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FFS 2018


Team ID : FFS1835
Team Name : OJASWAT
College Name : C.S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charusat University
City : Anand, Gujarat
Faculty Advisor: Anand P. Patel
Author : Kaushal Prajapati
Co-Author : Parth Lad
ABSTRACT: 1. Analysis of previous year’s car

This report convey’s information regarding team • The above shown design is of previous year’s car. For
Ojaswat’s 2017 formula car for FFS 2018. The main making new chassis, we took this as the reference.
aim of this year’s project is on weight reduction and • Our main intention was to reduce the weight in new
optimisation in different areas such as optimisation chassis. The weight of previous year chassis was 36.5
in power band within 5000-7500rpm, using kg which was very much optimized and light weight.
different thickness pipe in the chassis, also a major • We decided to make new chassis under 30 kg. this
chassis was designed for Suzuki GSXR 600 and our
reduction in weight from 304kg (without driver)
chassis would have KTM rc390. So, there will be
from previous years car to 240kg (without driver).
more changes in rear portion.
Also, there are changes to achieve maximum • Front portion is already well optimized at design
cornering speed of vehicle with maximum point of view. Now, we are left with several options
drivability during acceleration, cornering and bump for weight reduction which includes material
by achieving minimum CG height from road base. procurement, changes in design, variable pipe
thickness etc.
With all these and a major purpose was to develop • In order to select the final design of our project, the
a completely new steering system for team group has created several design requirements which
OJASWAT appearing in FFS 2018. have been divided into constraints and criteria.
• These design requirements are a combination of rules
and self-set goals to improve upon the chassis of last
CHASSIS DESIGN. year’s vehicle and the success of the design group
will be based on being able to effectively meet these
1.Introduction requirements.

This is the report of a chassis of 2017-18 teams Ojaswat

car. The main aim of this report is to provide detailed
explanation about the chassis.

• Chassis basic:
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that
supports all other parts of the vehicle. It is the fabricated
structural assembly that supports all functional vehicle
systems. It acts as the skeleton of the vehicle combined
with suspensions system. The main area of focus in
chassis this year is weight reduction and more
optimization with high strength compared to previous
year’s chassis. At the time of impact, chassis keeps driver
safe in cockpit. So, more optimized design with strength
and weight reduction is the purpose of making this new

• The main role of chassis is as follows:

o It supports the other parts of the vehicle. 3. Design Constraints
o Provides safety to the driver.
o It provides base for further parts and assembly of the 3.1 Primary Considerations
car. • Main constraint is to make it light weight and strong
• The design of previous chassis was very well
optimized and light weight. So, it was a challenge to
do more optimization and weight reduction. There
were several options to reduce weight like more
compact design, optimum material etc.
• Egress should be done easily by driver
• Lower center of gravity
• Reduction in wheel base and wheel track
• Driver’s safety
3.2 Formula student event Rules
• And other miscellaneous from T.2 General Chassis 4.2 Chassis construction method
Design section from FFS 2018 rulebook must satisfy.
• Tubular space frame
4. Detailed Design This is the most common frame type in formula student
cars. It is a structure composed of many small, usually
4.1 Material Procurement round tubes bent to shape and welded together. The
Material selection is very essential for weight reduction Formula SAE rules dictate many of the tubing sizes for a
with enough strength. There are different materials for car steel tubular space frame, and construction of any other
chassis which includes alloys of aluminum, steel, carbon type of chassis requires proof that the alternate structure
fiber etc. is as strong as or stronger than a similar tubular space
Carbon fiber is very light weight and strong but it costs frame structure. This method of construction is very cost
more. So, making chassis from carbon fiber is not an effective and can be light weight if designed well. So, this
economical decision. is widely adopted method of chassis construction.
Now, there are two materials which meets requirements. • Fixtures:
Those materials are as follows:

These both are good materials but we decided to choose

AISI 4130 Chromalloy as a frame material because it
seems optimum choice as per our requirements.
4.3 Software analysis suspension is active and the theoretical calculated values
of forces are applied on suspension mounting points and
(Related analysis is attached below in the report.)
A- arms mounting point. Analysis was carried out by
• Front impact: Force: 12000N (FIG 1) fixing the front of the chassis and the forces of magnitude
In the Front Impact test, the chassis is assumed to be 2000N were applied.
crashing in a racing condition exactly perpendicular to the Result showed the maximum Von misses’ value to be
velocity vector. Analysis was carried out by fixing the &.87e+0.008 N/
rear of the chassis and forces of magnitude 12000N were 4.4 Chassis parameters:
applied. For calculating this force, speed was assumed to
be 60 km/hour and the end the crash time was taken as 0.5
seconds. So, the deceleration was found to be 40 m/s2.
Forces were applied at the four points on the front crash
Force was then found as: F= m*a
i.e.: 300*40 = 12000N
Results showed the maximum Von Misses stress value
to be 3.253e+008 N/ Maximum displacement was
found to be 6.8mm with FOS of 1.14.
• Rear impact: Force: 9000N (FIG 2)
In Rear Impact Test the chassis is assumed to be crashing
in a racing condition exactly perpendicular to velocity
vector in the rear. Analysis was carried out by fixing the
front of chassis and forces of magnitude of 9000Nwas
Results showed the maximum Von misses stress value to
be 1.896e+008 N/ FOS of 2.43 was found.

• Rollover: Force: 3000N (FIG 3)

In the Rollover simulation, force was applied on the top
section of the front and the main roll hoop with a
magnitude of 3000N. all the suspensions hard points were
fixed and analysis was carried out.
Results showed the maximum Von misses stress value to
be 1.117*104. And the factor of safety was obtained as

• Side impact: Force: 7000N (FIG 4)

In the Side Impact Test, the cassis is assumed to be
crashing in a racing condition in the side impact member
located along the cockpit. Analysis was carried out by
fixing the front and the rear of chassis and force of
magnitude 7000N was applied. Maximum principal
stress of 1.066e+008 N/ was observed and FOS
4.5 Final design and comparison (Frame images)
obtained was 4.3
(Front View)
• Torsional stiffness: Torque:1600N (FIG 5) 2016 Chassis
Torsional stiffness: 1391 Nm. /degree
In Torsional Impact Test the chassis is assumed to be
influenced by the racing environment when the
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geometry if one member was kept in similar orientation.

Hence these are some major cages in 2018 chassis when
viewed from side view. Thus, these some changes
observed form the side view.
(Isometric view)
2016 chassis

As we can see from top view that there is reduction in

number of pipes. We have made both roll hoops more
2017 chassis
compact. As compared to old frame, we have also
reduced width. In 2018 chassis, we have removed
torsional bar from rear and front section because torsional
effect will only occur between front and rear suspension
pickup points. In 2016 chassis we had GSXR 600 which
was 4-cylinders engine. This year’s engine is very
compact in size compare to previous one. So, we have
done some optimization in rear part of chassis and
2016 chassis 2017 chassis
reduced the distance between rear hoop and front hoop.
From the isometric view, we can notice that there is no
change I front bulkhead design. There is one diagonal
member placed in front bulkhead design 2016 chassis. In
2018 chassis, there is no diagonal member in the front
bulkhead. New design satisfies below mentioned rules.
2017 Chassis One more change done on the front bulkhead is chassis,
to switch from round pipes to square pipes. In 2016
chassis, round pipe of 25.4mm O.D and 2.5mm wall
thickness was used. In 2018 chassis, square pipe of
25.4mm*25.4mm outer dimensions and 2mm wall
thickness is used on basis of calculations and
There are some major changes in the frame of this year stimulations.
which are noticeable from side view. As we are using
single cylinder engine instead of 4-cylinder engine, there
are changes in design rear position of the frame. One
another factor we have considered while designing this
frame is suspension hard points. We have kept all
suspensions hard points at the node on the frame. This
wasn’t done in 2016 frame and this may be the biggest
change we have done in this frame.
So, we have major design changes in main hoop and rear
bulkhead. There is one change in design in front position
of car as compared to 2016 chassis. We find that one of
the members of front bulkhead support structure is
oriented differently. The reason behind doing this is
Steering Tie Rod. This year we have change the steering
system and tie rod would have done interference in the
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1 Introduction
Suspension system is the term given to the system of
springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connect a Equations 3.2.2 Longitudinal Load Transfer Under
vehicle to its wheels. When a tire hits an obstruction, there Braking
is a reaction force and the suspension system try to reduce
this force. The size of this reaction force depends on the
unsprung mass at each wheel assembly.
3.4 Instant Centre and Roll Centre
Original vs new design:
Equation 3.4.1 Camber Change Per mm of Ride
2. Resources Current Suspension New Suspension Ideal Parameter
Criteria Front Rear Front Rear Front Rear
2.1 Solid works Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension
Solid works is a 3D design software Kingpin
package with functions including FEA Inclination 3.88° - 3.88° - 0° - 8° 0° - 8°
analysis, Weldments, a rendering package as Caster
5° - 5° - 3° - 7° 3° - 7°
well as surface modelling and basic Angle
sketching. Static
Wheel -1° -1° -1° -1° 0° - -4° 0° - -4°
2.2 Lotus Analysis Software Scrub 0mm – 0mm –
Lotus Analysis Software provides an easy Radius 10mm 10mm
way to see what happens to a vehicle’s Roll
-25mm – -15mm –
Centre 45mm 60mm 40mm 60mm
suspension after: Height
50mm 60mm

• It goes into bump/droop or roll Swing

1250mm – 1016mm –
Arm 1600mm 1200mm 1600mm 1200mm
• Altering the tyre sizes Length
2500mm 1778mm

• Substituting different length control arms Travel

• Moving control arm pickup locations

• Lowering the vehicle
• Adding spacers at ball joints The camber change is not constant throughout the whole
ride travel since the instant centre also moves with
• Changing wheel offset or diameter
wheel travel. Varying the swing axel length obviously
…. And others has a great effect on roll centre location and how the
wheel acts in corners and how it reacts.
That can be observed under various conditions include:
3.10 Anti-Features
• Roll centre location and movement
The anti-effect in a suspension describes the longitudinal
• Tyre camber to vertical force coupling between the sprung and
• Scrub radius unsprung masses. It results from the angle of the side
view swing arm. Anti-features do not change the steady-
• Front view swing arm length
state load transfer at the tyre contact patch; it is only
…. And others

Equations 3.2.1 Axial Load Distribution

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present during acceleration and breaking. The more of the spring’s job. Figures of 200 - 300 CPM are
longitudinal weight transfer during steady acceleration needed, with Natural frequency’s reaching as high as
or breaking is a function of wheelbase, centre of gravity 500 CPM at the peak of the ground effect era. It is usual
height and acceleration or breaking forces to find the rear frequency to be about 10% higher than
The anti-features changes the amount of load going the front. This is to avoid a nose up nose down
through the springs and the pitch angle of the car. Anti- oscillation caused by the front wheels when rising over a
features are measured in percent. A front axle with bump first, followed shortly by the rears. For an inboard
mounted coil, there are effectively three rates to any
100% anti dive will not deflect during braking, no load spring.
will go through the springs, and a front axle with 0%
anti dive will deflect according to the stiffness of the Equation 3.12.1 Wheel Frequency
springs fitted; the entire load is going through the
springs. It is possible to have negative anti effects. This
will result in a gain of deflection.

