for adult worn. Parasitological Techniques Post-Mortem Worm Recovery Al 240 gastrointestinal tracts (79 sheep and 161 goats at of 20 GITs per month) browaht from ‘Tulus abatteir were subjocte to adult worm counts as described by Hansen and Perry (1294), The abdomen of cach animal wes opened ane] double ligatures separating abomasum, small intestine and large intestine were placa to avoid mixing of the contents, Any ofthe ttee pats of GUTS was washed separately. Any part was opened over a bowl in which the contents were caught. Fig. 1: The map of the say area Asian J. Ani. Vet. Adv., 3 (6): 390-399, 2008 ‘The wall washed thoroughly under s steam of water (23 L) and the mucous membrane rubbed ‘carefull withthe fingers to remove any worms adhering to it. Two hundred malliiter of contents of any parts ws transfered tothe wash jar while mixing thoroughly in 5 steps of 40 mL. per each by using plastic container The wash jar was then filed with water, Aer inverted the jar it was shacked “until the mest ofthe Mud is shaken out. This process was repeated until al fazcaleolousing material is removed. Upto 50 mi of water was added tothe wash jar in order to pour the volumes into Pett dishes and the worms counted. The total number of worms counted in @ 200 ml. sample is then multiplied by 5 per any liter to give the numberof worms present in the part concerned, The eallected worms were then preserved in a solution of 70% Ethanol 30% Glycerol fr further identification using dissecting microscope according to Hansen and Perry (1994). ‘Cllmatle Data Meteorological dala forthe year were obtained from the Ministry of Aviation Meteorological ‘Authovity Staion of Nyala. Monthly meen minimum and maxinnum temperatures and relative ‘humidity were obtained. Monthly rainfall rate was obtained from Tulus agricultural office. ‘Statistical Analysts Data presentation was performed using SPSS computer programme (Version No. 10), Numbers ‘of worms recovered were transformed to geometric means to nortnalize tt dala and inference was ‘made accordingly (I-est and correlation. RESULTS: Cut of 79 sheep and 161 goats exumined for postmortem examinations, 75 (04.9%) and 136 (64.5%) of sheep and goats were found infected with one or more genera of GIT nematode parasites and Monieza expanso, sxpeotvely. Animals hud, in most cases mixed infeeion. The nematode parasites identified for sheep were: Haemanohus contort (53.1%), Strongplotdes pallosus (26.2%), Trichastrongsius colubriformis (14.79%), Coopers peetinata (3.1%), Oesophagostonuen columbian (2.2%), Stxjabnema ovis (039%) and Trefurtsglobulosa (0.1%) while, the identi species for gouts were: Sirongsloidespapillosus (26.5%), aemonchus contortus(20%), Trichostrongylus eolubriforms (24.4%), Slajabinema ovis (11.6%), Oesophagostomunt columbian (9.50), Gaigeria pachyscelis (1%), Trichuris globuloso (0.6%) and Cooperta peetinasa (0.1%), (Table 1-3). The intesity of ‘the nematode infections was light to moderate in most animals. The overall mean worm ‘Table: Menthly mean wonn burden (485 of Hamoncnt contort in lea fale sep and gt recta ing the survey pri March, 2005s, 2007 ‘Sheep Goats ‘Months __ale_Fenle _Male_Fenale_ a0 00 12008100 00535.70, a0 00 i2oei20 to22s3430 a0 00 100.0840.0 31341550 oo 533085330 SR3E28 5 815.60 a0 400 00 721980 330449879 785.00485.0 0.08261 934007342, sa8088157 son 08221.5 1is0803.6 100063920, aa tsa6et710 utes 82553930, a0 100. S17.S8183.5 66753330 $21.81 332, 761081 Tiere 13698 20 22