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“Facial Recognition”




Submitted To: Submitted By:

Mr. Navdeep Sindhu Himanshu (16cse26)
Sunil (16CSE79)\
Sachin (16cse61)
Sunil (16cse77)
Rahul (16cse49)

Page no. Title of the project

1. Introduction of the project

2. Abstract of the project

3. Objective of the project

4. Features of the project

5. Scope of the project

6. Identification of the need

7. Implementation of method

8. System analysis

9. Conclusion of the project

10. References

A facial recognition system is a technology capable

of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a
video source. There are multiple methods in which facial recognition systems
work, but in general, they work by comparing selected facial features from given
image with faces within a database. It is also described as a Biometric Artificial
Intelligence based application that can uniquely identify a person by analyzing
patterns based on the person's facial textures and shape.
While initially a form of computer application, it has seen wider uses in recent
times on mobile platforms and in other forms of technology, such as robotics. It is
typically used as access control in security systems and can be compared to other
biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. Although the
accuracy of facial recognition system as a biometric technology is lower than iris
recognition and fingerprint recognition, it is widely adopted due to its contactless
and non-invasive process. Recently, it has also become popular as a commercial
identification and marketing tool. Other applications include advanced human-
computer interaction, video surveillance, automatic indexing of images, and
video database, among others.
Facial recognition is a way of recognizing a human face through technology.
A facial recognition system uses biometrics to map facial features from a
photograph or video. It compares the information with a database of known
faces to find a match.
Face detection. Fortunately, faces have some easily recognizable features that
cameras can lock on to; a pair of eyes, nose, and a mouth. By being able
to detects face in the scene, the camera can concentrate its autofocus on that
person's face to ensure it is the primary subject in focus within the image.

At one of the most successful application of images analysis and

understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention,
especially during the past few years. Facial recognition technology (FRT)
has emerged as an attractive solution to address many contemporar y
needs for identification and the verification of ident ity claims.
It brings together the promise of other biometric systems, which attempt to tie
identity to individually distinctive features of the body, and the more familiar
functionality of visual surveillance systems.
This report develops a socio-political analysis that bridges the technical and
social scientific literatures on FRT and addresses the unique challenges and
concerns that attend its development, evaluation, and specific operational uses,
contents, and goals. It highlights the potential and limitations of the technology,
noting those tasks for which it seems ready for deployment, those areas w h e
reperformance obstacles may be overcome by future technological
developments or sound operating procedures, and still other issues
which a pp ea r intra ctab le. Its concern with efficac y extends to
ethical considerations.
Face recognition technology may solve this problem since a face is
undeniably connected to its owner ex pect in the case of identical
twins. I t ’s non- transferable. The system can then compare scans to
records stored in a central or local database or even on a smart card.

 A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or

verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video
 It is typically used as access control in security systems and can be compared
to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems.
 it has also become popular as a commercial identification and marketing

Techniques for face acquisition

Essentially, the process of face recognition is performed in two steps. The first
involves feature extraction and selection and, the second is the classification of
objects.[5] Later developments introduced varying technologies to the procedure.
Some of the most notable include the following techniques:


Some face recognition algorithms identify facial features by extracting

landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an
algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose,
cheekbones, and jaw. These features are then used to search for other images
with matching features.

Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress the face
data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face recognition. A
probe image is then compared with the face data.[14] One of the earliest
successful systems is based on template matching techniques[16] applied to a set
of salient facial features, providing a sort of compressed face representation.

Recognition algorithms can be divided into two main approaches, geometric,

which look at distinguishing features, or photometric, which is a statistical
approach that distills an image into values and compares the values with
templates to eliminate variances. Some classify these algorithms into two broad
categories: holistic and feature-based models. The former attempts to recognize
the face in its entirety while the feature-based subdivide into components such
as according to features and analyze each as well as its spatial location with
respect to other features.

Popular recognition algorithms include principal component analysis using

eigenfaces, linear discriminant analysis, elastic bunch graph matching using the
Fisher face algorithm, the hidden Markov model, the multilinear subspace
learning using tensor representation, and the neuronal motivated dynamic link

1. 3-Dimensional recognition:

Three-dimensional face recognition technique uses 3D sensors to capture

information about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify
distinctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye
sockets, nose, and chin.

One advantage of 3D face recognition is that it is not affected by changes in

lighting like other techniques. It can also identify a face from a range of viewing
angles, including a profile view. Three-dimensional data points from a face
vastly improve the precision of face recognition. 3D research is enhanced by the
development of sophisticated sensors that do a better job of capturing 3D face
imagery. The sensors work by projecting structured light onto the face. Up to a
dozen or more of these image sensors can be placed on the same CMOS chip—
each sensor captures a different part of the spectrum [11]

Even a perfect 3D matching technique could be sensitive to expressions. For

that goal a group at the Technion applied tools from metric geometry to treat
expressions as isometries.