Equation 3.10.2 Anti-Squat Equation

3.12.2 The Wheel Rate
The first rate is the wheel rate or how strong the spring
appears to be at the wheel, however adding 100N of
The way in which the suspension reacts to brake and spring rate will not necessarily add 100N to the wheel
drive torque alters how to calculate the amount of Anti rate unless the spring is mounted directly on the axle.
present. If the control arms react to torque, either from Anytime there are linkages such as wishbones and
the brakes or from drive torque, the anti’s are calculated pushrods, the linkage ratios need to be considered, and
by instant centre location relative to the tyre contact for this the calculation involves squaring the leverage
patch. If the suspension does not react to drive or brake ratios.
torque, but only the forward or rearward force, then the Equation 3.12.3 Alternative Wheel Rate
“antis” are calculated by the instant centre location
relative to the wheel centre. For a rear wheel driven car,
there are three different types of anti-features:
• Anti-dive, which reduces the bump deflection during 3.12.3 The Coil Rate or Spring Rate
forward braking.
Second is the coil rate, or amount the spring compresses
• Anti-lift, which reduces the droop travel in forward under a given load (in lbs. / in. or N. / mm.) usually this
braking. it has etched or painted on the springs by the
• Anti-squat, which reduces the bump travel during manufacturer. If this is unavailable or missing, the rate
forward acceleration can be determined by measuring the springs and using
3.12 Spring Rates the following Equation:
3.12.1 Wheel Frequency
The wheel frequency is the natural frequency of the
suspension or wheel in either cycles per minute (CPM)
or per second (Hz). An ideal value would be found at Where G is the average torsional modules of steel, d
around 1.5 – 2.5 Hz or 100 CPM – 150 CPM for racing is the wire diameter in inches, N is the number of
cars without wings or ground effect. With anything coils and D is the mean coil diameter in inches. The
lower being for road cars and above this for high coil rate can also be worked out from the wheel
downforce cars, as this effectively increases the sprung frequency and motion ratio as seen in Equation
weight. Tiny ground clearances will mean that even 3.12.5
higher frequencies will be essential, however hard the Equation 3.12.5 Coil Rate
ride will become, with the tyre taking over more and Coil Rate N/m
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= 4𝜋2 × 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 (𝐻𝑧)2 × 𝑆𝑝𝑟𝑢𝑛𝑔 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 Equation 3.13.5 Desired Total Roll Gradient
(𝑘𝑔) × 𝑀𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜2 Equation

3.12.4 The Fitted Rate

The third is the fitted rate or how strong the spring
appears to be on the car, considering the leverage on it Where the desired total roll gradient, chosen by the
exerted by the suspension linkage. A coil mounted to a user in deg/g.
longer suspension linkage will be crushed more than the It is then possible to calculate the front and rear anti-roll
same coil mounted on a shorter suspension linkage. bar stiffness.
Equation 3.12.6 Fitted Rate

Equation 3.13.6 FARB Stiffness Equation

Equation 3.13.1 Roll Gradient From Ride Springs

Equation Where 𝐾𝜑𝐹𝐴 = the Front ARB roll rate in Nm/deg
twist, 𝑁𝑚𝑎𝑔 =the roll gradient distribution in
percentage and 𝑀𝑅𝐹𝐴 = the FARB motion ratio. The
roll gradient distribution is 5% more than the static
Where = the roll gradient from the ride springs in front-load percentage. Again, this equation is similar
deg/g, H = Cg to roll axis distance in m, for the rear.
Equation 3.13.7 RARB Stiffness Equation
W is the vehicle weight and 𝐾𝜑𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐾𝜑𝑅 are the front
and rear roll rates respectively in Nm/deg
Equation 3.13.2 Front Roll Rate Due to Springs
Equation Now these equations can be used to calculate the anti-
roll bar stiffness.
4. Suspension Design
Where 𝑡𝑓 = front track width in m and 𝐾𝐿𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐾𝑅𝐹 are We have decided to use the Double wishbone
the front left and right wheel rates respectively in N/m. suspension system for the Ojaswat 18’ car. We have
This equation is similar for the rear. gone through many different suspension designs such as
Equation 3.13.3 Rear Roll Rate Due to Springs multi-link suspensions, MacPherson strut suspensions,
Equation Trailing arm suspensions, Monoshock, etc. However,
after analysing pros and cons of each suspension design,
Double Wishbone Independent suspension suited the
Next, the total anti-roll bar roll rate needed to increase Independent system allows independent vertical
the roll stiffness of the vehicle to the desired roll movement of each wheel on same axle. Ease of drive,
gradient should be calculated. manufacturability, smooth handling during all
Equation 3.13.4 Total ARB Roll Rate Needed acceleration conditions is what we kept in consideration.
Equation To provide the smooth riding as well as handling
Where 𝐾𝜑𝐴 = the total ARB roll rate needed in Nm/deg easiness, the Independent system was found to be good
roll, 𝐾𝜑𝐷𝐸𝑆 = the desired total roll rate in Nm/deg roll. compared to other. Further classifying the system
𝐾𝑊 = the average wheel rate in N/m and 𝐾𝑇 =the Tyre selected is Fully Independent. The review and research
Rate in N/m. t is the average track width of the vehicle led us to select the Double Wishbone (A-Arm)
in m. Suspension system. Double wishbone system allows
great control over vehicle dynamic parameters like
Camber change rate, castor angle, scrub radius, steering
axis inclination and others. It offers better ride quality
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and handling characteristics due to lower unsprung for the fitting of spherical bearing and two grooves at
weight and the ability to address each wheel both side of bearing were provided for the circlips. The
individually. The maintenance of Double wishbone is design gave good strength in fact it gave more strength
easy and more efficient than Trailing arm cause if load than needed, it was very bulky and heavy design, and
acting on a-arm exceeds the capacity in Trailing arm material and machining cost were high too. In short, the
case it may cause damage to drive shaft also leading to length of part could be kept small but the thickness was
expensive maintenance. On the other hand, in case of too much so, we decided to make changes in the design
Double Wishbone the tubes of a-arm will get damaged and optimize it.
which are easy and economical to replace than drive
shaft. ➢ V2
Upper Part
4.1 Design Alternatives
4.1.1 Attachment Parts for A-Arm:
Lower Part

Lower Part

This was the first design that came to our mind. The
circular slots at front faces were provided to insert a-arm
tubes which maintain the predefined angle between a-arm
tubes during welding thus, eliminating the need of fixture,
but after we realized that to accommodate this slot we had After making some changes in the previous design, we
to increase the thickness of part more than necessary came up with this design. Instead of circular slots, we
because whole tube would go inside the part which provided extruded cylindrical parts to maintain the
increased the thickness. The vertical mounting plates predefined angles between the a-arms. This helped us to
decrease the thickness as the tube would go upon the
extruded cylinder, which did not affect the thickness of
part, rather than going inside the part increasing the
thickness of part, keeping the thickness minimum such
as circlip at both side of bearing could be provided.
However, by doing so the total length of part increased
because, in previous version, the tubes would go below
Upper Part the mounting plates but that is not the case here. We had
to provide extra length for extruded part and face
were welded on the attachment parts, which were going supporting that extruded part. Therefore, this design was
to be used for lower a-arms to accommodate the push still heavy and raw material cost and machining cost
bar. In case of lower part circular slots at front would were high so we decided to think about these problems
use the space below mounting plates of push bar means and optimize it further.
that we would not have to increase the length to provide
mounting plates meaning that, length of part can be
decreased without worrying about space for mounting
plates. A through hole of 16mm diameter was provided
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➢ V3 Upper Part

Lower Part


Upper Part

changes and came up with this design. Instead of having

two front faces perpendicular to the axis of a-arms we
After analyzing previous designs we made some gave After going through above complicated designs we came
only one face perpendicular to the center axis of part and up with this simple design, which met our basic
we also cut down the extruded cylinder provided to requirements. Remove the front face provided
maintain the angles. This rose the need of fixtures to perpendicular to the center axis of part. Thickness at the
maintain the angles between the tubes of a-arm and the front end where previously the face was provided was
surface contact between the tube and face of part was kept 5 mm and at rear end where ball bearing would be
very less and there was no other support for tubes which provided, the thickness was kept 10mm to accommodate
made us think that it may be risky considering the load space for the groves needed for circlip at both side of
which it may have to go. There was no significant bearing. In this design the thickness of part where the
progress regarding weight reduction in part as well as tubes would be welded was just 5mm so came up with
material and machining cost of part as the thickness of an idea to provide 5mm thick slot having 20mm depth at
part was still same as the previous design. So, we the end of the tube so that tube would fit on the part
decided to do more changes to the design. exactly and the surface which could be welded was
➢ V4 greater than previous designs so we had no worry about
Lower Part the strength of welded joint of part and tube. Well, to
maintain the predefined angles between a-arm tubes the
necessity of fixture rose up again, but at that point we
got it that fixtures were unavoidable if we wanted to
optimize the previous design any further and to bring
significant changes in existed design, so we accepted the
use of fixtures without any more doubts. The design was
almost optimized, the front face being removed lessened
the required raw material and machining needed on raw
material to get the final part was reduced too, thus
reducing overall cost. Still there was still one thing that
we were not satisfied with: thickness at rear end was
10mm for that we had to get the block of 10mm width as
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raw material and after that machining phase, we would will not change its toe angle (our car is front steered) so
have to do extra machining on whole part except rear there was no need to increase the weight of rear lower
end, so the raw material and machining cost would part by providing extended rectangular section. The part
increase unnecessarily. In the end, we thought that we was cut from 5mm metal sheet by laser cutting and the
had to do something about this also. hole for bearing was provided by same method. So raw
material cost and machining cost was very less
➢ V5 compared to all previous design and was most light
Upper Part weighted also.


Lower Part

➢ Anti-pitch geometry:
No anti geometry was used in Ojaswat 16 due to
compliances caused in side view geometry of
arrangement and location of control arm pick-up points
on chassis.
25% anti-dive geometry is chosen for Ojaswat 17 to
The long process of thinking finally led us to this design.
control the pitching movement of the car during braking
This was the simplest design of all previous designs yet
and accelerating.
it fulfilled all of our basic requirements. In previous
➢ Swing arm length:
design, we had provided 10mm thickness at rear end for
As the swing arm length is the largest determinant of the
the grooves but in design, we removed this and gave
camber curve variation of this distance would be used to
uniform thickness of 5mm. The thickness of bearing was
attain the desired camber gain. Based on the
5mm and outer diameter was 16mm same as the through
recommendations identified in Staniforth (1999) a
hole given at the rear end, thus bearing was press fitted
medium FVSA length (1000mm –1800mm) was chosen
in hole and to secure the bearing further we brazed two
as the best compromise of minimizing roll centre
washers with part at both side of bearing. The washers
movement, getting the required camber gain and limiting
were of such size that it would only be in contact with
scrub radius. A longer swing arm at the front (relative to
collar allowing the ball of bearing to rotate without any
the rear) to reduce camber gain as castor geometry on
obstruction. This setup of brazed washer at both side of
the steering would introduce extra negative camber on
bearing secured the bearing in hole of part that it would
the outside wheel. Swing arm lengths of 1600mm on the
not come out of part if press fit were to fail. In lower
front and 1200mm on the rear were finally selected for
parts, rather than increasing the whole length of part to
the kinematic design.
avoid the collision of mounting plates of push bar and
➢ King pin inclination:
knuckle we extended a rectangular section upon which
Positive kingpin angle causes the outside tire to take on
push bar mountings would be welded. This extended
positive camber when the front wheels are steered which
section was only provided at front lower parts because,
is highly undesirable (Milliken & Milliken 1995).This
push bar mounting plates and knuckle may collide only
undesirable effect can be countered by the negative
during cornering after certain angle but in rear the tire
camber gained during steering from castor angle. In
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addition, to reduce the scrub radius and overall trail to SUSPENSION GEIOMETRY
provide an easy steering, a positive KPI of
3.88 degrees is adjusted.

4.3 Wheel Alignment:

➢ Camber:
In this system, the upper control arm is kept shorter for
inducing negative camber angle during the wheel
jounce. Camber angle will control the handling
characteristics of suspension system. Negative camber
will help to maintain good tire contact patch while ➢ Castor:
cornering. Also, maximum acceleration along a straight Castor angle provided is used to optimize the steering
line is obtained when the camber angle is zero. Too characteristics during cornering. Proper Castor angle
much camber angle leads to bad handling. With the helps to achieve self-cantering during the left or right
application of SLA (Short Long Arm) system, the steering conditions. Positive castor angle will help to
camber angle can be adjusted. Ojaswat 18 car has a give directional stability as well as provide easier
static camber of -1 deg at front and -1 deg rear. driving. Ojaswat 17 car has a front castor of +5 deg.
➢ Toe:
Toe is given to car wheels so that they remain
straightforward when in straight driving conditions. As
the car is rear wheel, drive the front wheels are kept at
toe in conditions so that during the running condition the
wheels will turn straight providing maximum contact
patch. This will aid to the straight driving stability. The
required toe angle is a compromise between the rolling
resistance and straight wheel stability. The toe can be
Rear FVSA Geometry adjusted per the requirement. Ojaswat 17 car has a static
toe +1 deg at front and 0 deg at rear.

5. Detailed design
5.1 Data of suspension parameters
Weight of whole car with driver 300 kg
Weight of car without driver 230 kg
Roll gradient 1.2ᵒ/g
Roll Center Height for front 45mm
Roll Center Height for rear 60 mm
Horizontal distance of C.G from 867.15mm
Horizontal distance of C.G from 707.85mm
Wheelbase 1573 mm
C.G. height 230mm
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Total sprung weight 235 kg • Required rolling stiffness of system for no anti-roll bar
Motion ratio 0.8 𝑊𝑠𝑝𝑟∗𝐻𝑟𝑚
Køreq = 𝑅.𝐺.
Track width for front 47’’
Track width for rear 45’’ = 1.2

Ride frequency front (WF) 2.63 HZ = 341.22 Nm/deg roll

Swing arm length (front) 1600mm So, taking Køreq= 340 Nm/deg roll
Swing arm length (rear) 1200mm Køf + Kør = 340
Ride frequency rear (WR) 2.36 HZ Taking Køf = x therefor Kør = 340 – x,
• Calculating ride rate
Krf = 𝑇𝑓2∗𝜋
= 80.406*
5.2 Calculation of detailed design.
x……………………………………………… (1)
Independent Double Wishbone Suspension System 𝐾ø𝑟∗360
Krr = 𝑇𝑟2∗𝜋
= 87.712(340-
x)…………………………………………. (2)
➢ Lateral Acceleration: (Skid pad Track)
Skid pad track diameter, Ø=15.25 m => r=9.125 m Krf = 4𝜋 2 ∗ 𝜔𝑓 2 ∗ ( 2
So, ωf = 0.19696√𝑥
Width of track= 3 m so taking turning radius r=7.625m
𝑣 =11.11 m/sec (3)
𝑣2 11.112 𝑊𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑟
a= = = 16.19 m/sec2 Krr = 4𝜋 2 ∗ 𝜔𝑟 2 ∗ ( )
𝑟 7.625 2

So, for safety we have a=1.65g So, ωr = √(11.62154 – 0.034181x)

➢ Roll Chamber: Hz…………………………………….. (4)
𝑡/2 𝑡/2
FVSA = (1−𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟) , 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1 − 𝐹𝑉𝑆𝐴
We want to keep the difference between front and rear
𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 0.63 ride frequency about 10%
5.2.1 Calculations: 0ωr = 0.9 ωf
Hs is the vertical height of CoG of sprung weight. Hrm
is the vertical distance between the CoG of sprung Therefor 0.17739√𝑥 = √(11.62154 – 0.034181x)
weight and the roll axis.
Zf and Zr are roll centre height at front and rear x = 177.1468 Nm/deg = Køf
Kør = 162.8532 Nm/deg
• Hs is determined by Equation
Hs = 𝑊𝑠
From equation (3) and (4)

Hs = 231.1 mm ωf = 2.62 Hz, ωr=2.36 Hz

Hrm = 𝐻𝑠 − (𝑍𝑓 + (𝑍𝑟 − 𝑍𝑓)(1 − 𝑎𝑠)
as = sprung mass weight distribution ( 𝑊𝑠𝑝𝑟 ) From equation (1) and (2),
Hrm =177.8 mm
Krf = 14243.664 N/m

Krr = 14284.18 N/m

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• Since, tire and spring can be considered in a series In suspension department, primary designing was done
connection, by using SolidWorks, CREO etc., and analysis was done
𝐾𝑟𝑓∗𝐾𝑡 by using SolidWorks.
Kwf = 𝐾𝑡−𝐾𝑟𝑓


Rocker arm: (FIG 6)
Kwr = 𝐾𝑡−𝐾𝑟𝑟 Rocker Arm (Bell Crank)
Load Applied 1400 N (pushrod)
= 16760.943 N/m 2200 N (spring
• Now calculating Spring rate,
𝐾𝑤𝑓 Fixed Points Fulcrum
𝐾𝑠𝑓 =
𝐾𝑤𝑟 Maximum Deformation 0.091 mm
𝐾𝑠𝑟 = 𝑀𝑅2
Maximum Stress 166.1 MPa
Ksf = 26101.845 N/m Minimum FOS 2.3
Ksr = 26188.973 N/m (Related analysis are attached below in the report)
• Wheel Load transfer due to lateral
𝑊 𝐻𝑟𝑚∗𝐾ø𝑓 𝑏 6. Material procurement
acceleration:𝛿𝑊𝑓 = 𝐴𝑦 ∗ 𝑇𝑓
( 𝐾ø + 𝑙 𝑍𝑟𝑓) ➢ A-Arms:
δWf = 46.9 Kg Material selection:
Chrome Molybdenum (AISI 4130) high-strength steel
𝑊 𝐻𝑟𝑚 ∗ 𝐾ø𝑟 𝑎 was selected as the best compromise for our vehicle in
𝛿𝑊𝑟 = 𝐴𝑦 ∗ ( + 𝑍𝑟𝑟)
𝑇𝑟 𝐾ø 𝑙 resource limited situation. The content composition is in
δWr = 51.28 Kg the range of 0.3% Carbon, 0.5% Mn, 0.3% Si, 1% Cr
and 0.2% Mo. AISI 4130 alloy steel contains chromium
• Wheel Loads: and molybdenum as strengthening agents. It has low
Wfo = Wf+δWf =114.4 Kg carbon content, and hence it can be welded easily. Cost
of appropriate size AISI 4130 tubing ranges from $15 to
Wfi = Wf-δWf =20.6 Kg $30 per meter (Go Gear 2010). AISI 4130 is
approximately double the price of mild steel but costs
Wro = Wr+ δWr =133.78 Kg
for a-arm tubing is estimated at $41.38 hence the extra
Wri = Wr- δWr =31.22 Kg cost is relatively small. There are no major difficulties
in welding 4130 as there are with aluminium.
No anti-roll bars were included in this design to avoid Dimension of AISI 4130 pipes for A-Arms is 0.75”
extra layer of complexity this would add to the design. It diameter, 2 mm thickness.
was deemed more effective to spend time getting the ➢ Push rod:
other areas of the suspension correct. It is arguable that AISI 4130 was selected for push rod material. Having
the effects of an anti-roll bar would be limited because dimension of 0.75” diameter and 2 mm thickness.
of a FSAE vehicle’s very low Centre of gravity and Length of push rod for front is 49.5cm and for rear is
correspondingly small roll angles. Secondly, anti-roll 13cm.
bars do not reduce the amount of lateral weight transfer;
they are merely a tuning tool used to adjust handling by
varying the portion of lateral weight transfer on the front
relative to the rear.