A new method is to introduce a way to capture a 3D picture by using three

tracking cameras that point at different angles; one camera will be pointing at
the front of the subject, second one to the side, and third one at an angle. All
these cameras will work together so it can track a subject’s face in real time and
be able to face detect and recognize.

2. Skin texture analysis:

Another emerging trend uses the visual details of the skin, as captured in
standard digital or scanned images. This technique, called Skin Texture
Analysis, turns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a person’s skin
into a mathematical space.

Surface Texture Analysis works much the same way facial recognition does. A
picture is taken of a patch of skin, called a skin print. That patch is then broken
up into smaller blocks. Using algorithms to turn the patch into a mathematical,
measurable space, the system will then distinguish any lines, pores and the
actual skin texture. It can identify the contrast between identical pairs, which are
not yet possible using facial recognition software alone.

Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in
recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent.

Implementation Methodlogy
Language Html, CSS, java
Database My SQL Server
Browser Any of etc mozila, Opera, Chrome
Web server Tomcat 7
Software Development Kit Java JDK 1.7 or Above
Scripting Language Enable JSP (java server pages)
Database JDBC Driver MySQL connector

Hardware Requirements:
Name of component Specification
Process Platinum III 630 MhzP
Hard disk 20GB
Keywords 122Keys


The following problem scope for this project was arrived at after reviewing the
literature on face detection and face recognition and determining possible real-
world situations where such systems would be of use. The following system(s)
requirements were identified
 A system to detect frontal view faces in static images.
 A system to recognize a given frontal view face.
 Only expressionless, frontal view faces will be presented to the
face detection & recognition.
 All implemented systems must display a high degree of lighting
 All systems must prosses near real-time performance.
 Both fully automated and manual face detection must be
 Frontal view face recognition will be realised using only a single
known image.
 Automated face detection and recognition systems should be
combined into a fully automated face detection and recognition
system. The face recognition sub-system must display a slight
degree of invariancy to scaling and rotation errors in the segmented
image extracted by the face detection sub-system.
 The frontal view face recognition system should be extended to a
pose invariant face recognition system. unfortunately although we
may specify constricting conditions to our problem domain, it may
not be possible to strictly adhere to these conditions when
implementing a system in the real-world.


The computational models, which were implemented in this project, were

chosen after extensive research, and the successful testing results confirm that
the choices made by the researcher were reliable. The system with manual face
detection and automatic face recognition did not have a recognition accuracy
over 90%, due to the limited number of eigenfaces that were used for the PCA
This system was tested under very robust conditions in this experimental study
and it is envisaged that real-world performance will be far more accurate. The
fully automated frontal view face detection system displayed virtually perfect
accuracy and in the researcher's opinion further work need not be conducted in
this area. The fully automated face detection and recognition system was not
robust enough to achieve a high recognition accuracy. The only reason for this
was the face recognition subsystem did not display even a slight degree of
invariance to scale, rotation or shift errors of the segmented face image.
This was one of the system requirements identified in section.
However, if some sort of further processing, such as an eye detection
technique, was implemented to further normalize the segmented face image,
performance will increase to levels comparable to the manual face detection and
recognition system.
Implementing an eye detection technique would be a minor extension to the
implemented system and would not require a great deal of additional research.
All other implemented systems displayed commendable results and reflect
well on the deformable template and Principal Component Analysis strategies.
The most suitable real-world applications for face detection and recognition
systems are for mugshot matching and surveillance.
There are better techniques such as iris or retina recognition and face
recognition using the thermal spectrum for user access and user verification
applications since these need a very high degree of accuracy.
The real-time automated pose invariant face detection and recognition system
proposed in chapter seven would be ideal for crowd surveillance applications. If
such a system were widely implemented its potential for locating and tracking
suspects for law enforcement agencies is immense. The implemented fully
automated face detection and recognition system (with an eye detection system)
could be used for simple surveillance applications such as ATM user security,
while the implemented manual face detection and automated recognition system
is ideal of mugshot matching. Since controlled conditions are present when
mugshots are gathered, the frontal view face recognition scheme should display
a recognition accuracy far better than the results, which were obtained in this
study, which was conducted under adverse conditions.

References and Bibliography:

 "What is Facial Recognition? - Definition from Techopedia". Retrieved 2018-08-27.
 "Face Recognition Applications". Ani metrics. Retrieved 2008-06-04.

 Zhang, Jian, Yan, Ke, He, Zhen-Yu, and Xu, Yong (2014). "A
Collaborative Linear Discriminative Representation Classification
Method for Face Recognition. In 2014 International Conference on
Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering (AISE2014). Lancaster,
PA: Detach Publications, Inc

 Bramber, Max (2006). Artificial Intelligence in Theory and Practice:

IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC 12: IFIP AI 2006 Stream,
August 21- 24, 2006, Santiago, Chile. Berlin: Springer Science+Business