5.3 Design using software

Figure 3.41: Push-rod
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❖ Introduction
➢ Power train department consists on Hub, Upright,
Differential, Wheels, Tires, Axle.
➢ The components are responsible for transmitting
6.1 Parts Images power from the engine to the wheels.
GE8ES Bearings to be press fitted inside A-Arm ➢ These components help in deciding acceleration,
attachments speed, centre of gravity etc.
Rocker Arms and Shockers
❖ Bearing Selection
➢ We selected single row tapered roller bearing for our
➢ The main reason for using this bearing is that it can
withstand axial as well as radial forces as compared
to angular contact bearing or deep groove bearing
which can balance only vertical forces.

➢ We have placed 2 bearings on each hub in opposite

directions such that we get a diverging Pressure
❖ Bearing Details
➢ Manufacturer: - FAG and TATA
➢ Outer Diameter: - 58mm
➢ Inner Diameter: - 32mm
➢ Width: - 17mm
❖ Force Calculation
➢ Longitudinal Acceleration:

For straights, considering 60 m

Straight traveling distance, d=60 m

Time of traveling, t= 4 sec

𝑑 60
Velocity of car, v= 𝑡
= 4
= 15 m/sec.

𝑣 15
Longitudinal acceleration, 𝑎 = 𝑡 = 4
= 3.7 m/sec2

For safety 1.5g is taken

➢ Lateral Acceleration: (Skid pad Track)

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Skid pad track diameter, Ø=15.25 m => r=9.125 m ➢ Aluminium Alloy (6082) > Tensile Ultimate
Width of track= 3 m Tensile Ultimate Strength Pa
Now, traveling distance
d=2𝜋r = 2*3.14*9.125= 57.33 m
❖ Wheels
For above d and t = 5.5 sec. (For complete lap)
➢ We selected 10-inch wheels.
d 57.33
𝑣=𝑡= 5.5
= 10.426 m/sec ➢ We were using 13 inches previously, so this time we
𝑣2 10.4262 reduced our car weight by selection smaller wheels.
a= = = 11.9 m/sec2
𝑟 9.125 ➢ The wheels are made from Aluminium 6061-T6,
So, 2G is taken. which is light in weight.
• Vertical Force ➢ The wheel width is 6 inch which helps in perfect tire
• Considering the weight transfer on the front wheels fitting.
and referring brake design report the vertical force
was taken as 2g. ❖ Tires
➢ We are using 10-inch Hoosier Tires (44115).

➢ These are wet tires which have a softer compound to
❖ Material Selection
provide more grip.
➢ For Hub and Upright Aluminium 7050 T7651.
➢ The tire has a thread width of 6.2 inch which offers a
➢ This material is light in weight and proper hardness
proper contact patch.
so that it can be used for manufacturing.
➢ For Differential mounting we have used Aluminium
❖ Hub
6082 as it is cheaper and not much strength is
required for holding the differential.

➢ Aluminium Alloy (7050) > Compressive Yield

Compressive Yield Strength Pa

➢ Aluminium Alloy (7050) > Tensile Yield Strength

Tensile Yield Strength Pa
Hub- Isometric Rear view
➢ Aluminium Alloy (7050) > Tensile Ultimate
Tensile Ultimate Strength Pa

➢ Aluminium Alloy (6082) > Compressive Yield

Compressive Yield Strength Pa

➢ Aluminium Alloy (6082) > Tensile Yield Strength

Tensile Yield Strength Pa
Hub – Isometric Front View
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➢ The design was made considering brake disc size, ❖ Upright (Right front and Left rear)
brake calliper size and wheel size.
➢ The force calculated where applied on bearing ➢ Upright is made from same material as hub.
mounting location considering wheel mounting ➢ Upright is designed to match proper steering and
points as fixed. suspension geometry.
➢ The hub was manufactured from an aluminium billet. ➢ Uprights were made from same aluminium billets.
First it was machined on lathe machine by turning ➢ These were machined from VMC.
process and then it was put on VMC for required
shapes and threading for bolts.
➢ The grub screw is made from aluminium which is
welded on Hub to prevent it from turning.

Object Name Force
State Fully Defined
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 8 Faces 2 Faces Object Name Fixed Support Force
Definition State Fully Defined
Fixed Scope
Type Force
Support Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Suppressed No Geometry 12 Faces 2 Faces
Define By Components Definition
Coordinate Global Coordinate Type Fixed Support Force
System System Suppressed No
X Component 2700. N (ramped) Define By Components
Y Component -3600. N (ramped) Global
Z Component 3600. N (ramped) Coordinate
(FIG 7,8,9) System
-3600. N
➢ Constraints: ➢ Wheel X Component
mounting points
3600. N
➢ Forces: ➢ Bearing surface Y Component
➢ Maximum stress: ➢ 1.04 X 10^8 Pa
2700. N
➢ Maximum ➢ 0.4mm Z Component
➢ Factor of safety: ➢ 4.7 (Minimum)
(FIG 10,11,12) (Related analysis is shown below
in the report)
[Type here]

➢ Constraints: ➢ A-arm mounting ➢ Differential mounting

point and steering clamp.
➢ Forces: ➢ Bearing Surface
➢ Maximum Stress: ➢ 4.866 X 10^7 Pa
➢ Maximum ➢ 0.037mm
➢ Factor of safety: ➢ 10.06

➢ Upright (Left front and Right Rear)

(FIG 13,14) (Related analysis is shown below

in the report)

➢ Differential mountings are made from Aluminium

➢ For the reliability we took the torque acting on the
differential which would apply some force on the
mountings and weight of the differential.

➢ Constraints: ➢ Mountings
➢ Forces: ➢ Bearing
➢ Maximum stress: ➢ 7.846 X
10^7 Pa
➢ Constraints: ➢ A-arm ➢ Maximum deformation: ➢ 0.0813mm
mounting points and ➢ Factor of safety: ➢ 3.33
steering clamp (Minimum)
➢ Forces: ➢ Bearing
(FIG 15,16,17) (Related analysis is shown below
in the report)
➢ Maximum ➢ 4.405 X 10^7
Stress: Pa
➢ Maximum ➢ 0.03mm
➢ Factor of ➢ 11.1
Safety: (Minimum)
[Type here]


The ability of a vehicle to avoid accident depends on the
1.1) PROJECT AIM- steering, braking and suspension system of the vehicle
hence a steering system is important for guiding a vehicle
The main aim of this project was to modify and and keeping the vehicle safe.
manufacture a completely new steering system for team
OJASWAT appearing in FMAE FORMULA STUDENT The steering system is one of the most important
2018. mechanism of any car. Whether this element is vital to the
safety of driver or vehicle is the question of concern.
Along with this project we have also studied the steering
system used in the previous year car in order rectify the As we know that the steering system is important in a car
improvements, which are made in order to improve the which we drive daily in our life. Obviously, it is even
performance of the car’s steering system. more significant in a Formula car since this kind of
vehicles are designed to compete in races and the
This project also aims to give a complete overview and objective of the team and the driver is always to bring the
technical fundamental detail of steering system used in car to the limit to try to win. A failure of this mechanism
the formula as well as regular passenger car. during operation of the vehicle could lead to fatal
This project aim is to develop a steering system, which is circumstances to the driver who is at the expense of a car
cost competitive. without control and with high velocity.

On completion of this project, we will be able to WE ARE GOING TO USE ACKERMANN TYPE
successfully modify, develop and fabricate a steering STEERING SYSTEM TO ACHIEVE MINIMUM
system for team OJASWAT that will compete on the SLIP.
track with teams of other colleges.



The steering system is a group of parts that transmit the

movement of steering wheel to front wheels and
sometimes all four wheels. The primary purpose of the
steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle.
When a vehicle is being driven straight ahead, the steering
system must keep it from wandering without requiring the
driver to make constant corrections.
The steering system must also allow the driver to have CARRIED OUT FOR STEERING SYSTEM
some road feel. The steering system must help maintain
proper tire-to-road contact. For maximum tire life, the 2.1) Basic Description of The Steering System in Our
steering system should maintain the proper angle between Car
the tires both during taking turns and straight-ahead The steering system designed for our FMAE
driving. The driver should be able to turn the vehicle with FORMULA STUDENT 2018 car is an Ackermann type,
little effort, but not so little that it is hard to control. which helps us to achieve minimum slip condition at
cornering to execute such turns easily compared to
Anti- Ackermann steering system. Housing of rack and
pinion is mounted on the base plate on the floor of the
vehicle instead of top mounting in order to reduce the
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angle made by tie-rod therefore reducing the force In this system, Rotary motion applied on the steering
required to steer the vehicle which is a correction over the wheel by the driver is transmitted to the pinion by a
previous year design. A C- clamp is used as a steering arm suitable mechanism. This rotary motion of the pinion is
on the upright which simplifies the design constraints of converted into linear motion through rack, which is in
the knuckle (upright). To provide a connection between mesh with pinion with suitable clearance.
the steering wheel and steering gears we have used a
bevel gear mechanism instead of a universal joint as it There are following factors required to be calculated
proves out to be more efficient compare to universal joint for above system: -
for our design. For Pinion:
Material: Mild Steel
2.2) Calculation of Ackermann Percentage Module (m) = 2
The design used in current FORMULA-3 RACING CAR Pitch circle diameter (PCD) = 34 mm
is based on the Ackermann steering geometry. In order to No. of teeth (N) = 17
achieve the proper design, we go through several different [As we know that M=PCD/N]
adjustments in the location of rack pinion housing. For Rack:
Total length of rack = 300mm
Then, the design was selected from the output based on Length of teeth on rack = 200 mm
Ackermann percentage. To find Ackermann percentage Length of Tie-rod = 400 mm
we have used the following formulas. – (Obtained from software by designing and providing
suitable rack travel along with angle induced)

• Rack travel for lock-to-lock pinion rotation= 50 mm

1) Force Calculation:
Once we have done the design, we have to calculate the
total force that the driver has to put to steer the wheel. We
With this formula, we have got the best suitable result will study the highest value of the force to turn the wheels.
when rack was at ZERO offset from the axis passing This force appears when the car is stopped and it starts the
through centre of front wheels. movement of the wheel.

Result are as follow: Weight of the car = 300kg

Given details are for: Wheelbase(W) =1573mm and Now, considering the weight distribution as 45% on front
Track Width(T) = 1120. side and as engine is assembled at rear portion, so 55%
weight at that portion.
NO. ANGLE ANGLE (degree) PERCENTAGE For this vehicle, we are going to design for the front-
(degree) (degree) (%) wheel steering system, so for that we are considering 45%
1 10 9.27 10.46355968 95.56977072 weight of the body and further calculations based on that.
2 20 17.23 21.70316507 92.15245767
3 30 23.96 33.02749963 90.83339743
4 40 29.44 43.33691217 92.30006939
Weight at front side = (300*45)/100 = 135 Kg

Now weight on each wheel= 135/2 = 67.5 Kg

2.3) Calculation of Force to Turn the Wheels
1) Steering system Calculation: Due to this weight, force generated is in vertical (upward)
We are going to design a rack-pinion type steering direction and is given by,
system, because it occupies very small space and uses
lesser number of linkages as compared to other system. = 67.5*9.81

= 662.175 N (Normal Reaction)

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Now, here we assume uniform pressure is acting on tire. • Hence the maximum effort required to steer the wheel
is 310.5636 N and the minimum effort is 227.5539 N.
which is -
2.4) Calculation of Shaft Diameter
P (pressure)= 662.175/contact patch area
By using the maximum steering effort, we can calculate
Area is circle with radius =88.9 mm the diameter of steering column and as a result we can
Now, according to uniform pressure theory, moment also finalize the material type and grade which can
required to turn the tire is- withstand the torque transmitted by steering effort.

M=2*(co-efficient of friction) *weight*radius/3

(taking co-efficient of friction=1)
T: torque in the steering column
M=39244.905 N mm R: ratio column

Now, J: Inertia for hollow columns and given by

Here T(torque) = 39244.905 N mm
Fs=normal force acting on steering arm,
= 160 M Pa
Ft = force acting on tie-rod
By taking the factor of safety = 2.5
And Fr =force acting on rack
In order to calculate the force, there are derived formulas
τ = 160/2.5 = 64 M Pa
as follow-
As per the formula
Fs=M/length of steering arm
T= 3.14 / 16 * (d^3) * τ
39224.905= [3.14 * (d^3) * 64] / 16
(where, A-angle made by tie-rod and rack axis & B-angle
made by steering arm and rack axis) Hence, d= 14.62 mm

Now, let’s ‘X’ be the human effort, Therefore, we are going to take the steering shaft of
diameter 15 mm
X=Fr*radius of pinion/radius of steering wheel
Design differences from previous year
The results of above forces are as follows- PREVIOUS CURRENT
Given details are for: Tire Moment(M)=39244.905 N mm Length of steering arm 70 mm 58 mm
and for normal force acting on steering arm Fs = 676.6363
Angle of steering arm 0 degree 8 degrees
N. Fr1(N) Fr2(N) Net Fr(N) Human Effort(X) with tire (direction of
(N) motion)
815.0213 702.0044 1517.026 227.5539 Bevel ratio 1:2 1:1
926.5417 682.5379 1609.08 241.3619
1101.008 676.6912 1777.699 266.6549
1391.296 679.1284 2070.424 310.5636 By changing following parameters, we are able to
reduce the steering effort and increase the Ackermann
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We are team OJASWAT, a team of automotive enthusiast

that has been participating in SAE-SUPRA Since last 5
years with excellent past experience of the event and now,
we are participating in FFS 2018. Being the steering
department of the team the task on hand was to design and
fabricate a steering system, compatible with Formula-3
racing car.
The task of designing and fabrication of steering system
compatible with Formula -3 racing car was handed to the
steering department of the team. To complete this task,
there were several rules and regulations to be followed.
So, by considering all rules and regulations we have
designed a steering system which is most suitable for our
formula-3 racing car. At the beginning of this project, we
have gone through the fundamentals of steering system
by literature survey and based on the survey we have
designed the steering system in CREO PERAMETRIC
3.0 and SOLIDWORKS 2016-17.




[Type here]

DISPLACEMENT SIMULATION Maruti Suzuki flexi line for rear callipers. Flexi
lines used in our car are nylon braided

5. Brake fluid:
Brake fluid is classified by its DOT number.
Standard brake fluid (DOT 3) is composed
chiefly of equal parts of alcohol and castor oil.
This combination of fluids works well under
normal conditions, has a boiling point of over
400‫ﹾ‬F, and becomes a vapour under heavy-
duty applications.

Brake Calculation
All the calculations are performed considering initial
velocity of 60 kmph and final velocity of 0 kmph.

Brake Assembly and Design

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion

by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is
used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle,
wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often
accomplished by the means of friction.
during braking, dynamic weight transfer takes place
Disc Brake Assembly consists of: which is given bellow:
1. Brake Calliper: The calliper used in our car is W front =W(l2/l) +(h/l) Fb
Bajaj pulsar 220f fixed type double piston. The W rear = W(l1/l) +(h/l) Fb
calliper is fitted with two pistons that are Max braking farce provided between road and tyre is:
hydraulically actuated by the fluid pressure Fb max =µW =W(d/g)
developed in the system. Fb (front) = Wf (d/g), Fb (rear)= Wr(d/g)
Where W = weight of the vehicle
2. Brake Pads: Disc brake pads consist of steel Fb = Braking Force (total)
shoes to which the lining is riveted or bonded. The equation is for ideal condition where braking
Brake pad linings are made of either asbestos efficiency is 100%
(asbestos fibre filled) or semi metallic (metal Ƞ = (d/g) *(1/µ)
particle filled) friction material. Brake pad used in Now, braking efficiency = 85%
our car is made by Bajaj Company. Hence braking force at axles are:
3. Master cylinder: Fb(front)= Wf (d/g)
The master cylinder is a control device that =0.85µ[W(l2/l) +(h/l)0.85µW]
converts nonhydraulic pressure (commonly from Fb(rear)= Wr (d/g)
a driver's foot) into . Hydraulic pressure. We have =0.85µ[W(l1/l) +(h/l)0.85µW]
used Kbx tandem master cylinder in our car
which consists of two inlet ports and four outlet Considering value as:
ports. Tandem master cylinder used in our car is l =1.55m
of company having 19mm bore. l1=0.8525m
4. Brake lines: We have used rigid brake lines h=0.29m
of Maruti Suzuki cars which connect from master W = 300*9.81=2943N
cylinder to rigid brake lines of rear wheels. We µ = 0.67
have used two types of flexi lines which consist Fb (front) = 0.85µ[W(l2/l) +(h/l)0.85µW] = 932.8N
of Royal Enfield flexi line for front callipers and Fb(rear) =0.85µ[W(l1/l) +(h/l)0.85µW] =743.23N
[Type here]

Fb (Total) =0.85µW= 1676.03N

Percentage bias:
Kb(front)=[Fb(front)/Fb (Total)] =0.5565*100 = 55.65%
Kb(rear)=[Fb(rear)/Fb (Total) = 0.4434*100 = 44.34%
Braking Torque for front wheel= [Fb(front)/2]
Braking Torque for rear wheel=[Fb(rear)/2] =84.95Nm
Fp=250N & Leverage = 5:1
Force on pushrod of master cylinder
(Fr)= 250*5=1250N
Diameter of master cylinder= 19mm
Pressure in master cylinder (Pm)= (Fr/Area of piston)
Diameter of piston =31mm Weight of the pedal is 300gm and factor of safety
Force at calliper (Fc)=Pm*Area of piston*No. of piston obtained is 4.5 which are enough to sustain design
=6657.04N constrains.
Let µ between disc pad and calliper=0.3
Clamping Force=2*Force on callipers=13314.08N Various analysis carried out on brake pedal in ANSYS
F(friction)= 2*Fc*µ= 3994.224N considering design constraints:
Torque= F(friction)* r(effective)= 266.49Nm
Deceleration= d =[F(total)/M] = 5.58 m/s^2 1. Stress analysis: (FIG18)
Stopping Distance= V^2/2*d= 24.87m
2. Total deformation:(FIG 19)
Stopping Time= V/d = 2.9 sec

Thermal Consideration: Designing clutch and accelerator pedal:

Rotor diameter=150mm,
Area of brake pad= 1225mm^2 Both clutch and accelerator pedal are of same design,
Mass of brake disc m1=0.5kg material and weight.
Area of disc= 17662.5mm^2
Heat Generated=K.E= (mv^2)/2 = 41633.34 J
Assume 70% energy on front wheel and considering one
wheel, we have:
Heat Flux = (K.E*0.7)/ [t*Area of rubbing*2]
= 2827364.0808 W/m^2

Pedal design procedure:

Material Selection is based on cost-efficiency with
respect to strength, weight, wear, life and performance.
The brake pedal is made of AISI1018 which has
required properties and low cost while accelerator and
clutch paddle are made of LM6 material.
Final Brake pedal designing:
In general, not only the brake pedal is supposed to take a
2000 N force, but it also needs to be lightweight for
design points. Also, the height of the pedal pad should Material is LM6, Weight is 250gm
be about the average height of the length of a male’s
foot from heel to sole, about 180 mm, but it should be Brake rotor design and analysis: Brake rotor
able to accommodate smaller and larger size +d feet. must be choose properly based on analysis, design and
calculations because wrong kind of rotor can ruin the
brake system and also can be dangerous as brake will
not function properly.
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Brake rotor should be having enough strength so

it can withstand braking force applied by brake
pads and also it should be heat resistant. Stainless
steel grade 430 brake rotors is used in our car.
Outer diameter of this rotor is 150mm and pitch
circle diameter is mm. Size of rotor is small as
we have used 10-inch rims.

Various analysis carried out on brake

rotor is:
1) Thermal Analysis: Thermal analysis on rotor is
carried out based on calculations done in brake
calculations by considering heat flux and time for
which it is applied. Below fig shows thermal
analysis of rotor


In automotive technology, an intake manifold is the

component of an engine that transports the air-fuel
mixture to the engine cylinder. The main purpose of the
intake manifold is to evenly distribute the combustion
mixture to each intake port of the engine cylinder, and to
create the air-fuel mixture, unless the engine has direct
injection. Even distribution is important to optimize the
2) Stress Analysis: volumetric efficiency and performance of the engine, the
two most desirable techniques was found to increase the
volumetric efficiency, and they are intake manifold
design and variable valve timing technology for intake
and exhaust valves. The design of the variable valve
timing technology is quite complex and expensive to
produce, and it offers quite less scope of research, thus
almost every researchers and automotive industry is
focused on improvement of intake manifold. However,
there is always room for enhancement on intake system.
The air intake system has seen many reiterations and
improvements and substantially increased during the past
years by controlling the dimension and shape, and
permitting the engine to produce increasing amounts of
power by improving their volumetric efficiency, best
possible fuel consumption, reduced fuel emissions, and
most of the research performed, by Automotive
researchers and engine manufacturers (i.e. Mazda, BMW,
3) Static Displacement Analysis: Audi, Ford, Renault etc.). Porsche in the 1980s developed
an intake system to use on their vehicles that adjusted the
length of the intake system by switching amongst the
longer and shorter Pair of tube utilizing a butterfly valve,
developing some positive pressure, which usually
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enhances overall performance of the engine. Audi began manifold dimension, fixed length intake manifold and
to use a similar system in some cars in the 1990s and Ford Variable length intake manifold.
Motor in 1997.
3.) Cylinder runner
IC engines produce air pollution emissions as a
consequence of uneven distribution of combustible air to The cylinder runners are the parts of the air intake system
the engine and incomplete combustion of air-fuel mixture. which delivers air from plenum to the combustion
The principal products of the process are carbon dioxide, chamber. In each runner, the principal phenomenon that
water, mud, black carbon and some unburnt governs its performance is actually, the effect of acoustic
hydrocarbons, which is produce due to lesser amount of waves [18, 24]. As the purpose of the cylinder runner is
air-fuel ratio supplied to the engine, and the additional distribution of air, performance to transport the maximum
products of the combustion process include nitrogen amount of air, and in the case of the engine, the successive
oxides, which is produced due to excess amount of air- enhancement in volumetric efficiency.
fuel ratio supplied to the engine. The amount of air is only
4.) Throttle body
one parameter which produces emission. Thus it is needed
to design a manifold which deliver appropriate amount of Air intake in engine is controlled by mechanically
air to combustion chamber. actuated throttle body mounted on air intake system.
2.1. Design constrains
The primary function of the intake manifold system was
Intake system restrictor have to be located between to transport combustion air to the cylinder. Specifically,
throttle and engine. Restrictor diameter is 20mm i.e.; all the primary design goal was to distribute the air evenly to
the engine air must pass through 20mm restrictor. each intake port, as doing so improve the engine ability to
efficiently produce torque and power. The geometric
The maximum allowable internal diameter of the intake design of the intake system affects the volumetric
runner system between the restrictor and throttle body is efficiency of the engine, and thus directly affects the
60mm or equivalent area of 2827 square millimetre if performance of the vehicle. The construction of the intake
non-circular. system has a major influence on how the engine performs
at various RPM‘s. The challenge, therefore, was to
2.2. FUNDAMENTALS optimize the design of the intake system and remap the
fuel injection system. To achieve primary design goal of
-Intake system terminology
distributing equivalent amounts of air to each cylinder,
1.) Restrictor there are several objectives to consider when designing an
intake system:
Restrictor is part of the intake manifold is similar to what
1.) Minimize pressure loss, as pressure loss results in a
is usually known as a critical nozzle. Such components
are often used in practice of industries as simple control decrease in output power.
devices to control the mass flow rate. All such type of
2.) Minimize bends and sudden changes in geometry, as
devices will be discussed to as restrictors throughout the
these geometric affects can cause pressure loss.
rest of this report.
3.) Maximize air velocity into the cylinder, as this
2.) Plenum
provides a better mixture of fuel and air, which results in
It is storage device which placed between throttle valve better combustion and performance.
and cylinder runner. The function of the plenum is to
4.) To select optimum plenum size according to the
equalize pressure for more even distribution air-fuel
engine to maximum mass flow rate in order to improve
mixture in side combustion chamber, because of irregular
the volumetric efficiency
supply or demand of the engine cylinder, sometime
plenum chamber also work as an acoustic silencer device. 5.) To achieve the Mach number (M=1) at throat of
There are two types of intake manifold on the basis of restrictor nozzle, to increase the volume flow rate of air
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through restrictor but it depends upon boundary and also certified by ISO: 9300. For
designing any restrictor five variables
6.) Minimize the mass of the system, a common goal of
every subsystem of the vehicle. were used to define the optimum profile of

7.) Design a technique to fluctuate the intake plenum the restrictor, inlet diameter Di, choke
length, cylinder runner length and optimal profile for
restrictor to operate the engine efficiently over a wide diameter D, exit diameter De, radius R and
speed range. exit angle; and these five variables can be
8.) To order to achieve minimum turbulence, it is
obtain by using standard profile of
necessary to design a profile with no flat edges with
central inlet curved plenum which transferred the air at
ISO: 9300.
right angles to four tapered runners.
-With 4 different variables
9.) The main objective for designing the cylinder runner
is to propagate back the -inlet area
higher pressure column of air to intake port within the -inlet radii curvature
duration of the intake valve‘s closure.
-diffuser angle
10.) To keep minimum runner diameter area as much as
possible, because increase in diameter provides additional -diffuser length
surface area that creates more flow resistance and also
reduce the air velocity.

Designing of Intake system is divided into 3 parts

1.) Restrictor designing

2.) Plenum

3.) Cylinder runner

Flow simulation as well as analytical calculations were
We will discuss each parts in detail carried out on proposed design.


- According to rule all air must pass through 20 mm The main purpose of the restrictor is to limit the amount to obviate this restrictor effect to some of power an engine with a given displacement can
extent we design cd nozzle for efficient breathing of generate. Thinking of an internal combustion engine as an
engine even at high rpm. air pump, the amount of power that can be developed is
bounded by how efficiently the engine can move the
For achieving maximum volumetric largest volume of air from the intake into the engine and
out through the exhaust: the restrictor is, therefore, the
efficiency, nozzle of ISO: 9300 categories limiting component to moving air into the engine, thereby
bounding the volume of air that can be moved. In order to
was assumed to be best design and most maximize power output, it is necessary to maximize mass
flow and minimize losses through the restrictor. Using
beneficial for the use, because it compressible fluid dynamics equations, assuming
consists of an inlet radius, and exit angle isentropic conditions, the following functional
relationship is developed:
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(b). Different Inlet curvature radii

- For 20mm restrictor and atmospheric upstream

pressure, maximum mass flow rate that can be
achieved is 0.0703kg/s.

- For ktm390, at 11000rpm mass flow required is

- Restrictor will restrict this flow very much, our job is
to achieve such mass flow rate as close as possible. - More is the curvature radius, less is the velocity at
- It is seen that more is the velocity at throat nearer to throat.
velocity of sound, more is the mass flow rate. Our target (C)Different Diffuser Angle
is to maximize mass flow rate.

-Flow simulations were carried out in ANSYS fluent

- Physical model: k epsilon turbulence model with

pressure-based solver, boundary conditions Inlet:
velocity inlet

Outlet: pressure outlet

(a) Different diffuser length


- Less is the diffuser angle less is energy loss. More

diffuser angle cause more separation.

- Restrictor with inlet curvature radii 25mm and diffuser

angle 4° is chosen length of restrictor is chosen to be
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INTAKE RUNNER filling charge more, both intake and

exhaust are tuned at same rpm. Pressure wave travels
- For designing cylinder runner, deep understanding of at speed of sound in intake manifold.
wave theory is required
- Let’s first look at what happens in the manifold to better
understand how to use it to our advantage. When an -The formula for optimum intake runner length
engine is moving there are high and low-pressure Waves L=(EVCD*0.25*V*2)/(rpm*RV)
moving in manifold caused by inertia of air and opening
and closing of intake and exhaust valves. The idea of port (1/2*D) where EVCD = effective valve closing duration.
tuning is to have high pressure wave approach intake
V= reflective value
valve before intake valve closes or just opens, forcing in
little more charge. V= pressure wave speed=1152 ft/s

PRESSURE WAVE CAUSES D= runner diameter= 48mm

-The most commonly known cause of pressure wave is EVCD = 720-(ECD)

the piston as it moves down the bore. On intake stroke,
piston makes negative pressure waves that travels from EVCD = 720-226+20
piston to open intake tract. Once the negative pressure
wave reaches the plenum area, it is reflected as positive 20° is added to get effective valve open duration
pressure wave. The positive pressure wave travels down
back into the cylinder. If it reaches intake valve just before EVCD= 514°
it closes, it will force little more air in cylinder. -this gives us the runner length of 405mm
-runner length of 405 mm is selected and then plenum
-The second cause is exhaust system, if exhaust system volume was determined with the help of help of
scavenges well then it will also create negative pressure Helmholtz resonator theory.
wave that will travel up the intake tract and positive
pressure wave will get reflected which in turns add more -PLENUM VOLUME CALCULATION
intake charge.
- Plenum volume calculation is done by Helmholtz
- Third cause of pressure wave is when the intake valve
resonator theory. With known intake runner we can
closes, any velocity left in the intake column of air will
estimate the plenum volume and set our power band as
create high pressure wave at back of valve and that our requirement.
pressure wave will travel up the intake tract and will get
reflected as negative pressure wave, again when it reaches -Intake tuning is done for power band 5000-7000 rpm.
the intake valve, it should be closed which will reflect
-A Helmholtz resonator is constituted by a cavity and a
wave as negative pressure wave and it will again travel up
short duct, which connects it to the system. It behaves
the tract and reflect as positive pressure wave. This wave like a system composed by a pneumatic spring (the
should be timed to push in more intake charge. cavity) and a mass (the gas inside the short duct): in
consequence, it has a natural frequency of pressure
COMBINED EFFECTS oscillations which can be calculated as follows:
- On a well-tuned intake setup there will be high
pressure wave at intake valve at it’s opening, and if at
the same time exhaust valve is open i.e.; engine is in
its overlap period, there will be high pressure at intake
valve and low at exhaust opening and this will help in
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Where c is the speed of sound. The resonators are

utilized in the field of acoustics to control the sound Where L1 and L2 are duct length to area ratio of attached
to cylinder and open to atmosphere respectively.
pressure level inside cavities (rooms, boxes, machine
cavities) or ducts ( conditioning, ventilation, exhaust - Different plenum volume were taken into account
systems), and their efficiency is largely proved and ranging from 750cc to 3000cc.With 400mm intake runner
experimented. The utilization proposed is to exploit the length, code for Helmholtz resonator is formed in JAVA
acoustic possibilities to interfere with a process of mass
and frequencies were calculated.
transfer that is, changing the natural frequencies of the
intake system according to the current frequency of the NOTE: RPM predicted by Helmholtz resonator theory
alternative movement of the piston. The intake system are just approximate value. Due to addition of restrictor,
without any resonator, composed by the cylinder behaviour changes and this behaviour is seen in 1d engine
(spring) and a simple intake duct (mass), can be seen like simulations.
an Helmholtz resonator, whose resonance frequency is
given by the equation above (the volume to consider is Analytical prediction
the mean cylinder volume, and the length should be
corrected considering the little mass of gas outside the 1) Volume: 1.2 Litre Length 390mm
duct that moves together with the inner one). The L1: 184.03
optimum filling is obtained when the natural frequency L2: 91.46
is about double the piston frequency, and the torque
curve shows only one pea F1: 181 = 2500 rpm
The following figure shows an example of an intake F2: 314 = 4500 rpm
system with an in-line resonator, for a single cylinder 2) Volume: 1.6 Litre Length 390mm
engine. The whole intake system behaves like a double L1: 204
Helmholtz resonator, being constituted by two ducts and L2: 91.46
two volumes. Choosing the dimensions of the pipes, it is F1: 170= 2100 rpm
possible to calculate the behavior of the filling index lV
F2: 333= 5100 rpm
varying the piston speed Np [rpm] and the ratio RV
between the volume of the cylinder and the volume of the 2.3. 1 D ENGINE SIMULATION
resonator. The figure below shows the lumped element
equivalent system. The presence of second spring adds - Ricardo wave is used for engine simulations.
second natural frequency which gives us one more INTAKE AND EXHAUST system is optimized
frequency at which peak occurs. Natural frequency through 1 d simulations.
obtained is twice the piston frequency.
- 1d simulations can predict performance when multiple
systems work together.

- Results obtained from analytical calculations were

used in RICARDO wave.

- It showed that increasing plenum volume increased

torque and power of engine at mid-range rpm without
influencing much at high rpm.
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-Too much plenum volume leads to poor throttle Outlet: pressure =atmospheric, plenum volume of 2.5litre was selected. - Residuals: - x, y, z velocity
- STOCK ENGINE CURVE -Continuity equation and expression were created for

Mass flow rate inlet + mass flow rate outlet to keep check
on continuity.

- Stock engine spec:

Power = 41bhp @ 8000 rpm

Torque= 25.4 LB-FT @7000 rpm

- Intake and exhaust system are tuned to shift the power

band of stock engine. - Flow compromise is made to accommodate plenum
volume of 2.5 litres.
It is tuned to produce constant torque of 25LB-FT in range
of 4000-6000 rpm. To suck air from all sides from plenum, intake tract end is
made of trumpet shape.
Now, further research was done in RICARDO wave after
first model. Whole, intake and exhaust system were
modeled together in RICARDO WAVE.




-Analysis is carried out in ANSYS fluent with k epsilon

model and pressure-based solver.

-Boundary conditions were velocity inlet and pressure

• Effect of increasing plenum volume
- Inlet: velocity = 15m/s
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-higher plenum volume increased breathing efficiency at

mid to high range rpm while compromising at low rpm

- Idle rpm also increases with plenum volume.

Plenum: 2500cc

Plenum: 3000c

Plenum: 1000cc

(Plenum with 1500cc)

- Below curve shows behavior with increasing runner
length by 40mm step.

(With 2000cc plenum volume)

(Runner length 220mm)
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- New cad geometry were chosen for increasing flow

- Restrictor diffuser was incorporated with plenum
(Runner length 260mm) itself.

3. Manufacturing plan
- Intake system pattern is made with the help of clay
(Runner length 300mm) modelling and then fibre glass moulding is done.
- Epoxy and phenoyl resin are used in manufacturing.
- Throttle bore size was also decreased from 34mm to
28mm for better throttle response

Exhaust system


(Runner length 360mm) Exhaust system components include exhaust header,

exhaust pipe, resonator, catalytic converter, muffler and
- Intake runner diameter is 48mm which is determined tail pipe. Engine exhaust gases are routed through exhaust
by port and throttle dimensions. system before rejected to atmosphere. Engine essentially
- With increasing runner length, charging efficiency being air pump, gases route affects engine performance to
increases at low rpm.
great extent. Engine need to work on exhaust gases too to
Now, Experimental analysis for determining optimum pump them out, easier the route more is the engine power
runner length, plenum volume and exhaust runner is done and fuel efficiency.
and best torque curve configuration were chosen.
Due to such reasons, engine exhaust system tuning is very
important to utilize all the power possible. For formula
student application exhaust system is tuned for high
power given the purpose and engine capacity.

[Type here]

Engine exhaust system is to designed under following muffler must be able to attenuate both low and high
constrain frequency modes.

- Driver must not be subjected to exhaust fumes Types of Mufflers

- The exhaust system must not protrude more than 1.) Baffle type
450mm behind the center line of rear axle and shall be no
more than 600mm from the ground. 2.) Wave cancellation type

- Use of header wrap is prohibited. 3.) Resonance type

- Maximum sound level is 110 dB(c) at average piston 4.) Absorber type
speed of 15.25m/s. 5.) Combine absorber-baffle type
- At idle the maximum permitted sound level is 103
It is generally cylindrical in shape with baffle spot welded
- Exhaust system terminology inside. Major drawback of such muffler is their low
1. Exhaust header efficiency. Because of restriction provided by baffle to
the flow, backpressure increases and fuel efficiency as
Exhaust header helps in eliminating back pressure well as power decreases.
generated by exhaust manifold. Ojaswat18 uses single
cylinder engine, so there is only single header pipe.


As engine’s exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber,

sound waves bounce off of the walls of the pipes and
ricochet all around creating both high and low frequency
noise. Resonator acts like an echo chamber that takes (BAFFLE TYPE MUFFLER)
exhaust pulses and optimizes their frequency to optimize
engine power and fuel efficiency.
-In this type, exhaust gases are divided into two parts. In
- As engine’s exhaust gases leave the combustion
practice this type of muffler does not eliminate noise
chamber, sound waves bounce off of the walls of the
completely, because this is only at one frequency where
pipes and ricochet all around creating both high and low
noise cancellation is achieved whereas noise is
frequency noise. Resonator acts like an echo chamber that
combination of different frequencies.
takes exhaust pulses and optimizes their frequency to
optimize engine power and fuel efficiency. (Wave cancellation type)
Muffler is sound attenuating component of exhaust -It consists of number of Helmholtz resonator in series,
System. Technically, a muffler quiets the engine sound by through which pipe containing access port passes. Series
reducing sound pressure level. It contains simple set of resonator eliminates the fundamental and harmonics of
tubes that are finely tuned to reflect sound waves engine noise.
produced by engine so that they cancel each other. The
noise consist different modes of frequency. Efficient
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5) Tail pipe

-Tail pipe have significant effect on sound attenuation


-Due to 20mm restrictor, engine power is compromised

at peak rpm.

-We need minimum backpressure at high rpm, for

minimum backpressure, exhaust

(RESONANCE TYPE) Pipe must be able to accommodate all the flow volume
which is roughly estimation can be done form engine
ABSORBER TYPE intake volume.
-The sound absorbing material, usually fibre glass is For instance, engine intake volume at 8000rpm will be
placed in this case around the perforated tube through
which the exhaust gases pass. During high pressure = engine displacement*(rpm/2) *1*(1/60)
fluctuations the gases pass through the perforations to
sound absorbing material, where these fluctuations are =373.2*4000*(1/60)
reduced and noise level gets attenuated.

-exhaust pipe must be able to accommodate such flows.

- Too bigger diameter pipe will affect scavenging at low

to mid-range rpm.


- Formula used is empirical
-It is combination of absorber and baffle type muffler
Engine size =373.2cc=22.7ci
with half absorber type and half baffle type muffler. The
absorber type muffler has drawback in that it is not Cross sectional area of pipe= (cylinder vol*(peak torque
efficient in reducing noise of low frequency to obviate rpm))/88200
these defects this is combined with baffle type muffler.
Tuning for peak


Different exhaust pipe length setup were used along with

varying plenum


-It is used to reduce or breakdown toxic gases emitted by

engine. It adds extra backpressure which compromise
performance. Ojaswat18 does not have catalytic
[Type here]

- Ceramic wool is used due to its high temperature

- Strength compared to glass wool. Steel wool forms

oxide which cause increase in mass.

Material selection

Exhaust pipe material selection


-Any type of muffler, for effectively reducing noise must

be able to attenuate both low and high frequency sound

-Combination of baffle and absorber type

muffler is used to attenuate both high and low frequency

-Different size perforations are used to increase the range

of sound level attenuation.

- Small size hole reduce high frequency note and

larger size reduces low frequency

Torque =5000rpm Note: - Ceramic wool is used for muffler packing.

Range (4-6k rpm) - Muffler selection is done on basis of sound

attenuation capacity of muffler.
Therefore, Ac/s=1.28 square inches Pipe inner
diameter=1.34inch=34mm - Manufacturing and testing were done to meet
required sound attenuation.
Now, determining length of exhaust pipe, Volume and
intake runner length. Best Torque curve is selected. Flat ELECTRICAL DESIGN.
torque curve is desired.
1. Introduction:
-SS 316 L is used as it has excellent oxidation resistance,
Project Justification:
high thermal strength, thermal fatigue properties at high
temperature and excellent weld ability. The design of the electrical control and monitoring
system for the vehicle is composed of an all in one
-TIG welding is used for leak proof joint. electrical control unit (ECU) for engine management and
an auxiliary electrical system for expanded sensor
Muffler packing material capability, control, and communication options.
The self-contained ECU controls all of the components
-Available options: related to the operation of the KTM 390 electronic fuel
injected (EFI) engine that is used in the 2018 vehicle. The
• Glass wool ECU is the central part of the vehicle’s engine
management system (EMS) that interfaces with the rest
• Steel wool
of the EMS components like: injectors, 𝑂2 sensors, fuel
pump, crank sensors, temperatures, throttle position
• Ceramic wool
sensor, etc. The ECU and EMS selection and design is
[Type here]

critical to both stages of vehicle development as they are Management System (EMS). The ECU, shown in Figure
the systems that directly control how the engine runs. 6 contains a computer that interfaces with and controls the
sensors and components of the EMS, also known as the
engine control loop.
2. Background:

The background chapter explains the concepts, sensors,

and devices referenced later in this
report. The purpose of this chapter is to explain any
potentially unfamiliar concepts and to describe the
functionality of the sensors and hardware used in the
electrical systems on the vehicle. The following
discussions are based on the system diagram presented
below in figure, which depicts all the major components
of the 2018 vehicle and their associated functional blocks.

• “Intelligent engine management” by ECU based on

inputs from different sensors.
• Better Power/fuel efficiency/less emissions.
• Razor sharp throttles response at all
speed/load/environmental conditions.
• Superb cold starting ability.
• Do device, which would fiddle with EFI system.
• Do not allow any external ECU miss-management.
• Protect sensors/actuators during pressure
ECU/EMS: washing.
There are two types of engines widely used today for The operation of an EFI engine starts with atmospheric
vehicles, carburetted engines and air entering the engine much like the
Electronic fuel injected (EFI) engines. Both engines are Carburetted engine but instead of passing through a
similar except for the method used to create the proper air carburettor, the air only passes through a throttle body,
fuel ratio for combustion and the method used to ignite which acts to modulate the flow of the intake air stream.
the mixture inside a cylinder using a spark plug. Simply The throttle body includes only the throttle valve from
put, a carburetted engine typically uses an entirely Figure in an EFI engine. As the intake air stream
mechanical system for creating the proper air fuel ratio approaches the cylinders, the ECU uses information from
and spark whereas an EFI engine requires a computer to the throttle position sensor along with other sensors like
control the injection of fuel into the intake air as well as 𝑂2 sensors in a closed loop system, to determine how
to control the spark timing. The Formula vehicle uses an much fuel should be injected into the intake air stream by
EFI engine, but both types of engines will be described the fuel injectors in order to create the correct air fuel ratio
below in this section. for the cylinders. Once mixed, the air/fuel mixture enters
the cylinder through an intake valve and is ignited at the
EFI Engine: correct time by the ECU controlled spark plugs and
ignition coils.
An EFI engine, shown in Figure 5, requires a device In general, the ECU can be programmed to fire the spark
known as an injector to spray precisely plugs at any time during a revolution of the engine.
Calculated amounts of fuel into the intake air stream to However, in order to sense the position of the piston in
create the proper air/fuel ratio for combustion. The the cylinder during the rotation, the ECU accepts a
carburettor is replaced with electronically actuated fuel combination of inputs from the cam and/or crank position
injectors that use a solenoid to inject fuel and the sensors depending on the configuration of the engine.
distributer is replaced with ignition coils coupled with Once the ECU senses the piston is in the correct position,
software and electronic switches within the ECU. a signal is sent from the ECU to trigger the ignition coil
Specifically, the actuation of the fuel injectors is for that cylinder’s spark plug to fire, thus igniting the air
controlled by the ECU, which is part of a broader Engine fuel mixture inside the cylinder. The computer inside the
[Type here]

ECU enables engine tuning through easy control over Once calibrated the ECU can determine any throttle
engine parameters such as the air/fuel ratio and ignition position based on the analog signal coming from the TPS.
timing compared to carburetted engines, but also requires
relatively complex sensor systems in order to manage the
tuning and operation of the engine.

EMS Sensors:

The sensors discussed in this section include the sensors

that are required by the ECU to produce proper air/fuel
ratios and ignition timing for EFI engines as well as
auxiliary sensors that are not critical to the operation of
an EFI engine but are still managed by most ECUs. Coolant Temperature Sensor:

Oxygen Sensor: The coolant temperature sensor is used to measure the

temperature of the coolant, usually water,
For the ECU to run the air/fuel ratio system in a closed Coming out of the engine before the radiator in the engine
loop configuration, the ECU needs feedback data from cooling system. The coolant temperature sensor itself is
various engine sensors. In particular, the ECU uses an constructed of a sealed thermistor that is placed in contact
oxygen sensor in the exhaust pipe to measure the with the cooling liquid. Coolant temperature is not an
percentage of oxygen in the exhaust gas to estimate the essential measurement to the operation of the engine but
air/fuel ratio. When the engine is running “lean”, meaning is necessary to control the radiator fan. Once the coolant
that there is not enough fuel in the intake air mixture, less temperature exceeds a set threshold, the ECU turns on the
oxygen is burned in the cylinder and the oxygen sensor radiator fan to maintain temperatures at a safe level.
senses a high percentage of oxygen in the exhaust. When Coolant temperature can also be used as a safety
the engine is running “rich”, meaning that too much fuel precaution to warn the operator of dangerous overheating
is in the intake air mixture, then more oxygen is burned conditions and potentially could be used to shut the
in the cylinder and the oxygen sensor senses a low engine off to prevent damage to internal components.
percentage of oxygen in the exhaust. The ECU uses this
information to adjust the amount of fuel injected by the
fuel injectors to achieve the desired stoichiometric ratio
for the fuel being burnt.

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor:

Another critical data parameter needed to calculate the

Throttle Position Sensor (TPS): mass of air entering the cylinder on each
Stroke is the manifold absolute pressure (MAP). The
One of the essential variables the ECU uses to calculate MAP is the pressure of the air that is in the intake
how much fuel to inject to create a desired air/fuel ratio is manifold before the cylinder. Different pressures
the throttle position. The throttle position value used in correspond with different volumes of air in the intake
calculations is represented as a percentage. The manifold at that time. The MAP sensor is constructed of
percentage value correlates to how far open the throttle a MEMS based pressure transducer, and is used to
valve is with 0% being completely closed and 100% measure the vacuum created by the intake stroke of
being completely open. To measure the position of the piston. From the MAP, air temperature, and the engine
throttle valve, a throttle position sensor (TPS) is attached rpm, the ECU can calculate the amount of air taken in by
to the throttle valve. The TPS is constructed of a the engine and predict the correct amount of fuel to inject
potentiometer and a return spring so that an analog on the next cycle.
voltage is sent to the ECU that is directly proportional to
the position of the valve. The sensor is calibrated by
configuring the analog voltage values corresponding to a
closed throttle and open throttle within the ECU software.
[Type here]

Project Goals:

The goal of this project was to design and build an

electrical monitoring and control system for Formula
Bharat 18 vehicle for the purposes of:
• Simplifying vehicle operation for the driver with
automatic shifting to minimize the skill and
Oil Temperature Sensor: Experience needed to drive the vehicle
• Improving on previous engine tuning methods by
The ECU monitors the temperature of the engine oil using providing actionable data to the tuners
an oil temperature sensor. This sensor uses a sealed • Gathering telemetry data to validate design changes
thermocouple in contact with oil in the engine’s crankcase made to vehicle components
to measure the temperature of the engine oil. The ECU • Improving vehicle performance to make the vehicle
and uses the oil temperature data alongside the coolant more competitive than previous years
temperature data to adjust the radiator fan speed. Oil The electrical system adds aids for the vehicle tuner,
temperature data is not considered essential to engine driver, and maintainer to be able to easily access vehicle
running. diagnostics and control information at any stage in the
vehicle development process. Custom interface hardware
with the ECU and auxiliary electrical subsystems
Make the stationary debugging and hardwire connections
easier for the vehicle designers during the first stage of
development. Altogether, the electrical systems of the
vehicle provide an advanced control and diagnostics
interface with the vehicle’s subsystems that both facilitate
design and tuning as well as increase the capabilities of
Crank and Cam Sensor: the vehicle beyond the standard off the shelf ECU method
of engine control.
It is critical for the ECU to sense the position of each
piston in the engine in order to properly time fuel
injection and ignition timing. To track the position of the
pistons, the ECU needs either a crank or cam sensor to
track the position of the crank shaft or cam shaft
respectively. Some engine configurations use both types
of sensors in parallel to track piston position. The crank 4. Engineering Design:
shaft connects all pistons together and is the main drive
axle for the engine that transfers power to the Kill Switch Circuit and Controller interface
transmission and the cam shaft sits on top of the cylinders A Student Formula Car requires several electrical safety
with specially positioned cams that actuate the intake and devices to ensure driver safety on track. It requires an
exhaust valves for each cylinder. Either a variable electronic stop switch that kills the engine when pressed
reluctance sensor or a Hall Effect sensor may be used for and electrical power shut off switches that physically
the crank and cam sensors depending on cost and disconnects electrical power from the vehicle. Vehicles
operating conditions. with electronic throttle and drive by wire are also required
to include a device that kills the engine if the driver fully
depresses the brakes while the accelerator pedal is
3. Methodology: depressed. This section will include the design and testing
of these devices. The electronic stop and battery
The purpose of this section is to describe the methods and disconnect are relatively simple devices. The electronic
procedures used in the development stop operates by removing power from the relay that
Of the Formula Bharat vehicle’s electrical system and the enables the fuel pump and spark plugs, thus killing the
rationale behind those decisions. In addition to explaining engine instantly. The battery cut off operates by
what was done in this project and why, this section covers physically disconnecting the battery from the rest of the
the goals of the project and why a Formula Bharat vehicle vehicle to ensure that the vehicle cannot start or crank.
needs an advanced electrical system.
[Type here]

Here Team Ojaswat “Electrical department” have

decided to move ahead with a reliable and
supporting Insulation of “Varnish temper glass”.


Formula Bharat car requires a battery source for

all its working electrical sensors and other
equipment like ECU. Here our team Ojaswat
“Electrical Department” have choose Amaron We have used this insulation in our electrical
12V 8.0Ah battery for a better performance from system because this varnish temper glass
our side. We chose Amaron battery for some of provides a great strength mechanical strength and
these following reasons: Amaron battery is the supports our electrical wiring against moisture,
only battery that contains the patented silvenX chemical reactions, short circuiting, wear & tear
alloy. And that’s what gives it the power to last of wirers and the most important this insulation
long. has excellent heat, fire and thermal insulation for
our electrical wiring. This varnish temper glass
Amaron battery is a dry cell battery. A Dry cell is a type
does not allow fire or heat to dissipate or to pass
of chemical cells, commonly used today, in the form
of batteries, for many electrical appliances. A dry through it.
cell uses a paste electrolyte, with only enough moisture
to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can
operate in any orientation without spilling, as it contains
no free liquid, making it suitable for portable equipment.

Along with above specification it is even high corrosive

resistance and it even allows us to work easily on our
circuits because of its high vibration resistance quality.


Formula Bharat car after having a proper and

qualitative electrical working components and
wiring, these electrical wiring even requires a

proper insulation for the safety of the driver and

proper working of vehicle for a great period of
[Type here]

CAD ANNALYSIS Torsional stiffness: 1391 Nm. /degree (FIG 5)


Front impact: Force: 12000N (FIG 1)

Rocker arm: (FIG 6)

Rear impact: Force: 9000N (FIG 2)

Rollover: Force: 3000N (FIG 3)

(FIG 8)
Side impact: Force: 7000N (FIG 4)
[Type here]

(FIG 9) (FIG 12)

Upright (Right front and Left rear)

(FIG 10)

Upright (Left front and Right Rear)

(FIG 13)

(FIG 11)

(FIG 14)
[Type here]

Differential mounting
(FIG 15)
(FIG 18)

(FIG 16)

(FIG 19)

(FIG 17)
[Type here]

Front View Side View

Top View Isometric View